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THE EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING ON YOUTH

Article · July 2014

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Vanishree Pabalkar Vilas Balgaonkar


Symbiosis Institute of Management Studies Tata Institute of Social Sciences
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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70 © IAEME OF MANAGEMENT (IJM)

ISSN 0976-6502 (Print)


ISSN 0976-6510 (Online) IJM
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70
© IAEME: http://www.iaeme.com/IJM.asp ©IAEME
Journal Impact Factor (2014): 7.2230 (Calculated by GISI)
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THE EFFECTS OF ADVERTISING ON YOUTH

Vanishree Pabalkar
Assistant Professor, Symbiosis International University

Vilas Balgaokar
Assistant Professor, Hirachand Nemchand College of Commerce,
Department of Management Studies, Solapur

ABSTRACT

Youth today are far more equipped with adequate information than they had a couple of
decades back. The evolution of Technology has brought in this change in the lifestyle of youth. The
kind of exposure these youth have towards Internet, Television, print and other medias propels one to
re think on the effects that these advertisements have on the minds of the young generation.
Internet proves to be one of the best ways of persuasive communication. This is the place
where the youth spend maximum of their time, surfing and downloading material. The exposure that
one gets from Internet, Television or any other media through advertisements depicts the knowhow
of different cultures, lifestyles and fashion.
Youth are passive observers of many things, who tend to capture every message from the
advertisements. These advertisements directly or indirectly compel youth to think on an agenda in
the manner in which it is portrayed through the advertisements which may further lead to positive or
a negative consequence.

Keywords: Internet, Television, Advertisements, Youth, Lifestyle.

INTRODUCTION

Youth are exposed to many images and commercials for various Products and Services each
day. This excessive amount of media in our day to day lives cannot be side lined and impacts all
those surrounded by it. It is an expression of the society of which we are a part, and is a mirror-image
for all practical purposes and has a tremendous influence on the social, cultural and moral values of
the youth. The last two decades on account of globalization have seen an unparalleled change, which
has expressed itself in the form of diminishing community values & building change in the lifestyle
of youth. Youth today, spend more time on the Internet and Television than in the classrooms. It
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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70 © IAEME

therefore becomes imperative that these youth get influenced by these aspects to a great extent and
try to ape these acts in their personal lives too.
Advertisements are placed through Internet, television apart from the conventional medias
like the newspapers, magazines, and on billboards. According to marketing consultants Stan Rapp
and Tom Collins, on a typical day, an average American sees over 5,000 advertisements a day (Gay,
1992).
The question that comes to mind is “are these advertisements deceptive in any way”?
Or do they erupt out of insecurity of not being sold out there in the market? Does advertising always
lead to impulsive buying, according to (Alexander and Hanson, 1993). Is the message ethical?
Advertising alone cannot propel a customer to buy. It triggers to the mindset of the customers and
exists as the Top of mind recall. It attracts the customer, provides information and makes him walk
up to the shelf where the Product is located.
Before the Product gets launched in the market, the tasks of test marketing are usually
adopted by the person. Advertisements should ensure that the content shown is purely informational,
and not beyond this. But practically, this rarely happens. The content many times is persuasive.
Advertisements start with persuading the customer due to the new benefits that the Product
promises to deliver to the customer, according to( Douglas Kellner, 1920). They want that customers
should be willing to spend the money on the Products and Services that are introduced newly in the
market, (Alexander and Hanson, 1993).
Advertisements also spread a social message and make citizens aware of their responsibility
like the Tata Tea advertisement which conveyed that it was a necessity every citizen to cast vote. The
concept of ‘JAGO GRAHAK JAGO’ is one of the finest examples of advertisements, which help in
making a consumer aware regarding his rights. Checking the expiry dates of medicines and food
products, asking for a proper bill, discounts on MRP are the rights of a consumer.
The positivity of advertisements further accelerates down the path of creating consciousness
and also makes a person aware about the social evils of the society. Killing the girl child or getting a
girl married at a tender age of below 18 years are some of the examples of social evils present in our
society. Certain advertisements create awareness about the negative impact of such actions as well as
some help in promoting education and individuality. These advertisements have been in very
successful as they are a good attempt at fostering the awareness quotient. They also help in
developing consciousness in the society. However, how we implement the messages conveyed in
these advertisements in our lives is entirely our perspective and choice.
Advertisements tend to create a negative impact as well on the mind-set of Youth. For
instance, the commercial of Thums-up “ Taste the thunder, the celebrity, Akshay kumar goes on top
of a light house by the beach, sways to call the rains , uses the Thums up bottle as lightning
conductor and converts lightening to a cold drink . Other soft drinks advertisements showing a hero
jumping from the terrace of a building in search of his favorite drink. This is surely entertaining and
glamorous but there is dangerous of imitation by youth to impress others. Commercials on like Pan
Masala, Bagpiper, and Foursquare Cigarettes etc. stimulates and attracts addiction of alcohol abuse
among Youth, as they want to strike a fashion statement. Advertisements of bikes like Pulsar, CBZ,
and mobile phones, smart phones compels the Youth to fall prey to such commercials and make
them determinant of being associated with those Products or Services.

OBJECTIVES

1. To study the impact of Advertisements on Youth’s lifestyle.


2. Assess the factors that influence the mind-set of Youth.
3. To study which type of Advertisements are more appealing to Youth.

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70 © IAEME

METHODOLOGY

Primary data was collected through a structured questionnaire. The respondents were asked to
answer based on giving a rank to each statement on a 5-point Likert scale basis (5= strongly agree &
1 = strongly disagree) factor analysis technique was used to analyze the primary data.
The respondents were students of Graduation and Post Graduation in Pune.
Exploratory study was done to determine the lifestyle of youth with reference to the effect that was
created through the Advertisements that were shown on Internet and Televsion.
Sampling method: Convenience sampling.
The respondents are requested to rank the statements on a 5-point Likert scale basis (5= strongly
agree & 1 = strongly disagree) factor analysis technique was used to analyze the primary data.
Secondary data was collected through research articles and published papers on the topic.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Factor Analysis
Trimming a large number of variables to reach at few factors to explain the original data
more economically and efficiently factors analysis, a widely used multivariate technique in research.
It is important tool for resolving this confusion and identifying factors from an array of seemingly
important variables.
Adequacy of the data is tested on the basis of results the Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) measures of
sampling adequacy and Bartlett’s test of sphericity (homogeneity of variance) provided. The KMO
measure of sampling adequacy is 0.657 (shown in Table 1) which indicates the present data suitable
for factor analysis.

Table 1: KMO and Bartlett's Test


Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy. 0.657
Approx. Chi-Square 350.172
Bartlett's Test
df 190
of Sphericity
Sig. .000

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70 © IAEME

This is goodness of fit coefficient whose value varies between 0 and 1 and we take values
over 0.5 to represent a good factor analysis. Similarly, Bartlett’s test of sphericity is significant (p <
0.001) that explains existence of sufficient correlation between the variables to proceed with the
analysis (Table 1). The test distributed and it may be accepted when it is significant at p < 0.05.
All the extracted communities are acceptable and all variables are fit for the factor solution as
their extraction values are large (shown in Table 2)

Table No. 2: Communalities

Variables Initial Extraction

Awareness about new Product 1.000 .782


Education through Message 1.000 .838
Display aggressive behavior through Violence 1.000 .684
Stimulates fear 1.000 .681
Realize youth that the world is more competitive 1.000 .851
Builds emotional bonds with potential customers 1.000 .752
Makes fact based appeals 1.000 .793
Stimulate alcohol abuse in youth 1.000 .563
Build brand name & brand image 1.000 .858
Make to develop social isolation 1.000 .793
Helps in getting economic socialization 1.000 .650
Fits with moral concern 1.000 .772
Makes mind feel relax 1.000 .800
Helping in adopting western culture 1.000 .897
Persuade their parents to purchase the product shown in
1.000 .531
Advertisements
Trends to misinterprets the message conveyed in commercials 1.000 .558
Flashy Advertisements generate impulse shopping in youth 1.000 .861
Often lose the ability to live a without materialistic joy 1.000 .612
Sexual content in advertisement can be tool for educating youth about
1.000 .791
sexually transmitted diseases & teen pregnancy
The personal preferences of youth are alerted by the Advertisement to
1.000 .530
great extent

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70 © IAEME

Table No. 3: Total Variance Explained


Com Initial Eigen values Extraction Sums of Squared Rotation
pone Loadings Sums of
nt Squared
Loadings

Total % of Cumulat Total % of Cumulative Total % of Cumulative %


Variance ive % Variance % Variance

1 4.002 20.009 20.009 4.002 20.009 20.009 3.305 16.524 16.524

2 2.628 13.142 33.150 2.628 13.142 33.150 2.461 12.307 28.832

3 2.233 11.163 44.314 2.233 11.163 44.314 1.999 9.993 38.825

4 1.879 9.394 53.708 1.879 9.394 53.708 1.901 9.507 48.332

5 1.485 7.424 61.133 1.485 7.424 61.133 1.777 8.884 57.216

6 1.244 6.221 67.353 1.244 6.221 67.353 1.618 8.089 65.305

7 1.126 5.631 72.984 1.126 5.631 72.984 1.536 7.679 72.984

8 .991 4.955 77.939

9 .832 4.160 82.099

10 .716 3.578 85.677

11 .651 3.253 88.929

12 .528 2.638 91.567

13 .357 1.783 93.350

14 .348 1.738 95.088

15 .301 1.503 96.590

16 .248 1.241 97.831

17 .141 .705 98.536

18 .128 .641 99.177

19 .094 .472 99.649

20 .070 .351 100.000

Note: Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70 © IAEME

Table No.4: Component Matrix


Variables Component
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Awareness about new Product
.136 .452 .251 .584 -.238 .264 .169
Education through Message
.022 .300 -.280 -.500 -.116 .532 .351
Display aggressive behavior through Violence
.378 -.002 .455 -.228 -.463 .110 -.236
Stimulates fear
-.364 .523 -.264 .211 .110 -.208 .326
Realize youth that the world is more
competitive -.242 .656 .360 -.053 -.141 -.334 -.312

Builds emotional bonds with potential


customers -.216 -.191 .652 .322 .193 .112 .301

Makes fact based appeals


.802 -.212 .083 -.012 -.239 -.196 -.048
Stimulate alcohol abuse in youth
-.549 -.408 .183 -.038 -.164 .044 .177
Build brand name & brand image
-.112 .411 .529 -.484 .258 -.193 .245
Make to develop social isolation
.433 .291 .246 .443 -.071 -.469 .199
Helps in getting economic socialization
.521 .516 -.036 -.020 .283 .174 -.015
Fits with moral concern
.841 .004 .174 -.102 .141 -.065 -.007
Makes mind feel relax
-.734 .236 -.105 -.010 .329 -.129 -.263
Helping in adopting western culture
-.285 .392 -.055 .506 -.451 .373 -.245
Persuade their parents to purchase the product
shown in Advertisements .055 -.507 .096 .348 -.055 -.033 .370

Trends to misinterprets the message conveyed


in commercials .606 .083 -.274 .073 .233 .092 .201

Flashy Advertisements generate impulse


shopping in youth -.091 .015 .457 .280 .616 .390 -.184

Often lose the ability to live a without


materialistic joy .600 -.119 .130 .075 .281 .183 -.321

Sexual content in advertisement can be tool for


educating youth about sexually transmitted
-.228 -.033 .722 -.386 -.188 .147 .102
diseases & teen pregnancy

The personal preferences of youth are alerted


.264 .612 -.049 -.162 -.108 .088 .193
by the Advertisement to great extent

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.a


a. 7 components extracted.

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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70 © IAEME

Table No. 5: Rotated Component Matrix


Component
1 2 3 4 5 6 7
Awareness about new Product
.218 -.016 .097 .828 -.129 .107 .104
Education through Message
.189 -.063 .164 .071 .024 -.212 -.849
Display aggressive behavior through
Violence .010 .759 .223 .176 .132 -.098 .003

Stimulates fear
.072 -.742 .133 .248 .092 -.191 .041
Realize youth that the world is more
competitive -.071 -.081 .439 .301 .671 -.073 .319

Builds emotional bonds with potential


customers -.255 -.025 .399 .187 -.440 .505 .209

Makes fact based appeals


.433 .630 -.089 -.095 -.216 -.271 .269
Stimulate alcohol abuse in youth
-.685 -.059 .113 -.057 -.257 .045 -.076
Build brand name & brand image
.092 -.103 .872 -.163 .214 .079 -.028
Make to develop social isolation
.432 .005 .215 .307 -.172 -.186 .634

Helps in getting economic socialization


.747 .016 .093 .133 .189 .129 -.116

Fits with moral concern


.681 .482 .099 -.164 -.123 .014 .151
Makes mind feel relax
-.375 -.594 .011 -.093 .488 .239 .039
Helping in adopting western culture
-.213 -.072 -.275 .837 .252 .036 -.073
Persuade their parents to purchase the
-.156 .044 -.093 .007 -.677 .031 .192
product shown in Advertisements

Trends to misinterprets the message .681 .014 -.164 -.065 -.232 -.037 -.086
conveyed in commercials

Flashy Advertisements generate impulse .067 -.052 .106 .084 .002 .913 .048
shopping in youth

Often lose the ability to live a without .469 .434 -.195 -.115 .005 .377 .101
materialistic joy

Sexual content in advertisement can be


-.399 .354 .676 .046 .013 .155 -.150
tool for educating youth about sexually
transmitted diseases & teen pregnancy

The personal preferences of youth are


.463 -.052 .283 .282 .194 -.249 -.232
alerted by the Advertisement to great
extent

Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis.


Rotation Method: Varimax with Kaiser Normalization.a
a. Rotation converged in 20 iterations.
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International Journal of Management (IJM), ISSN 0976 – 6502(Print), ISSN 0976 - 6510(Online),
Volume 5, Issue 6, June (2014), pp. 63-70 © IAEME

CONCLUSION

Though Advertising has adverse effects on Youth in both Positive and Negative ways. Youth
tend to disagree that the influence of such commercials is negligible when they decide to smoke or
consume alcohol. The peer pressure actually is dominant factor that drives Youth to such habits. The
role of commercials in influencing their decision cannot be overlooked at the same time.
The false image that the Youth intend to carry for the mere reason of being associated among
the group, and making them stand out in the crowd, propels him to be habituated to the concept. The
Youth today, want to convey the message through the attitude that they intend to carry. Be it
smoking, alcohol consumption or any such habit.
The Society is looked as it responds to the overwhelming amount of advertisements,
inevitably staring us in the eye and engulfing our thoughts every single direction we turn. Be it
Internet, Television, billboards, signs, posters, magazines, fliers, etc., advertisements do play a vital
role in the inescapable role in almost every aspect of our daily lives.
The future scope of the study can be towards investigating the power of manipulative ploys
used in everyday advertisements that influence our ideas and actions, convincing the consumer to
make the purchase of a Product or a Service that we do not truly require at that moment.

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