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Worksheet of Amount of Substance

1. The food additive E330 is another organic compound which occurs naturally in fruit.
E330 has the following composition by mass: C, 37.5 %; H, 4.17 %; O, 58.3
%. Calculate the empirical formula of E330.

2. A salt, X, contains 16.2% by mass of magnesium, 18.9% by mass of nitrogen


and 64.9% by mass of oxygen.

a. State what is meant by the term empirical formula.

........................................................................................….......................
........

b. Determine the empirical formula of X.

3. A hydrocarbon, W, contains 92.3% carbon by mass. The relative molecular mass of


W is 78.0
Determine the molecular formula of W.

4. A compound of iron contains 38.9% by mass of iron and 16.7% by mass of


carbon, the remainder being oxygen.

Determine the empirical formula of the iron compound.


5. Compound A (Mr = 215.8) contains 22.24% carbon, 3.71% hydrogen and
74.05% bromine by mass. Show that the molecular formula of A is C4H8Br2.

6. Ammonium sulfate, (NH4)2SO4, is widely used as a fertiliser. In order to determine


its percentage purity, a sample of ammonium sulfate fertiliser was analysed by
reacting a known amount with an excess of NaOH(aq) and then titrating the
unreacted NaOH with dilute HCl.
(a) Ammonium sulfate reacts with NaOH in 1:2ratio.
Complete and balance the equation for this
reaction.

b.

(i) Write a balanced equation for the reaction between NaOH and HCl.

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(ii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of HCl in 31.2 cm3 of 1.00 mol dm–3 HCl.

(iii) Calculate the amount, in moles, of NaOH in 50.0 cm3 of 2.00 mol dm–3 NaOH.

(iv) Calculate the concentration of NaOH when 50.0 cm3 reacts with 50.0 cm3 of 2.00
mol/dm3 of HCl.
7. Titanium(IV) chloride reacted with water as shown in the following equation.

TiCl4(l) + 2H2O(l)  4HCl(aq) + TiO2(s)

The reaction produced 200 cm3 of a 1.20M solution of hydrochloric


acid. Calculate the number of moles of HCl in the solution and use your
answer to find the original mass of TiCl4

Moles of
HCl...............................................................................................................

Mass of
TiCl4..............................................................................................................

8. A 1.0 kg sample of methane was burned in air. It reacted as follows:

CH4 (g) + O2 (g)  CO2 (g) + H2O(g)

Calculate the number of moles in 1.0 kg of methane.

9. Calculate the concentration, in mol dm–3, of the solution formed when 19.6 g of
hydrogen chloride, HCl, are dissolved in water and the volume made up to 250 cm3.

10. HCl + Mg  MgCl2 + H2

What mass of hydrogen is formed when 100cm3 of hydrochloric acid of


concentration 5.0 mol dm–3 reacts with an excess of magnesium?
11. Ammonium nitrate can be prepared by the reaction between ammonia and nitric acid:

NH3 + HNO3  NH4NO3

The concentration of a nitric acid solution is 2.00 mol dm–3. Calculate the volume of this
solution which would be required to react with exactly 20.0 g of ammonia

12. The equation below represents the thermal decomposition of KClO3.

2KClO3(s)  2KCl(s) + 3O2(g)

Calculate the mass of of oxygen and the mass of potassium chloride when 1.50 g
of potassium chlorate decomposed.

13. A sample of magnesium has the following isotopic composition by mass.

isotope mass 24 25 26

% by mass 78.60 10.11 11.29

Calculate the relative atomic mass, Ar, of magnesium to four significant figures.

14. The mass of one atom of 12C is 1.99 × 10–23 g. Use this information to calculate
a value for the Avogadro constant. Show your working.