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com

ScienceDirect

Solar Energy 133 (2016) 35–43

www.elsevier.com/locate/solener

on solar irradiance

Cristiano Saboia Ruschel a,⇑,1, Fabiano Perin Gasparin b,2, Eurides Ramos Costa a,1,

Arno Krenzinger a,1

a

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

b

Universidade Estadual do Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil

Received 13 August 2015; received in revised form 2 March 2016; accepted 21 March 2016

Available online 18 April 2016

Abstract

Modeling and simulation of photovoltaic systems, further than aiding on the project design phase, can be used to emulate the system

performance in real time, therefore helping to identify any malfunction that may occur. Among the available performance models for

photovoltaic systems, the single diode model is preferred by many authors, since it combines relative simplicity and accuracy. Previous

works reported that this model has some limitations on describing the photovoltaic system I–V curves under low irradiances, indicating

that the variation of the shunt resistance parameter with the irradiance level can be adopted to minimize this drawback. This paper aims

to study the shunt resistance dependence on the irradiance level in order to evaluate some of the usual expressions proposed on the

literature. A large area pulsed solar simulator model PASAN SunSim 3C was used to acquire the I–V characteristics of several

photovoltaic modules of diﬀerent brands and technologies under 20 distinct irradiance levels ranging from 75 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2.

The shunt resistance parameter was calculated as the inverse slope of the I–V curve in the short circuit region, and ﬁtting equations were

derived for each photovoltaic technology. The results in general agreed with previous published works, showing the tendency of an

increase of the shunt resistance on lower irradiance levels. Some empirical models tested did not present satisfactory accuracy to

reproduce the experimental data. Although simpler, an inverse dependence of the shunt resistance on the irradiance using the measured

value at STC as a reference was seen to describe adequately the experimental data. A preliminary study showed that the inclusion of this

dependence on the single-diode model indeed increases the model accuracy, reducing the average error on the performed tests by more

than half comparing to the original model.

Ó 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

E-mail addresses: cristianosaboia@gmail.com (C.S. Ruschel), gasparin. photovoltaic (PV) systems is a crucial issue not only for

fabiano@gmail.com (F.P. Gasparin), didircosta@gmail.com (E.R. Costa), project and performance prediction but also for plant oper-

arno.krenzinger@ufrgs.br (A. Krenzinger). ation supervision. An unreliable prediction model may

1

Address: LABSOL - Av. Bento Gonçalves, 9500 – Prédio 42712, Porto

Alegre, RS CEP 91509-910, Brazil.

cause ﬁnancial losses if the energy to be produced by the

2

Address: Av. Bento Gonçalves, 8855, Bairro Agronomia, Porto system is overestimated, discouraging future investments

Alegre, RS CEP 91540-000, Brazil. on PV projects. Using an overly cautious estimation to

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2016.03.047

0038-092X/Ó 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

36 C.S. Ruschel et al. / Solar Energy 133 (2016) 35–43

avoid this problem is not a reasonable alternative either, qV

I ¼ I ph I 0 exp 1 ð2Þ

since it may lead to a false conclusion that the system is N s mkT

not economically viable. The use of simulation as a tool

to supervise photovoltaic systems can be of major assis- However, this ideal photovoltaic module equation has

tance, since it may indicate when a device is not working little practical use, since photovoltaic modules with such

correctly by comparing the actual operating conditions characteristics are impossible to build. For a better descrip-

with the simulated ones. Evidently, an adequate accuracy tion of the I–V characteristic of PV modules, a series

is required on these cases; otherwise it would not be possible resistance (Rs) is included. This component represents the

to properly identify a system malfunction. resistance of the materials which compose the module

The characteristic I–V curve, and therefore the power and causes a reduction on the power converted by this

produced by a photovoltaic system, is highly dependent device, and the resulting current I is then described by

on the environmental conditions, namely the temperature Eq. (3).

and the solar irradiance. Several models are available to qðV þ IRs Þ

forecast the operation of photovoltaic systems. However, I ¼ I ph I 0 exp 1 ð3Þ

N s mkT

on the deﬁnition of the parameters for many models a

problem arises: the data provided by the manufacturer In addition to the parameters of the ideal cell, the series

datasheet usually contains only information at standard resistance Rs must also be determined, increasing the

test conditions (STC), or at best also for the NOCT number of unknown parameters to four. This model is

(nominal operating cell temperature). So, the knowledge known as the four-parameter model, and has been used for

of the dependence of the I–V curve parameters on the several authors such as Xiao et al. (2004) and Chenni et al.

environmental conditions is necessary in order to establish (2007), describing the behavior of PV devices adequately

a model valid for every condition. for irradiance level of 1000 W/m2 under diﬀerent tempera-

Among the alternatives for representing the electrical tures. On other studies though, this method was shown to

characteristics of photovoltaic modules, the single diode present a poor performance under certain conditions. Celik

ﬁve-parameter model is one of the most commonly used. and Acikgoz (2007) exhibit a comparison between measured

Despite combining relative simplicity and accuracy, data for a sequence of ﬁve days, with two numerical

previous works have shown that as a drawback this model simulations, one using the four-parameter model and

tends to fail on the description of I–V curves on lower another with a ﬁve-parameter model. The four-parameter

irradiance conditions (Ishaque et al., 2011). The variation model was shown inadequate to describe the PV system

of the shunt resistance parameter with the irradiance can under some of the reported environmental conditions, with

be adopted to minimize this limitation. The aim of this the ﬁve-parameter model presenting a better agreement.

paper is to study the behavior of the shunt resistance with The main diﬀerence between the two aforementioned

the irradiance level for several photovoltaic modules, in models is the inclusion of the so-called shunt resistance

order to check the validity of some usual expressions and (Rsh), which is connected in parallel with the diode. The

propose viable alternatives based on experimental data. complete circuit for the ﬁve-parameter model is presented

on Fig. 1.

2. Photovoltaic devices modeling The current I is therefore given by Eq. (4).

qðV þ IRs Þ V þ IRs

An ideal solar cell can be described, from the basic I ¼ I ph I 0 exp 1 ð4Þ

N s mkT Rsh

theory of semiconductors, as a current source in parallel

with a diode. Representing the diode current with the The shunt resistance accounts for alternative paths for

expression proposed by Shockley (1950), the characteristic the free carriers produced by the solar radiation. A high

I–V curve of the ideal solar cell is given by Eq. (1). shunt resistance means that the vast majority of these

carriers generate power, whereas a low resistance indicates

qV cell large losses, aﬀecting mainly the slope of the I–V curve on

I ¼ I ph;cell I 0;cell exp 1 ð1Þ

mkT the proximity of the short circuit region. Breitenstein et al.

(2004) attempts to reach a better understanding of the

where Iph is the photogenerated current by the cell, I0 the

reverse saturation or leakage current, q is the electron

charge, V the applied voltage on the cell terminals, m the

diode ideality factor, k the Boltzmann constant and T the

absolute cell temperature.

Photovoltaic modules are assembled by connecting sev-

eral cells in series. When representing a module, Eq. (1) is

modiﬁed by adding one term representing the number of

cells in series, Ns, and by replacing the cell parameters by

the module ones, leading to Eq. (2). Fig. 1. Five-parameter model circuit.

C.S. Ruschel et al. / Solar Energy 133 (2016) 35–43 37

nature of this shunt current by applying lock-in thermogra- although using the double diode model. This parameter

phy to investigate and classify diﬀerent kinds of shunts. was also studied for photovoltaic modules exposed to

The author states that the majority of the shunts are sunlight over the course of the day, and again the tendency

process-induced, such as edge shunts, cracks, holes, was of an increase of shunt resistance with the decrease of

scratches or aluminum particles, rather than material- irradiance levels.

induced shunts, these including crystal defects or inversion Some recent models propose to consider these variations

layers due to SiC inclusions. on the shunt resistance with the irradiance. De Soto et al.

Although a more precise model for considering the (2006) propose an inverse behavior of Rsh with respect to

shunt resistance, the ﬁve-parameter model still has some the irradiance (G), described by Eq. (6), following observa-

limitations, being reported to be less precise under low tion based on experiments performed on the United States

irradiance conditions, especially on the vicinity of the open National Institute of Standards and Technologies and on

circuit voltage (Ishaque et al., 2011). For that reason, an inference exposed by Schroeder (1998). However, the

double-diode models are frequently used, but these have latter only guarantees this approach as valid for very low

the drawback of requiring the determination of additional irradiance levels.

parameters, raising the complexity of the problem. There-

Gref

fore, an interesting approach to the problem is to improve Rsh ¼ Rsh;ref ð6Þ

the single-diode model by studying the behavior of the G

parameters under diﬀerent conditions and then adding

Other authors, such as Dongue et al. (2012) and Ma

adjustment equations for some of these parameters

et al. (2014) followed on the consideration of a variable

appropriately.

Rsh with the irradiance, describing it also with Eq. (6). A

study performed by Sandia National Laboratories (2015)

3. Dependence of the parameters on irradiance and presents a comparison between the shunt resistance pre-

temperature dicted with Eq. (6) and the one extracted from I–V curves

of several irradiance levels for a monocrystalline silicon

According to the traditional approach for the ﬁve- module. Although following the same tendency of increas-

parameter model, the photocurrent Iph depends on the irra- ing Rsh for lower irradiances, the experimental data does

diance, I0 is aﬀected by the temperature of the cell and m, not match very closely the expected behavior for the tested

Rs and Rsh are constant. (Ciulla et al., 2014). The photo- PV module.

current is known to vary linearly with the irradiance and Lo Brano et al. (2010) present a model with additional

the reverse saturation is frequently considered to change parameters, which requires the measurement of the I–V

with temperature following Eq. (5) (Townsend, 1989): curve in diﬀerent irradiance and temperature levels to be

qeg obtained. Despite not explicitly deﬁning an equation relat-

I 0 ðT Þ ¼ DT 3 eAkT ð5Þ ing Rsh and G, this model results on an inverse dependence

of this resistance with the variation of G, similarly to the

where D is the diode diﬀusion factor, approximately con-

De Soto et al. (2006) model.

stant, T the absolute cell temperature, A = cNs (for ideal

Another procedure is suggested by the commercial soft-

cells c is equal to 1) and eg the material energy band gap,

ware PVsyst. This software is a well-known tool for design

which is 1.12 eV for Silicon.

and simulation of photovoltaic systems, which describes

Some studies, such as De Soto (2004) suggest that the

the PV panel using the ﬁve parameter model presented

series resistance has a dependence on the irradiance,

on Eq. (4). The shunt resistance is calculated by taking

decreasing its value for lower irradiance levels, and even

the virtual Maximum Power Point conductance (IscImp)/

assuming negative values for some of the operating condi-

Vmp, corresponding to the absolute minimum value of

tions. As a matter of fact, earlier works also indicate nega-

Rsh, and taking a given fraction of this quantity (PVsyst

tive values for the series resistance on the ﬁve-parameter

SA, 2012). The model also includes an option to vary the

model on low irradiance conditions (Chan et al., 1986).

value of the shunt resistance with the irradiance, according

Nevertheless, most authors do not consider these varia-

to the exponential presented on Eq. (7).

tions relevant, treating Rs as independent of the incident

irradiance and temperature and obtaining suﬃcient preci- Rsh ¼ Rsh;ref þ Rsh ð0Þ Rsh;ref :e5:5G=Gref ð7Þ

sion (de Blas et al., 2002; De Soto et al., 2006).

Previous works have also observed a dependence of the The constant Rsh(0) is suggested to assume the value of

shunt resistance on the irradiance. Bätzner et al. (2001) 12 times Rsh for amorphous silicon modules, and 4 times

measured the ﬁve characteristic parameters for three solar Rsh for crystalline silicon panels. However, it is stated that

cells from diﬀerent technologies with irradiance ranging this equation is the result of few measurements, and there-

from 0.1 W/m2 to 1000 W/m2 and veriﬁed an increase of fore the software does not use it as default, leaving as an

the shunt resistance for lower irradiance levels in all cases. option for the user.

Eikelboom and Reinders (1997) also tested a cell under Following these studies, several photovoltaic modules

diﬀerent irradiance levels and reached similar results, of diﬀerent brands and technologies were tested under

38 C.S. Ruschel et al. / Solar Energy 133 (2016) 35–43

of Eqs. (6) and (7), and to help on the development of a LAPSS characteristics and IEC 60904-9 requirements for a class A solar

simulator.

more accurate single diode model. For that purpose, a

discussion of the extraction methods for the shunt Characteristic Class A solar LAPSS PASAN

simulator SunSim 3C

resistance is presented on the following section.

Non-uniformity 2% <1%

Temporal instability 2% <1%

4. Shunt resistance evaluation Spectral match ratio 0.75–1.25 0.875–1.125

using the Eq. (8), where the Rsh0 is the inverse of the slope

of the I–V curve at the short circuit region, as given by the international standard IEC 60904-9 (2007) and is rated

Eq. (9), and Rs the series resistance (de Blas et al., 2002, as AAA, even exceeding all standard requirements as

Lo Brano et al., 2010). shown in Table 1.

Tests performed on site after installation of the solar

Rsh ¼ Rsh0 Rs ð8Þ

simulator have shown a spatial non-uniformity of 0.27%,

dV therefore better than the nominal features. The ﬂash

Rsh0 ¼ ð9Þ non-uniformity was tested by measuring the short circuit

dI I¼I sc

current of a multicrystalline solar cell in 64 positions over

On the method proposed by Bouzidi et al. (2006), which the device under test area.

was also adopted on studies regarding the behavior of The I–V curves were traced in 10 ms under a single volt-

photovoltaic cells on diﬀerent conditions (Cheegar et al., age sweep varying from Isc to Voc, acquiring 418 I–V pairs.

2013; Cuce et al., 2013), although diﬀerent coeﬃcients are The raw I–V curve is corrected to STC conditions

used, the shunt resistance is ultimately calculated by Eq. (8). according to IEC 60891 (2009) by the LAPSS software.

However, the second term on Eq. (8) is often neglected The room temperature was maintained at 25 °C ± 1 °C,

as it is usually much smaller than the ﬁrst. The inverse of and for each measurement the module temperature was

the slope of the I–V curve at the short circuit region is con- required to be stable between this range as well. A set of

sidered to provide an accurate estimation for the shunt six masks with attenuation ratios of 0.7, 0.5, 0.4, 0.3, 0.2

resistance for the single-diode model, and this method, and 0.1 was used to trace the I–V curves over a wide range

Rsh = Rsh0, is preferred by several authors (Phang et al., of irradiance levels. The I–V curves were traced with

1984; Hadj Arab et al., 2004). Furthermore, Chan et al. irradiances varying from 1000 to 75 W/m2 with 50 W/m2

(1986) compares diﬀerent parameter extraction methods intervals. The measurements of 1000, 950, 900, 850, 800

and states that for the assessment of the shunt resistance, and 750 W/m2 were performed without the use of attenua-

Eq. (9) provides a better estimation than the use of curve tion masks, only by regulating the ﬂash intensity. The mea-

ﬁtting methods. surements of 700, 650, 600 and 550 W/m2 were performed

Another approach for this problem is proposed by with the mask with ratio of 0.7 and so on, until the 75 W/

Villalva et al. (2009), who applies an iterative process to m2 irradiance level, on which was employed the mask with

ﬁnd the pair (Rs, Rsh) in which the calculated maximum the attenuation ratio of 0.1. The lowest irradiance level was

power coincides with the Pmp provided by the manufac- 75 W/m2 instead of 50 W/m2 due to technical limitations.

turer. This strategy has the advantage of not requiring The LAPPS software gives several parameters from

the measurement of the characteristic curve, relying only each I–V curve, including short-circuit current, open circuit

on data available on the PV module datasheet. Although voltage, maximum power, maximum power current, maxi-

useful for practical applications, this method can only be mum power voltage and shunt resistance (Rsh). The method

used for the extraction of parameters at the STC, since this for Rsh extraction on this work is the one based on the

is the usual condition for which the manufacturer provides direct use of Eq. (9), with Rsh = Rsh0, which gives suﬃ-

data. ciently precise results with relative simplicity. The Rsh value

is obtained from linear regression of the measured I–V

5. Measurement apparatus and procedure pairs ranging from 0 V to Vmp/2. This interval was seen

to contain suﬃcient points to minimize the eﬀects of mea-

The electrical characterization of the PV modules was surement noises, at the same time that it is entirely inside

performed using a LAPSS (Large Area Pulsed Solar Simu- the linear region of the I–V curve for all measurements.

lator), model PASAN SunSim 3C that is installed at the The global uncertainty for the I–V curve parameters

facilities of Solar Energy Laboratory (LABSOL) at Federal would involve reference cell and temperature sensor cali-

University of Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS) – Brazil. The bration uncertainties, among several others typical for an

PASAN SunSim 3C LAPSS has a 10 ms ﬂash and an accurate I–V curve measurement, as presented by

illuminated area of 2 m 2 m for the device under test. Mullejans et al. (2009). However, since the absolute values

The electrical accuracy is at least 0.2% and the light of the variables are not of major interest, the measurement

collimation is less than 15°. This LAPSS complies with uncertainty for the purpose of this work is only the one

C.S. Ruschel et al. / Solar Energy 133 (2016) 35–43 39

related to the Rsh determination. In order to calculate this its higher value being nearly 7 times larger than the

expanded uncertainty, repeatability tests were conducted reference value at STC. By contrast, the Tandem module

by measuring the I–V curve of a multicrystalline PV displayed a variation of 40 times between the reference

module 26 times consecutively. value and the lowest measured irradiance. The Cadmium

Assuming that the measurement noise is constant, it is Telluride module increased about 9 times its shunt resis-

reasonable to conjecture that their inﬂuence on a smaller tance decreasing the radiation from 1000 W/m2 to

current measurement is more pronounced, and therefore 100 W/m2, and at 75 W/m2 the obtained value for this

the uncertainty would be larger at lower irradiances. The parameter was 76 times larger than the reference one.

repeatability test was performed for two levels of The correlation coeﬃcient, R2, for the ﬁtting equations

irradiance: 1000 W/m2 and 100 W/m2. The expanded was calculated, with its value being in general larger for

uncertainty for the Rsh value was determined by multiply- the groups with less measured modules. The amorphous

ing the standard deviation of the Rsh measurements by a silicon technology, from which only one module was

coverage factor k = 2.105, the coeﬃcient t of Student for measured, presented the largest correlation coeﬃcient.

a conﬁdence interval of 95%. The relative expanded uncer- The Cadmium Telluride technology, although also a

tainty was determined dividing the expanded uncertainty single-module group, presented a relatively low correlation

by the mean value of Rsh, which resulted in ±4.8% for coeﬃcient, meaning that the ﬁtting equation does not

the 1000 W/m2 irradiance level and ±7.7% at 100 W/m2, represent precisely the measured points. As for the groups

conﬁrming an increase in the uncertainty of Rsh for lower with several measured modules, namely the monocrys-

irradiances. talline and multicrystalline technologies, it was noted a

large dispersion on the shunt resistance behavior with the

6. Results and discussion irradiance. Moreover, it was perceived that even panels

from the same manufacturer and belonging to the same

In order to better analyze the behavior of the photo- model exhibited fairly diﬀerent behaviors in some cases.

voltaic modules, the measured data was sorted into smaller In order to compare the diﬀerent groups, each obtained

groups according to their cell technology. Modules built ﬁtting equation was plotted on Fig. 3. This ﬁgure includes

with the same photovoltaic technology are expected to also a representation of Eq. (6), corresponding to the De

have more similar characteristics with one another. Soto et al. model and Eq. (7), proposed on the PVsyst

Hence, six groups were established: one including 17 model, to help on the evaluation of their validity for the

multicrystalline modules, another with 7 monocrystalline tested modules. The two suggested values for Rsh(0) on

modules, a third with 2 CIGS panels, and three groups with Eq. (7) were included. For the sake of clarity, Table 2

one individual PV module on each: amorphous silicon, compiles the represented equations. On this analysis, the

tandem with amorphous/microcrystalline silicon, and curves were extrapolated to irradiance levels lower than

Cadmium Telluride. The measurements from two of the the ones used on the experiment.

modules, one multicrystalline and one monocrystalline, Except for the tandem technology, the six ﬁtting equa-

were discarded due to negative values for the shunt resis- tions provided very similar results for irradiances over

tance on low irradiance levels. These unexpected results 500 W/m2. For lower irradiance values, larger deviations

can be credited to measurement noises, since on modules occurred, with the multicrystalline and the CIGS modules

which present a very small slope it is possible that these showing a lower increase of the shunt resistance for low

noises may cause the linear regression to have an upward radiation levels, while the CdTe and the Tandem techno-

direction. Characteristic I–V curves with upward-trending logy panels presented a much more signiﬁcant growth.

current, and therefore negative shunt resistances, were also The values of Rsh for these groups under the lower levels

observed by Sandia National Laboratories (2015), and the of irradiance are not visible on the chart as they surpass

approach of discarding the corresponding measurements the chosen axis limitation. The ﬁtting for the amorphous

was taken as well. Moreover, this occurrence was observed silicon module was shown to have a very close agreement

for only 2 of the 580 performed I–V curve measurements with Eq. (6), which seems therefore to be suitable for

on this work, representing 0.34% of the tests. this photovoltaic technology. As for the exponential pro-

Fig. 2 presents the obtained Rsh for every measurement, posed by Eq. (7), the suggested value for crystalline silicon

as well as a ﬁtting power law equation for each group of PV modules did not agree with any of the veriﬁed ﬁtting equa-

modules tested. For the sake of comparing the shunt tions, while the recommended coeﬃcient for amorphous

resistance dependence of each module on the irradiance, silicon presented a behavior which was quite similar to that

instead of its absolute value, the results were normalized of the crystalline silicon modules.

taking the value at STC conditions as the reference. A further analysis is introduced by Fig. 4, which shows a

A tendency of increase on the shunt resistance for histogram representation of the absolute values of Rsh,ref.

lower irradiances was observed on all groups. Further- Both crystalline silicon groups presented a high variability

more, diﬀerences were observed between the distinct on the reference shunt resistance value, ranging from

photovoltaic technologies. CIGS modules presented less 173 X to 729 X for the multicrystalline and from 148 X to

variation on their shunt resistance with the irradiance, with 1320 X for the monocrystalline technology. Once again,

40 C.S. Ruschel et al. / Solar Energy 133 (2016) 35–43

Fig. 2. Dimensionless shunt resistance versus irradiance for each measured group.

C.S. Ruschel et al. / Solar Energy 133 (2016) 35–43 41

Table 3

Rsh,ref for the other photovoltaic groups measured at STC.

Module CIGS A CIGS B DA142 DA100A5 FS280

Rsh,ref (X) 1978 2086 2806 1218 3472

when its value is low, since the leakage current decays

asymptotically with it, as can be derived from Eq. (4).

Therefore, the measured data indicate that considering a

variation of the shunt resistance with the irradiance is

especially relevant for the crystalline silicon modules.

On an additional study, the I–V curve of the multi-

crystalline and monocrystalline modules measured at

Fig. 3. Comparison between the obtained ﬁt equations and the methods every irradiance level was simulated with the single diode

proposed by De Soto and PVsyst. model using two diﬀerent approaches. In both cases, the

parameters were extracted from the I–V curve at

Table 2

the 1000 W/m2 irradiance. While on the ﬁrst one all the

Summary of the tested equations. parameters were maintained constant, with the exception

Model Equation

of Iph, on the second one Eq. (6) was used to determine

the Rsh value. Fig. 5 displays a comparison between I–V

De Soto et al. (2006) Rsh ¼ 1000G1

PVSYST amorphous Rsh ¼ 1 þ 11 exp 1000

5:5G curves at 150 W/m2 to illustrate the eﬀectiveness of

PVSYST crystalline Rsh ¼ 1 þ 3 exp 1000

5:5G implementing the variation of the shunt resistance with

Multicrystalline ﬁt Rsh ¼ 219:7G0:75 the irradiance on the single-diode model for one monocrys-

Monocrystalline ﬁt Rsh ¼ 540:7G0:9 talline module of this study. The measured I–V curve is better

CIGS ﬁt Rsh ¼ 144:7G0:7 represented by the simulated model which includes the

Tandem ﬁt Rsh ¼ 12132:6G1:31

Amorphous ﬁt Rsh ¼ 832:8G0:96

dependence of the shunt resistance on the irradiance level.

CdTe ﬁt Rsh ¼ 3918:1G1:19 In order to calculate the overall improvement veriﬁed

for the single-diode model, the mean absolute error

between the measured I–V curves and the simulated ones

even modules with the same nominal characteristics for each module on all irradiance levels was determined.

presented large variability on this parameter. For the other Taking the average value of all errors, the error decreased

groups the results are shown on Table 3. Nothing can be 57% on the inverse Rsh model comparing with the constant

stated about these technologies variability since only one one. Despite the occurrence of some variation of this

or two modules of each were tested. It is interesting to decrease on the error for each individual module, it was

notice, though, that the absolute value of shunt resistance seen that the implementation of shunt resistance variation

for these four groups is, in general, similar or superior to with irradiance provided superior results for every tested

that of the best tested crystalline silicon modules. module.

Fig. 4. Distribution of Rsh,ref for (a) multicrystalline and (b) monocrystalline groups.

42 C.S. Ruschel et al. / Solar Energy 133 (2016) 35–43

obtained ﬁts for the experimental data, overstating the

shunt resistance value on low irradiance for CIGS and

1.2 crystalline cells and understating it for CdTe and Tandem

technologies. This method has the advantage of its simplicity,

since no empirical coeﬃcients are used, and seems to be an

appropriate option if a single equation is desired to describe

Current [A]

Simulated: Rsh=Rsh,ref(Gref/G) A brief discussion on the inclusion of an inverse

Simulated: Rsh = Rsh,ref

dependence of the shunt resistance with the irradiance

showed that the results are indeed superior when this eﬀect

0.4

is considered. The mean absolute error for this model was

less than half the error of the original single diode model,

considering the average of all tested crystalline modules

at all irradiance levels. The analysis of the I–V curve of

one of the modules at a low irradiance level with and

0

without the Rsh dependence on the irradiance corroborated

0 10 20 30 40 this result, since unlike the original single-diode model, the

Voltage [V]

modiﬁed one represented closely the measured data.

Fig. 5. Measured and simulated I–V curves for a monocrystalline module

at 150 W/m2. Acknowledgments

7. Conclusions (Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientı́ﬁco e

Tecnológico) and CAPES – Brazil (Coordenação de

The results obtained from the experiments agreed with Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nı́vel Superior).

previous studies published on the literature, conﬁrming

that the shunt resistance on the ﬁve-parameter model

References

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