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PETRONAS TECHNICAL STANDARDS

FIREPROOFING OF STEEL STRUCTURES

PTS 34.19.20.11

OCTOBER 2011

 2011 PETROLIAM NASIONAL BERHAD (PETRONAS)

All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system or transmitted in any form or by any means
(electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise) without the permission of the copyright owner.
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
Page 3

PREFACE

PETRONAS Technical Standards (PTS) publications reflect the views, at the time of publication,of
PETRONAS OPUs/Divisions.

They are based on the experience acquired during the involvement with the design, construction,
operation and maintenance of processing units and facilities. Where appropriate they are based on,
or reference is made to, national and international standards and codes of practice.

The objective is to set the recommended standard for good technical practice to be applied by
PETRONAS' OPUs in oil and gas production facilities, refineries, gas processing plants, chemical
plants, marketing facilities or any other such facility, and thereby to achieve maximum technical and
economic benefit from standardisation.

The information set forth in these publications is provided to users for their consideration and
decision to implement. This is of particular importance where PTS may not cover every requirement
or diversity of condition at each locality. The system of PTS is expected to be sufficiently flexible to
allow individual operating units to adapt the information set forth in PTS to their own environment and
requirements.

When Contractors or Manufacturers/Suppliers use PTS they shall be solely responsible for the
quality of work and the attainment of the required design and engineering standards. In particular, for
those requirements not specifically covered, it is expected of them to follow those design and
engineering practices which will achieve the same level of integrity as reflected in the PTS. If in
doubt, the Contractor or Manufacturer/Supplier shall, without detracting from his own responsibility,
consult the owner.

The right to use PTS rests with three categories of users:


1) PETRONAS and its affiliates.
2) Other parties who are authorised to use PTS subject to appropriate contractual arrangements.
3) Contractors/subcontractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers under a contract with users referred
to under 1) and 2) which requires that tenders for projects, materials supplied or - generally -
work performed on behalf of the said users comply with the relevant standards.

Subject to any particular terms and conditions as may be set forth in specific agreements with users,
PETRONAS disclaims any liability of whatsoever nature for any damage (including injury or death)
suffered by any company or person whomsoever as a result of or in connection with the use,
application or implementation of any PTS, combination of PTS or any part thereof. The benefit of this
disclaimer shall inure in all respects to PETRONAS and/or any company affiliated to PETRONAS
that may issue PTS or require the use of PTS.

Without prejudice to any specific terms in respect of confidentiality under relevant contractual
arrangements, PTS shall not, without the prior written consent of PETRONAS, be disclosed by
users to any company or person whomsoever and the PTS shall be used exclusively for the
purpose they have been provided to the user. They shall be returned after use, including any
copies which shall only be made by users with the express prior written consent of
PETRONAS.The copyright of PTS vests in PETRONAS. Users shall arrange for PTS to be held in
safe custody and PETRONAS may at any time require information satisfactory to PETRONAS in
order to ascertain how users implement this requirement.
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
1. INTRODUCTION ...................................................................................................... 5
1.1 SCOPE ..................................................................................................................... 5
1.2 DISTRIBUTION, APPLICABILITY AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS .......... 5
1.3 DEFINITIONS ........................................................................................................... 5
1.4 CROSS-REFERENCES ........................................................................................... 6
1.5 SUMMARY OF CHANGES SINCE PREVIOUS EDITION ........................................ 7
2. OBJECTIVES OF FIREPROOFING ......................................................................... 9
2.1 GENERAL ................................................................................................................ 9
2.2 FIRE SEVERITY ....................................................................................................... 9
2.3 FIRE RESISTANCE DURATION .............................................................................. 9
3. FIREPROOFING OF TYPI CAL EQUI PMENT AND STRUCTURES IN AN
FIRE PROTECTION ZONES .................................................................................. 10
3.1 STRUCTURES SUPPORTING EQUIPMENT AND PIPING ................................... 10
3.2 COLUMN AND VESSEL SKIRTS ........................................................................... 10
3.3 CABLES AND INSTRUMENTATION LOCATED WITHIN AN FPZ ......................... 10
3.4 PIPING AND EQUIPMENT ..................................................................................... 11
3.5 PROCESS UNIT PIPE RACKS AND PIPE SUPPORT COLUMNS ........................ 11
3.6 BUILDINGS ............................................................................................................ 11
4. MATERIAL R EQUIREMENTS / P ROPERTIES A ND INSTALLATION OF
FIREPROOFING SYSTEMS .................................................................................. 12
4.1 GENERAL .............................................................................................................. 12
4.2 CONCRETE FIREPROOFING ............................................................................... 13
4.3 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL FIREPROOFING ....................................................... 16
5. RE FERENCES ....................................................................................................... 19

APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE AFTER APPLICATION OF
FIREPROOFING ........................................................................................... 21
APPENDIX 2 TYPICAL DETAILS OF CONCRETE FIREPROOFING OF
STRUCTURAL MEMBERS ........................................................................... 22
APPENDIX 3 STRUCTURAL COLUMN DETAILS .............................................................. 23
APPENDIX 4 PIPERACK DETAILS..................................................................................... 24
APPENDIX 5 CONCRETE FIREPROOFING OF VESSEL SKIRTS .................................... 25
APPENDIX 6 CONCRETE FIREPROOFING OF VESSEL STRUCTURAL SUPPORT
LEGS ............................................................................................................. 26
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
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1. I NTRODUCTION

1.1 SCOPE
This PTS specifies requirements and gives recommendations for the design and
application/installation of passive fire protection (PFP or fireproofing) of steel. The extent of
fireproofing and PFP requirements shall be established on the basis of the requirements of
PTS 80.47.10.30 and a fire safety assessment executed for the particular plant or unit.
The zones where PFP are required are called Fire Protection Zones (FPZ). The extent of
the fireproofing around equipment and structures shall be indicated on layout and
construction drawings.
This PTS applies to steel supporting structures (and in some cases piping and equipment)
in process areas and processing plants as well as to storage facilities, jetties and pipe
bridges (including those outside the battery limits) in oil/gas/petrochemical installations.
This PTS is intended to ensure that the degree of fireproofing applied is effective and
practical in terms of maintainability and reduction of risks. As there is a wide variation in the
design of structures, the intent of this PTS shall be considered at all times when prescribing
the fireproofing of structures not specifically mentioned in (3).
This PTS is not applicable to jet fires.
This is a revision of the PTS of the same number dated January 2007; see (1.5) regarding
the changes.

1.2 DISTRIBUTION, APPLICABILITY AND REGULATORY CONSIDERATIONS


Unless otherwise authorised by Petronas, the distribution of this PTS is confined to
Petronas companies and, where necessary, to Contractors and Manufacturers/Suppliers
nominated by them.
This PTS is intended for use in oil refineries, chemical plants, gas plants, supply/distribution
installations and onshore exploration and production facilities.
If national and/or local regulations exist in which some of the requirements may be more
stringent than in this PTS, the Contractor shall determine by careful scrutiny which of the
requirements are the more stringent and which combination of requirements will be
acceptable with regard to the safety, environmental, economic and legal aspects. In all
cases the Contractor shall inform the Principal of any deviation from the requirements of
this PTS which is considered to be necessary in order to comply with national and/or local
regulations. The Principal may then negotiate with the Authorities concerned, the objective
being to obtain agreement to follow this PTS as closely as possible.
NOTE: National and/or local regulations for fire protection are generally intended for structures erected in
populated areas and may therefore be inappropriate for oil, gas and chemical plants, where the fire
loadings and risks are different.

1.3 DEFINITIONS
The Contractor is the party which carries out all or part of the design, engineering,
procurement, construction, commissioning or management of a project or operation of a
facility. The Principal may undertake all or part of the duties of the contractor.
The Ma nufacturer/Supplier is the party which manufactures or supplies equipment and
services to perform the duties specified by the Contractor.
The Principal is the party which initiates the project and ultimately pays for its design and
construction. The Principal will generally specify the technical requirements. The Principal
may also include an agent or consultant to act for, and on behalf of, the Principal.
The word shall indicates a requirement.
The word should indicates a recommendation.
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
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1.4 CROSS-REFERENCES
Where cross-references to other parts of this PTS are made, the referenced section
number is shown in brackets. Other documents referenced by this PTS are listed in (5).
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
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1.5 SUMMARY OF CHANGES SINCE PREVIOUS EDITION


The previous edition of this PTS was dated January 2007. Listed below are the main
changes.

Old section New section Change

Removed old section – Fire Proofing Zone (FPZ). Added a new section –
2.2 ---------
Fire Severity.

Removed old section - Resistance Against Fire. Added new section –


2.3 ---------
Fire Resistance Duration.

2.4 --------- Removed: Section regarding design considerations

3.1 ---------- Reworded section.

3.1.1 ---------- Deleted subheading.

3.2 ---------- Reworded section

3.2.1 ---------- Deleted subheading

3.3 ---------- Reworded section.

--------- 3.4 Added new section - Piping and Equipment

Added new section - Process Unit Pipe Racks and Pipe Support
--------- 3.5
Columns

--------- 3.6 Added new section - Buildings

4.1 ------------- Deleted text in general section

--------- 4.1.1 Added new section – Basic Materials.

--------- 4.1.2 Added new section - Corrosion Under Fireproofing

4.2 4.2 Changed: Title changed to Concrete Fireproofing

Removed: General fireproofing performance requirements


4.2.1 4.2.1
Added: Design of concrete fireproofing

----------- 4.2.1.1 Added new section – Environmental Controls

Moved: Section on proprietary fireproofing systems moved to 4.3


4.2.3 4.3
Changed: Title changed to Proprietary Material Fireproofing

--------- 4.2.3 Added: Concrete Fireproofing Installation

Added new section – Concrete Fireproofing Inspection and Testing


--------- 4.2.4
During Application.

4.2.4 4.2.5 Moved: Brickwork Fireproofing section moved to 4.2.5

continued…
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
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Old section New section Change

4.3 --------- Removed: Fireproofing Equipment Inside Buildings

--------- 4.3.1 Added: General section on proprietary material fireproofing

--------- 4.3.2 Added: Proprietary lightweight fireproofing systems

--------- 4.3.3 Added: Proprietary intumescent and subliming fireproofing systems

--------- 4.3.4 Added: Installation coordinator

--------- 4.3.5 Added: Inspection

4.4 --------- Deleted Section

4.5 --------- Deleted Section

5 --------- Deleted Section

Moved: References moved to Section 5

Added to American Standards and Industry Practices:


ACI 216.1/TMS-0216
ACI 318
6 5 ACI 506.2
ACI 506.3
ASTM A185
ASTM C33
ASTM C150
ASTM E119
API Publ 2218

Moved: Typical details of concrete fireproofing - solid encasement to


Appendix 1 Appendix 2
Appendix 3

Moved: Typical details - cover plates for weather protection to Appendix


Appendix 2 Appendix 3 3
Changed: Title changed to Structural Column Details

--------- Appendix 1 Added: Inspection and maintenance after application of fireproofing

--------- Appendix 4 Added: Pipe Rack Details

--------- Appendix 5 Added: Concrete Fireproofing of Vessel Skirts

--------- Appendix 6 Added: Fireproofing of Vessel Structural Support Legs


PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
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2. O BJECTIVES OF FIREPROOFING

2.1 GENERAL
Fireproofing is a measure intended to improve the fire resistance of structures that support
pressure vessels, piping and other equipment located in fire hazardous areas. Protection is
provided by the application of concrete or other approved insulating materials to structural
steel supports.
Fireproofing offers protection against the adverse thermal effects of fire for a defined period
and defined degree of exposure. It should not be considered as a replacement for active
fire fighting or lead to relaxation of normal design requirements (spacing and layout
considerations) and precautions in operation and maintenance.

2.2 FIRE SEVERITY


Unless otherwise specified the severity of the fire shall be based on hydrocarbon pool fires.
For hydrocarbon pool fire exposures, the fire temperature profile will be based on UL 1709.
The hydrocarbon fire test as defined in UL 1709 is applicable to all fireproofing systems
applied on steel supports and structures. This fire is more severe than the cellulose type of
fire which is usually referred to in building regulations. During the test a protected steel
column is exposed to a particular heat flux that produces a temperature of 1093 C
(2000 F). The test is terminated (failure point) when the average temperature of the steel
substrate reaches 538 C (1000 F).

2.3 FIRE RESISTANCE DURATION


The required protection time resulting from this and/or other local conditions shall be
established based on the requirements of PTS 80.47.10.30.
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3. FIREPROOFING OF TYPICAL EQUIPMENT AND STRUCTURES IN AN FIRE


PROTECTION ZONES

3.1 STRUCTURES SUPPORTING EQUIPMENT AND PIPING


The Principal shall determine which structural members within the FPZ are to be
fireproofed. The extent of fireproofing around equipment and structures shall be indicated
on layout and construction drawings. In addition to main support steel the Principal shall
consider the fireproofing of critical supports.
Fireproofing on pressure equipment legs or lugs shall not contact pressure retaining parts.
There shall be a 25 mm to 50 mm (1 in to 2 in) gap between the fireproofing and the
pressure retaining part.
Bolted moment connections of fireproofed main pipe rack bents may remain un-fireproofed
(exposed) when shop applied concrete fireproofing is specified and the unit has moderate
or lower fire risk. Size of fireproofing block outs around moment connections shall be
minimized if the block outs will remain exposed. The Contractor shall provide
weatherproofing details for all block outs that will remain open for approval by the Principal.
Members having only a bracing function should not be fireproofed since the load case
maximum wind/ earthquake is assumed not to coincide with the fire case. Bracing required
for load cases that are considered to be included with the base fire case as well as for
primary stability of the structure shall be fireproofed. Therefore diagonal bracing required
for lateral loads due solely to design wind or seismic activity, platform live loads, trolley
beams, etc. should not require fireproofing.

3.2 COLUMN AND VESSEL SKIRTS


Skirts of columns and vessels shall be fireproofed if they are located within the FPZ (as
identified in PTS 80.47.10.30 and the fire safety assessment). Fireproofing shall be directly
applied on skirts and vessel supports as indicated in (Appendix 5).
Concrete fireproofing shall be reinforced to prevent shrinkage cracks.
Fireproofing systems are susceptible to cracking due to fire or due to thermal stresses
caused by operating temperature differences between the skirt and the face of the
fireproofing.
To avoid cracking of normal weight concrete fireproofing due to operating temperatures the
skirt fireproofing shall stop well below the tangent line for hot or cold insulated vessels. See
(Appendix 6) for separation distances between the ring angle (drip angle) and the vessel
tangent line. Alternatively, heat transfer and thermal stress calculations shall be made to
where smaller separation distances are to be specified. The un-fireproofed portion of the
skirt shall be covered with fire-resistant insulation.
To avoid cracking of light-weight concrete and other proprietary fireproofing due to
operating temperatures the skirt fireproofing separation distance shall calculated. Heat
transfer and thermal stress calculations shall also determine the type and amount of
reinforcement required.

3.3 CABLES AND INSTRUMENTATION LOCATED WITHIN AN FPZ


For fireproofing of cables reference is made to PTS 80.47.10.30. Cables and
instrumentation located within an FPZ are normally not protected by fireproofing because
typically safety instrumentation is designed to fail in the safe position upon loss of power or
signal. See PTS 33.64.10.10. However, whenever fireproofing is required (e.g. for some
emergency shutdown and emergency depressuring valves), the cables (or cable enclosure)
and associated instrumentation (e.g., valves) shall be of a fireproof construction in
accordance with IEC 60331-21 (e.g. cables shall remain operable during a fire exposure
environment of at least 750 °C (1382 F) for a period of 90 minutes). Note that the Principal
shall provide the required performance standard in jurisdictions where the referenced IEC
code is not applicable,
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October 2011
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3.4 PIPING AND EQUIPMENT


Fire protection may also be required on piping, or equipment, to reduce the fire relief load
or reduce the likelihood of excessive pipe/equipment temperature and possible failure. For
further guidance reference is made to PTS 80.47.10.30. One method to provide this
protection is to use fire-resistant insulation with a steel or stainless steel metal jacket. Relief
design may take into account fireproofing of equipment (PTS 80.45.10.10). Reference is
also made in this respect to PTS 30.46.00.31.
Proprietary systems (4.3) such as intumescent coatings may be used with approval of the
Principal for uninsulated piping and equipment requiring this level of fire protection.

3.5 PROCESS UNIT PIPE RACKS AND PIPE SUPPORT COLUMNS


Piping supported from spring hangers or rods shall be protected against failure of the spring
hanger or rod by a fireproofed bracket or beam located beneath the pipe. Sufficient
clearance shall be provided between the beam and the pipe to permit free vertical
movement. Where, however, failure of the hanger rod will not lead to collapse of the piping,
these stops are not required (Appendix 4).

3.6 BUILDINGS
All enclosed buildings shall as a minimum follow the requirements of the local fire
regulations and building code. The fireproofing standards, methods and materials specified
in this PTS are applicable to buildings or enclosed structures containing process
equipment. Where industrial structures containing process equipments are not completely
covered in the local building code requirements and local fire regulations, this PTS shall
supplement the local requirements.
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4. MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS / PROPERTIES AND INSTALLATION OF FIREPROOFING


SYSTEMS

4.1 GENERAL
4.1.1 Ba sic Materials
The following should be considered when selecting fireproofing materials and an applicator:
 For new structures, reinforced concrete support columns and beams are preferable to
fireproofed steel because it is economical, robust, and it has been proven to be
effective.
 When there are significant economic incentives or physical limitations, then proprietary
materials may be used instead of concrete. The experience of the applicator shall be
assessed. The importance of surface preparation and correct application of proprietary
materials cannot be overstressed.
 If surface preparation requires blasting this may rule out the application of the material in
an operating plant.
 Flammable solvents used in the mixing of some proprietary materials shall be rigidly
controlled.
 The capacity of the structure to handle the weight of the fireproofing shall be assessed.
 Climatic conditions during installation may rule against the selection of certain materials.
The standard fireproofing material is normal weight concrete because of:
 Durability
 Availability
 Good pool fire protection
 Inherent torch fire protection
 No or minimum ongoing maintenance when applied correctly.
Proprietary fireproofing systems (4.3) may be used if approved by the Principal.
Mixed systems of approved proprietary fireproofing and normal weight concrete fireproofing
are acceptable.
The type of fireproofing material and its construction method shall be specified by the
Contractor and approved by the Principal.
Where proprietary materials are proposed Contractor shall provide the Principal with
calculations or other documentation demonstrating that the design will provide the specified
fire protection for approval.
The Principal shall specifically authorize the use of hollow box fireproofing designs where it
is envisioned that maintenance activities or personnel access requirements will not damage
the fireproofed member. Otherwise this design shall not be used.
4.1.2 Corrosion Under Fireproofing
1. Steel surfaces to be fireproofed shall be coated in accordance with approved coating
system (galvanized or paint) to prevent environmental corrosion.
2. Top side fireproofing/steel joint on vertical galvanized steel columns and horizontal
galvanized steel beams exposed to the weather shall be protected from moisture
ingress. For beams where the facility does not experience freeze/thaw cycles, and
where there is no prospect of standing water, galvanised steel shield requirement
maybe relaxed (refer sections in Appendix 2).
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3. Joint shall be protected with a continuously welded galvanized steel shield


(recommended in plants subject to severe freeze/thaw cycles). Shield shall be a
minimum of 3 mm (1/8 in) thick and shall have a drip lip.
4. For moisture ingress protection for fireproofing for structural steel, see (Appendix 3).
The corrosion protection shall be compatible with the fireproofing to be applied and
shall be in accordance with PTS 30.48.00.31-Gen.
5. Moisture ingress protection for fireproofing for non-galvanized steel equipment
supports (e.g., vessel skirts, and vessel support legs) shall be steel drip angles (3.2).
6. Penetrations through fireproofing, such as clips, attachments, etc., shall be sealed
with a polysulfide or other approved material, typically these need replacement every
5 to 10 years and need to be maintained.
7. Fireproofing should be applied monolithically where practical. The designer shall
consider appropriate fireproofing block-outs for assembly and for expected
attachments. Where welding of fixtures to the surfaces after the application of the
fireproofing is required, the materials and procedures used shall be approved by the
Principal.

4.2 CONCRETE FIREPROOFING


4.2.1 Design of Concrete Fireproofing
Concrete is the most commonly used fireproofing material for protection of general
structural steel in process plants. Prefabricated or reinforced concrete structures or
supports may be considered as a cheaper alternative to fireproofed structural steel. This
may sometimes be the case for prefabricated pipe racks, depending on material and labour
costs, availability of fabrication yards and means of transport.
The application of reinforced concrete elements or structures supporting equipment or pipe
racks located in the FPZ shall be considered as an alternative to fireproofed steel, if
economically attractive. Any assessments in this respect shall take into account lifecycle
costs. However, the use of pre-stressed or post tensioned concrete elements for this
purpose is not permitted within hydrocarbon processing plants.
A normal weight concrete with a minimum thickness of 50 mm (2 in) (se Appendix 2)
applied on structural and supporting steel in accordance with this PTS can provide a
protection to the underlying steel during a hydrocarbon fire lasting 90 minutes according to
UL 1709.
4.2.1.1 Environmental Controls
A topcoat is normally not required for concrete fireproofing surfaces, but it can be beneficial
depending on the environment.
1. Weatherproofing is not required for concrete surfaces. For proprietary systems, a
flexible membrane coating or sealant may be required depending on local
circumstances and manufacturer’s recommendations.
2. The top of fireproofing shall be protected by cover plates continuously welded to the
steel structure in order to prevent ingress of rainwater between the members and the
fireproofing as shown in (Appendix 2) and (Appendix 3). In mild or non-corrosive
conditions mastic sealants may be used in lieu of cover plates with the approval of
the Principal. Steel Columns shall be protected by a 2 mill (minimum) thick Glass
Reinforced Epoxy (GRE) (also known as Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP) fabric
adhered to concrete and steel surfaces as shown in (Appendix 3). The GRE material
selection shall be in accordance with PTS 30.10.02.13 and it shall be approved by
the Principal.
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4.2.2 Concrete Fireproofing


Concrete fireproofing shall be Grade 30 or higher in accordance with BS 8110. Protection
of structural members is normally achieved by solid encasement (see Appendix 3).
However, if more economical, the fireproofing may be applied by casting or gunning
provided that quality, durability and thickness requirements are met.
4.2.3 Concrete Fireproofing Installation
Adequate ventilation shall be provided during and after application until the materials are
dry.
4.2.3.1 Quality Control
The preparation for, and the placing of, fireproofing material shall be supervised and
inspected during application by trained and experienced personnel. Particular attention
shall be paid to the following:
1. The condition of the steel surfaces to be fireproofed;
2. The quality and placing of mesh reinforcement;
3. The quality and application of the fireproofing material;
4. The joints between steel work and fireproofing where exposed to the weather;
5. Weatherproofing, where required.
NOTE : 1. Protection against heavy rain, frost and other extreme weather conditions shall be provided
during the application of fireproofing.
2. In extremely dry and hot conditions, appropriated measures shall be taken to keep fire
proofing moist until set. Measures such as screening the work area from radian sunlight and
wrapping the finished work may be required, depending on the severity of the ambient
conditions.

The following documents shall be approved by Principal prior to the start of any application
of fireproofing:
1. Inspection and Test plan (ITP)
2. Quality control procedures, including Quality Control Records (QCRs)
3. Erection plan, including method statements covering application methods, temporary
facilities to be installed for application and Health Safety Environment (HSE) aspects
4. Materials and workmanship specifications.
The applicator shall establish an inspection system to perform inspections and tests
required to assure compliance with the requirements. Completed QCRs shall be handed
over to the Principal before acceptance of the work
4.2.3.2 Surface Preparation
1. Loose dirt, oil and grease present on the surface shall be removed to ensure
good adhesion of the fireproofing to the primed or galvanized steel.
2. The primer shall be compatible with the fireproofing to be applied.
4.2.3.3 Mesh Reinforcement
1. Mesh reinforcement shall be wrapped around the steel section and retained firmly
by clips. Welded clips shall be pre-fabricated, attached to steel and galvanized
per steel supplier. Field stud welding requires approval of the principal. Overlaps
shall be at least 50 mm (2 in) and shall be wired at approximately 150 mm (6 in)
intervals.
2. The minimum cover applied on any wire mesh installed shall be 25 mm (1 in)
3. The longitudinal overlap shall be in the web face, and all overlaps shall be
staggered so that no more than three layers of mesh are present at any one point.
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4. If spacers are required between the mesh and the steel surface (to keep the
mesh in position during application of the fireproofing material) concrete spacer
blocks may be considered as a cheaper alternative for studs welded to the
steelwork.
5. Reinforcement material used in normal weight concrete fireproofing shall be
galvanized steel. In less severe conditions(e.g. dry arid climates outside the
influence of cooling towers) or where specific site experience prove otherwise the
Principal may consider the use of non-galvanized steel wire mesh and ties.
6. Reinforcing mesh shall be 50 mm x 50 mm x 2.5 mm (min) [2 in x 2 in x 12 BWG
(British Wire Gage)] welded galvanized steel fabric ASTM A 185. In mild or non-
corrosive conditions non galvanized steel mesh may be used in lieu of galvanized
mesh with the approval of the Principal.
4.2.3.4 Proportioning
1. Cast-in-place concrete proportioning shall conform to BS 8110 or local design
code and standard.
2. Shotcrete proportioning shall conform to ACI 506.2 or applicable local design
code and standard.
3. Concrete shall be proportioned so that it develops a compressive strength of
between 21 MPa (3000 psi) and 30 MPa ( 4500 psi) at 28 days with a maximum
aggregate size of 10 mm (3/8 inches). Higher grades are not recommended due
to spalling.
4. Concrete mix shall include an air-entraining admixture if concrete is expected to
be exposed to freezing conditions.
4.2.3.5 Shotcrete
1. Installation of shotcrete shall conform to ACI 506.2, this PTS and applicable local
design code and standard.
2. Surface shall be troweled smooth after installation where required by Principal.
3. Shotcrete nozzlemen shall be certified in accordance with ACI 506.3 or an
equivalent local standard.
4.2.4 Concrete Fireproofing Inspection and Testing During Application
4.2.4.1 Cast-in-Place Concrete
1. Testing shall conform to BS 8110 or applicable local design code and standard.
3
2. One set of test cylinders / cubes shall be made for every 40 m (50 cu. yds.) of
concrete (i.e. daily testing is not required). The Principal shall select the mixes to be
tested.
3. Slump shall be measured for every batch on every mix.
4.2.4.2 Shotcrete
1. Evaluation shall conform to ACI 506.4 or applicable local design code and standard
2. Test panels shall be 450 mm (18 in) long sections taken from shotcrete installed on
the smallest structural member.
3. If shotcrete is to be installed on vessel skirts only, test panels shall be
450 mm x 450 mm (18 in x 18 in) squares.
4. One panel shall be tested (in addition to the qualification work) for each nozzleman,
for each 40 m3 (50 cu. yds.) of shotcrete placed (i.e. daily testing is not required).
4.2.5 Bri ckwork Fireproofing
Common types of brickwork are sometimes used for fireproofing column and vessel skirts
(See Standard Drawing S 20.002). However, for large and/or high skirts, proprietary
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
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systems or concrete (site applied by means of the guniting method) may offer a less
expensive alternative if labour rates are high, provided a qualified Contractor is available.

4.3 PROPRIETARY MATERIAL FIREPROOFING


4.3.1 G eneral
Proprietary fireproofing systems offer weight saving compared with normal weight concrete
fireproofing. This aspect is important in the case of modular construction and/or installation
of fully dressed assemblies with fireproofed skirts. Proprietary systems may also be more
economical for the fireproofing of large/high column and vessel skirts if labour costs for the
alternative concrete or brickwork are high. However, the material cost for proprietary
fireproofing systems is typically substantially higher than with concrete.
Proprietary fireproofing systems may be recommended by the Contractor if they meet the
following requirements:
1. The proprietary fireproofing design shall be UL 1709 listed for structural steel
fireproofing applications or equivalent local code.
2. The Contractor shall review the recommendations in this PTS regarding
proprietary materials and provide documentation confirming conformance.
3. For equipment / pipe fireproofing, the proprietary fireproofing design shall have fire
test certification (e.g., Lloyd's Register, NORSOK, etc.). The Contractor shall
specify and ascertain that for this specific application the following additional
requirements apply:
a. Define the end point metal temperature for the fire exposed piping/equipment.
The maximum metal temperature corresponding to end of the specified fire
duration shall be specified. This temperature shall be is less than the 538 C
(1000 F) end point temperature used for structural steel.
b. Assess how external inspections of the pipe/equipment will be conducted (i.e.
will the material interfere with non-destructive metal thickness measurements
or will inspection ports be required?)
c. Confirm that the maximum expected piping/equipment operating temperature
is within the design operating range of the proprietary fireproofing material.
NOTE: Some proprietary fireproofing materials have a maximum operating temperature of
82 C (180 F). In these cases steam-out of such equipment would not be permitted.

d. Confirm that the ambient environment (e.g., temperature, humidity, and


weather protection) can be controlled within the manufacturer's specifications
during the application and cure. This can be a challenge for field application on
large equipment.
e. Determine if torch (jet) fire criteria will be specified by the Principal.
f. If thermal insulation is required for process reasons, this shall be installed over
the proprietary fireproofing (Installing insulation under fireproofing introduces
the risk of corrosion).
4. The system has a proven track record, demonstrating durability under normal
climatic conditions of at least 15 years without major problems or excessive
maintenance. When applied in special climates such as sub-tropical, tropical, sub-
arctic, arctic etc., the system concerned shall have demonstrated suitability for at
least 10 years without problems or excessive maintenance.
5. A weatherproof topcoat is normally required for most proprietary systems, and may
only be omitted with approval of Principal. This weatherproof topcoat must typically
be maintained if the performance is to be guaranteed. Any expected maintenance
costs shall be included in the life cycle costs when comparing alternatives.
6. The system is asbestos-free.
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
Page 17

7. The system shall not cause corrosion of the steel work when exposed to the
expected ambient conditions (e.g. freeze/thaw or moisture).
8. The toxicity of off-gasses and excessive production of smoke from the fire exposed
proprietary fireproofing shall be assessed for applications where fireproofed
equipment or structures are located indoors.
9. A quality assurance program is established to verify the application complies with
specifications. This is particularly important for epoxy based fireproofing materials.
10. The installation is carried out by qualified applicators (approved by the
manufacturer) using equipment (approved by the Manufacturer) and is applied per
the Manufacturer's procedures or project specific specifications, whichever is more
stringent.
11. The surface preparation and any priming of the steel shall be per the
Manufacturer's requirements.
4.3.2 Proprietary Light Weight Fireproofing Systems
Light-weight cement/vermiculite based fireproofing materials may be considered where
weight of fireproofing is a significant issue. These materials offer good fire protection
performance. However because of the addition of vermiculate, these materials are not as
impact resistant as concrete.
Light-weight cement/vermiculate fireproofing may be used for structural steel fireproofing
applications.
This fireproofing material shall not be used for vessel skirts, or piping or equipment
fireproofing unless approved by the Principal.
Weather protection (e.g. a top coating) may be required.
4.3.3 Proprietary Intumescent and Sublimating Fireproofing Systems
Proprietary fireproofing systems are often selected to reduce weight (e.g. for prefabricated
equipment, assemblies or modular units) or to reduce costs due to faster application.
Proprietary systems shall be subject to Principal’s approval.
Typical proprietary systems include:
 Intumescent coatings, which expand and form an insulating, layer when the
temperature increases.
 Subliming mastic materials
4.3.4 I nstallation and Preparation
The installation contractor and the application equipment to be used shall be certified by the
manufacturer of the fireproofing material and shall have prior experience with the material
to be installed.
For proprietary systems, the following apply:
1. Fireproofing material shall be installed in accordance with the manufacturer's
instructions/specifications and this PTS.
2. Surfaces on which material will be installed shall be clean, dry and free of oil and
other contaminants immediately prior to material installation.
3. Surfaces shall be prepared by abrasive blast cleanings and priming systems,
applied per specifications and manufacturer recommendations.
4. Overcoat shall be installed if required by the material manufacturer.
5. Suitable precautions shall be taken to terminate the fireproofing surface evenly and
without overspray above the termination line.
6. Material overspray on adjacent piping, equipment, etc. shall be avoided.
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
Page 18

7. The entire thickness of the material shall be installed in one continuous operation
unless prohibited by manufacturer's instructions.
8. Construction activities shall be restricted for a minimum of 24 hours in areas where
materials that require curing have been installed and are vulnerable to mechanical
damage prior to curing.
9. Damage to the material shall be repaired after construction activities in the area
are finished.
4.3.5 I nspection
A non-destructive testing device or method shall be used to determine the required
thickness gauge.
1. Frequent random thickness measurements of the material shall be taken during
application to ensure correct thickness.
2. Final thickness shall be measured with an approved thickness gage after a
minimum of 48 hours has elapsed.
3. Epoxy-based proprietary systems may be very sensitive to ambient conditions
and product ratios. Testing prior to and during application is required. A detailed
inspection and testing plan shall be developed.
Application work shall be subject to inspection and approval by the Principal and material
manufacturer.
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
Page 19

5. RE FERENCES

In this PTS, reference is made to the following publications:


NOTES: Unless specifically designated by date, the latest edition of each publication shall be used, together
with any amendments/supplements/revisions thereto.

PETRONAS STANDARDS
Index to PTS publications and standard PTS 00.00.05.05
specifications

Index to Standard Drawings PTS 00.00.06.06


Protective Coatings & Lining PTS 30.48.00.31-P
Assessment of fire safety of onshore installations PTS 80.47.10.30
Electrical engineering design PTS 33.64.10.10
Standard Drawing: Skirts with fire-proof protection S 20.002

AMERICAN STANDARDS
Code Requirements for Determining Fire Resistance of ACI 216.1/TMS-0216
Concrete and Masonry Construction Assemblies
Building Code Requirements for Structural Concrete ACI 318
Specification for Materials, Proportioning, and Application of ACI 506.2
Shotcrete
Guide to Certification of Shotcrete Nozzlemen ACI 506.3
Guide to the Evaluation of Shotcrete ACI 506.4
Issued by:
American Concrete Institute (ACI)
P.O. Box 9094
Farmington Hills, MI 48333
USA

Standard Specification for Steel Welded Wire Fabric, Plain, ASTM A 185
for Concrete Reinforcement
Standard Specification for Concrete Aggregates ASTM C 33
Specification for Portland Cement ASTM C 150
Fire Tests of Building Construction and Materials ASTM E 119
Issued by:
American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM)
ASTM International;
100 Barr Harbor Drive
P.O. Box C700
West Conshohocken, PA 19428
USA

UL Fire Resistance Directory: Fire Resistance Ratings UL 1709


Issued by:
Underwriters Laboratories Inc.
333, Pfingsten Rd.,
Northbrook IL60062
USA
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
Page 20

Fireproofing Practices in Petroleum & Petrochemical API PUBL 2218


Processing Plants
Issued by:
API Publishing Services
1220 L Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20005
USA

BRITISH STANDARDS
Structural use of concrete BS 8110
Issued by:
British Standards Institution
389 Chiswick High Road
London W4 4AL
UK

INTERNATIONAL STANDARDS
Tests for electric cables under fire conditions - Circuit IEC 60331-21
integrity - Part 21: Procedures and requirements - Cables of
rated voltage up to and including 0.6/1.0 kV
Issued by:
Central Office of the IEC
3, Rue de Varembé
CH 1211 Geneva 20
Switzerland
Copies can also be obtained from national standards organizations.
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
Page 21

APPENDIX 1 INSPECTION AND MAINTENANCE AFTER APPLICATION OF


FIREPROOFING

Inspections on fireproofing may be carried out every 3 to 10 years, depending on exposure


conditions, the age of the plant and type of fireproofing applied.
Corrosion Under Fireproofing (CUF) can occur, especially if rainwater gets between the
fireproofing and underlying steel. Regular inspection is required to prevent serious
corrosion, especially on critical column and vessel skirts.
For concrete fireproofing to adequately perform its function the fireproofing concrete shall
be without cracks, honeycombs, delamination, or spalling.
Attention shall be paid to the following:
 Surface cracking/distortion/deterioration
 Blockage of ventilation holes of weep holes by debris
 Absence of and/or deterioration of rain shields
 Exposure to contamination such as salt water of chemical spill
 Heat and/or fire damage.
 Growth of fungus especially on cold column or vessel skirts.
Depending on the outcome of the inspections it maybe decided to remove the fireproofing
locally to assess the condition of equipment supports, skirts or structural steel. In this case,
it is recommended to include the toe section of fireproofed skirts, the annular ring of the
base plate and the anchor bolts in the inspections.
Non-destructive testing of column and vessel skirts underneath fireproofing may be
performed by means of the Pulsed Eddy Current (PEC) method.
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
Page 22

APPENDIX 2 TYPICAL DETAILS OF CONCRETE FIREPROOFING OF STRUCTURAL


MEMBERS
PTS 34.19.20.11
October 2011
Page 23

APPENDIX 3 STRUCTURAL COLUMN DETAILS


APPENDIX 4 PIPERACK DETAILS
APPENDIX 5 CONCRETE FIREPROOFING OF VESSEL SKIRTS
APPENDIX 6 CONCRETE FIREPROOFING OF VESSEL STRUCTURAL SUPPORT LEGS

Last page of this PTS