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TUGAS MATA KULIAH BAHASA INGGRIS

Dosen Pengampu
Widjijati , MN.

Disusun Oleh :

Zahra Shaflyana (P1337420216064)

PRODI D III KEPERAWATAN PURWOKERTO

POLITEKNIK KESEHATAN KEMENTERIAN KESEHATAN


SEMARANG

2017
BREAST CANCER TREATMENT

Radiation was first utilized to treat breast cancer just before the turn of 20th century.
In 1896, less than a year after Wilhelm Conrad R€ontgen discovered the x-ray, a medical
student in Chicago named Emil Grubbe assembled his own x-ray machine and used it to treat
a woman with recurrent breast cancer.1 Moving forward to today, radiotherapy is a
fundamental part of the management of all stages of breast cancer. In this article, the common
indications for radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer (stages 0, I, and II) are
reviewed, along with brief introduction of key clinical studies that underpin the current
practice.
Treatment options for early breast cancer include breast blast treatment and total
mastectomy. While, Breast radiotherapy can be well tolerated by women. For the most part,
common side effects such as skin erythema and fatigue can occur reversibly within a few
weeks after the completion of radiotherapy.
The baseline probability of a woman developing breast cancer over her lifetime is
12.7% based on the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) breast cancer
incidence rates.22 The LAR for the patient with the smallest breast volume (215.3 cm3) for
MV-CT, MV-EPI and MV-CBCT was 0.65%, 0.74% and 1.46% respectively. In contrast, the
LAR for the patient with the largest breast volume (2144.5 cm3) was 0.36%, 0.48% and
0.66% for MV-CT, MV-EPI and MV-CBCT respectively. The trend line showing the LAR of
developing secondary cancer risk in the contralateral breast with respect to primary breast
volume. Despite the fact that radiotherapy exerts its therapeutic effect by inducing apoptosis
of tumor cells, emerging clinical evi-dence suggests that irradiation promotes the metastatic
behaviorof many cancers, including breast cancer.
Known Total total high mTOR protein in some cancers As a colorectal cancer, and
correlate positively with Stage of tumor, but total protein status of mTOR. And its impact on
breast cancer cells is not well described. There has been a reduction in the mortality from
breast cancer in the last 20 years, but 1 in 38 women still die from breast cancer,1 and it
remains a major cause of illness in Australian women.
DAFTAR PUSTAKA

Mohamed Alalem, Alpana Ray & Bimal K. Ray. Metformin induces degradation of mTOR
protein in breast cancer cells.Cancer Medicine 2016; 5(11):3194–3204

Rae-Kwon Kim,Yan-Hong Cui, Ki-Chun Yoo, In-Gyu Kim, Minyoung Lee,Yung Hyun
Choi,Yongjoon Suh and Su-Jae Lee. Radiation promotes malignant phenotypes through SRC
in breast cancer cells. Cancer Sci 2015; 106; 78–85

Vikneswary B, MHlthSc, Alexandra Q, BMedRadPhys,Michael J, BMedRadPhys, Geoff D,


FRANZCR & Lois H. Imaging dose in breast radiotherapy: does breast size affect the dose to
the organs at risk and the risk of secondary cancer to the contralateral breast?. J Med Radiat
Sci 2015; 62; 32–39

Warwick Lee & Gudrun Peters. Mammographic screening for breast cancer: A review.
Journal of Medical Radiation Sciences 2013; 60; 35–39

Wei Wang. Radiotherapy in the management of early breast cancer. Journal of Medical
Radiation Sciences 2013; 60; 40–46