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Rectifier is a device which converts AC to DC.
Now, it depends upon the percentage of rectification.
There are 3 types of rectifiers:
1. Half-wave rectifier
2. Full-wave rectifier
3. Bridge rectifier
A rectifier that rectifies only one half of each a.c. input
supply cycle is called a half-wave rectifier.
A rectifier that rectifies both halves of each a.c. input
cycle is called a full-wave rectifier. It can convert a.c to
d.c. approximately up to 85%. To make it 95% perfect I’ve
used a electrolytic capacitor(470mfd) as it filters the
current signal.
It also works on the principle that a junction diode offers
low resistance during forward bias and high resistance,
when reversed biased. Here, two junction diodes are
connected in such a manner that if one half cycle of a.c.
input is forward biased, the other gets reversed biased
but when the next opposite half cycle comes, the first
diode gets reverse biased and the second forward
biased. Thus, output is obtained during both the half
cycle of the a.c. input.
Full wave rectifier is constructed by using a step-down
transformer. When we input 220V a.c. cycle into the
primary coil, due to the electromagnetic induction and
also due to the reduced EDDY current, 220V is converted
into 6V low a.c. cycle. I’ve connected diodes D1 and D2
which is the most important part of this circuit. During
positive half cycle diode D1 is active as it is in forward
biased condition while D2 is inactive due to reverse
biased condition whereas the vice-versa condition
approaches during negative half- cycle. Since, in both the
cycles we receive a well filtered output and that to the
current moves in same direction through load resistance
R, therefore we get a d.c. graph.
Step-down transformer

We receive the voltage in the terminals across the load

resistance ‘R’.