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A Journal Of Makassar Muhammadiyah University

THE USE OF CULTURE ORIENTED MATERIALS IN IMPROVING


STUDENTS’ READING COMPREHENSION AT THE SECOND YEAR
STUDENTS
OF SMAN 8 SELAYAR
(An Experimental Research)

PENGGUNAAN MATERI YANG BERORIENTASI BUDAYA DALAM


MENINGKATKAN PEMAHAMAN MEMBACA PADA SISWA TAHUN
KEDUA
SMAN 8 SELAYAR
(Penelitian Eksperimen)

Nur Fitriani Burhan,


Nunung Anugrawati, Muh.Astrianto Setiadi
Faculty of Teacher Training and Education
English Education Department
Students, Department of English language
Jln. Sultan Alauddin No.259, Makassar.
Makassar Muhammadiyah University, Indonesia
Nurfitrianiburhan950@gmail.com, ….

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ABSTRACT
Nur Fitriani Burhan, 2018. The Use of Culture Oriented Materials in Improving
Students’ Reading Comprehension at the Second Year Students of SMAN 8 Selayar
(Pre- Experimental Research). English Education Department Faculty of Teacher
Training and Education Muhammadiyah University of Makassar. Supervised by
Nunung Anugrawati and Muh. Astrianto Setiadi.
The objective of the research was to find out whether or not the use of culture
oriented materials effective to improve students’ reading comprehension at the
second year students of SMAN 8 Selayar.
The researcher applied pre-experimental method with pre-test and post-test
design. The population of this research was the second year students which
consisted of 25 students (1 class). This sample used purposive sampling technique.
The research findings indicated that the use of Culture Oriented Materials is
able to increase students’ in literal reading comprehension. The mean score of
students pre-test was 5.48 and post-test 7.48. It means that there was the
improvement of students reading after the students being taught by using Culture
Oriented Materials and also it could be seen by the t-test was 3.565 which was
greater than t-table 2.064 Therefore, hypothesis (H0) was rejected and (H1) was
accepted.
The result of analysis indicated that the use of culture oriented materials was
effective to improve students’ reading comprehension especially at the second year
students of SMAN 8 Selayar. It was also expected that the teacher use culture
oriented materials to motivate the students to read.
Key words: Reading Comprehension, Culture, Teaching reading

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Introduction
English is a foreign language as a global language spoken worldwide. Most
of the multilingual community uses it as the official langue of law, administration,
commerce, and education. Almost in every country in the world, English is taught
in school (Sundayana, dkk 2004). Based on the description, it can be concluded that
the notion of English is a foreign language as a verbal communication used
throughout the world studied to share knowledge in order to maintain the existence
of traditions and culture and in particular to maintain human relationships.
There are 4 skills in English (also known as the four of language learning)
are a set of four capabilities that allow an individual to comprehend and produce
spoken language for proper and effective interpersonal communication. These are
listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In learning English, students are expected
to be able to master all language skills of English. It is based on the goal of teaching
English.
Reading is the language skill we may acquire in our native language.
Therefore, to be able to use English well, reading is one of important skills. English
reading becomes a more and more important in international communication.
However, teachers of English often ignore the importance of reading in the
classroom. Whereas, students need reading skill to be able to understand the reading
and get information from books, magazine, novels, essays, and internet. Therefore,
the need for reading and taking out the information from various text above seems
to be extremely important.
English is taught as a foreign language in Indonesia. Hence, there are some
problems in teaching reading. One of the problems that can be found is the method
used by the teachers. Many kinds of teaching method may result bad or negative
effects on students’ reading skill. So many students are hard to get the idea or
meaning of the text. Another problem is lack of the students’ participation in the
classroom. For example, when the teacher dominates the activity in the classroom,

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the students may feel like they do not have enough chance to participate actively.
The lack of participation may result in lack of motivation and lack of motivation
may influence students’ reading comprehension.
Based on the observations, found that students are still difficult to
understanding the text reading. Students still have problems to understanding the
text. One of the reasons maybe the students feel bored with the reading material
given by the teacher. Therefore, it is important for English teachers to make reading
material more interesting and to motivate students to understand the reading.
Based on the above statement, the writer will give material about culture to
improve students’ reading comprehension and making student active in the learning
process. In this case the students not only learning English but indirectly students
also study the culture in the region.
Based on the description above, the writer is inspired to conduct a research
with the title ‘The Use of Culture Oriented Material in Improving Students’ in
Reading Comprehension at the Second Year Students Of SMA Negeri 8
Selayar”.

Materials and Method


The current study address issue:
1. Is the use of culture oriented material effective to improve students’ in
reading comprehension at the second years of SMAN 8 Selayar?
Review of Related Literature
Demir (2012:188) in his thesis, concluded that background knowledge had
a significant role in the learners’ reading comprehension performance since it
helped them to become aware of their cultures. So, it improved the process reading
comprehension and it effect their minds and representation so that they could have
better performance.
Garth-McCullogh (2008:49) in his thesis, concluded that content familiarity
and cultural knowledge increased learners’ reading comprehension and facilitated
the process of reading comprehension and the learners who were familiar with the
culture of target language had higher score.

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Hayati (2009:34) in her thesis, concluded that the learners listening


comprehension who received the culture of target language increased. So it is good
to select different listening materials which are related to the target language and
make the learners aware of what they acquiring.
Based on the previous findings above, three researchers have done research
on reading comprehension in different methods and strategies. Those show that
there are many teachers in different school have use some strategies to improve
students reading comprehension. So that is way it is correlate with researcher will
be done to improve the students reading comprehension.

And this research the writer will try to apply “Culture Oriented Materials” to
improve the students reading comprehension. The research hopes this could give
contribution to improve the students reading comprehension.
Reading Materials
1. Reading
a. What is reading?
Reading is a complex process. The complexity of reading process leads
many aspects to various definitions of reading comprehension as interaction
between thought and language.
Smith and Robinson (1980: 205) state that reading comprehension means
understanding, evaluating, utilizing of information and ideas gained through and
interaction between the author and the reader. Reading comprehension is such a
kind of dialogue between an author and where the written language is the media
that permit the dialogue occurred when the two persons communicate through the
printed materials. It can infer that reading comprehension is an active process
involving the readers knowlwdge background and the print in which a dialogue run
between the reader and the author through the text where the reader can discover
the meaning needed to achieve the particular purpose set by himself.
In this context reading is not just at a kind of transfer from written syimbol
to a sound. Reading is not just solving the words, but it must always be meaning
getting process. Kustaryo (1988: 2) states that reading is the instantaneous

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recognition of various writing symbol with exiting knowledge and comprehension


of information and ideas communicated. From this point of new some expert
formulated definition of reading comprehension.
Anderson and Turner in Haeba (1999: 7). States that comprehend is a special
kind of the kinds process. The reader comprehends by actively constructing
meaning internally from intercting with the material that is read the reader can be
categorized comprehend the test if he successful discovered the meaning needed to
achieved his particular purpose from the text. Reading comprehension depend on
many factor: (a) the readers ability to attend to the printed ideas, (b) the readers
background knowledge to which new information be added, (c) the quality of the
writing itself, (d) the readers purpose in reading materials.
Thinker in Yunus (1999: 16) states that during reading reading
comprehension process, the students most pay full attention in order to be able to
catch all ideas written in the passage. As what he says, students, reading ability is
very impotent in dealing with reading comprehension because reader can
comprehend the passage if he is able to understand the meaning of very word or
sentences and their corelation among one and other he, futhermore offers a way of
conducting a comprehension lesson as follow: all those four stages in conducting a
comprehension class a show above is considered very hap full. Pre-reading is to
assist students to the passage where they have a prior perception above the content
of passage. Reading the passage is a way where the students are involved in a given
information and understand it them, giving question is to ask to students to have a
careful reading certain information. And the last, supplementary activities are to
assert the students to re-study again wither about the passage or sometime that
related to the passage.
Learning to read as processing language from its graphic form involves
idetifying words in prhases and sentences in context when the context provides
clues and when does not. Accourding Lado (1988: 172), the learner’s goal is to
become a skilled reader directly in the second language, that is, one who
understands the meaning of materials read at normal speed and relates it to her
intentional thinking as the language is processed.

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Futher Steinberg (1982: 192) state the reading is a form of comunication the
goal of which is the reception of information through written forms. It means in
teaching program, consequenltly, should direct itself to the relazation of that goal.
Finally, Kustaryo (1988: 2) defines reading as the activity that consist the
combination of word recognition, intellect, and emotion interrelated with the prior
knowledge t understand the message being communicated.

b. Levels of reading
In language teaching, reading is one of the language skills that should be
developed. Anyhow, each person may be have different capability when is reading
in relation with this reading materials also effect reader to develop his reading skills.
Based on this psycholinguistic particulary those who are expert in reading make
clasification of reading levels. This is because not all readers have the same levels.
Simanjuntak in ST. Normah (2003: 8) says that expert set up reading
curriculum into levels, mainly:
a. Initial level
The intructional goals in initial level are the student will be able:
1) To read silently a passage of at least two paragraphs in lenght
2) To demonstrate comprehension by responding to oral or written
question within their range of vacabulary and grammar.
3) To understand written direction
And the study skill in this level is the ability to use of consult reference
materials.
b. Elementary level
The instruction goals in elementary level are that the students will be able:
1) To read short english selection of passage and demonstrate and
understand the content by location specific information
2) To identify sequence of event;
3) To recosgnize cause and effect and perceive organization.
The study skills of this level are the ability.
1) To use consult reference materials;

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2) To comprehend information on graph, chart, maps, and tables as


well.
c. Intermediate level
The instructional goal are the students will;
1) Continues to refine reading skills acquired at the earlier levels,
2) Refine word attack skills
3) Develop critical reading ability;
4) Apply reading ability to the development of study skills
5) Develop greater ability to comprehend more complex content areas of
the instructional materials;
6) Scan for concluding sentences, main ideas, and specific information the
study skills of this level are;
7) Reading and following instruction/directions;
8) Skimming to locate information quickly;
9) Evaluating information found in reference materials:
d. Advanced level
The instructional goal of this level are the students will:
1) Continue to refine the reading skill acquired at earlier levels and will
also refine text attack skills.
2) Develop critical reading ability
3) Apply to the development of study skills.
4) Read selection of increased difficult for study purposes content area
instructional materials.
5) Scan for concluding sentences, main ideas, and specific information the
study skills in advanced level are;
6) Using content area of text books and reference materials used by native
english speaking peers.
7) Scanning to located specific details of information and adjust the rate of
speed to the level of difficult of a selection.
c. Categorizing reading comprehension

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Comprehension is an active process that involves the integration of prior


knowledge with information in the tech in order comprehend the text (Alexander:
1988: 127).
Comprehension is an active thinking process that depends not only on
comprehension skills but also on the student experience and prior knowledge. It is
possible to comprehend materials on a number of different levels. Specifics
comprehend skills cannot be completely isolated because they are so irritated that
one skill depends so some degree on another skills.
Smith (1977: 107) divides the comprehension skill into four categories. The
four categories are:
a. Literal reading (reading the lines)
Literal reading involves thinking the ideas and facts that are directly stated
on the printed pages. It is the skill of getting the literal meaning of word idea
or sentence in a text.
b. Interpretative reading (reading between the lines)
Interpretative reading involves reading between the lines or making
inferences. Interpretative level of comprehension goes beyond literal
comprehension to supply means in which are not directly states in the text.
c. Critical reading (reading beyond the lines)
Critical reading is higher level than the other two categories because it
involves evaluation, the making of personal judgement on the accuracy, value,
truth-fullness of what is read
d. Creative reading
Creative reading uses different thinking skills to go beyond the literal
comprehension, interpretaion, and critical reading level. In creative reading,
the reader tries to come up with now or alternative solutions thses presentsed
by the writer.
Culture Oriented Materials
Culture is activity of though and sensitiveness to beauty and human feeling.
Culture may be described as socially acquired knowledge the someone has by virtue
of this being a member of particular society. Culture is a way of life. Culture is the

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context within which we exist think feel, relate to others it is the give that binds a
group of people together.
Definition about culture is take in the sense in which it is use by cultural
anthropologists according to whom culture is something that everybody has, in
contrast with the culture which is found only in cultured circles. (Hudson. R. A,
1980:73).
Brown (1980:122) argues that “no man in an island entire of itself, every
man is piece of the continent, a part of the main”. Culture is our continent, the
collected identify of which each of use is part. Culture is a “blue print”. It guides
the behaviour of people in a community and is developed in family life. This blue
print control our behaviour in groups and makes us sensitive to matters of status.
Culture helps us to know what we can do as individuals and what our
responsibilities are as members of group (Larson and Smalley in Brown, 1980:
122).
Culture is control of people’s behaviour in community and development in
family life. It also helps people to know what others expect from them what will
happen if they life up to their exception. Furthermore, Brown (1980:123) state that
culture as the idea, customs, skills, arts and tools which characterized a given group
of people in a given period of time, and help people to know what they can do as
individual and as a member of group.
Tomasson (1986:12) state that society’s culture consists of whatever is one
has to know or believe in order to operate in a manner acceptable to its member.
The term culture oriented materials here means the reading materials
containing the students culture either in the target language or in a general sense
refer, literature, music, painting, etc, but. Embraces all aspect of pattern of life, the
value, the problems and achievement of national group. This material concern with
the culture in the rural areas of the students or of the citizen area.

Method
The researcher applied pre-experimental method with pre-test and post-test
design. The population of this research was the second year students which

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consisted of 25 students (1 class). This sample used purposive sampling technique.


The research findings indicated that the use of Culture Oriented Materials is able to
increase students’ in literal reading comprehension.

Result
1. The result of the students Pre-test and Post-test
Table 4.1
Calculating the result of the students score in Pre-test and Post-test
The mean score is presented following table
Improvement
Indicator Pre-test Post-test Mean (X2 – X1)
(X1) (X2) Score
Main Idea 5.344 7.384 5.48 2.04%
Supporting 5.616 7.576 7.48 1.96%
Details

The mean score of post-test was greater than mean score of pre-test. The
mean score of gain (D) is 2. It show that is an increasing for each student after
treatment.

Discussions
The effectiveness of the use culture oriented materials in reading
comprehension
1. Interesting materials of culture oriented materials in reading
comprehension
Based on the analysis of data, the researcher found the interesting materials
for the students in reading comprehension. As (Sanderson,2002) states that people
learn trough reading and reading about interesting new things in one’s interest
subject, undoubtedly helps motivation. The discussion aims at describing the
students’ literal reading comprehension including main idea and supporting details
after being taught by Culture Oriented Materials.

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Demir (2012:188) in his thesis, concluded that background knowledge had


a significant role in the learners’ reading comprehension performance since it
helped them to become aware of their culture. So it improved the process reading
comprehension and it affects their minds and representation so that they could have
better performance. It supports by the frequency and rate percentage of the result of
the students’ score of pre-test and post-test. The students’ score after presenting in
teaching reading by using Culture Oriented Materials was better than before the
treatment was given to the students’.
2. The students’ literal reading comprehension by using culture oriented
materials in reading comprehension
The description of the data collected through pre-test as explained in the
previous section shows that the students’ literal reading comprehension is
improved. As (Burns, Roe & Ross, 1984) literal comprehension is the most obvious
comprehension involves surface meaning.
At this level, teacher can ask students to find main idea and supporting
details that are explicitly stated in the text. Reading for literal comprehension is
directly stated in a selection. It is

supported by frequency and rate percentage of the result of the students’ pre-test
and post-test. Students’ score after presenting materials by using Culture Oriented
Materials in reading comprehension is better than before the treatment was given to
the students.
Before giving treatment, the researcher conducted pre-test. The description
of the data collected in pre-test shown the students’ reading comprehension is poor.
Most of the students are difficult to comprehend the content of the text and answer
the reading test.
Based on the discussion above, the result of the t-test there was a significant
difference between result the pre-test and post-test. It means that there was different
result before and after teaching reading comprehension using Culture Oriented
Materials method during the treatment. It can be concluded that the students of the
second year students of SMAN 8 Selayar can be argued that using Culture Oriented

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Materials method is very effective in improving the students reading


comprehension.
Conclusion
Based on the discussion and explanation in the previous chapter and looking
at the result of this research, the researcher put forward some conclusions as
follows:
The use of culture oriented materials in teaching and learning English is
interesting for the students, it can be seen in the result of treatment and the result of
the test. The researcher used culture oriented materials as learning aid because it
can motivate students to learn English reading comprehend more enjoyable and
easily. However, there were some problems in using culture oriented materials to
improve students’ reading comprehension.
Culture oriented materials is effective to be used to improve students’
comprehension in reading because there is a significant difference between the
progresses in reading comprehend of

the students who were studying through culture oriented materials and those are
not. By culture oriented materials, the students more easily understand the content
of reading with ease. They were very enthusiasm when they are asked to read or
even about culture. It was proved that there was significant difference between the
result of students’ pre-test and post-test. The t-test value was 3.565 it was greater
than t-table value 2.064.

REFERENCES
Alexander, J. Still. 1998. Teaching Reading. Boston : Scoot Foresman and
Company.
Brown, H. Dougla, 1980. Principles of language learning and teaching. USA:
Prentice Hall. Inc.
Demir, Y. 2012. The Effect of Background Knowledge and Cultural Navization on
Reading Comprehension and Vocabulary Interference. Journal of
educational and instrumental studies in the world, 2(4), 188-189.

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Futher, Steinberg. 1982. The Relationship Between Anxiety and Oral Performance
in a Foreign Language. Unpublished MA thesis. Universityof Texas.
Garth-McCullough, R. 2008. Untapped Cultural Support : The Influence of
Culturally Bound Prior Knowledge on Comprehension Performance.
Read Horiz, 49(1), 1-30.
Haeba. 1999. Comprehends is Special Kinds of the Kind’s Process. Englewood
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Hayati, M. 2009. The Impact of Cultural knowledge on Listening Comprehension
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Normah, ST 2003. Reading Curriculum. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.
Smith. 1977. The Four Categories in Comprehension Skill. On July 17 2018.
Smith and Robinson. 1980. Meanings of Reading Comprehension. On July 15 2018.
Sundayana dkk, 2004. Pengertian bahasa inggris, (online),
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inggris.html?m=1, diakses 15 july 2018)
Tomasson, Pauline. 1986. Buku Materi Pokok Cross Culture Understanding.
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