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CHEN30061

One and a half hours

THE UNIVERSITY OF MANCHESTER

PROCESS FLUID DYNAMICS

22 January 2018

09:45 - 11:15

Instructions for undergraduate (BEng, MEng) students

Total marks of the exam: 60 marks.

Answer all Questions:


• Question 1 is worth 15 marks.
• Question 2 is worth 15 marks.
• Question 3 is worth 30 marks.

Calculators may be used in accordance with the University regulations.

All working must be shown and all justifications made must be clearly stated for
all problems.

If the figure attached at the end of the exam is used, return it along with your
answer booklet.

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CHEN30061

List of main equations


Equations for Reynolds transport theorem
ˆ ˆ

ρdV + ρV~ · dA
~=0 (1)
∂t CV CS
ˆ ˆ
~ ~ ~ ~ ∂ ~ ~

~ ~

F = Fs + Fb + Fother = V ρdV + V ρV · dA (2)
∂t CV
ˆ   CS ˆ   
dQ ∂ 1 2 1 2 p ~ ~

Q̇ = = u + V + gz ρV + u + V + gz + ρ V · dA (3)
dt ∂t CV 2 CS 2 ρ
Equations for properties of ideal gases
p
= RT (ideal gas law) (4)
ρ
p
= constant (5)
ρk

c = kRT (6)
V
M= (7)
c
T2 p2
∆s = s2 − s1 = cp ln − R ln (8)
T1 p1
Equations for isentropic compressible flow
 k/(k−1)
p0 k−1 2
= 1+ M (9)
p 2
T0 k−1 2
=1+ M (10)
T 2
 1/(k−1)
ρ0 k−1 2
= 1+ M (11)
ρ 2
 (k+1)/[2(k−1)]
k−1 2
A 1  1+ M 
=  2  (12)
A∗ M k+1 
2
(13)
Equations for adiabatic flow with friction (Fanno-line relations)
f¯L
¯  ¯ 
f Lmax f Lmax
= − (14)
D D M1 D
" M2 #
f¯Lmax 1 − M2 k + 1 (k + 1)M 2
= + ln (15)
2 1 + k−1

D kM 2 2k 2
M2
k+1

T T /T0 2
= ∗ = (16)
T∗ T /T0 1 + k−1
2
M2
k+1
 2 !1/2
∗ ∗ M
V ρ ρ /ρ0 2
= = = (17)
V∗ ρ ρ/ρ0 1 + k−1 2
M2
k+1
 !1/2
p p/p0 1 2
= ∗ = (18)
p∗ p /p0 M 1 + k−1 2
M2
(19)

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CHEN30061

Equations used for non-Newtonian flow in both Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates

∂ρ
+ ∇ · ρV~ = 0 (20)
∂t
∂ ∂ ∂
∇= êx + êy + êz (21)
∂x ∂y ∂z
∂ 1 ∂ ∂
∇= êr + êθ + êz (22)
 ∂r r ∂θ ∂z 
∂Vx ∂Vx ∂Vx ∂Vx ∂p ∂τxx ∂τyx ∂τzx
ρ + Vx + Vy + Vz =− + + + + ρgx (23)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂x ∂x ∂y ∂z
 
∂Vy ∂Vy ∂Vy ∂Vy ∂p ∂τxy ∂τyy ∂τzy
ρ + Vx + Vy + Vz =− + + + + ρgy (24)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂y ∂x ∂y ∂z
 
∂Vz ∂Vz ∂Vz ∂Vz ∂p ∂τxz ∂τyz ∂τzz
ρ + Vx + Vy + Vz =− + + + + ρgz (25)
∂t ∂x ∂y ∂z ∂z ∂x ∂y ∂z
 
τxx τxy τxz
τ = τyx τyy τyz  (26)
τzx τzy τzz
   
∂Vx 2 ∂V ∂V ∂V ∂V

x y x z
~
2 ∂x − 3∇ · V ∂y
+
∂x
+
   ∂z ∂x   
 ∂Vy ∂Vx ∂Vy 2 ∂Vy ∂Vz 
γ̇ = 
 + 2 − ∇·V ~ +  (27)
 ∂x ∂y  ∂y 3  ∂z ∂y 

 ∂Vz ∂Vx ∂Vz ∂Vy ∂Vz 2 
+ + 2 − ∇ · V~
∂x ∂z ∂y ∂z ∂z 3
2
 
∂Vr ∂Vr Vθ ∂Vr Vθ ∂Vr ∂p 1 ∂(rτrr ) 1 ∂τrθ τθθ ∂τrz
ρ + Vr + − + Vz =− + + − + + gr(ρ28)
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z ∂r r ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z
1 ∂(r2 τrθ ) 1 ∂τθθ ∂τθz
 
∂Vθ ∂Vθ Vθ ∂Vθ Vr Vθ ∂Vθ 1 ∂p
ρ + Vr + + + Vz =− + 2 + + + gθ ρ(29)
∂t ∂r r ∂θ r ∂z r ∂θ r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z
 
∂Vz ∂Vz Vθ ∂Vz ∂Vz ∂p 1 ∂(rτrz ) 1 ∂τθz ∂τzz
ρ + Vr + + Vz =− + + + + gz ρ (30)
∂t ∂r r ∂θ ∂z ∂z r ∂r r ∂θ ∂z
 
τrr τrθ τrz
τ = τθr τθθ τθz  (31)
τzr τzθ τzz
     
∂Vr 2 ∂ V 1 ∂V ∂V ∂V

θ r z r
~
 2 ∂r − 3∇ · V r
∂r r
+
r ∂θ ∂r
+
∂z 
       
 ∂ V θ 1 ∂V r 1 ∂V θ V r 2 ~ ∂V θ 1 ∂V z 
γ̇ =  r
 ∂r r + 2 + − ∇ · V +  (32)
  r ∂θ
 r ∂θ r 3
 ∂z r ∂θ 

 ∂Vz ∂Vr ∂Vθ 1 ∂Vz ∂Vz 2 
+ + 2 − ∇ · V~
∂r ∂z ∂z r ∂θ ∂z 3
τ = η(γ̇)γ̇ (generalised Newton’s law of viscosity) (33)
n−1
η(γ̇) = κγ̇ (power-law model for non-Newtonian flow) (34)
r 3 3
1 XX
γ̇ = I2 where I2 = γ̇ : γ̇ = γ̇ij γ̇ji (35)
2 i=1 j=1

Symbols have their usual meaning.

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CHEN30061

Question 1 [15 marks]


A 30o reducing elbow is shown below. The fluid is water with density ρ = 999 kg/m3 . Evaluate the
components of force (thrust) that must be provided by the adjacent pipes to keep the elbow from moving.

Elbow mass, M = 10 kg

Internal volume, V = 0.006 m3


Q = 0.11 m3 /s

~g 30o
1
2 V2
p1 = 200 kPa(abs)
p2 = 120 kPa(abs)
A1 = 0.0182 m2
A2 = 0.0081 m2

[15 marks]
End of Question 1

Question 2 [15 marks]


An ideal gas, with k = 1.25, flows isentropically through the converging nozzle shown below and
discharges into a large duct where the pressure at the throat is p2 = 172 kPa (abs). The gas has a specific
gas constant R that is unknown.
Find
(a) the Mach number at the inlet M1 ,
(b) the exit area of the nozzle A2 ,
(c) the exit speed V2

Note that the isentropic ratios are plotted at the end of the document in case you want to use a
graphical method. If you use this figure, attach it with your answer booklet.
1 2

A2
p1 = 241 kPa (abs)
ρ1 = 1.61 kg/m3
V2
V1 = 152.4 m/s
A1 = 0.1 m2
p2 = 172 kPa (abs)

Note. If you are unsure of your calculations to obtain M1 , assume a value of M1 = 0.34.
[15 marks]
End of Question 2

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CHEN30061

Question 3 [30 marks]

Part A [20 marks].


A liquid flows down an inclined plane surface in a steady, fully developed laminar film of thickness δ.
The length of the film in the z direction is W . The fluid behaves as a non-Newtonian fluid whose viscosity
can be represented using the power-law model. Using the coordinate system indicated in the figure,
obtain expressions for:

(a) the pressure profile;


(b) the shear stress profile;
(c) the velocity profile;
(d) and the mass flow rate.

L
x y

Flow
δ
β ~g

[20 marks]

Part B [10 marks]


Many paints behave like Bingham-plastic fluids. For the same geometry shown above, consider a paint
film of thickness δ spread uniformly on a flat surface with inclination of β = 60o . What is the maximum
film thickness in centimetres for which the paint film will not flow under action of gravity? The paint has
a density of ρ = 1.4 g/cm3 and a yield stress of τ0 = 70 dynes/cm2 , where 1 dyne = 1 g cm/s2 .

[10 marks]

End of Question 3

End of Exam

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CHEN30061

Submit this page with your answer if used.

UID:

2.0

A
1.5 A∗
Property ratios

T
1.0 T0

0.5
p ρ
p0 ρ0
0.0
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0
M
Figure 1: Isentropic flow functions for an ideal gas with k = 1.25

End of Paper

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