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Tu

Differential Geometry:

Connections, Curvature, and

Characteristic Classes

April 8, 2017

Springer

Berlin Heidelberg New York

Hong Kong London

Milan Paris Tokyo

Loring W. Tu

Department of Mathematics

Tufts University

Medford, MA 02155

loring.tu@tufts.edu

Loring

c W. Tu 2017

Preface

Differential geometry has a long and glorious history. As its name implies, it is the

study of geometry using differential calculus, and as such, it dates back to Newton

and Leibniz in the seventeenth century. But it was not until the nineteenth century,

with the work of Gauss on surfaces and Riemann on the curvature tensor, that dif-

ferential geometry flourished and its modern foundation was laid. Over the past one

hundred years, differential geometry has proven indispensable to an understanding

of the physical world, in Einstein’s general theory of relativity, in the theory of gravi-

tation, in gauge theory, and now in string theory. Differential geometry is also useful

in topology, several complex variables, algebraic geometry, complex manifolds, and

dynamical systems, among other fields. It has even found applications to group the-

ory as in Gromov’s work and to probability theory as in Diaconis’s work. It is not

too far-fetched to argue that differential geometry should be in every mathematician’s

arsenal.

The basic objects in differential geometry are manifolds endowed with a metric,

which is essentially a way of measuring the length of vectors. A metric gives rise to

the notions of distance, angle, area, volume, curvature, straightness, and geodesics.

It is the presence of a metric that distinguishes geometry from topology. However,

another concept that might contest the primacy of a metric in differential geometry

is that of a connection. A connection in a vector bundle may be thought of as a

way of differentiating sections of the vector bundle. A metric determines a unique

connection called a Riemannian connection with certain desirable properties. While

a connection is not as intuitive as a metric, it already gives rise to curvature and

geodesics. With this, the connection can also lay claim to be a fundamental notion

of differential geometry.

Indeed, in 1989, the great geometer S. S. Chern wrote as the editor of a volume

on global differential geometry [5], “The Editor is convinced that the notion of a

connection in a vector bundle will soon find its way into a class on advanced calculus,

as it is a fundamental notion and its applications are wide-spread.”

In 1977, the Nobel-prize winning physicist C. N. Yang wrote in [23], “Gauge

fields are deeply related to some profoundly beautiful ideas of contemporary math-

ematics, ideas that are the driving forces of part of the mathematics of the last 40

vi

years, ... , the theory of fiber bundles.” Convinced that gauge fields are related

to connections on fiber bundles, he tried to learn fiber-bundle theory from several

mathematical classics on the subject, but “learned nothing. The language of modern

mathematics is too cold and abstract for a physicist” [24, p. 73].

While the definition and formal properties of a connection on a principal bun-

dle can be given in a few pages, it is difficult to understand its meaning without

knowing how it came into being. The present book is an introduction to differential

geometry that follows the historical development of the concepts of connection and

curvature, with the goal of explaining the Chern–Weil theory of characteristic classes

on a principal bundle. The goal, once fixed, dictates the choice of topics. Starting

with directional derivatives in an Euclidean space, we introduce and successively

generalize connections and curvature from a tangent bundle to a vector bundle and

finally to a principal bundle. Along the way, the narrative provides a panorama of

some of the high points in the history of differential geometry, for example, Gauss’

Theorema Egregium and the Gauss–Bonnet theorem.

Initially, the prerequisites are minimal; a passing acquaintance with manifolds

suffices. Starting with Section 11, it becomes necessary to understand and be able to

manipulate differential forms. Beyond Section 22, a knowledge of de Rham coho-

mology is required. All of this is contained in my book An Introduction to Manifolds

[21], and can be learned in one semester. It is my fervent hope that the present book

will be accessible to physicists as well as mathematicians. For the benefit of the

reader and to establish common notations, we recall in Appendix A the basics of

manifold theory. In an attempt to make the exposition more self-contained, I have

also included sections on algebraic constructions such as the tensor product and the

exterior power.

In two decades of teaching from this manuscript, I have generally been able to

cover the first twenty-five sections in one semester, assuming a one-semester course

on manifolds as the prerequisite. By judiciously leaving some of the sections as

independent reading material, for example, Sections 9, 15, and 26, I have been able

to cover the first thirty sections in one semester.

Every book reflects the biases and interests of its author. This book is no excep-

tion. For a different perspective, the reader may find it profitable to consult other

books. After having read this one, it should be easier to read the others. There are

many good books on differential geometry, each with its particular emphasis. Some

of the ones I have liked include Boothby [1], Conlon [6], do Carmo [7], Kobayashi

and Nomizu [12], Lee [14], Millman and Parker [16], Spivak [19], and Taubes [20].

For applications to physics, see Frankel [9].

As a student, I attended many lectures of Phillip A. Griffiths and Raoul Bott on

algebraic and differential geometry. It is a pleasure to acknowledge their influence.

I want to thank Andreas Arvanitoyeorgos, Jeffrey D. Carlson, Benoit Charbonneau,

Hanci Chi, Brendan Foley, George Leger, Shibo Liu, Ishan Mata, Steven Scott, and

Huaiyu Zhang for their careful proofreading, useful comments, and errata lists. Jef-

frey D. Carlson in particular should be singled out for the many excellent pieces

of advice he has given me over the years. I also want to thank Bruce Boghosian for

helping me with Mathematica and for preparing the figure of the Frenet–Serret frame

vii

(Figure 2.5). Finally, I am grateful to the Max Planck Institute for Mathematics in

Bonn, National Taiwan University, and the National Center for Theoretical Sciences

in Taipei for hosting me during the the preparation of this manuscript.

April 2017

Contents

Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . v

Frontispiece . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1

§1 Riemannian Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.1 Inner Products on a Vector Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

1.2 Representations of Inner Products by Symmetric Matrices . . . . . . 5

1.3 Riemannian Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6

1.4 Existence of a Riemannian Metric . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

§2 Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.1 Regular Curves . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11

2.2 Arc Length Parametrization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12

2.3 Signed Curvature of a Plane Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

2.4 Orientation and Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16

§3 Surfaces in Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.1 Principal, Mean, and Gaussian Curvatures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19

3.2 Gauss’s Theorema Egregium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21

3.3 The Gauss–Bonnet Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23

§4 Directional Derivatives in Euclidean Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.1 Directional Derivatives in Euclidean Space . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24

4.2 Other Properties of the Directional Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

4.3 Vector Fields Along a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

4.4 Vector Fields Along a Submanifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28

4.5 Directional Derivatives on a Submanifold of Rn . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29

x Contents

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30

§5 The Shape Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.1 Normal Vector Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

5.2 The Shape Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

5.3 Curvature and the Shape Operator . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

5.4 The First and Second Fundamental Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37

5.5 The Catenoid and the Helicoid . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41

§6 Affine Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

6.1 Affine Connections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45

6.2 Torsion and Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

6.3 The Riemannian Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47

6.4 Orthogonal Projection on a Surface in R3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48

6.5 The Riemannian Connection on a Surface in R3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

§7 Vector Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.1 Definition of a Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51

7.2 The Vector Space of Sections . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53

7.3 Extending a Local Section to a Global Section . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

7.4 Local Operators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

7.5 Restriction of a Local Operator to an Open Subset . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56

7.6 Frames . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

7.7 F-Linearity and Bundle Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58

7.8 Multilinear Maps over Smooth Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61

§8 Gauss’s Theorema Egregium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

8.1 The Gauss and Codazzi–Mainardi Equations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63

8.2 A Proof of the Theorema Egregium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65

8.3 The Gaussian Curvature in Terms of an Arbitrary Basis . . . . . . . . 66

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66

§9 Generalizations to Hypersurfaces in Rn+1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

9.1 The Shape Operator of a Hypersurface. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68

9.2 The Riemannian Connection of a Hypersurface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69

9.3 The Second Fundamental Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70

9.4 The Gauss Curvature and Codazzi–Mainardi Equations . . . . . . . . 70

10.1 Connections on a Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74

10.2 Existence of a Connection on a Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75

10.3 Curvature of a Connection on a Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

10.4 Riemannian Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

Contents xi

10.6 Restricting a Connection to an Open Subset . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78

10.7 Connections at a Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

§11 Connection, Curvature, and Torsion Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

11.1 Connection and Curvature Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81

11.2 Connections on a Framed Open Set . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

11.3 The Gram–Schmidt Process . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83

11.4 Metric Connection Relative to an Orthonormal Frame . . . . . . . . . . 84

11.5 Connections on the Tangent Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88

§12 The Theorema Egregium Using Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

12.1 The Gauss Curvature Equation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90

12.2 The Theorema Egregium . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92

12.3 Skew-Symmetries of the Curvature Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93

12.4 Sectional Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

12.5 Poincaré Half-Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96

Chapter 3 Geodesics

13.1 Covariant Differentiation Along a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97

13.2 Connection-Preserving Diffeomorphisms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100

13.3 Christoffel Symbols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

§14 Geodesics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

14.1 The Definition of a Geodesic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

14.2 Reparametrization of a Geodesic . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

14.3 Existence of Geodesics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108

14.4 Geodesics in the Poincaré Half-Plane . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

14.5 Parallel Translation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112

14.6 Existence of Parallel Translation Along a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113

14.7 Parallel Translation on a Riemannian Manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115

§15 Exponential Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

15.1 The Exponential Map of a Connection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117

15.2 The Differential of the Exponential Map . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119

15.3 Normal Coordinates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120

15.4 Left-Invariant Vector Fields on a Lie Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121

15.5 Exponential Map for a Lie Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122

15.6 Naturality of the Exponential Map for a Lie Group . . . . . . . . . . . . 124

15.7 Adjoint Representation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125

xii Contents

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127

15.9 Addendum. The Exponential Map as a Natural Transformation . . 129

§16 Distance and Volume . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

16.1 Distance in a Riemannian Manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131

16.2 Geodesic Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133

16.3 Dual 1-Forms Under a Change of Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134

16.4 Volume Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135

16.5 The Volume Form in Local Coordinates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138

§17 The Gauss–Bonnet Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

17.1 Geodesic Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141

17.2 The Angle Function Along a Curve . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

17.3 Signed Geodesic Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142

17.4 Gauss–Bonnet Formula for a Polygon . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145

17.5 Triangles on a Riemannian 2-Manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147

17.6 Gauss–Bonnet Theorem for a Surface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148

17.7 Gauss–Bonnet Theorem for a Hypersurface in R2n+1 . . . . . . . . . . 150

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150

18.1 Construction of the Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156

18.2 Universal Mapping Property for Bilinear Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157

18.3 Characterization of the Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158

18.4 A Basis for the Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160

18.5 The Dual Module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161

18.6 Identities for the Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162

18.7 Functoriality of the Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164

18.8 Generalization to Multilinear Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

18.9 Associativity of the Tensor Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165

18.10 The Tensor Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167

§19 The Exterior Power . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

19.1 The Exterior Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

19.2 Properties of the Wedge Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168

19.3 Universal Mapping Property for Alternating k-Linear Maps . . . . . 170

V

19.4 A Basis for k V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171

19.5 Nondegenerate Pairings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173

V V

19.6 A Nondegenerate Pairing of k (V ∨ ) with k V . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174

19.7 A Formula for the Wedge Product . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176

Contents xiii

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177

§20 Operations on Vector Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

20.1 Vector Subbundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178

20.2 Subbundle Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179

20.3 Quotient Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180

20.4 The Pullback Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181

20.5 Examples of the Pullback Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184

20.6 The Direct Sum of Vector Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185

20.7 Other Operations on Vector Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189

§21 Vector-Valued Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190

21.1 Vector-Valued Forms as Sections of a Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . 190

21.2 Products of Vector-Valued Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192

21.3 Directional Derivative of a Vector-Valued Function . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

21.4 Exterior Derivative of a Vector-Valued Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194

21.5 Differential Forms with Values in a Lie Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195

21.6 Pullback of Vector-Valued Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197

21.7 Forms with Values in a Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198

21.8 Tensor Fields on a Manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199

21.9 The Tensor Criterion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200

21.10 Remark on Signs Concerning Vector-Valued Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201

22.1 Connection and Curvature Matrices Under a Change of Frame . . . 205

22.2 Bianchi Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207

22.3 The First Bianchi Identity in Vector Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208

22.4 Symmetry Properties of the Curvature Tensor . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209

22.5 Covariant Derivative of Tensor Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210

22.6 The Second Bianchi Identity in Vector Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211

22.7 Ricci Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 212

22.8 Scalar Curvature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

22.9 Defining a Connection Using Connection Matrices . . . . . . . . . . . . 213

22.10 Induced Connection on a Pullback Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 215

§23 Characteristic Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

23.1 Invariant Polynomials on gl(r, R) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216

23.2 The Chern–Weil Homomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217

23.3 Characteristic Forms are Closed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219

23.4 Differential Forms Depending on a Real Parameter . . . . . . . . . . . . 220

23.5 Independence of Characteristic Classes of a Connection . . . . . . . . 222

xiv Contents

23.7 Naturality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 225

§24 Pontrjagin Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

24.1 Vanishing of Characteristic Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 227

24.2 Pontrjagin Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229

24.3 The Whitney Product Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230

§25 The Euler Class and Chern Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

25.1 Orientation on a Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 232

25.2 Characteristic Classes of an Oriented Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . 233

25.3 The Pfaffian of a Skew-Symmetric Matrix . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234

25.4 The Euler Class . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

25.5 Generalized Gauss–Bonnet Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237

25.6 Hermitian Metrics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238

25.7 Connections and Curvature on a Complex Vector Bundle . . . . . . . 238

25.8 Chern Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239

§26 Some Applications of Characteristic Classes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

26.1 The Generalized Gauss–Bonnet Theorem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

26.2 Characteristic Numbers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241

26.3 The Cobordism Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

26.4 The Embedding Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 242

26.5 The Hirzebruch Signature Formula . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

26.6 The Riemann–Roch Problem . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243

27.1 Principal Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246

27.2 The Frame Bundle of a Vector Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250

27.3 Fundamental Vector Fields of a Right Action . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 251

27.4 Integral Curves of a Fundamental Vector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253

27.5 Vertical Subbundle of the Tangent Bundle T P . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254

27.6 Horizontal Distributions on a Principal Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256

§28 Connections on a Principal Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

28.1 Connections on a Principal Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258

28.2 Vertical and Horizontal Components of a Tangent Vector . . . . . . . 260

28.3 The Horizontal Distribution of an Ehresmann Connection. . . . . . . 261

28.4 Horizontal Lift of a Vector Field to a Principal Bundle . . . . . . . . . 263

28.5 Lie Bracket of a Fundamental Vector Field . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264

§29 Horizontal Distributions on a Frame Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266

Contents xv

29.2 Horizontal Vectors on a Frame Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268

29.3 Horizontal Lift of a Vector Field to a Frame Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

29.4 Pullback of a Connection on a Frame Bundle Under a Section . . . 272

§30 Curvature on a Principal Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

30.1 Curvature Form on a Principal Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274

30.2 Properties of the Curvature Form . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278

§31 Covariant Derivative on a Principal Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

31.1 The Associated Bundle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279

31.2 The Fiber of the Associated Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280

31.3 Tensorial Forms on a Principal Bundle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281

31.4 Covariant Derivative . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284

31.5 A Formula for the Covariant Derivative of a Tensorial Form . . . . . 286

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290

§32 Characteristic Classes of Principal Bundles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

32.1 Invariant Polynomials on a Lie Algebra . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

32.2 The Chern–Weil Homomorphism . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295

Appendix

§A Manifolds . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

A.1 Manifolds and Smooth Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297

A.2 Tangent Vectors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 299

A.3 Vector Fields . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 300

A.4 Differential Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 301

A.5 Exterior Differentiation on a Manifold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 303

A.6 Exterior Differentiation on R3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 306

A.7 Pullback of Differential Forms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 307

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 308

§B Invariant Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

B.1 Polynomials Versus Polynomial Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 310

B.2 Polynomial Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 311

B.3 Invariant Polynomials on gl(r, F) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 312

B.4 Invariant Complex Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 314

B.5 L-Polynomials, Todd Polynomials, and the Chern Character . . . . . 317

B.6 Invariant Real Polynomials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 319

B.7 Newton’s Identities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 321

Problems . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 323

xvi Contents

References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 339

Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 341

A Circle Bundle over a Circle by Lun-Yi Tsai and Zachary Treisman, 2010.

Welded stainless steel and latex sheeting.

Printed with permission of Lun-Yi Tsai.

Chapter 1

Curvature and Vector Fields

is helpful to have had some prior exposure to the theory of manifolds. The reference

[21] contains all the background needed. For the benefit of the reader, we review in

Appendix A, mostly without proofs, some of the definitions and basic properties of

manifolds.

Appendix A concerns smooth maps, differentials,

vector fields, and differential forms on a manifold.

These are part of the differential topology of mani-

folds. The focus of this book is instead on the dif-

ferential geometry of manifolds. Now a manifold

will be endowed with an additional structure called

a Riemannian metric, which gives a way of mea-

suring length. In differential geometry, the notions

of length, distance, angles, area, and volume make

sense, whereas in differential topology, since a mani-

fold can be stretched and still be diffeomorphic to the

original, these concepts obviously do not make sense.

Some of the central problems in differential ge-

ometry originate in everyday life. Consider the prob- Bernhard Riemann

lem in cartography of representing the surface of the

(1826–1866)

earth on a flat piece of paper. A good map should

show accurately distances between any two points.

Experience suggests that this is not possible on a large scale. We are all familiar

with the Mercator projection which vastly distorts countries near the north and south

poles. On a small scale there are fairly good maps, but are they merely approxima-

tions or can there be truly accurate maps in a mathematical sense? In other words, is

there a distance-preserving bijection from an open subset of the sphere to some open

subset of the plane? Such a map is an isometry.

Isometry is also related to a problem in industrial design. Certain shapes such as

circular cylinders and cones are easy to manufacture because they can be obtained

from a flat sheet by bending. If we take a sheet of paper and bend it in various ways,

4 §1 Riemannian Manifolds

we obtain infinitely many surfaces in space, and yet none of them appear to be a

portion of a sphere or an ellipsoid. Which shapes can be obtained from one another

by bending?

In 1827 Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundation for the differential geometry

of surfaces in his work Disquisitiones generales circa superficies curvas (General

investigation of curved surfaces). One of his great achievements was the proof of

the invariance of Gaussian curvature under distance-preserving maps. This result

is known as Gauss’s Theorema Egregium, which means “remarkable theorem” in

Latin. By the Theorema Egregium, one can use the Gaussian curvature to distin-

guish non-isometric surfaces. In the first eight sections of this book, our goal is to

introduce enough basic constructions of differential geometry to prove the Theorema

Egregium.

§1 Riemannian Manifolds

A Riemannian metric is essentially a smoothly varying inner product on the tangent

space at each point of a manifold. In this section we recall some generalities about

an inner product on a vector space and by means of a partition of unity argument,

prove the existence of a Riemannian metric on any manifold.

A point u in R3 will denote either an ordered triple (u1 , u2 , u3 ) of real numbers or a

column vector 1

u

u2 .

u3

The Euclidean inner product, or the dot product, on R3 is defined by

3

hu, vi = ∑ ui vi .

i=1

p

kvk = hv, vi, (1.1)

hu, vi

cos θ = , 0 ≤ θ ≤ π, (1.2)

kukkvk

Z b

s= kc′ (t)k dt.

a

1.2 Representations of Inner Products by Symmetric Matrices 5

θ u

symmetric, bilinear form h , i : V × V → R. This means that for u, v, w ∈ V and

a, b ∈ R,

(i) (positive-definiteness) hv, vi ≥ 0; the equality holds if and only if v = 0.

(ii) (symmetry) hu, vi = hv, ui.

(iii) (bilinearity) hau + bv, wi = ahu, wi + bhv, wi.

As stated, condition (iii) is linearity in only the first argument. However, by the

symmetry property (ii), condition (iii) implies linearity in the second argument as

well.

Proposition 1.2 (Restriction of an inner product to a subspace). Let h , i be an

inner product on a vector space V . If W is a subspace of V , then the restriction

h , iW := h , i|W ×W : W × W → R

is an inner product on W .

Proof. Problem 1.3. ⊔

⊓

Proposition 1.3 (Nonnegative linear combination of inner products). Let h , ii ,

i = 1, . . . , r, be inner products on a vector V and let a1 , . . . , ar be nonnegative real

numbers with at least one ai > 0. Then the linear combination h , i := ∑ ai h , ii is

again an inner product on V .

Proof. Problem 1.4. ⊔

⊓

Let e1 , . . . , en be a basis for a vector space V . Relative to this basis we can represent

vectors in V as column vectors:

1 1

x y

i .. i ..

∑ x ei ←→ x = . , ∑ y ei ←→ y = . .

xn yn

of basis vectors. Let A be the n × n matrix whose entries are

6 §1 Riemannian Manifolds

ai j = hei , e j i.

By the symmetry of the inner product, A is a symmetric matrix. In terms of column

vectors,

∑ xi ei , ∑ y j e j = ∑ ai j xi y j = xT Ay.

Definition 1.4. An n × n symmetric matrix A is said to be positive-definite if

(i) xT Ax ≥ 0 for all x in Rn , and

(ii) equality holds if and only if x = 0.

definite symmetric matrix.

Conversely, if A is an n × n positive-definite symmetric matrix and {e1 , . . . , en }

is a basis for V , then

∑ xi ei , ∑ yi ei = ∑ ai j xi y j = xT Ay

defines an inner product on V . (Problem 1.1.)

It follows that there is a one-to-one correspondence

inner products on a vector n × n positive-definite

←→ .

space V of dimension n symmetric matrices

The dual space V ∨ of a vector space V is by definition Hom(V, R), the space of

all linear maps from V to R. Let α 1 , . . . , α n be the basis for V ∨ dual to the basis

e1 , . . . , en for V . If x = ∑ xi ei ∈ V , then α i (x) = xi . Thus, with x = ∑ xi ei , y = ∑ y j e j ,

and hei , e j i = ai j , one has

hx, yi = ∑ ai j xi y j = ∑ ai j α i (x)α j (y)

= ∑ ai j (α i ⊗ α j )(x, y).

So in terms of the tensor product, an inner product h , i on V may be written as

h , i = ∑ ai j α i ⊗ α j ,

where [ai j ] is an n × n positive-definite symmetric matrix.

Definition 1.5. A Riemannian metric on a manifold M is the assignment to each

point p in M of an inner product h , i p on the tangent space Tp M; moreover, the

assignment p 7→ h , i p is required to be C∞ in the following sense: if X and Y are

C∞ vector fields on M, then p 7→ hX p ,Yp i p is a C∞ function on M. A Riemannian

manifold is a pair (M, h , i) consisting of a manifold M together with a Riemannian

metric h , i on M.

The length of a tangent vector v ∈ Tp M and the angle between two tangent vectors

u, v ∈ Tp M on a Riemannian manifold are defined by the same formulas (1.1) and

(1.2) as in R3 .

1.3 Riemannian Metrics 7

Example 1.6. Since all the tangent spaces Tp Rn for points p in Rn are canonically

isomorphic to Rn , the Euclidean inner product on Rn gives rise to a Riemannian

metric on Rn , called the Euclidean metric on Rn .

locally it is defined by the vanishing of a set of coordinates [21, Section 9]. Thus,

locally a regular submanifold looks like a k-plane in Rn . By a surface M in R3

we will mean a 2-dimensional regular submanifold of R3 . At each point p in M,

the tangent space Tp M is a vector subspace of Tp R3 . The Euclidean metric on R3

restricts to a function

h , iM : Tp M × Tp M → R,

which is clearly positive-definite, symmetric, and bilinear. Thus a surface in R3

inherits a Riemannian metric from the Euclidean metric on R3 .

N, then the differential F∗ : Tp N → T f (p) M is the linear map of tangent spaces given

by

(F∗ X p )g = X p (g ◦ F)

for any X p ∈ Tp N and any C∞ function g defined on a neighborhood of F(p) in M.

Definition 1.8. A C∞ map F : (N, h , i′ ) → (M, h , i) of Riemannian manifolds is

said to be metric-preserving if for all p ∈ N and tangent vectors u, v ∈ Tp N,

M, then (1.3) defines an induced Riemannian metric h , i′ on N.

covering space map, by F(z) = z2 . Give M a Riemannian metric h , i, for example,

the Euclidean metric as a subspace of R2 , and define h , i′ on N by

but not an isometry because F is not a diffeomorphism.

torus is also the quotient space of R2 by the group Z2 acting as translations, or to

put it more plainly, the quotient space of a square with the opposite edges identified

(see [21, §7] for quotient spaces). In this way, it inherits a Riemannian metric from

R2 . With these two Riemannian metrics, the torus becomes two distinct Riemannian

manifolds (Figure 1.2). We will show later that there is no isometry between these

two Riemannian manifolds with the same underlying torus.

8 §1 Riemannian Manifolds

A smooth manifold M is locally diffeomorphic to an open subset of a Euclidean

space. The local diffeomorphism defines a Riemannian metric on a coordinate open

set (U, x1 , . . . , xn ) by the same formula as for Rn . We will write ∂i for the coordinate

vector field ∂ /∂ xi . If X = ∑ ai ∂i and Y = ∑ b j ∂ j , then the formula

hX,Y i = ∑ ai bi (1.4)

To construct a Riemannian metric on M one needs to piece together the Rieman-

nian metrics on the various coordinate open sets of an atlas. The standard tool for

this is the partition of unity, whose definition we recall now. A collection {Sα } of

subsets of a topological space S is said to be locally finite if every point p ∈ S has a

neighborhood U p that intersects only finitely many of the subsets Sα . The support of

a function f : S → R is the closure of the subset of S on which f 6= 0:

C∞ functions

ρα : M → R, α ∈ A,

is called a C∞ partition of unity subordinate to {Uα } if

(i) supp ρα ⊂ Uα for all α ,

(ii) the collection of supports, {supp ρα }α ∈A , is locally finite,

(iii) ∑α ∈A ρα = 1.

The local finiteness of the supports guarantees that every point p has a neighborhood

U p over which the sum in (iii) is a finite sum. (For the existence of a C∞ partition of

unity, see [21, Appendix C].)

as in (1.4) a Riemannian metric h , iα on Uα . Let {ρα } be a partition of unity sub-

ordinate to {Uα }. By the local finiteness of the collection {supp ρα }, every point

p has a neighborhood U p on which only finitely many of the ρα ’s are nonzero.

1.4 Existence of a Riemannian Metric 9

sum ∑ ρα h , iα is an inner product on Tp M.

To show that ∑ ρα h , iα is C∞ , let X and Y be C∞ vector fields on M. Since

∑ ρα hX,Y iα is a finite sum of C∞ functions on U p , it is C∞ on U p . Since p was

arbitrary, ∑ ρα hX,Y iα is C∞ on M. ⊔

⊓

Problems

Show that if A is an n × n positive-definite symmetric matrix and {e1 , . . . , en } is a basis for V ,

then D E

∑ xi ei , ∑ yi ei = ∑ ai j xi y j = xT Ay

defines an inner product on V .

1.2.∗ Inner product

Let V be an inner product space with inner product h , i. For u, v in V , prove that hu, wi = hv, wi

for all w in V if and only if u = v.

1.3. Restriction of an inner product to a subspace

Prove Proposition 1.2.

1.4.∗ Positive linear combination of inner products

Prove Proposition 1.3.

1.5.∗ Extending a vector to a vector field

Let M be a manifold. Show that for any tangent vector v ∈ Tp M, there is a C∞ vector field X

on M such that X p = v.

1.6.∗ Equality of vector fields

Suppose (M, h , i) is a Riemannian manifold. Show that two C∞ vector fields X,Y ∈ X(M)

are equal if and only if hX, Zi = hY, Zi for all C∞ vector fields Z ∈ X(M).

1.7.∗ Upper half-plane

Let

H2 = {(x, y) ∈ R2 | y > 0}.

At each point p = (x, y) ∈ H2 , define

h , iH2 : Tp H2 × Tp H2 → R

by

1

hu, viH2 = hu, vi,

y2

where h , i is the usual Euclidean inner product. Show that h , iH2 is a Riemannian metric on

H2 .

If f , g : R → Rn are differentiable vector-valued functions, show that h f , gi : R → R is differ-

entiable and

h f , gi′ = h f ′ , gi + h f , g′ i.

(Here f ′ means d f /dt.)

10 §1 Riemannian Manifolds

An inner product space (V, h , i) is automatically a normed vector space, with norm kvk =

p

hv, vi. The derivative of a function f : R → V is defined to be

f (t + h) − f (t)

f ′ (t) = lim ,

h→0 h

provided that the limit exists, where the limit is taken with respect to the norm k k. If f , g : R →

V are differentiable functions, show that h f , gi : R → R is differentiable and

h f , gi′ = h f ′ , gi + h f , g′ i.

Appendices

§A Manifolds

This appendix is a review, mostly without proofs, of the basic notions in the theory

of manifolds and differential forms. For more details, see [21].

We will be following the convention of classical differential geometry in which vec-

tor fields take on subscripts, differential forms take on superscripts, and coefficient

functions can have either superscripts or subscripts depending on whether they are

coefficient functions of vector fields or of differential forms. See [21, §4.7, p. 44] for

a more detailed explanation of this convention.

A manifold is a higher-dimensional analogue of a smooth curve or surface. Its

prototype is the Euclidean space Rn , with coordinates r1 , . . . , rn . Let U be an open

subset of Rn . A function f = ( f 1 , . . . , f m ) : U → Rm is smooth on U if the partial

derivatives ∂ k f /∂ r j1 · · · ∂ r jk exist on U for all integers k ≥ 1 and all j1 , . . . , jk . In this

book we use the terms “smooth” and “C∞ ” interchangeably.

A topological space M is locally Euclidean of dimension n if for every point p in

M, there is a homeomorphism φ of a neighborhood U of p with an open subset of Rn .

Such a pair (U, φ : U → Rn ) is called a coordinate chart or simply a chart. If p ∈ U,

then we say that (U, φ ) is a chart about p. A collection of charts {(Uα , φα : Uα →

Rn )} is C∞ compatible if for every α and β , the transition function

called a C∞ atlas. A C∞ atlas is said to be maximal if it contains every chart that is

C∞ compatible with all the charts in the atlas.

Definition A.1. A topological manifold is a Hausdorff, second countable, locally

Euclidean topological space. By “second countable,” we mean that the space has

298 §A Manifolds

topological manifold M and a maximal C∞ atlas {(Uα , φα )} on M. In this book all

manifolds will be smooth manifolds.

logical examples, while the second countability condition guarantees the existence

of a partition of unity, a useful technical tool that we will define shortly.

In practice, to show that a Hausdorff, second countable topological space is a

smooth manifold it suffices to exhibit a C∞ atlas, for by Zorn’s lemma every C∞ atlas

is contained in a unique maximal atlas.

Example A.2. Let S1 be the circle defined by x2 + y2 = 1 in R2 , with open sets (see

Figure A.1)

Ux− = {(x, y) ∈ S1 | x < 0},

Uy+ = {(x, y) ∈ S1 | y > 0},

Uy− = {(x, y) ∈ S1 | y < 0}.

Uy+

bc

bc bc Ux− Ux+

bc

S1 Uy−

Then {(Ux+ , y), (Ux− , y), (Uy+ , x), (Uy− , x)} is a C∞ atlas on S1 . For example, the tran-

sition function from

√

is y = − 1 − x2, which is C∞ on its domain.

there is a chart (U, φ ) about p in the maximal atlas of M such that the function

f ◦ φ −1 : Rm ⊃ φ (U) → Rn

A.2 Tangent Vectors 299

point of M. Recall that an algebra over R is a vector space together with a bilinear

map µ : A × A → A, called multiplication, such that under addition and multiplica-

tion, A becomes a ring. Under addition, multiplication, and scalar multiplication, the

set of all C∞ functions f : M → R is an algebra over R, denoted by C∞ (M).

A map F : N → M between two manifolds is smooth or C∞ at p ∈ N if there is a

chart (U, φ ) about p in N and a chart (V, ψ ) about F(p) in M with V ⊃ F(U) such

that the composite map ψ ◦ F ◦ φ −1 : Rn ⊃ φ (U) → ψ (V ) ⊂ Rm is C∞ at φ (p). It is

smooth on N if it is smooth at every point of N. A smooth map F : N → M is called

a diffeomorphism if it has a smooth inverse, i.e., a smooth map G : M → N such that

F ◦ G = 1M and G ◦ F = 1N .

A typical matrix in linear algebra is usually an m × n matrix, with m rows and

n columns. Such a matrix represents a linear transformation F : Rn → Rm . For this

reason, we usually write a C∞ map as F : N → M, rather than F : M → N.

The derivatives of a function f at a point p in Rn depend only on the values of f in a

small neighborhood of p. To make precise what is meant by a “small” neighborhood,

we introduce the concept of the germ of a function. Decree two C∞ functions f : U →

R and g : V → R defined on neighborhoods U and V of p to be equivalent if there is

a neighborhood W of p contained in both U and V such that f agrees with g on W .

The equivalence class of f : U → R is called the germ of f at p.

It is easy to verify that addition, multiplication, and scalar multiplication are

well-defined operations on the set C∞ ∞

p (M) of germs of C real-valued functions at p

∞

in M. These three operations make C p (M) into an algebra over R.

Definition A.3. A point-derivation at a point p of a manifold M is a linear map

D : C∞ ∞

p (M) → R such that for any f , g ∈ C p (M),

D( f g) = (D f )g(p) + f (p)Dg.

vectors at p is a vector space Tp M, called the tangent space of M at p.

usual partial derivatives

∂ ∂

,..., n

∂ r1

p ∂r p

are tangent vectors at p that form a basis for the tangent space Tp (Rn ).

ith component of φ , we define the coordinate vectors ∂ /∂ xi | p ∈ Tp M by

∂ ∂

f = i f ◦ φ −1 for each f ∈ C∞ p (M).

∂ xi p ∂ r φ (p)

300 §A Manifolds

(F∗,p X p )(h) = X p (h ◦ F)

∞ (M). Usually the point p is clear from context and we

for X p ∈ Tp N and h ∈ CF(p)

may write F∗ instead of F∗,p . It is easy to verify that if F : N → M and G : M → P

are C∞ maps, then for any p ∈ N,

(G ◦ F)∗ = G∗ ◦ F∗ .

A vector field X on a manifold M is the assignment of a tangent vector X p ∈ Tp M to

each point p ∈ M. At every p in a chart (U, x1 , . . . , xn ), since the coordinate vectors

∂ /∂ xi | p form a basis of the tangent space Tp M, the vector X p can be written as a

linear combination

∂

X p = ∑ a (p) i with ai (p) ∈ R.

i

i ∂x p

As p varies over U, the coefficients ai (p) become functions on U. The vector field X

is said to be smooth or C∞ if M has a C∞ atlas such that on each chart (U, x1 , . . . , xn )

of the atlas, the coefficient functions ai in X = ∑ ai ∂ /∂ xi are C∞ . We denote the set

of all C∞ vector fields on M by X(M). It is a vector space under the addition of vector

fields and scalar multiplication by real numbers. As a matter of notation, we write

tangent vectors at p as X p ,Yp , Z p ∈ Tp M, or if the point p is understood from context,

as v1 , v2 , . . . , vk ∈ Tp M. As a shorthand, we sometimes write ∂i for ∂ /∂ xi .

A frame of vector fields on an open set U ⊂ M is a collection of vector fields

X1 , . . . , Xn on U such that at each point p ∈ U, the vectors (X1 ) p , . . . , (Xn ) p form a

basis for the tangent space Tp M. For example, in a coordinate chart (U, x1 , . . . , xn ),

the coordinate vector fields ∂ /∂ x1 , . . . , ∂ /∂ xn form a frame of vector fields on U.

A C∞ vector field X on a manifold M gives rise to a linear operator on the vector

space C∞ (M) of C∞ functions on M by the rule

coordinates x1 , . . . , xn in a neighborhood of p, say X = ∑ ai ∂ /∂ xi . Since X is assumed

C∞ , all the coefficients ai are C∞ . Therefore, if f is C∞ , then X f = ∑ ai ∂ f /∂ xi is

also.

A.4 Differential Forms 301

The Lie bracket of two vector fields X,Y ∈ X(M) is the vector field [X,Y ] defined

by

[X,Y ] p f = X p (Y f ) − Yp (X f ) for p ∈ M and f ∈ C∞

p (M). (A.2)

So defined, [X,Y ] p is a point-derivation at p (Problem A.3(a)) and therefore [X,Y ]

is indeed a vector field on M. The formula for [X,Y ] in local coordinates (Problem

A.3(b)) shows that if X and Y are C∞ , then so is [X,Y ].

If f : N → M is a C∞ map, its differential f∗,p : Tp N → T f (p) M pushes forward a

tangent vector at a point in N to a tangent vector in M. It should be noted, however,

that in general there is no push-forward map f∗ : X(N) → X(M) for vector fields. For

example, when f is not one-to-one, say f (p) = f (q) for p 6= q in N, it may happen

that for some X ∈ X(N), f∗,p X p 6= f∗,q Xq ; in this case, there is no way to define f∗ X

so that ( f∗ X) f (p) = f∗,p X p for all p ∈ N. Similarly, if f : N → M is not onto, then

there is no natural way to define f∗ X at a point of M not in the image of f . Of course,

if f : N → M is a diffeomorphism, then the pushforward f∗ : X(N) → X(M) is well

defined.

For k ≥ 1, a k-form or a form of degree k on M is the assignment to each p in M of

an alternating k-linear function

ω p : Tp M × · · · × Tp M → R.

| {z }

k copies

Here “alternating” means that for every permutation σ of the set {1, 2, . . ., k} and

v1 , . . . , vk ∈ Tp M,

or odd. We define a 0-form to be the assignment of a real number to each p ∈ M; in

other words, a 0-form on M is simply a real-valued function on M. When k = 1, the

condition of being alternating is vacuous. Thus, a 1-form on M is the assignment of a

linear function ω p : Tp M → R to each p in M. For k < 0, a k-form is 0 by definition.

An alternating k-linear function on a vector space V is also called a k-covector

on V . As above, a 0-covector is a constant and a 1-covector on V is a linear function

f : V → R. Let Ak (V ) be the vector space of all k-covectors on V . Then A0 (V ) = R

and A1 (V ) = V ∨ := Hom(V, R), the dual vector space of V . In this language a k-form

on M is the assignment of a k-covector ω p ∈ Ak (Tp M) to each point p in M.

Let Sk be the group of all permutations of {1, 2, . . ., k}. A (k, ℓ)-shuffle is a

permutation σ ∈ Sk+ℓ such that

definition the (k + ℓ)-linear function

302 §A Manifolds

(α ∧ β )(v1 , . . . , vk+ℓ ) = ∑(sgn σ )α (vσ (1) , . . . , vσ (k) )β (vσ (k+1) , . . . , vσ (k+ℓ) ), (A.4)

where the sum runs over all (k, ℓ)-shuffles. For example, if α and β are 1-covectors,

then

(α ∧ β )(v1 , v2 ) = α (v1 )β (v2 ) − α (v2 )β (v1 ).

The wedge of a 0-covector, i.e., a constant c, with another covector ω is simply

scalar multiplication. In this case, in keeping with the traditional notation for scalar

multiplication, we often replace the wedge by a dot or even by nothing: c ∧ ω =

c · ω = cω .

The wedge product α ∧ β is a (k + ℓ)-covector; moreover, the wedge operation

∧ is bilinear, associative, and anticommutative in its two arguments. Anticommuta-

tivity means that

α ∧ β = (−1)deg α deg β β ∧ α .

then a basis for the k-covectors on V is the set

call I an ascending multi-index, and if i1 < · · · < ik , we call I a strictly ascending

multi-index. To simplify the notation, we will write α I = α i1 ∧ · · · ∧ α ik .

As noted earlier, for a point p in a coordinate chart (U, x1 , . . . , xn ), a basis for the

tangent space Tp M is

∂ ∂

,..., n .

∂ x1 p ∂x p

Let (dx1 ) p , . . . , (dxn ) p be the dual basis for the cotangent space A1 (Tp M) = Tp∗ M,

i.e.,

!

i ∂

(dx ) p = δ ji .

∂ x j p

By Proposition A.5, if ω is a k-form on M, then at each p ∈ U, ω p is a linear combi-

nation:

ω p = ∑ aI (p)(dxI ) p = ∑ aI (p)(dxi1 ) p ∧ · · · ∧ (dxik ) p .

I I

We say that the k-form ω is smooth if M has an atlas {(U, x1 , . . . , xn )} such that on

each U, the coefficients aI : U → R of ω are smooth. By differential k-forms, we

will mean smooth k-forms on a manifold.

A frame of differential k-forms on an open set U ⊂ M is a collection of dif-

ferential k-forms ω1 , . . . , ωr on U such that at each point p ∈ U, the k-covectors

(ω1 ) p , . . . , (ωr ) p form a basis for the vector space Ak (Tp M) of k-covectors on the

tangent space at p. For example, on a coordinate chart (U, x1 , . . . , xn ), the k-forms

dxI = dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxik , 1 ≤ i1 < · · · < ik ≤ n, constitute a frame of differential k-forms

on U.

A.5 Exterior Differentiation on a Manifold 303

written uniquely as a finite linear combination ∑ ri bi , where ri ∈ R and bi ∈ B. An

R-module with a basis is said to be free, and if the basis is finite with n elements, then

the free R-module is said to be of rank n. It can be shown that if a free R-module has

a finite basis, then any two bases have the same number of elements, so that the rank

is well defined. We denote the rank of a free R-module V by rkV .

Let Ωk (M) denote the vector space of C∞ k-forms on M and let

n

M

∗

Ω (M) = Ωk (M).

k=0

If (U, x1 , .. . , xn ) is a coordinate chart on M, then Ωk (U) is a free module over C∞ (U)

of rank nk , with basis dxI as above.

L

An algebra A is said to be graded if it can be written as a direct sum A = ∞ k=0 Ak

of vector spaces such that under multiplication, Ak · Aℓ ⊂ Ak+ℓ . The wedge product

∧ makes Ω∗ (M) into an anticommutative graded algebra over R.

An exterior derivative on a manifold M is a linear operator d : Ω∗ (M) → Ω∗ (M),

satisfying the following three properties:

(1) d is an antiderivation of degree 1, i.e., d increases the degree by 1 and for ω ∈

Ωk (M) and τ ∈ Ωℓ (M),

d(ω ∧ τ ) = d ω ∧ τ + (−1)k ω ∧ d τ ;

(2) d 2 = d ◦ d = 0;

(3) on a 0-form f ∈ C∞ (M),

(d f ) p (X p ) = X p f for p ∈ M and X p ∈ Tp M.

By induction the antiderivation property (1) extends to more than two factors; for

example,

established in [21, Section 19]. To develop some facility with this operator, we will

examine the case when M is covered by a single coordinate chart (U, x1 , . . . , xn ). This

case can be used to define and compute locally on a manifold.

Ω∗ (U) is an exterior derivative. Then

(i) for any f ∈ Ω0 (U),

∂f i

df =∑ dx ;

∂ xi

304 §A Manifolds

(ii) d(dxI ) = 0;

(iii) for any aI dxI ∈ Ωk (M), d(aI dxI ) = daI ∧ dxI .

there are constants ai (p) such that

(d f ) p = ∑ ai (p) (dxi ) p .

d f = ∑ ai dxi .

∂ i ∂

df = ∑ ai dx = ∑ ai δ ji = a j .

∂xj i ∂ x j

i

∂ ∂

df j

= ( f ).

∂x ∂xj

(ii) By the antiderivation property of d,

j

2

=0 since d = 0.

d aI dxI = daI ∧ dxI + aI d(dxI )

= daI ∧ dxI since d(dxI ) = 0. ⊔

⊓

chart (U, x1 , . . . , xn ). To prove its existence, we define d by two of the formulas of

Proposition A.6:

(i) if f ∈ Ω0 (U), then d f = ∑(∂ f /∂ xi ) dxi ;

(iii) if ω = ∑ aI dxI ∈ Ωk (U) for k ≥ 1, then d ω = ∑ daI ∧ dxI .

Next we check that so defined, d satisfies the three properties of exterior differ-

entiation.

(1) For ω ∈ Ωk (U) and τ ∈ Ωℓ (U),

A.5 Exterior Differentiation on a Manifold 305

f (dg) is simply another manifestation of the ordinary product rule, since

∂

d( f g) = ∑ i

( f g) dxi

∂ x

∂f ∂g

=∑ g + f i dxi

∂ xi ∂x

∂f ∂g

= ∑ i dxi g + f ∑ i dxi

∂x ∂x

= (d f ) g + f dg.

that ω = aI dxI and τ = bJ dxJ , each consisting of a single term. Then

= d(aI bJ ) ∧ dxI ∧ dxJ (definition of d)

= (daI )bJ ∧ dxI ∧ dxJ + aI dbJ ∧ dxI ∧ dxJ

(by the degree 0 case)

= daI ∧ dxI ∧ bJ dxJ + (−1)k aI dxI ∧ dbJ ∧ dxJ

= d ω ∧ τ + (−1)k ω ∧ d τ . ⊔

⊓

(2) d 2 = 0 on Ωk (U).

Proof. This is a consequence of the fact that the mixed partials of a function are

equal. For f ∈ Ω0 (U),

!

n n n

∂ f ∂2 f

d 2 f = d ∑ i dxi = ∑ ∑ j i dx j ∧ dxi .

i=1 ∂ x j=1 i=1 ∂ x ∂ x

In this double sum, the factors ∂ 2 f /∂ x j ∂ xi are symmetric in i, j, while dx j ∧ dxi are

skew-symmetric in i, j. Hence, for each pair i < j there are two terms

∂2 f ∂2 f

dxi ∧ dx j , dx j ∧ dxi

∂ xi ∂ x j ∂ x j ∂ xi

that add up to zero. It follows that d 2 f = 0.

For ω = ∑ aI dxI ∈ Ωk (U), where k ≥ 1,

d 2 ω = d ∑ daI ∧ dxI (by the definition of d ω )

= ∑(d 2 aI ) ∧ dxI + daI ∧ d(dxI )

= 0.

proof of Proposition A.6(ii) by the antiderivation property and the degree 0 case. ⊓ ⊔

306 §A Manifolds

∂f i j ∂ ∂f

(d f )(X) = ∑ i dx ∑ a j

= ∑ ai i = X f . ⊔

⊓

∂x ∂x ∂x

bination

∂ ∂ ∂

X = a +b +c

∂x ∂y ∂z

with coefficient functions a, b, c ∈ C∞ (R3 ). Thus, the vector space X(R3 ) of smooth

vector fields on R3 is a free module of rank 3 over C∞ (R3 ) with basis {∂ /∂ x, ∂ /∂ y,

∂ /∂ z}. Similarly, Ω3 (R3 ) is a free module of rank 1 over C∞ (R3 ) with basis {dx ∧

dy ∧ dz}, while Ω1 (R3 ) and Ω2 (R3 ) are free modules of rank 3 over C∞ (R3 ) with

bases {dx, dy, dz} and {dy ∧ dz, dz ∧ dx, dx ∧ dy} respectively. So the following

identifications are possible:

functions = 0-forms ←→ 3-forms

f = f ←→ f dx ∧ dy ∧ dz

and

vector fields ↔ 1-forms ↔ 2-forms

X = ha, b, ci ↔ a dx + b dy + c dz ↔ a dy ∧ dz + b dz ∧ dx + c dx ∧ dy.

We will write fx = ∂ f /∂ x, fy = ∂ f /∂ y, and fz = ∂ f /∂ z. On functions,

d f = fx dx + fy dy + fz dz.

On 1-forms,

On 2-forms,

Identifying forms with vector fields and functions, we have the following correspon-

dences:

d(1-form) ←→ curl of a vector field,

d(2-form) ←→ divergence of a vector field.

A.7 Pullback of Differential Forms 307

Unlike vector fields, which in general cannot be pushed forward under a C∞ map,

differential forms can always be pulled back. Let F : N → M be a C∞ map. The

pullback of a C∞ function f on M is the C∞ function F ∗ f := f ◦ F on N. This

defines the pullback on C∞ 0-forms. For k > 0, the pullback of a k-form ω on M is

the k-form F ∗ ω on N defined by

(F ∗ ω ) p (v1 , . . . , vk ) = ωF(p) (F∗,p v1 , . . . , F∗,p vk )

for p ∈ N and v1 , . . . , vk ∈ Tp M. From this definition, it is not obvious that the pull-

back F ∗ ω of a C∞ form ω is C∞ . To show this, we first derive a few basic properties

of the pullback.

Proposition A.7. Let F : N → M be a C∞ map of manifolds. If ω and τ are k-forms

and σ is an ℓ-form on M, then

(i) F ∗ (ω + τ ) = F ∗ ω + F ∗ τ ;

(ii) for any real number a, F ∗ (aω ) = aF ∗ ω ;

(iii) F ∗ (ω ∧ σ ) = F ∗ ω ∧ F ∗ σ ;

(iv) for any C∞ function h on M, dF ∗ h = F ∗ dh.

Proof. The first three properties (i), (ii), (iii) follow directly from the definitions. To

prove (iv), let p ∈ N and X p ∈ Tp N. Then

(dF ∗ h) p (X p ) = X p (F ∗ h) (property (3) of d)

= X p (h ◦ F) (definition of F ∗ h)

and

= (F∗,p X p )h (property (3) of d)

= X p (h ◦ F). (definition of F∗,p)

Hence,

dF ∗ h = F ∗ dh. ⊔

⊓

We now prove that the pullback of a C∞ form is C∞ . On a coordinate chart

(U, x1 , . . . , xn ) in M, a C∞ k-form ω can be written as a linear combination

ω = ∑ aI dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxik ,

where the coefficients aI are C∞ functions on U. By the preceding proposition,

F ∗ ω = ∑(F ∗ aI ) d(F ∗ xi1 ) ∧ · · · ∧ d(F ∗ xik )

= ∑(aI ◦ F) d(xi1 ◦ F) ∧ · · · ∧ d(xik ◦ F),

which shows that F ∗ ω is C∞ , because it is a sum of products of C∞ functions and C∞

1-forms.

308 §A Manifolds

U,

ω = ∑ aI dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxik .

As computed above,

Hence,

= ∑ d(F ∗ aI ) ∧ d(F ∗ xi1 ) ∧ · · · ∧ d(F ∗ xik )

= ∑ F ∗ daI ∧ F ∗ dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ F ∗ dxik

(dF ∗ = F ∗ d on functions by Prop. A.7(iv))

= ∑ F ∗ (daI ∧ dxi1 ∧ · · · ∧ dxik )

(F ∗ preserves the wedge product by Prop. A.7(iii))

= F ∗dω . ⊔

⊓

is an algebra homomorphism that commutes with the exterior derivative d.

Example A.9 (Pullback under the inclusion map of an immersed submanifold). Let

N and M be manifolds. A C∞ map f : N → M is called an immersion if for all

p ∈ N, the differential f∗,p : Tp N → T f (p) M is injective. A subset S of M with a

manifold structure such that the inclusion map i : S ֒→ M is an immersion is called

an immersed submanifold of M. An example is the image of a line with irrational

slope in the torus R2 /Z2 . An immersed submanifold need not have the subspace

topology.

If ω ∈ Ωk (M), p ∈ S, and v1 , . . . , vk ∈ Tp S, then by the definition of the pullback,

Thus, the pullback of ω under the inclusion map i : S ֒→ M is simply the restriction

of ω to the submanifold S. We also adopt the more suggestive notation ω |S for i∗ ω .

Problems

(a) The connected component of a point p in a topological space S is the largest connected

subset of S containing p. Show that the connected components of a manifold are open.

(b) Let Q be the set of rational numbers considered as a subspace of the real line R. Show

that the connected component of p ∈ Q is the singleton set {p}, which is not open in Q.

Which condition in the definition of a manifold does Q violate?

A.7 Pullback of Differential Forms 309

A topological space S is said to be locally path-connected at a point p ∈ S if for every neigh-

borhood U of p, there is a path-connected neighborhood V of p such that V ⊂ U. The space S

is locally path-connected if it is locally path-connected at every point p ∈ S. A path compo-

nent of S is a maximal path-connected subset of S.

(a) Prove that in a locally path-connected space S, every path component is open.

(b) Prove that a locally path-connected space is path-connected if and only if it is connected.

Let X and Y be C∞ vector fields on a manifold M, and p a point in M.

(a) Define [X,Y ] p by (A.2). Show that for f , g ∈ C∞

p (M),

(b) Suppose X = ∑ ai ∂i and Y = ∑ b j ∂ j in a coordinate neighborhood (U, x1 , . . . , xn ) of p in

M. Prove that

[X,Y ] = ∑(a j ∂ j bi − b j ∂ j ai )∂i .

i, j

Index

action of GL(r, F) on polynomials, 312 iff invariant and horizontal, 284

Ad GL(r, R)-invariant, 216 basic form, 283

adjoint representation basis, 303

of a Lie group, 125 for a tensor product, 160

adjoint bundle, 280 for the exterior power, 172

adjoint representation, 125, 252 Betti numbers, 203

of a Lie algebra, 126 bi-invariant metric

affine connection, 45 on a Lie group, 127

algebra, 299 Bianchi identity

graded, 303 first, 207

alternating k-linear function, 301 in vector form, 208

alternating linear map, 168 second, 208, 276

alternating multilinear maps in vector form, 211

universal mapping property, 170 bilinear form, 5

angle bilinear maps

between two vectors, 4 universal mapping property, 157

angle function, 142 bilinear maps over F, 61

anticommutativity, 302 binormal, 17

antiderivation, 303 bundle isomorphism, 53

arc length, 4, 12, 131 bundle map, 53

is independent of parametrization, 131 over a manifold, 53

arc length function, 12

arc length parametrization, 12 Cartan, Élie, 73

ascending multi-index, 302 catenary, 38

associated bundle, 279 catenoid, 39

associativity characteristic classes, 216, 224

of a bi-invariant metric, 127 independence of a connection, 222

of the tensor product, 165 naturality of, 225

atlas, 297 of a principal bundle, 294

vanishing, 227

base space, 246 characteristic form, 216

of a vector bundle, 51 closed, 219

342 Index

chart about a point, 297 on a principal bundle, 258, 260

charts on a trivial bundle, 74

compatible, 297 on a vector bundle, 74

Chern character, 319 Riemannian, 47

Chern classes symmetric, 102

of a complex vector bundle, 239 connection forms, 82

of a principal GL(r, C)-bundle, 295 connection matrix, 82

Chern–Weil homomorphism, 216, 218, 294 dependence on frames, 206

Christoffel symbols, 101, 102 connection on a vector bundle

for the Poincaré half-plane, 103 existence, 75

of a surface of revolution, 104 connection-preserving diffeomorphism, 101

of the Poincaré disk, 104, 116 preserves geodesics, 110

symmetric iff torsion-free, 102 connections

circle convex linear combination of, 50

volume form, 137 convex linear combination, 75

cobordant, 242 coordinate chart, 297

cocycle condition, 249 coordinate vectors, 299

Codazzi–Mainardi equation, 64 covariant derivative

coefficients corresponding to a connection, 266

of the first fundamental form, 37 covariant derivative

of the second fundamental form, 38 of tensor fields, 210

coefficients of characteristic polynomial, of a basic form, 292

310 of a tensorial form, 286

coefficients of characteristic polynomial of a vector field along a curve, 99

are invariant polynomials, 313 on a principal bundle, 285

coefficients of the characteristic polynomial, on surface in R3 , 106

216, 217 covariant differentiation

compatible charts, 297 along a curve, 97

compatible with the Hermitian metric, 238 covector, 301

complex inner product, 238 curvature, 46

complex invariant polynomials G-equivariance, 275

generated by coefficients of characteristic and shape operator, 34

polynials, 317 Gaussian, 20

complex manifold, 241 Gaussian, in terms of an arbitrary basis,

complex vector bundle, 232 66

component, 33 geodesic curvature, 141

congruent matrices, 234 is F-linear, 46

connected component, 308 is horizontal, 275

connection is independent of orientation, 15

affine, 45 mean, 20

at a point, 79 normal, 20

compatible with the metric, 47, 77 of Maurer–Cartan connection, 278

defined using connection matrices, 213 of a connection on a principal bundle, 274

Euclidean, 45 of a connection on a vector bundle, 76

Levi-Civita, 47 of a plane curve, 14, 16

metric of a space curve, 17

in terms of forms, 84 of an ellipse, 16

on a complex vector bundle, 238 of directional derivative, 26

Index 343

sectional, 94 directional derivative

signed geodesic curvature, 143 computation using a curve, 24

symmetries, 209 in Rn , 24

total curvature, 149 has zero curvature, 27

total geodesic curvature, 144 is compatible with the metric, 27

curvature tensor, 211 is torsion-free, 27

independence of orthonormal basis, 94 of a vector field, 24

curvature forms, 82 of a vector-valued form, 194

curvature matrix, 82 on a submanifold of Rn , 29

dependence on frames, 206 properties, 25

is skew-symmetric relative to an distance

orthonormal frame, 86 on a connected Riemannian manifold, 132

curvature tensor, 76 distribution, 258

skew-symmetry, 93 horizontal, 255, 258

curve, 11 dot product, 4

geometric, 11 dual

parametrized, 11 of a module, 161

piecewise smooth, 114 dual 1-forms

regular, 11 under a change of frame, 135

cuspidal cubic dual 1-forms, 86

arc length, 17

cylinder Ehresmann connection, 246, 260

mean and Gaussian curvature, 42 Einstein summation convention, 82

shape operator, 42 elementary symmetric polynomials, 315

ellipse

decomposable curvature, 16

in the exterior algebra, 168 equivariant map, 247

in the tensor product, 157 Euclid’s fifth postulate, 112

degree, 150 Euclid’s parallel postulate, 112

of a form, 192 Euclidean connection, 45

of a line bundle, 244 Euclidean inner product, 4

diagonal entries Euclidean metric, 7

of a skew-symmetric matrix is 0, 228 Euler characteristic

diagonalizable matrices independent of decomposition, 149

are dense in gl(r, C), 316 of a compact orientable odd-dimensional

diffeomorphism, 299 manifold is 0, 204

differential, 300 of a polygonal decomposition of a surface,

differential form, 301, 302 148

vector-valued, 191 Euler class, 237

differential forms existence of a geodesic, 109

depending smoothly on a real parameter, existence of a connection, 75

220 existence of a Hermitian metric, 238

with values in a vector bundle, 198 existence of geodesics, 108

with values in a vector space, 190 exponential map

differentiating under an integral sign), 222 of a connection, 117

dimension exponential map

of tensor product, 161 as a natural transformation, 129

direct sum differential, 119

344 Index

naturality, 118 polynomials, 316

extension of algebraic identities, 311 fundamental vector field, 251

exterior derivative, 303 integral curve, 253

exterior differentiation right-equivariance, 252

on R3 , 306 vanishing at a point, 253

exterior algebra, 168 Fundamental vector fields

exterior derivative Lie bracket of, 256

of a vector-valued 1-form, 202

of a vector-valued form, 194 G-manifold, 247

properties, 304 Gauss curvature equation

exterior power, 168 in terms of forms, 91

basis, 172 Gauss curvature equation, 64

Gauss map, 41, 42, 150

Gauss’s Theorema Egregium, 21, 65

F-bilinearity, 61

Gauss–Bonnet formula

F-linear map

for a polygon, 146

of sections correspond to a bundle map,

Gauss–Bonnet theorem, 22

60

for a surface, 148

fiber, 246

generalized, 237

of a vector bundle, 51

Gaussian curvature, 20, 69

fiber bundle, 246

and Gauss map, 150

first fundamental form

in terms of an arbitrary basis, 66

coefficients, 37

is the determinant of the shape operator,

first Bianchi identity, 207 36

vector form, 208 of a cylinder, 42

first fundamental form, 37 of a Riemannian 2-manifold, 93

first fundamental form, 70 of a sphere, 42

first structural equation, 87 of a surface, 92

flat section, 74 of a surface of revolution, 43

form of the Poincaré disk, 116

smooth, 192, 302 Poincaré half-plane, 95

forms with values in a Lie algebra, 195 positive, 149

frame, 58, 178 generalized Gauss–Bonnet theorem, 237

k-forms, 302 generalized second Bianchi identity, 208

of vector fields, 300 on a frame bundle, 278

positively oriented, 233 genus

frame bundle, 251 of a compact orientable surface, 149

of a vector bundle, 251 geodesic, 97, 105

frame manifold existence of, 108

of a vector space, 250 existence of, 109

framed open set, 83 in the Poincaré half-plane, 110

free action, 247 maximal, 105

free module, 303 minimal, 133

rank, 303 on a sphere, 106

Frenet–Serret formulas, 17 reparametrization, 107

Frenet–Serret frame, 17 speed is constant, 105

functoriality geodesic equations, 109

of tensor product, 164 geodesic curvature, 141

Index 345

total geodesic curvature, 144 Horizontal vector fields

geodesic equations, 108 Lie bracket of, 278

of the Poincaré disk, 116 hyperbolic plane, 116, 147

geodesic polygon, 147 hyperbolic triangle, 147

geodesic triangle hypersurface, 31, 68

sum of angles, 147 normal vector field, 31

geodesically complete, 133 volume form, 140

geodesics

on a sphere, 109 immersed submanifold, 308

geometric curve, 11 immersion, 308

germ induced connection

of a function at a point, 299 on a pullback bundle, 214

germ of neighborhoods, 129 inner product, 5

graded algebra, 303 Euclidean, 4

gradient vector field, 140 representation by a symmetric matrix, 5

Gram–Schmidt process, 83 restriction to a subspace, 5

graph inner products

curvature, 16 nonnegative linear combination, 5

integral curve

helicoid, 39 of a fundamental vector field, 253

Hermitian bundle, 238 integral form, 230

Hermitian inner product, 238 interior angle, 145

Hermitian metric, 238 interior angles

existence of, 238 of a polygon, 150

Hermitian symmetric, 238 invariant, 216

Hirzebruch–Riemann–Roch theorem, 244 invariant complex polynomials, 314

holomorphic tangent bundle, 241 invariant form, 284

holomorphic vector bundle, 243 invariant polynomial, 216, 310, 312

holonomy, 115 generators, 219

homogeneous elements, 167 isometric invariant, 65

homogeneous form, 192 isometry, 3, 7

homogeneous manifold, 248 isomorphic vector bundles, 53

Hopf bundle, 248

Hopf Umlaufsatz, 145 jump angle, 145

Hopf–Rinow theorem, 134

horizontal component L-polynomials, 318

of a form, 285 left action, 247

of a tangent vector, 260 left G-equivariant map, 247

horizontal distribution, 255, 258 left-invariant metric, 126

of an Ehresmann connection, 261 left-invariant vector field, 121

horizontal form, 281 Leibniz rule, 45

horizontal lift, 266, 267 length, 6

of a vector field, 263, 270 of a vector, 4

horizontal lift formula, 270 length of a vector, 131

horizontal lift of a vector field Levi-Civita connection, 47

to a frame bundle, 270 Lie bracket

to a principal bundle, 263 of a vertical and a horizontal vector field,

horizontal tangent vector, 268 264

346 Index

of fundamental vector fields, 256 naturality

of horizontal vector fields, 278 of the exponential map, 118

of vector fields, 30 of characteristic classes, 225

Lie derivative of the exponential map for a Lie group,

comparison with the directional derivative 124

in Rn , 27 naturality property, 225

Lie group Newton’s identities, 321

exponential map, 124 Newton’s identity, 219

lift, 267 non-Euclidean geometry, 112

horizontal, 267 nondegenerate pairing, 173

line bundle, 51, 239 normal coordinates, 120

trivial, 239 normal curvature

local operator, 55, 78 average value of, 43

restriction, 57 of a normal section, 20

local trivialization, 246 normal neighborhood, 120

locally Euclidean, 297 normal section, 20

locally finite, 8 normal vector, 19

locally path-connected, 309 normal vector field, 19

locally trivial, 246 along a hypersurface, 31

smooth, 19

Maurer–Cartan connection, 264

curvature of, 278 orbit, 247

Maurer–Cartan equation, 202 orientable vector bundle, 233

Maurer–Cartan form, 202 orientation

right translate, 202 and curvature, 15

maximal atlas, 297 on a vector bundle, 233

maximal geodesic, 105 on a vector space, 232

mean curvature, 20, 43, 69 orientation-preserving reparametrization,

of a cylinder, 42 131

of a sphere, 42 orientation-reversing reparametrization, 131

of a surface of revolution, 43 oriented vector bundle, 233

metric orthogonal projection, 83

on the Poincaré half-plane, 95 on a surface in R3 , 48

metric connection, 77, 238

existence of, 78 pairing

relative to an orthonormal frame is nondegenerate, 173

skew-symmetric, 85 of two modules, 173

metric space, 132 parallel translation

metric-preserving map, 7 existence of, 113

minimal geodesic, 133 parallel along a curve, 267

Möbius strip, 52 parallel frame

module along a curve, 267

free, 303 parallel postulate, 112

morphism parallel translate, 113

of principal bundles, 248 parallel translation, 113, 267

multi-index, 302 on a sphere, 115

ascending, 302 preserves length and inner product, 114

strictly ascending, 302 parallel transport, 113, 267

Index 347

parametrization is an eigenvector of the shape operator, 35

by arc length, 12 principle of extension of algebraic identities,

parametrized curve, 11 311

partition of unity, 8 product bundle, 52, 248

path component, 309 product of vector-valued forms, 192

permutation matrix, 315 projection

Pfaffian, 235 orthogonal, 83

piecewise smooth curve, 114 pseudo-tensorial form

Poincaré disk with respect to a representation, 281

connection and curvature forms, 88 pullback

Poincaré half-plane of a vector bundle, 181

Gaussian curvature, 95 of a differential form, 307

metric, 95 of a function, 307

Poincare pullback of vector-valued forms, 197

Poincaré disk pullback bundle, 181

Christoffel symbols, 104 induced connection, 214

Poincaré disk examples, 184

Gaussian curvature, 96 pushforward

Poincaré half-plane, 147 of of a vector field, 100

Poincaré half plane

Gaussian curvature, 94 quotient bundle, 181

Poincaré half-plane

geodesics, 110 rank, 303

point operator, 55 rank of a vector bundle, 51

point-derivation, 299 real invariant polynomials, 319

polygon generated by the coefficients of

geodesic polygon, 147 characteristic polynomial, 321

on a surface, 145 generation, 322

polynomial, 216, 310 regular curve, 11

Ad(G)-invariant, 291 regular point, 31

on gl(r, F), 312 regular submanifold, 7, 19

on a vector space, 291 regular value, 31

polynomial function, 310 reparametrization, 11, 131

polynomial on so(r), 234 orientation-preserving, 131

polynomials orientation-reversing, 131

versus polynomial functions, 310 reparametrization of a geodesic, 107

Pontrjagin class, 229 restriction

Pontrjagin number, 230, 241 of a connection to an open subset, 78

positive orientation of a form to a submanifold, 308

on a polygon, 145 of a local operator, 57

positive-definite, 238 of a vector bundle to an open set, 182

positive-definite bilinear form, 5 of a vector bundle, 52

positive-definite symmetric matrix, 6 retraction, 256

positively oriented frame, 233 Ricci curvature, 212

principal curvature Riemann curvature tensor, 211

is an eigenvalue of the shape operator, 35 Riemannian bundle, 76

principal bundle, 247 Riemannian connection, 47

principal curvature, 20, 69 existence and uniqueness, 47

348 Index

on a surface in R3 , 49 diagonal 0, 228

Riemannian manifold, 6 smooth dependence

is a metric space, 132 of a form on t, 220

Riemannian metric, 6 smooth form, 192, 302

existence, 8 smooth function, 297, 298

on a manifold with boundary, 136 smooth manifold, 298

on a vector bundle, 76 smooth map, 299

right action, 247 smooth vector field, 300

right G-equivariant map, 247 smoothly varying

right-equivariant form family of forms, 220

with respect to a representation, 281 Ad SO(r) -invariant polynomial, 233

rotation angle theorem, 146 speed, 12, 105

rotation index theorem, 146 sphere

geodesics, 109

scalar curvature, 213 geodesics on, 106

second Bianchi identity mean and Gaussian curvature, 42

in vector form, 211 shape operator, 42

second Bianchi identity, 208, 276 volume form in Cartesian coordinates,

generalized, 208 138

generalized, on a frame bundle, 278 spherical coordinates, 139

second fundamental form, 37, 70 splitting, 255, 256

coefficients, 38 stabilizer, 247

second structural equation, 87 straight, 97

section strictly ascending multi-index, 302

of a vector bundle, 53 structural equation

sectional curvature, 94 first, 87

sections second, 82, 87

of a vector bundle along a curve, 266 subbundle, 178

sesquilinear, 238 subbundle criterion, 179

shape operator, 32, 68 submanifold

and curvature, 34 immersed, 308

is self-adjoint, 33 regular, 7

matrix is symmetric, 34 summation convention

of a cylinder, 42 Einstein, 82

of a sphere, 42 support

of a surface of revolution, 43 of a function, 8

short exact sequence surface

rank condition, 256 in R3 , 7

splitting, 256 surface in R3

shuffle, 176, 301 covariant derivative, 106

sign convention, 201 Gaussian curvature, 92

signature, 243 surface of revolution

signed curvature, 14 Christoffel symbols, 104

signed geodesic curvature, 143 mean and Gaussian curvature, 43

signs concerning vector-valued forms, 201 shape operator, 43

singular value, 31 symmetric bilinear form, 5

skew-symmetric matrices symmetric connection, 102

powers, 228 symmetric polynomials

Index 349

generation, 322 of a bilinear form, 213

symmetric power, 177 trace polynomial, 217, 219, 310, 314

symmetries transition functions, 249

of curvature, 209 transitive action on a fiber, 248

transposition matrix, 315

tangent bundle, 53 triangle

tangent space, 299 sum of angles, 147

tangent vector, 299 trivial line bundle, 239

tensor, 93 trivialization, 51, 74

tensor product trivializing open cover, 52

basis, 160 trivializing open set, 51

tensor algebra, 166, 167

tensor criterior, 200 Umlaufsatz, 150

tensor field unit-speed polygon, 145

covariant derivative of, 210 universal mapping property

tensor field on a manifold, 199 for bilinear maps, 158

tensor product, 156 universal mapping property

associativity, 165 for alternating k-linear maps, 170

basis, 160 for bilinear maps, 157

characterization, 158 of the tensor product, 157

dimension, 161

functorial properties, 164 vanishing

identities, 162 of characteristic classes, 227

of finite cyclic groups, 163, 167 vector bundle

of three vector spaces, 165 associated to a representation, 279

tensorial form vector bundle, 51

of type ρ , 281 base space, 51

Theorema Egregium, 21, 65 holomorphic, 243

using forms, 92 isomorphism, 53

third fundamental form, 70 total space, 51

topological manifold, 297 vector field, 300

torsion, 46 along a curve, 27

is F-linear, 46 along a submanifold, 28

of directional derivative, 26 left-invariant, 121

torsion forms, 86 on a submanifold, 28

torsion-free, 47 parallel, 112

in terms of Christoffel symbols, 102 vector subbundle, 178

torsion-free connection, 102 vector-valued forms

torus product, 192

as a Riemannian manifold, 7 vector-valued k-covector, 190

total curvature, 42, 149 vector-valued differential forms, 190

is a topological invariant, 149 vector-valued form, 190, 191

of a plane curve, 150 directional derivative, 194

total geodesic curvature, 144 pullback, 197

total Pontrjagin class, 230 velocity vector field, 27

total space, 246 vertical component, 258

of a vector bundle, 51 of a tangent vector, 260

trace vertical subbundle, 255

350 Index

vertical tangent vector, 254 on the boundary, 136

volume form

wedge product, 168, 301

of a smooth hypersurface, 140

is anticommutative, 169

of a sphere, 138

properties, 168

of a sphere in spherical coordinates, 139 under a change of frame, 135

of an oriented Riemannian manifold, 136 wedge product formula, 176

on a circle, 137 Weingarten map, 32

on H2 , 136 Whitney product formula, 230

Loring W. Tu was born in Taipei, Taiwan, and grew

up in Taiwan, Canada, and the United States. He at-

tended McGill University and Princeton University as

an undergraduate, and obtained his Ph.D. from Har-

vard University under the supervision of Phillip A.

Griffiths. He has taught at the University of Michi-

gan, Ann Arbor, and at Johns Hopkins University, and

is currently Professor of Mathematics at Tufts Uni-

versity in Massachusetts.

An algebraic geometer by training, he has done re-

Photo by Bachrach search at the interface of algebraic geometry, topol-

ogy, and differential geometry, including Hodge the-

ory, degeneracy loci, moduli spaces of vector bun-

dles, and equivariant cohomology. He is the coauthor

with Raoul Bott of Differential Forms in Algebraic Topology and the author of An

Introduction to Manifolds.

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