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Jan 14, 2019

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Load Flow

NEPLAN AG

User´s Manual

Load Flow Time Simulation

This section describes in details the module Load Flow Time Simulation

Getting started

Start calculation

er Systems – AC Steady State – Load Profile and Measurements

Click on the parameters menu option where you can choose whether to run a cal-

culation for a specific moment (One Load Flow) or over a specified period of time

with a given time increment (Time Simulation).

Attention: To run a time simulation the user needs to assign time depending scal-

ing types or measurements.

User can assign scaling types individually for each elements or set a global scal-

ing type in the calculation parameters in the pane “Options”.

Load Flow Time Simulation

NEPLAN will perform a Load Flow for each time step in the network (See theory

section of Time Simulation). In the pane “Selected Result for Time Simulation” the

user can select the elements for which results should be generated.

Results

1. Results in the tables (Summary and Element)

2. Chart results

Load Flow Time Simulation

The explanation of the result variables, shown in the summary can be found in

the section “Load Flow Time Simulation – Results”

In the chart manager user can define the curves needed to be viewed.

Load Flow Time Simulation

Parameters

Method There are two options: Calculation of one load flow at a cer-

tain date/time or time simulation, where a date/time range

has to be defined.

One Load flow The date/time for a single load flow calculation has to be de-

calculation fined.

Time simulation The date/time range (From date/time and To date/time) for

the time simulation has to be specified.

Time increment Increment for time simulation in minutes.

Get date and in- If measurements available this will set the From, To and In-

crement from crement of the time simulation calculation based on the

measurements measurements file

Options

Scaling types Selected scaling types library. The selected library should

contain the scaling types referenced in the load elements.

Day characteris- Selected day characteristic library. This library should contain

tics the day characteristics referenced in the scaling types library.

Long term char- Selected long term characteristic library. This library should

acteristics contain the long term types that are referenced in the select-

ed scaling types library.

Default scaling The default scaling type will be used for all loads with an

type empty scaling type entry. If no default scaling type should be

used, this field must remain empty.

Use measured If checked, measured data will be used.

data

Use scaling If checked, scaling types will be used. If option Use meas-

types ured data is also checked, measured data will be used for

those load elements with measured data available.

Save weak load If checked, the calculation detects the network low and high

/ maximum load load case and stores these two states as operational states.

as operational

state

Load Flow Time Simulation

urement devices ta assigned are ignored.

without time de-

pendent data

Enable parallel If checked, the calculation will be distributed to several logical

computing processors.

Number of pro- Number of processors the parallel computing can use.

cessors

Load measured If checked, the measured data is loaded gradually during the

data gradually calculation. If not checked, the complete set of measured da-

ta is loaded at the beginning of the calculation. Check this op-

tion if your computer may run into memory problems.

Interval length Interval length in days for the gradual loading of measured

data

Write XML result If checked, the xml result file is automatically created after

file the calculation.

Save all element If checked, the variables of all nodes and elements are

results stored; if unchecked, only the variables of the selected nodes

and elements are stored.

Save time-value Indicates, if the time courses of marked nodes/elements

curves of ele- should be saved, otherwise only the summary result are

ment variables saved.

Save min/max Indicates if the minimum and maximum values of variables of

values of ele- marked nodes/elements should be saved.

ment variables

Load flow Pa- Opens the load flow parameters dialog.

rameters

The elements for which results will be saved can be selected here. If the option

"Save all Element Results" is selected, these settings will be ignored and results

will be available for all network elements.

Load Flow Time Simulation

For each node and element the normal load flow results (current, voltage, power,

etc.) will be calculated (see chapter Load Flow). The user has the possibility to

display the results in tables (Summary or Element) or a chart.

Summary Table

LoadFactor Load scaling factor

LoadEnergy Total energy consumption

kWh

MaximumLoad Highest recorded power demand in calculation period

kW

MinimumLoad Lowest recorded power demand in calculation period

kW

EnergyLosses Total energy losses in calculation period

kWh

CoreLosses Energy loses of cables in calculation period in kWh

kWh

CoreLossesPerc Energy loses of cables in calculation period in %

%

LTLosses kWh Energy loses of low voltage network in calculation period in

kWh

LTLossesPerc Energy loses of low voltage network in calculation period in

% %

HTNMLosses Energy loses of high voltage network in calculation period in

kWh kWh

HTNWLoss- Energy loses of high voltage network in calculation period in

esPerc % kWh

MaximumLoss- Highest recorded network losses in calculation period

es kW

MinimumLoad- The moment when the lowest power demand was measured

DateTime

MaximumLoad- The moment when the highest power demand was measured

DateTime

FromDate- Start of time simulation

AndTime

ToDateAndTime End of time simulation

NumLFNotFea- Number of converged load flows with limit violations in calcu-

sible lation period

Load Flow Time Simulation

NumLFTotal Number of converged load flows in calculation period

OperationalDat- Selected operational data

aName

ProjectName Name of current project

FileNameOfIm- File name of imported measurements

portedMeas-

urements

HasErrors Whether there were any errors recorded during the calcula-

tion

Element Table

Name Name of the element

Alias Name 1&2 Total energy consumption

Library Type Library type of the element

Type Element type of the element (Line, transformer, …)

EnergyLosses Total energy losses in calculation

kW

MaximumLoss- Highest recorded losses of the element in calculation period

es kWh

Area Area of the element

Zone Zone of the element

Feeder Feeder the element is assigned to

Calculation Time Indicates, when the calculation was done

Charts

To open the graphical result window choose "Time simulation” from the analysis

menu and click on “Chart” button.

The module Time Simulation (Load Flow) makes a single Load Flow calculation

(forecast) or a sequence of Load Flow calculations (Time Simulation). The active

and reactive power of consumers and generators with measurement data are de-

termined before each Load Flow calculation.

Load Flow Time Simulation

Measured load data will be automatically applied. If measured data for a load at a

certain date cannot be found in the database during a time simulation, the en-

tered constant values for active and reactive power will be used. Missing meas-

ured values of a day profile will be linearly interpolated. This means that meas-

ured load values for a certain date (day) must be defined at least by one meas-

ured point. Otherwise the constant values of active and reactive power will be ap-

plied.

In case Scaling Types are used, the scaling of loads is done based on the load

profiles defined in Day Characteristics and Long Term Characteristics, and the

weakly/seasonal definition (see Scaling Types section)

Load Flow Time Simulation

Measured Data

Measured data for a network element consists of a series of data records. One

record has the following main data fields:

• DateAndTime

• M11, M12, M13, M21, M22, M23, M31, M32, M33

• InputDataDefinition: information about the meaning of the fields M11 to

M33

• 0: M11 = symmetrical current in A, M12 to M33 undefined

• 1: M11, M12, M13 = phase currents in A, M21 to M33 undefined

• 2: M11, M12 = total active and reactive power in kW and kVar, M13 to M33

undefined

• 3: M11, M12 = total active and reactive power in MW and MVar, M13 to

M33 undefined

• 4: M11, M12, M13 = active power per phase in kW; M21, M22, M23 = reac-

tive power per phase in kVar; M31 to M33 undefined

• 5: M11, M12, M13 = active power per phase in MW; M21, M22, M23 = re-

active power per phase in MVar; M31 to M33 undefined

• 6: M11 = symmetrical current in A, M12 = symmetrical line-to-line voltage in

V, M13 = power factor cos(phi); M21 to M33 undefined

• 7: M11, M12, M13 = phase currents in A; M21, M22, M23 = phase voltages

in V; M31, M32, M33 = power factor cos(phi) for each phase

Scaling Types

The user can define constant scaling factors and time-dependent scaling factors

for day times, week days, months, and years. The factors may be defined in the

library.

Scaling Types and time-dependent characteristics can be defined in the library

(Library - Edit Library - Scaling Factors)

Load Flow Time Simulation

Scaling Types

A list of all existing scaling factor types appears after selecting the tab “Scaling

Types” in the Scaling Factor section of the library. For every type, the user can

define constant scaling factors and time-dependent characteristics. Scaling Types

may be added or removed.

Name Shows all existing scaling factor types. With “New,” a type

may be added; with “Delete,” a type may be removed.

Description Description of the scaling type.

Velander, Power Kvel1, Kvel2, Ginf, Gkey, Gexp, cos(phi). These parame-

factor and Low ters are explained in the relevant sections.

Voltage simulta-

neity factors

Long Term A predefined “Long Term Characteristic” can be assigned.

Characteristic

Edit Table After selecting and item (scaling type) user can see the ta-

ble of this type which includes the Day Characteristic, the

month and the weekday definition.

lated as follows:

Qfactor_t(t) = fday(t) * flongTerm(t)

This factor is being then applied to the initial active and reactive power of the

Load which is assigned with this Scaling Type.

This is used only for the module "Time Simulation (Load Flow)".

Day Characteristics

A list of all existing "Day Characteristics” appears after selecting the respective

tab in the Scaling Factor Library Editor. By clicking on a characteristic type, the

corresponding curve will be displayed and its values may be modified (with Edit

Table). Characteristic types may be added or removed.

type may be added; with “Delete,” a type may be removed.

Description Description of the day characteristic type.

Edit behavior Definition table. The program interpolates linearly between

Load Flow Time Simulation

tered; for every second a value.

Time Time (hour and minutes), editable directly in the table.

Factors A P-factor and a Q-factor between 0 and 1 may be entered

or edited directly in the table.

Insert 1 item Inserts one time value after the marked line. If no line is

selected, the additional value will be added at the end of

the table.

Insert items Inserts the indicated amount of time values after the

marked line. If no line is selected, the additional time val-

ues will be added at the end of the table.

Remove Removes the marked time values.

Same values for If this checkbox is checked, the Q-factors of the table will

P and Q scaling not be considered. Instead, the Q-factors will be the same

as the P-factors.

Load Flow Time Simulation

A list of all existing "Long Term by Year" characteristics appears after selecting

the respective tab in the Scaling Factor Editor. By clicking on a characteristic

type, the corresponding curve will be displayed and its values may be modified

(with Edit Table). Characteristic types may be added or removed.

type may be added; with “Delete,” a type may be removed.

Description Description of the year characteristic type.

Factors For every year, a P-factor and a Q-factor between 0 and 1

may be entered.

Year Year (4 digits: e.g. 2004) for which a P-factor and a Q-

factor should be defined.

P-factor P-factor for the respective year.

Q-factor Q-factor for the respective year.

Insert 1 item Inserts one year value after the marked line. If no line is

selected, the additional value will be added at the end of

the table.

Insert items Inserts the indicated amount of year values after the

marked line. If no line is selected, the additional year val-

ues will be added at the end of the table.

Remove Removes the marked year values.

Same values for If this checkbox is checked, the Q-factors of the table will

P and Q scaling not be considered. Instead, the Q-factors will be the same

as the P-factors.

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