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processing (CoSc4151)

2. Digital Image Fundamentals

Jimma University

Jimma Institute of Technology

For Computer Science students

Abel W.

Concept of image

What is an image?

I. one-dimensional (e.g. dependent on time)

plane)

are functions of physical things.

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 2

Concept of image

Image function value = brightness at image

points

Brightness is dependent on several factors

1. object surface reflectance properties

surface material, microstructure and marking

2. Illumination properties

provide their own light as in glow in the dark stickers

3. object surface orientation with respect to a viewer and

light source

temperature, distance from the observer

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 3

Concept of image

• Image capturing

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 4

Concept of image

Image intensity, f(x, y), is proportional to EM

energy radiated/received 0 f ( x, y )

Required f(x, y) is nonzero and finite

f ( x , y ) i ( x, y ) r ( x, y )

where 0 i( x, y ) , incident illumination

0 r(x, y) 1, reflected illumination

Typical values: 90,000 lm/m 2 , clear sunny day

10,000 lm/m 2 , cloudy day

i(x,y) 2

0.01 lm/m , full moon, clear night

2

1,000 lm/m , commercial office

0.01, black material

r(x, y) 0.8, flat white wall paint

CV & IP 02

0.93, snow

18-Nov-16 5

Concept of image

Thus, the intensity image lies in the

range

i r f ( x, y ) i r

min min max max

0 f ( x, y ) L 1

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 6

Digital image representation

A digital image can be Where

represented as a two- f(x, y) =monochrome

dimensional (2D) matrix images of size M×N

of real numbers. X = row number (from 0

to M−1)

Y = column number

(between 0 and N−1)

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 7

Digital image representation

The value of the two-dimensional function f(x, y) at

any given pixel of coordinates (x0,y0), denoted by

f(x0,y0), is called the intensity or gray level of the

image at that pixel.

Maximum and Minimum values that a pixel intensity

can vary based on

data type

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 8

Digital image representation

1. Data Type

Logical: 1.0 for white and 0.0 for Black

uint8( unsigned integer, 8 bits): 0(Black) and 255(White)

2. Convection

denotes row and q denotes column )

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 9

Concept of pixel

A digital image, I, is a mapping from a 2D grid of

uniformly spaced discrete points, {p = (r , c)}, into

a set of positive integer values, {I( p)}, or a set of

vector values, e.g., {[R G B]T( p)}.

At each column location in each row of I there is a

value.

The pair ( p, I( p) ) is called a “pixel” (for picture

element).

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 10

Concept of pixel

p = ( r, c) is the pixel location indexed by row, r,

and column, c.

I( p) = I( r, c) is the value of the pixel at location p.

If I( p) is a single number then I is monochrome.

If I( p) is a vector (ordered list of numbers) then I

has multiple bands (e.g., a color image).

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 11

Concept of pixel

Pixel : [ p, I(p)] Pixel Location: p = (r , c)

Pixel Value: I(p) = I(r , c)

p = (r , c)

= (row # , col # )

=CV(&272,

IP 02

277) 18-Nov-16 12

Digital image acquisition process

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 13

Image sampling and quantization

An image may be continuous with respect to the x- and

y-coordinates, and also in amplitude.

When x, y, and the amplitude values are all finite,

discrete quantities, we call the image a digital image.

To convert it to digital form, we have to sample the

function in both coordinates and in amplitude.

1. Digitizing the coordinate values is called sampling.

2. Digitizing the amplitude values is called quantization.

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 14

Image sampling

Continuous image

the continuous image

To sample this take

equally spaced samples

along

CV & IP 02line AB. 18-Nov-16 15

Image sampling

The samples are shown as

small white squares

superimposed on the

function.

locations gives the

sampled function

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 16

Image quantization

In order to form a

digital function, the

gray-level values

also must be

converted

(quantized) into

discrete quantities.

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 17

Concepts of sampling and quantization

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 18

Types of Digital Image

Binary (1-Bit) Images

Gray-Level (8-Bit) Images

Color Images

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 19

Types of Digital Image

1. Binary (1-Bit) Images: encoded as a 2D array, typically

using 1 bit per pixel, where a 0 usually means “black” and a 1

means “white”

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 20

Types of Digital Image

2. Gray-Level (8-Bit) Images: (also referred to as

monochrome) encoded as a 2D array of pixels, usually with 8

bits per pixel, where a pixel value of 0 corresponds to “

black,” a pixel value of 255 means “white,” and intermediate

values indicate varying shades of gray

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 21

Gray-level images

Continuous image function f(x,y)

arguments - two co-ordinates (x,y) can have any value

Digital image functions - represented by matrices

co-ordinates = integer numbers

Cartesian (horizontal x axis, vertical y axis)

Monochromatic image function range

lowest value - black

highest value - white

Limited brightness values = grey levels

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 22

Gray level images

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 23

Representation of gray level images

a digital 8-bit, 8x8 images is shown as an array of numbers on the

left and brightness levels on the right.

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 24

Gray level images

• The number of distinct gray levels is usually a power

of 2 that is, 𝑳 = 𝟐𝑩

the brightness levels.

we speak of a binary image.

can be referred as “black” and “white” or “0” and “1”.

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 25

Types of Digital Image

3. Color Images: Representation of color images is more

complex and varied.

The two most common ways of storing color image

contents are

RGB representation in which each pixel is usually represented by a

24-bit number containing the amount of its red (R), green (G),

and blue (B) components

indexed representation—where a 2D array contains indices to a

color palette (or lookup table-(LUT)).

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 26

Cont.. Color Image

24-Bit (RGB) Color images, represented using three

2D arrays of same size, one for each color channel:

red (R), green (G), and blue (B)

Each array element contains an 8-bit value, indicating

the amount of red, green, or blue at that point in a

[0, 255] scale. The combination of the three 8-bit

values into a 24-bit number allows 2 raised to

24 (16,777,216, usually referred to as 16 million or 16

M) color combinations.

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 27

Cont’d… color images

Represented by vector not scalar

• Red, Green, Blue (RGB)

• Hue, Saturation, Value (HSV)

• Cyan, Magenta, Yellow (CMY)

((28)3 = 16,777,216 colors)

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 28

Cont.. Color Image

• 24-Bit (RGB) Color

Original Image

b. Red Plane

c. Green Plane

d. Blue Plane

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 29

Properties that define image format

• Pixel bit-depth (8-bit)

• Number of planes (1 for gray scale images, 3 for color)

• Colorspace (RGB, CMYK etc.)

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 30

Binary and Gray scale images

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 31

Intensity Resolution

Smallest discernible change in intensity level

7-bit

1-bit

32

Image of size

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 33

Image of size

fewer Pixels Mean Lower Spatial Resolution

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 34

Image interpolation

Introduction

• An image f(x,y) tells us the intensity values at the

integral lattice locations, i.e., when x and y are both

integers

• Image interpolation refers to the “guess” of intensity values

at missing locations, i.e., x and y can be arbitrary

• Note that it is just a guess (Note that all sensors have finite

sampling distance)

• image interpolation is about D-A conversion

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 35

Image interpolation:

Image re-sampling or re-sizing operations:-

zooming, shrinking, rotating, and geometric corrections

Different methods:

1. Nearest neighbor interpolation:-

2. Linear interpolation

3. Bilinear interpolation

4. Cubic interpolation and others

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 36

Image Interpolation

Example:

f(1) = 1, f(2) = 10, f(3) = 5 , f(4) = 16, f(5) = 20

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 37

Image Interpolation

How can we find f(1.5)?

One approach: take the average of f(1) and f(2)

f (1.5) = 5.5

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 38

Linear interpolation

Fit a line between each pair of data points

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 39

Linear interpolation

• What is f(1.8)?

Answer: 0.2 f(1) + 0.8 f(2)

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 40

Linear interpolation

To compute f(x), find the two points xleft and xright that x lies

between

f (x) = (xright - x) / (xleft – xright) f (xleft) +

(x - xleft) / (xleft – xright) f (xright)

f (xleft)

f (xright)

xleft x xright

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 41

Bilinear interpolation

What about in 2D?

Interpolate in x, then in y

Example

We know the red values

Linear interpolation in x between red

values gives us the blue values

Linear interpolation in y between the

blue values gives us the answer

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Bilinear_interpolation

CV & IP 02 42

18-Nov-16

Bilinear interpolation

Bilinear interpolation: - uses the

four nearest neighbors to estimate the

intensity at a the new location

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/

Bilinear_interpolation

CV & IP 02 43

18-Nov-16

Cont’d…

Nearest neighbor interpolation

Direct zooming

Bilinear interpolation

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 44

Extrapolation

Suppose you only know the values f(1), f(2), f(3), f(4)

of a function

What is f(5)?

This problem is called extrapolation

Much harder than interpolation: what is outside the image?

For the particular case of temporal data, extrapolation is

called prediction (what will the value of MSFT stock be

tomorrow?)

If you have a good model, this can work well

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 45

Image extrapolation

http://graphics.cs.cmu.edu/projects/scene-completion/

Computed using a database of millions of photos

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 46

Mathematical Tools used in Digital Image

Processing

1. Array versus Matrix Operations:

Digital image viewed as an array

Array operation is pixel-by-pixel

Consider image arrays A and B, where

a11 a12 b11 b12

A , B

21 22

a a 21 22

b b

then a11 a12

a 2

a 2

A b11 b12

A 2

2 11 12

2

, C

a21 a22 B a21 a22

b21 b22

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 47

Mathematical Tools used in Digital Image

Processing cont’d…

2. Linear versus Nonlinear Operations:

most image processing operations are linear.

Consider an input image f(x, y), an operator H

and output g(x, y), i.e.,

H[f(x, y)] = g(x, y)

H is a linear operator if the following is true.

H [ai f i ( x, y ) a j f j ( x, y )] ai g i ( x, y ) a j f j ( x, )

Mathematical Tools used in Digital Image

Processing cont’d…

3. Arithmetic Operations:

operations are

s ( x , y ) f ( x , y ) g ( x, y )

d ( x , y ) f ( x, y ) g ( x , y )

p ( x, y ) f ( x, y ) g ( x, y )

v ( x, y ) f ( x, y ) g ( x, y )

Thank you!!!

CV & IP 02 18-Nov-16 50

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