Advanced Electric Machine Theory (EE5820

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(C. M. Liaw) Text book: l P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk and S. D. Sudhoff, "Analysis of electric machinery," IEEE Press, 1995.. l P. C. Krause, O. Wasynczuk, and S. D. Sudhoff, Analysis of electric machinery and drive systems, 2nd ed., New York: Wiley-IEEE, 2002. Reference books: l l l l l l P. C. Krause and O. Wasynczuk, "Electromechanical motion devices," McGraw-Hill, 1989. Chee-Mun Ong, "Dynamic simulation of electric machinery using Matlab/Simulink, Prentice Hall, 1998. Lyshevski, Sergey Edward, “Electromechanical systems, electric machines and applied mechatronics, CRC Press, 2000. D. W. Novotny and T. A. Lipo, 1996, Vector Control and Dynamics of AC Drives, Clarendon Press, New York. B. K. Bose, 2002, Modern Power Electronics and AC Drives, Prentice Hall, New Jersey. R. Krishnan, 2001, Electric Motor Drives Modeling, Analysis and Control, Prentice Hall, New Jersey.

1. The topics covered in the textbook for different fields: Power engineers: (Chapters 4,5,6,8,9,10,13) Induction motors: (4) Synchronous machines (5) Others: Operational impedances (6), reduced-order model (8), unbalanced operation (9,10), simulations (13). Control specialists: (Chapters 2,7,11,13,14) Linearized models of AC machines: (7) Electric drives (2,13) 2-phase induction servomotor (11) Brushless DC motor (14) Stepping motor (see reference book) Reduced-order model (8) Power electronics engineers: (Chapters 2,13,14, Appendix B) Drives and converters.

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v The voltage equations are multivariable. thus they are time-varying in nature. x k ) = -¶W f (l j . Coenergy: Force equation: variables= current (i) and displacement (x): f ek (i j . time-varying and nonlinear. qk ) = Energy: Force equation: variables= flux linkage ( l ) and displacement (x): f ek ( l j . x k ) = ¶ W c (i j . q k ) ¶ qk ¶ xk Torque equation: variables= current ( l ) and angular position ( q ): T ek ( l j . Some inductance components are functions of angular position. qk ) ¶ qk ◎ Winding inductances and voltage equations v v Induction motor and synchronous machine. qk ) = . DC machines ◎ Dynamic characteristics: Starting and step load change characteristics by simulations.¶ W f ( l j . xk ) ¶ W c (i j . 2. Basic principles for electric machine analysis ◎ Electromechanical energy conversion: Derive the developed force or torque from energy or coenergy equation. x k ) ¶ xk Torque equation: variables= current (i) and angular position ( q ): T ek (i j .Course contents: 1. 2 . coupling.

( q e ( 0 ) ) t q ef = ò0 w e( z ) d z + q ef ( 0 ) t q e = ò0 w e( z )d z + q e ( 0 ) The advantages of reference frame transformation The number of voltage equations is reduced The time-varying voltage equations become time-invariant ones ◎ Commonly used reference frames ◎ Transformation between reference frames 4.( q e ( 0 )) 2 f s sin ( q ef ( 0 ) . Reference-Frame Theory ◎ General concept of reference frame transformation (Synchronously rotating frame as an example) Variables in abc domain Variables in dq domain f e 0 s = K e f abcs s qd f as = f as = f as = 2p 2 f s cos ( q ef ) 3 2p 2 f s cos ( q ef + ) 3 2 f s cos q ef w = we = = f f e qs e ds 2 f s cos ( q ef ( 0 ) .◎ Converters (Also refer to Appendix B for detailed analysis) ◎ DC drives ◎ Linearized machine equations ◎ Speed control 3. Theory of Induction Machines ◎ Voltage equations and torque equation (mechanical equation) in abc domain 3 .

Linearized Equations of Induction Machines and Synchronous Machines ◎ Derivation of small-signal models using perturbation and linearization techniques ◎ Eigenvalues ◎ Transfer functions 4 . Theory of Synchronous Machines ◎ Voltage equations and torque equation (mechanical equation) in abc domain ◎ Voltage equations and torque equation (mechanical equation) in reference frame (Park's equation): The stator voltage equations are transformed to the rotor. T e = g ( i abcs . since rotor is already in dq domain. i¢abcr ). ◎ Static and dynamic characteristics by simulations ◎ Dynamic characteristics during faults by simulations ◎ Transient stability analysis 6.év abcs ù ér s + p L s p L¢ sr ù éi abcs ù êv¢abcr ú = ê p( L¢ sr )T r r + p L r ú êi¢abcr ú û ë û ë ûë W f = f ( i abcs . Operational Impedance and Time-Constants of Synchronous Machines ◎ Derivation of equivalent circuit ◎ Time constants (transient and subtransient) of synchronous machines ◎ Parameter estimation from short-circuit characteristics ◎ Parameter estimation from frequency response characteristics 7. i¢abcr ) 2 2 T e = J ( ) p wr + B( ) wr + T L P P ◎ Voltage equations and torque equation (mechanical equation) in reference frame ◎ Static and dynamic characteristics by simulations 5.

8. Reduced-Order Equations ◎ Reduced-order equations of induction machine ◎ Reduced-order equations of synchronous machines ◎ Eigenvalues ◎ Transfer function formulation ◎ Comparison between the full-order and reduced-order models 9. Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical Two-Phase Induction Machines 12. Asynchronous and Unbalanced Operation of Synchronous Machines ◎ Asynchronous operation: v Motor starting v Pole slipping ◎ Unbalanced operation: v v v Line-to-neutral fault Line-to-line fault Line-to-line-to-neutral fault 11. Unbalanced Operation of Symmetrical Induction Machines ◎ What are balanced and symmetrical? ◎ Unbalanced stator voltages ◎ Unbalanced stator impedances ◎ Open-circuited stator phases ◎ Unbalanced rotor resistors (Unbalanced external rotor resistors added in a wound-rotor induction machine) 10. Computer Simulations of Induction and Synchronous Machines 5 .

6 . Brushless DC Machines (BDCM): ◎ Permanent-magnet synchronous motor + inverter + rotor position sensing ◎ Mechanical commutation ® electronic commutation ◎ Having torque generating capability like a dc shunt motor ◎ Two types of BDCM: v Speed drive: Six-step inverter (square-wave BDCM). Using Hall-effect or photo sensor (discrete type). synchros or resolver rotor position sensor (continuous type). Reference Frame Theory Used in the Analysis and Simulations of Power Systems and Motor drives 14. Using absolute encoder. v Position servo drive: PWM inverter (sinusoidal BDCM).v abcs i abcs Ks v qd 0s iqd0s Solve stator and rotor currents from the voltage equations in dq domain Compute the developed torque v 'qd 0r i 'qd 0r ( Kr ) Kr -1 ' v abcr (Ks) -1 i 'abcr Te wr TL Solve speed from the torque equation w The philosophy of computer simulation for induction motor in arbitrary reference frame 13.

2nd Edition Paul C. Semicontrolled Bridge Converters. 7 . Krause. and Abbreviations. Brushless dc Motor Drives.--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Appendix: Text book Analysis of Electric Machinery and Drive Systems. Index. Reduced-Order Machine Equations. Sudhoff Basic Principle s for Electric Machine Analysis. Machine Equations in Operational Impedances and Time Constants. Fully Controlled 3-Phase Bridge Converters. Scott D. Appendix: Trigonometric Relations. Direct-Current Machines. Oleg Wasynczuk. Symmetrical and Unsymmetrical 2-Phase Induction Machines. dc Machine Drives. Symmetrical Induction Machines. Synchronous Machines. Linearized Machine Equations. Constants and Conversion Factors. Induction Motor Drives. Reference-Frame Theory. Theory of Brushless dc Machines.

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