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EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.

WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY


C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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BIOLOGICAL PLANT
OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL

EUROPROGETTI S.r.l. – WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY


C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
CONTACT E-mail: silvanostorti48@gmail.com
INFORMATION:
info@europrogetti-italy.it
Tel. (+39) 049 6988432 Fax. (+39) 049 8702422
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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Dear Customer,

Thank you for choosing a product manufactured by "Europrogetti Srl”. IItt is our pleasure to
give this instruction manual that will allow you to use our product in an optimal way,
ensuring a good performance.

We invite you to read carefully the recommendations we give in these pages and to make
employees
the manual available to the emp loyees who deal with the management and maintenance
of the plant.

Europrogetti is at your disposal to clarify all inquiries you may have during the
commissioning phase and at any time the plant is in use.

with
Europrogetti is available to provide your staff wit h any assistance and spare parts
whenever it becomes necessary to carry out routine or unexpected maintenance.

Best wishes for you and your company.

Sincerely,

Srl
Europrogetti S rl

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Rev. 00 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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INDEX
INDEX
1 GENERAL INFORMATION .................................................................................................................. 5
2 SAFETY ................................................................................................................................................... 6
2.1 SAFETY STANDARDS AND SIGNALS....................................................................................... 6
2.1.1 Terms and symbols relating to security .................................................................................................. 6
2.1.2 Safety Signs and Symbols Standards ..................................................................................................... 7
2.2 PROTECTION AGAINST OTHER HAZARDS ............................................................................. 9
2.2.1 Protection of risks due to electricity ........................................................................................................ 9
2.2.2 Protection of risks due to pneumatic system........................................................................................... 9
2.2.3 Risks from contact with acids and / or aggressive chemicals ................................................................. 9
2.2.4 Protection against explosion hazards ................................................................................................... 10
2.2.5 Protection from hazards due to noise ................................................................................................... 10
2.3 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS .......................................................................................................... 11
2.4 SECURITY NORMS WITH MACHINERY.................................................................................. 13
3 WATER TREATMENT PLANT DESCRIPTION .................................................................................. 14
3.1 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT DESCRIPTION ............................................................................ 14
3.1.1 Screening and lifting: ............................................................................................................................ 14
3.1.2 Storage and homogenization: ............................................................................................................... 15
3.1.3 Neutralization:....................................................................................................................................... 15
3.1.4 Cooling of the water .............................................................................................................................. 15
3.1.5 Biological oxidation ............................................................................................................................... 16
3.1.6 Sedimentation....................................................................................................................................... 17
3.1.7 Sludge recycling station ........................................................................................................................ 17
3.1.8 Excess sludge storage and thickening.................................................................................................. 17
4 OPERATING PHILOSOPHY ....................................................................................................................... 18
4.1 ELECTRICAL BOARD ............................................................................................................... 19
4.2 OPERATOR INTERFACE ......................................................................................................... 19
5 BEFORE STARTING UP .................................................................................................................... 21
6 START UP OF THE PLANTS’ ACTIVE SLUDGE ............................................................................... 22
7 MANAGEMENT, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE .............................................................................. 26
7.1 PERSONNEL ............................................................................................................................. 26
7.1.1 Numerically sufficient personnel ........................................................................................................... 27
7.1.2 Adequately prepared personnel ............................................................................................................ 28
7.2 CHECK POINTS AND FACTORS ............................................................................................. 28
7.2.1 Parameters ........................................................................................................................................... 28
7.2.2 Substances ........................................................................................................................................... 30
7.2.3 Activated sludge process regime control .............................................................................................. 30
7.2.4 Laboratory test ...................................................................................................................................... 33
7.3 PERIODICAL CONTROLS DURING MANAGEMENT .............................................................. 37
7.3.1 Daily controls ........................................................................................................................................ 37
7.3.2 Weekly controls .................................................................................................................................... 37
7.3.3 Monthly control ..................................................................................................................................... 39
7.3.4 Controls every four months: .................................................................................................................. 40
7.3.5 Controls every year............................................................................................................................... 40
7.3.6 Controls every two years ...................................................................................................................... 43
7.3.7 Controls every three years .................................................................................................................... 43
7.4 PLANT OPERATION WRITTEN RECORDS ............................................................................. 43
7.5 MAINTENANCE ......................................................................................................................... 46
8 TROUBLE SHOOTING ....................................................................................................................... 49
8.1 THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE ....................................................................................................... 49
8.2 FINE BUBBLE AERATION - SEARCH OF BREAKDOWN ....................................................... 52
8.3 SUBMERGED PUMPS .............................................................................................................. 53

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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8.3.1 The pump does not start. ...................................................................................................................... 54


8.3.2 The pump starts, but the thermal protection intervenes. ....................................................................... 55
8.3.3 The pump does not stop. ...................................................................................................................... 56
8.3.4 The pump starts and stops too frequently ............................................................................................. 57
8.3.5 The pump works, but the flow is scarce or null ..................................................................................... 57

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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1 GENERAL INFORMATION
This manual contains general and specific information concerning the operation and maintenance of
Biological Plant.

All information required for the use, operation, maintenance and management of the water
treatment plant is found inside this manual. The manual has been developed in order to
provide proper support to the plant staff. Therefore, all procedures needed to approach
and resolve an emergency or problem, are presented throughout the different units.
Consequently, after the execution of the proposed activities, actions and procedures
described in the manual, an optimization of the performance and functioning of the
biological plant will be obtained.

It should be emphasized in this introductory note that there are some regulations and / or
specific configurations that can be performed only in the field and, therefore, they are
provided during the commissioning phase by Europrogetti’s staff:

• An internal inspection to check correct installation.


• The equipment testing and recording of data.
• An electrical control system in general.
• The establishment of staff training on the operation and maintenance of the treatment
plant.

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This manual should not be copied, destroyed or modified, you should only add additional parties. 5
Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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2 SAFETY
2.1 SAFETY
SAFETY STANDARDS AND SIGNALS
Europrogetti recommends a careful reading of this handbook and the absolute observance
of the safety and accident prevention standards hereby explained. The failure to observe
these recommendations makes Europrogetti free from any responsibility and/or liability.

The correct application of the safety standards according to each country’s security codes
is ensured by the technical competence and professional experience of the staff in charge.
The tasks of carriage, installation, use and maintenance of the different components or
parts of the water treatment plant must be carried out by properly trained personnel. This
will help avoid damages and problems to people and machinery.

In order to ensure accident prevention, Europrogetti recommends the following indications


here below with great accuracy:
Before any maintenance intervention or repair on any specific component with Alternated
Drive, it is necessary to be sure that the power and electrical source to the machines are
off. It is very important to make sure that no one may accidentally restart the electric
feeding to the machines, while the assigned staff is working on them.
The access to the water treatment plant must be forbidden to unauthorized personnel by
using appropriate signs.
If the safety protection signs need to be removed for a repair or maintenance intervention,
they must be placed back in their right position before using the installations again.
The adhesive and not adhesive signals placed on the machines are to be kept, clean and
very visible. If it should be necessary to replace them due to damage, the staff shall care to
do it promptly by making use of equivalent signals.
The present handbook must be kept and consulted at the right time when it should be
necessary.

2.1.1 Terms and symbols relating to security


The terms and symbols that will be used in this manual are:
DANGER ZONE is an area, in or near the machines, where the presence of an exposed
person determines a risk to the safety and health of the person itself.
EXPOSED PERSON is the person wholly or partially in a danger zone.
OPERATORS: persons responsible for installing, operating, adjusting, performing routine
maintenance and cleaning the machine, each one within the limits of the tasks that are
assigned.

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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This manual uses symbols to highlight specific texts. The functions of each symbol are
explained below:

ATTENTION: Failure to respect the safety warnings could lead to accident or


injury.
WARNING: Indicates a hazardous condition for the machine and/or
components and/or the product being processed. Important details which must
be respected for correct assembly and operation.
CAUTION: Additional information and/or requirements to ensure safety during
the operation.

2.1.2 Safety Signs and Symbols Standards


Safety signs and symbols consist of messages, words and pictorial symbols with different
meaning and each color reflects a specific meaning.
The triangle indicates caution (potential hazards) or warning (definite hazards).
The circle reflects mandatory or recommended actions, which are normally used to depict
mandatory or recommended actions.
Square or rectangle shows information, i.e. general information and emergency
information (first aid, fire hazard).
Circle with a 45° diagonal slash across the middle from the upper left to the lower right:
points out forbidden or prohibited actions.

The colors used in workplace safety signs and symbols are red, yellow, blue and green.
Red color is used in emergency devices like firefighting equipment, to emphasize unsafe or
forbidden actions.
Yellow color notifies workers to take precaution and be alerted of hazards, reducing
necessary risks.
Blue color shows a particular action or behavior, for example instruction to wear personal
protective equipment.
Green color designates the location of emergency measures like first aid kits, evacuation
routes, fire exits, escape ladders, or assembling point.

ATTENTION: The principal Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) must be worn on


the water treatment plant, especially where the safety signals are present. Refer to
Table 1.

Table 1 Safety signs and symbol standards.

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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Symbol Meaning

Look out! (Safety alert)

Attention: Danger electric shock risk

Machine hazard.

Danger Corrosive liquids.

Prohibition to remove the safety devices.

Prohibition to operate machineries on movement.

No access for unauthorized persons.

Hearing protection must be worn.

Protective clothing must be worn.

Respiration system protection must be worn.

Glove hand protection.

Stopping all machinery before maintenance.

Do not touch

No smoking on this site

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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Symbol Meaning

Hot surface. Wear protective gloves

Attention Overhead loads

2.2 PROTECTION AGAINST OTHER HAZARDS


HAZARDS
2.2.1 Protection of risks due to electricity
The design of the electrical system in the panel control and on the machine ensures the
prevention of risks related to electricity, particularly the power connection, the protection
circuit linkages and the quality and disposition of the components.

ATTENTION: PLEASE NOTE, THE PLANT’S MACHINERY IS NOT PROTECTED


IN CASE OF ATMOSPHERE AT RISK OF EXPLOSION.

2.2.2 Protection of risks due to pneumatic system


The air supply line, at the costumer charge, shall be equipped with a check valve of low
pressure, in order to be activated when the air pressure is below the minimum threshold of
4 atmospheres. This ensures the air pressure for the machinery of the treatment plant is
available.

2.2.3 Risks from contact with acids


acids and / or
or aggressive chemicals
There remains a risk of contact with acids and/or aggressive chemicals during the loading
of storage tanks on the same plant at the reagent and recovery zone. Please pay particular
attention during the adjustment, maintenance and processing of dosing groups.

ATTENTION: It is forbidden to perform operations on dosing groups without having


first put the machinery in "maintenance condition".
The use of Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is mandatory before performing
maintenance operations on dosing pump groups or procedures of filling up tanks.
Equipment such as gloves, face shield, breathing mask, and protective clothing
should be worn at all times.
Follow the instructions on the product safety data sheets before handling products
used in the plant. The safety data sheets for the chemicals should be obtained from
the product supplier.

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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In water treatment, the most dangerous is chloro-gas. In small-medium plants just for this
tends to be substituted with sodium hypochlorite. Nonetheless, sodium hypochlorite, quick
lime, acids, various inorganic coagulants need special attention due to their offensive
characteristics.

ATTENTION: In case harmful chemical products would come into contact with the
eyes:
Rinse immediately with plenty of running water for 15 minutes, keeping the eyelids
well open.
Contact an oculist.
In case harmful chemical products would come into contact with the skin:
Take off the contaminated clothes.
Wash the skin with water and soap.
If necessary consult a doctor.

IMPORTANT NOTE:
The procedures of filling up a tank must be made using the loading pump of
chemicals that the supplier will make available. The transfer chemicals pipeline
must have a shutoff valve to the termination of the load.
The suppliers of the chemical products are able to provide all necessary information.
When chemical products, such as hydrochloric acid, sulphuric acid and caustic
soda, must be watered down the reactive chemicals should always be poured into
the diluted water, in small quantities a time.
The water should never be poured into the reactive chemicals as it leads to a violent
reaction which can harm the operator.
The mixture of different chemical products at any phase can result in violent and
toxic reactions

2.2.4 Protection
Protection against
against explosion hazards
WARNING: The different components and machines of the water treatment plant
ARE NOT MADE WITH EXPLOSION ARRANGEMENT, but their setting up is
standard.
THEN, THEY MUST NOT BE INSTALLED AND MADE THEM WORK IN LOCAL
SITUATIONS IN WHICH THERE ARE SITUATIONS WITH POTENTIALLY RISK
TO EXPLOSIVE ATMOSPHERES.

2.2.5 Protection from hazards due to noise


The entire components and machines of the water treatment plant, in normal use, do not
cause risk of:

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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Hearing damage.
Voltage and/or fatigue due to noise.

The sound pressure level is less than 83 dB (A).


WARNING: If you change the material or functioning conditions, the noise levels will
be changed.

Remember, after 85 dB (A) the following must be adopted:


Personal Protective Equipment such as headphones or plugs.
Soundproof wall.

Any unusual noises can reveal mechanical problems such as loose belts. It is important to
take action by following the maintenance instructions (see chap. 7.5 "Maintenance") if the
noise persists. Contact the manufacturer or service center indicated on the front pages of
this manual.

WARNING: In case of fire, the dry powder extinguisher should be used. Please, do
not direct water jets against the electrical system: they may cause short circuits.
In the case of a shutdown that is not immediate, pay attention to the possible loss of
operating fluid.

Remember that a prudent operator, in good physical and mental conditions, is the best
insurance against industrial accidents.

WARNING: It is recommended that the hazard symbols and signal are always kept
clean and in good condition. They may be replaced by new ones whenever
necessary.

2.3 SAFETY PRECAUTIONS


The safety precautions are measures of hygienically character for the assigned personnel
to management.
Whenever there is a large quantity of pathogen microorganisms in sewage and sludge the
personnel assigned to management must adopt every hygienic precaution aimed to
minimize the risk of disease. Unfortunately, it has been ascertained that in many cases
sewage and sludge are manipulated without any wariness, not realizing the danger of this
material’s composition.

WARNING: It is necessary to avoid the direct contact with sewage and sludge,
particularly when the operator has a wound or abrasion on his skin.
IMPORTANT NOTE: The use of gloves must be mandatory. A change of clothes
and a shower each time after ending work must also be a required procedure.

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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CAUTION: It is convenient to place a poster with the directions and safety signals in
different zones of the treatment plant in proximity of the machinery locations. Along
with these signals, a table indicating all periodical maintenance operations should
be posted. This kind of measure will avoid accidents, especially in the case of
desultorily visits.
The use of masks to protect the respiratory organs, near the aeration tanks are
recommended, aimed, on behalf of the personnel, will always be very advisable.
WARNING: If contaminated water should reach the eyes, it is necessary to wash out
immediately and abundantly with water. In the case of abrasion always disinfect.
All personnel must be vaccinated at least with anti-typhoid fever and anti-tetanus
shots aside from specific vaccinations needed in case of particular disease risks.
The vaccination against poliomyelitis can also be suitable.
The necessary hygienic precautions are recommended: ample availability of
pressured water in different points of the plant's area, especially near the chemical
reagents, and availability of washbasins for the personnel’s hygiene.
WARNING: Intervention in closed structures, especially underground, requires
maximum attention to dangers of:
Scarcity of oxygen, absorbed particularly by biological fermentation of the organic
substances.
Presence of poisonous gas particularly hydrogen sulphite and carbon monoxide,
also carbon anhydride if present in elevated concentrations.
Presence of inflammable gas, particularly methane, hydrogen sulphite, and other
volatile hydrocarbon that might be present in sludge of anaerobic plants.
In closed structures, the use of an oxygen analyser to check beforehand the internal
atmosphere is necessary. There are also specific devices for hydrogen sulphite and
carbon monoxide surveying. It is indispensable to provide prolonged ventilation.
In the normal atmosphere, the oxygen concentration is about 21% in weight.
Humans tolerate minimum concentrations of 12%; below 7% can result in death due
to asphyxia. However, it is pertinent that each time entering a closed room, the
oxygen percentage must be controlled. The oxygen concentration should never be
below 19%.

When working on closed structures exceeding the depth of 3 m, a security belt must
be worn and at least two men must be available on the outside, able to immediately
extract the operator in difficulty. In some cases, it is necessary to use suitable
means to guarantee breathing to the operator. If there is an adequate oxygen
concentration in the room’s atmosphere, but there is a minimal risk of presence of
toxic gases such us carbon monoxide, carbon anhydride and chlorine, anti-gas
masks may be worn. If there is no risk of presences of toxic gases, the use of an
anti-gas mask would be unnecessary. In these operations, use of open flames
should be absolutely prohibited.

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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Hydrogen sulphite, in concentration above 0,2%, provokes death, due to paralysis of


the respiratory organs within a few minutes. Carbon monoxide, with concentrations
above 0,2%, provokes unconsciousness in approximately 30 minutes. Carbon
dioxide concentrations above 10%, could be tolerated only for a few minutes, as this
gas acts on the respiratory nerves.
No employee should try to enter a compromised area without suitable respiratory
equipment. In case proper equipment is unavailable and there is an operator
experiencing difficulties inside, he can use a rubber hose sent from the outside to
inhale breathable air.
In case of thunderstorm advisory, special attention should be given to sewers. If
there is a risk for unexpected water level rise; the access must be avoided and all
the precautions for closed structures should be observed. Specific precautions are
necessary regarding all electrical equipment against danger of fulguration: efficient
earthing is crucial.

2.4 SECURITY NORMS WITH MACHINERY


MACHINERY

ATTENTION!
Check that the electricity is switched off and that the machinery cannot start up
again, not even accidentally, before beginning to work on the very same. This is
valid also for the electric control circuit.
In case of intervention on the machinery the following precautions are to be
observed meticulously:
Make sure that the machinery is previously cleaned.
Observe good norms of personnel’s hygiene.
Pay attention to infection risks.
Follow the local safety norms.
Use Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

EUROPROGETTI SRL | OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL


This manual should not be copied, destroyed or modified, you should only add additional parties. 13
Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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3 WATER TREATMENT PLANT DESCRIPTION


DESCRIPTION
In order to provide a general overview to the user, this chapter contains a description of the
characteristics of the different units of biological treatment plant. Thereafter, the user or
staff will understand the possible uses and the performance that would be obtained during
the various phases of the treatment. Features and functioning principles of the process unit
are discussed in more detail for proper operation.

3.1 BIOLOGICAL TREATMENT DESCRIPTION


DESCRIPTION
The biological treatment phase is a typical “total oxidation activated sludge plant “. The
activated sludge treatment is a biological process based on the use of bacteria and micro-
organisms, which, if kept under certain environmental circumstances, are able to destroy
the polluting organic matter. CO2, water, mineral salts and inorganic products of biological
waste are produced by the metabolism of organic matter, growth and developing of the
activated bio mass.
The biological treatment consists of two interconnected lines: the water line and the sludge
line.
The first line is composed of the following units:
• Screening.
• Storage and homogenization
• Neutralization.
• Cooling of the water.
• Biological oxidation.
• Sedimentation.
The second line is constituted by the following units:
• Sludge recycling and excess sludge extraction.
• Sludge storage, polyelectrolyte addition and thickening.

3.1.1 Screening and lifting:


lifting:
Its objective is to separate coarse and fine matter at the inlet of the plant, avoiding
sedimentation and clogging in the successive stages.
There are several models of screens, depending on the type of plant: rotary drum, arch
with brushes, arch with comb, static, cascade, disk, step, cochlea etc. In all cases the
screen is made of stainless steel and however in material, suited to be constantly in
contact with water without suffering corrosion.
The solids are separated from the water and forwarded to special containers which must
be emptied periodically. The cleaning of the screening surface is automatic and continuous

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EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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and occurs by brushes, combs or counter current pressured water jets. The screening
equipment is controlled by pre-set time switches or level sensors.
In the case of a static screen cleaning occurs manually

3.1.2 Storage and homogenization:


In order to feed the following aeration tank with an homogeneous flow and an uniform
pollution load, as well as to make bacteria acclimatise, the waste water is stored in a tank
where it is mixed and lightly aerated. In this way the whole water volume is kept in
movement and neither sedimentation and " dead zones ", nor any anaerobic fermentation
occur.
Mixing and aeration are performed by submersible mixers and submersible ejector pumps
respectively. The aeration avoids nasty smell and it is a kind of pre-oxygenation, preparing
the bacteria to the following stage.

3.1.3 Neutralization:
Neutralization:
The water at the inlet might have strong pH value differences, for this reason we have a
neutralization stage. In order for a biological plant to work properly, the inlet water must be
neutral or slightly alkaline, and the value should remain constant.
The neutralization process is carried out automatically with a pH meter, acid and soda
dosing pumps. The pH is kept between 7 e 8.
The pH reading is done by a glass probe or electrode, which is easy to substitute in case of
damage or deterioration. If necessary, this phase is able to reduce the free chlorine,
through the addition of sodium bisulphite. The dose of the sodium bisulphite is determined
and provided by an instrument for redox control that is optional.

3.1.4 Cooling of the water


In general, this system decreases the water discharge temperature between 4-6 °C above
of the temperature found in the humid bulb of the cooling tower. This system does not
recover the heat; it only sends it to the atmosphere.
Usually, the cooling tower is made by PRFV or another material resistant to the
temperature and the corrosion.
The operation of the cooling tower expects that the water to be treated enters from the
superior part of the tower by sprays and passes on the filler body from the top. Meanwhile,
the atmospheric air aspired by one or more fans passes through the filler body from the
bottom to the top, opposing to the hot water that falls and cools it down.
For discharge water treatment, the filler body is very important to avoid a quick dirtying.
Consequently, dirtying leads to reduce its efficiency and eventually setting the cooling
system out of service.
For the following biological treatment, it is important that the water temperature is less for
the correct bacteria acclimatise. The mesophilic bacteria that develop between 4 and 42°C
have an optimal metabolization rate between 24 and 38°C. Over 38°C, there is a
significant decrease of their metabolism, or reaction rate. The sludge flakes break down,

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EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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creating a sludge that goes out of the clarifier, causing a high turbidity; The COD removal
rate decreases and thus the outlet water has an unsatisfactory quality. The oxygen transfer
rate decreases as well; between 32 and 42°C the rate halves, making it necessary to
supply much more oxygen. At this point, we have low efficiency, high outlet COD,BOD5
and suspended solids concentration and the aeration costs increase exponentially.

3.1.5 Biological oxidation


It is the " core " of the plant.
Herein we provide for the activated sludge process, through which organic and inorganic
suspended solids and part of the dissolved solids achieve the capability of settling.
The principle is based on the utilisation of aerobic bacteria colonies naturally present in
waste water; these bacteria have three fundamental characteristics:
• they accomplish their vital cycle metabolising the organic matter
• they reproduce increasing quickly.
• they tend to live in and to form colonies
To assimilate and to transform organic matter, the bacteria need oxygen as support of
combustion. The final products of this process are H2O, CO2 and new living substance.
The oxygen source will be partly that existing in the water and partly that supplied from
outside. In that way the natural bio-degradation process accelerates which otherwise
should take a longer and thus unacceptable time. The oxygen feed causes a very fast
multiplication of the bacteria, they get together in colonies and aggregate in " flocs ".
In these flocs protoplasm cells, coming from organic synthesis, organic metabolised solids
and residual organic matter of vital bacteria cycle, are concentrated. Moreover, organic
and inorganic non separable solids are adhering to the flocs by adsorption.
Sludge flocs have two characteristics:
1. They settle by gravity
2. They have high concentration of active organic matter, wherefrom the term " activated"
sludge flocs.
The waste water is fed with air through an aeration system consisting of:
• fine bubble membrane disc diffusers, with relevant headers, manifolds and
accessories, placed on the bottom of the tank and producing fine bubbles ( about 1.5
mm diam. )
• air compressor station with superchargers or centrifugal blowers.
An oxygen meter provides for the monitoring of the O2 concentration in the water. The air
flow is increased or reduced by a signal (4 - 20 mA) which "informs" the blower station.
A dosing system of phosphorus and nitrogen based nutrient salts, indispensable for the life
and development is provided in order to maintain a correct and well balanced feeding for
the micro-organism in the oxidation tank. The supply of nutrient salts is particularly
important during the start-up phase or stops of the plant. In the latter part of the process,
the supply of salts must also provide a proper amount of organic matter in order to keep
the bacteria alive for the duration of the stop period.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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Feeding is carried out by a pre-set automatic dosing pump, thus the supply of the salts
must be regulated by the operator in function of the plant needs.
The amount of salts to be dosed into the oxidation tank shall guarantee a minimum ratio of
100:5:1, among BOD, Nitrogen and Phosphorus.
The aeration tank is fed by one or more submersible pumps; they ensure a constant and
balanced flow. It makes the oxidation tank correctly running and a favourable metabolic
process is well carried out since the ratio BOD/TSS is constant and the average retention
time is corresponding to the designed one.

3.1.6 Sedimentation
Its objective is to clarify the water from the oxidation tank. In this unit, the sedimentation of
the activated sludge on the bottom of the tank is obtained and pumped back to the
biological oxidation tank.
The aerated mixture coming from the oxidation tank is introduced in the middle of the
sedimentation tank by a special pipe. The biological sludge flocs separate the water from
the settle on the bottom due to the low ascensional speed. The clarified water, free of
substances in suspension, exits from the top of the sedimentation tank by overflow and
thus can freely be discharged into the receiving water body.

3.1.7 Sludge recycling station


The sludge separated from the water in the sedimentation stage is forwarded to the central
sump by a bottom blade, located in the scraping bridge. The sludge is put into a collecting
sump through a pipeline. Electro-pumps carry the recycled sludge to the head of the
oxidation tank.
Sludge recycling is an essential phase of the entire waste water treatment cycle. It
prevents the reduction of the content of activated biomass in the oxidation tank as well as
anaerobic conditions in the sedimentation tank.
It is important to control the concentration of the activated sludge in the oxidation tank,
which is highly important for the waste water treatment efficiency.
The recycled sludge flow rate must be regulated in order to reach a sludge concentration in
this stream of more or less twice the concentration in the oxidation tank.
The estimation of sludge concentration can be carried out in an Imhoff Cone, after 30
minutes of sedimentation.
Simultaneously, the excess sludge produced by the biological plant must be discharged
and forwarded to a storage tank in order to start thickening procedure.

3.1.8 Excess sludge storage and thickening


During the sedimentation phase a consistent thickening of the sludge occurs. However, it
does not reach significant values. If a further thickening is desired, the excess sludge must
be stored in a separate tank, then it is necessary to dose a flocculating reagent, such as a
polyelectrolyte, before using mechanical dehydrating systems such as drying beds, blades,
belt or press filters.

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This manual should not be copied, destroyed or modified, you should only add additional parties. 17
Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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4 OPERATING PHILOSOPHY
The operation of the biological plant is supervised and managed by a PLC (Programmable
Logic Controller). The PLC receives the information from the network of sensors installed
on the plant, processes it and then controls a series of systems for the automatic operation
of the various parts of the plant.
These systems control and manage:
• the automatic operation of all the functions based on the present sequences;
• the measurement and the monitoring of the various I/O (input-output) signals from
the sensors, measurement devices, etc.;
• the automatic stopping of the single machinery in the event of anomalies or faults of
that machinery;
• the automatic stopping of the pumps when there is no water to be treated or if the
maximum level is reached in the treated water tanks;
In the control and the management of the biological plant the operators essentially interact
with the devices on the main electrical panel cabinet.
The principal parameters that the operator can set are:
1. Pause and work phases of screen by timer
2. Opening and closing time of electro valve of blowers (when the blower starts
running, the el. valve is excited for a settable time, about 10 sec, and then it id de-
excited.
3. Water level controls
4. Biological flow rate
5. Sludge recycling flow rate
6. pH threshold
7. Oxygen threshold

Operating philosophy
1. Each pump group has a stand-by pump with automatic sub-run in case of
breakdown, except for the chemical reagents dosing pumps
2. Pumps are controlled by levels. Each pumps is controlled by a couple of levels
(Start and Stop), as shown in the P&ID drawing.
The rotation of pumps operation has to been provided. The couple of lower levels
cyclically controls each pump of group.
3. If the pump that is working go fails, the stand by pump begins operations controlled
by the lowest level switches control.
4. The blowers group has a stand-by blower with automatic sub-run in case of
breakdown
5. In the plant there are blower under inverter and fixed speed blowers. Each inverter
guides only one blower at a time. The fixed speed blower can be controlled by the
inverter, only if an operator replaces the power cable of blowers.
6. In case of inverter’s damage, the blower starts running to fixed speed

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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7. When the real oxygen value, measured by oxygen meter in the tank, is less than
needed one, automatically the inverter increases the blower’s speed in order to
achieve the required value of oxygen.
8. Regarding the neutralization process, when the real pH value, measured by pH
meter in the tank, exceeds the threshold set point, set by touch screen, the dosing
pump starts running until the real pH value reaches the threshold value.
9. There is a hours counter for each three phase utilities.

4.1 ELECTRICAL BOARD

Each machinery can also be controlled manually through its selector.


When the selector is in MAN modality the machinery works free from any kind of present
alarms and control, when the selector is in 0 modality the machinery is stopped and finally
when the machinery is in AUT the pump works automatically, under the control of PLC.

In MAN modality, the blower under inverter is controlled by potentiometer,


Regarding the inverter, in POTENTIOMETER modality it is possible to regulate the speed
of inverter and of blower. In OXYMETER modality, when the real oxygen value, measured
by oxygen meter, is less than needed one, set by potentiometer, automatically the inverter
increases the blower’s speed in order to achieve the required value of oxygen.

4.2 OPERATOR INTERFACE


The operator panel is divided in more pages and the operator can reach the different
pages from the main one utilizing the mimic switches present in every pages.
He can operate each machinery/automatic valve in manual mode (after entering the
password), making them free from any kind of present alarms and control.

Note: Not all pages are freely accessible; some pages are protected by password.
Note: Some pages include several sub-pages, which the user can select by pressing on
Note
the operating panel the arrows in the upper right corner.

In the synoptic pages, the operator can set the times of some parameters and see the
status of pumps, floats and instruments.
In the settings pages, he has to set the threshold values of system operation and alarms
(for example DO min value) and the values of end scales for each instrument.

Here below, there are some examples of pages of touch screen:

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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Pg. 20 of 58

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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5 BEFORE STARTING UP
For the installation of machineries (positioning, distances, heights, ecp.), follow the
instructions of the machinery manuals and the drawings provided by Europrogetti Srl.
Before the start up of an activated sludge plant it is necessary to perform the following
activities:
• Clean the tanks of all residue accumulated during the building up.
• Clean the pipelines and check the correct operation of valves
• Check the assembly and performance of all the valves
• Check the tightness of the tanks
• Check the correct operation of each utility
• Check the correct operation of mixers and flow makers. Close the blades of flow
maker with nut and lock nut, let it run for 2 or 3 hours and see if there are vibrations.
• Calibrate the instruments (pH meter, oxygen meter)
• Check the diffusers level (most important)
• Fill the diffuser’s tank with water up to 50 mm above the diffuser elements and verify
whether there is loss and whether air is uniformly distributed by the screen.
• Check the overflow level on the top of the sedimentation tank (clarifier).
• Check the manifolds, performance of the air filter and demisters, lubrication and
clearance in the compressor, alignment between motor and compressor,
performance of the diffusers of the aeration system.
• Start the compressor and check direction of engine rotation, vibration, noise or
abnormal overheating. Measure the power absorption.
• Check that the chemical tanks are full
• Run the system for four or five hours and repeat all the previous checks.

Before starting up submerged pumps


Before starting up submerged pumps, it is important the following details:
• Check the oil level in the oil tank.
• Remove the fuses or open the main switch and make sure it will be possible to turn the
impeller freely by hand.
• Check that the incorporated control devices, if foreseen, are functioning.
• Check the sense of rotation.
ATTENTION: The impeller should turn clockwise, seen from above. On start up,
the pump will give a counter blow in contrary sense to that of the rotation of the
impeller. Pay attention to the start up counter blow, which might be dangerous.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
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6 START UP OF THE PLANTS’ ACTIVE SLUDGE


SLUDGE
In this chapter we will review information pertinent to start up and management of waste
water treatment plants. The «start up period» of a waste water treatment plant is defined
as what incurs between the start of the plant and its final test. The start up period of all
waste water treatment plants is particularly delicate, as it is exactly in the very first phase
that an accurate setting of the various parameters on which we can act, is necessary
ensure the finest purifying effects, at the minimum cost.
In biological waste water treatment systems, the start up phase is very important.

The start up of an activated sludge plant must lead to the biological sludge formation within
a reasonable amount of time and to a steady state. The operation requires the availability
of a laboratory, where it is possible to analyze the process parameters.
The start up process described in this document is referred to a plant equipped with a one
oxidation tank. When more tanks are present, it is convenient to carry out the start up
procedure of one or two tanks, and the start up of the remaining tanks can be conducted
using the excess activated sludge from the first tanks.

Activated
Growth of Activ ated Sludge
In order to initiate the biological degradation process by aerobic micro-organisms, it is
possible to either inseminate activated sludge from other plants or wait for the
spontaneous growth of the proper microbial flora in the oxidation tank. In this case, the
average time needed is about 1-2 months, depending on the kind of plant and on the
characteristics of the effluent to be treated.
The first method, that is, the sludge insemination, reduces the start up time significantly.
The quantity of insemination sludge must be equal to at least 500 gr of suspended solids
per m³ liquid in the tank. The supplied air quantity must be enough to maintain at least 1-2
mg/l of dissolved oxygen in the tank, in order to establish the proper conditions to the
growth of the activated sludge.
In order to reduce the time needed to reach the steady state condition during the start up
phase, it is possible to use coagulants (iron or aluminium salts, synthetic organic
flocculating agents, etc.), which reduces the activated sludge quantity that is lost with the
effluent of the sedimentation tank. The dosage of these products must be controlled
accurately, both because of economical and sanitary reasons.
Forming of the sludge flocs is even facilitated by the use of particular enzymes, that can be
found at special suppliers.
In absence of activated sludge, the surnatant of either an anaerobic digester, an Imhoff pit
or a sceptic pit could be also used, or of. Humus or vegetable mould of well manured
cultivated ground could be used whenever even such it is impossible. They are all primers
particularly rich in micro-organisms. In cases which activated sludge cannot be used, the
development of the biological reactions is inevitably much slower.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
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When the suitable primer is not available in a sufficient quantity, it is better to fill the tank
with sludge, put in it the available primer, supply aeration and recycle the whole mass for
several days, without adding ulterior sludge into the plant.
The immission can start when in the aeration tank, a certain sludge quantity in easily
settleable activated sludge flocs have been formed. When this fact has been ensured,
sludge can be put in increasing the flow of about 10% every day. The sludge quantity is
equal to about 1/10 of the dimensioned flow of the plant. The purifying efficiency by
abatement of BOD, improves in direct proportion to the increasing of the suspended solid
concentration.

One of the characteristics of activated sludge is that they are particularly viscous and
«tacky» during the first weeks of the plant's life. Therefore, they tend to adhere to the walls
of the hoppers of static type clarifiers and they are very difficult to be recycled. For this
reason, it is very important that an accurate assistance facilitates the regular settlement of
the sludge in the preliminary period of start up.

Beginning feeding flow rate


At the beginning, the feeding flow must be around 10% of the project flow. It should be
increased by a 10% every day when the sludge grows normally or less than 10% when
there are problems regarding the sludge growth.
During start up, there is normally no discharge, unless sludge swelling takes place; in that
case it is convenient to discharge the poor quality sludge and produce new high quality
sludge. The recirculation flow should be enough as to avoid the formation of a thick sludge
bed in the clarifier or the oxygen tank. This way, all the developed micro-organisms
remain as long as possible in the oxidation tank, where they meet the best conditions for
their reproduction.

Sludge recycling flow rrate


ate
During start up, the recirculation should be regulated so that it is compliant with the
following formula:

= =

Generally, at the beginning the sludge is totally pumped back.


When the required MLSS concentration has been reached, a thin sludge bed is formed
and the discharge flow must be regulated, in order to maintain a sludge bed thickness
equal to 30-60 cm in the bottom of the clarifier. The height should be measured from the
bottom, near the wall of the clarifier.
If the characteristics of the feeding change often and significantly, the recirculation and the
discharge sludge flow should be modified in order to maintain the required organic load
factor.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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Once the steady state conditions are reached, the sludge must have good sedimentation
characteristics.

Foam forming
As long as the suspended solids concentration in the oxidation tank is low, foaming will be
easily formed. however, this problem could be solved mechanically by removing the foam
with water jets, or using anti - foaming reagents (do not use silicone). It might also be
useful to diminish the air flow slightly. The foaming phenomena tends to decrease when
the activated sludge concentration increases.

Parameters to be controlled
1. Before proceeding to the start up of the process, a sample of the waste water to be
treated must be taken. After eliminating the suspended solids, the BOD5 and the COD
are determined, in order to obtain the COD/BOD5 ratio. By doing so, the BOD5 will
have to be measured less frequently later on. This is an advantage, considering that
the BOD takes much longer to measure than the COD.
It must be taken into consideration that the COD/BOD ratio may change due to
variations in the biodegradable material present in the water. It changes in each stage
of the treatment, thus it is convenient to measure it after each unit operation. These
values must be measured frequently during the first days until they are constant.
2. On the fourth or fifth day of the start up, if the plant has been started with a good deal of
activated sludge or bacteria, the determination of the SVI of samples taken from the
aeration tank can be conducted.
The SVI is correlated to the sedimentation characteristics of sludge and provides
information about its status. Sludge with good sedimentation characteristics has an SVI
< 120 ml/g.
3. When the steady state is reached, check the suspended solids concentration in the
oxidation tank, and, if necessary operate on the sludge's age i.e. on the excess sludge
discharge flow. Generally, it is possible to maintain an aerated mixture with 4-8 g/l
suspended solids in the tank, provided that a proper aeration capacity is available.
4. In order to control the retention time of the sludge inside the clarifier, the recycling ratio
has to be changed. Low values could provoke the sludge decomposition, and a very
high ratio could cause the sludge to become light and too bulky, as in the clarifier the
available time for the sludge thickening will be too short.
5. It is also very interesting to check the colour and smell of the aerated mixture during the
start up phase, as, by means of an accurate control in this period of plant's life, the
operator will be able to form an experience which could be much useful during the
successive management.
Initially, the colour and smell of the sludge are typical as dish washing; while the solid
concentration increases, the colour changes from dark grey into light brown and at the
end into dark brown. Initially the sludge becomes inodorous, or acquires a smell of fat
or fused lard; when the colour becomes dark brown, the smell becomes typical of wet
earth. Observation of these characteristics allows the operator to acquire such a

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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sensibility that, successively, when particular circumstances arrive, such as overload,


clogging of the pipes of the recycling sludge, industrial waste, determine deterioration
of the activated sludge quality and of purifying efficiency, he will become aware in time
and will be able to intervene with the most suitable procedure.

As a general observation, it is very important that the person who will supervise the plant
management, will directly be aware of how the very same is constructed and installed from
the beginning. It is convenient that the constructing company bind themselves preliminarily
to training the operators on similar plants. Moreover, it would be convenient that tanks are
shown live to the future operators before filling the tanks allowing them to see all internal
organs which will later be submerged and explaining their function in details.

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EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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7 MANAGEMENT,
MANAGEMENT, OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE
An accurate and efficient management of the plant is crucial to reap the benefits of the
initial investment. In order to reach equilibrium between costs and earnings of the plant, it
is necessary to:
• Operate all machines and equipment regularly, such as, starting and stopping the
motors; control and discharge of excess sludge as well as dehydrated sludge.
• Program maintenance, such as, lubrication, periodical substitution of the transmission,
belts, filtering cloth, ball bearings, bushings.
• Occasionally repair, repaint and substitute equipment to the first indication of
malfunction.
• Avoid using the plant outside its design parameters.

Often an efficient management could counterbalance a careless design, but the contrary
never happens: even the best designed and built plant, gives worse purifying results if it is
run badly. As a consequence of inaccurate management, the following situations can
occur:
• The connecting pipes between the various operating units can encrust and clog.
• In the sedimentation unit, dense layers of not recyclable material often tend to form.
• The sludge can recycles with difficulty and a bad smell develops,
• The water treatment performance deteriorates.

The lack of a scheduled maintenance and operation can result in «break-down system».
The late intervention on faulty equipment and/or prompt attention to broken systems, can
lead to problems in water treatment process as well as substantial economic damage.

There are three principal causes of acceptable or unacceptable water treatment plant
management:
- The technical quality of the plant and the degree of use.
- The characteristics of the waste water.
- Management and maintenance of the plant by the staff.

7.1 PERSONNEL
If the plant is left to run on its own and without checks, this could lead to considerable
contamination of the receiving body, and almost to the complete washing of all activated
sludge present in the aeration tank. This situation occurs when the plant does not undergo
any periodical control.
Unfortunately, it is noted that the mismanagement of waste water treatment plants is a
rather frequent practice.

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This manual should not be copied, destroyed or modified, you should only add additional parties. 26
Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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Lack of administrative organization and a faulty management system yield to substantial


costs. In order to obtain effective results in plant management, it is necessary that some
conditions are enforced simultaneously.

7.1.1 Numerically sufficient personnel


A correct amount of the employees is necessary to ensure the plant’s proper operation.
Reduced personnel can create a large number of unwanted results.
Even though, for smaller plants not always continuous presence of the staff is required, it
will be necessary to perform at least one visit a day.
The Figure 1 supplies indications about the necessity of personnel registered on small
plants of different potentiality. As pointed out, even for plants of very small potentiality, at
least 2-3 hours a day are needed to guarantee an efficient management. Table 2 presents
data of results from experimental investigations on various American plants which can be
used as a reference for plants of major potentiality. These studies report estimation of the
quantity of the staff with different tasks depending on the type of plant and its potentiality.

LEGEND
▲ lmhoff tank- percolating filter - sedimentation.
● Activated sludge plant with simplified scheme
O Primary clarifier - percolating filter - final clarifier - sludge digestion.

Figure 1 Supplying estimates about personnel employ for management of small waste water
treatment plants.

Table 2 Number of managers


managers responsible and assigned personne
personnel
nel to maintenance according to daily
flow of water treatment plant.
Daily flow [m³] 250 500 1000 2000 5000 10000 20000 30000 50000
No. responsible 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2
No. assigned to
1 1 1 1½ 2 2 3 3 5
maintenance

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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7.1.2 Adequately prepared personnel


Plant management needs to carry out a careful selection of personnel. Plant operations
should not be executed by general workers; instead such tasks need to be performed by
skilled personnel with proper training by Europrogetti Srl staff.
The instruction manual of the plant is also fundamental and must be studied by the
assigned personnel.

7.2 CHECK POINTS AND FACTORS


The fundamental check points and factors influence the efficiency of plant operation.

7.2.1 Parameters
pH
Ph is the indication of the acidity or alkalinity of the waste water. The pH effect on the
biological oxidation process is important for its influence on the enzymatic reactions.
The pH has a strong effect on the micro-organism types developed in the tank, because in
a slightly acid environment fungus compete with bacteria and prevail over them at ph
values of 5.5 to 6. This phenomenon creates a significant inconvenience to the plant
management by worsening the sludge sedimentation characteristics and reducing of the
process global efficiency.
It is important to consider that protein denaturalization occurs at pH <5 and pH > 9.5 and
that the bacterial cells are mainly made out of proteins. Thus, a harsh pH condition will kill
them in a short time. Moreover, a quick pH change might significantly reduce the bio -mass
respiration. Therefore, it is crucial to neutralize and homogenize the wastewater before
pouring it into the oxidation tank.
As a general rule, the pH value must be between 6.5 and 8.5 at the inlet. In the oxidation
tank, the pH must be measured at the inlet and outlet and kept constant as possible,
between 7 and 8.
ATTENTION: pH test must be carried out every week in order to determine if the
control equipment is working properly.

Temperature
The reproduction rate of micro-organisms is strongly related to the temperature. Therefore,
this factor influences all reactions, both chemical and biological. It is essential to keep in
mind that the temperature is vital for the protoplasmic synthesis, cell metabolism, bio-
flocculation as well as O2 transference from air to water and from water into the activated
sludge flocs. Usually, a temperature of 25°C is considered ideal for the activated sludge
plant. The biological activity still goes on between 4 and 40° C with different results
depending on the micro-organisms and their characteristics. It is important to keep the
temperature value constant, since its sharp change can affect the whole system seriously.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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Dissolved oxygen
The dissolved oxygen concentration in the water-sludge mixture is measured in mg/l or
ppm and its presence is a fundamental condition for the aerobic biological process to work.
When the dissolved O2 concentration in the activated water-sludge mixture is between 1,5
and 2 ppm, the bacterial respiration continues regularly. However, for the nitrification
reactions, it is important to provide dissolved oxygen levels higher than 2 ppm. Elevated O2
levels over 4 ppm are not completely necessary and have a negative impact on the
running costs.
On the other hand, if the plant is operated with a low dissolved O2 concentration (less than
1 ppm), the sludge might undergo a morphological modification. In effect, the microbial
cells tend to gather in big sludge flocs. This fact leads to a reduction of the O2 transfer rate
from the water to the interior of the flocs, which then reduces the specific organic load that
can be used to achieve the same purifying level. The bacteria cannot process all the
organic pollutants because they do not have enough oxygen to metabolize them.
Therefore, in the biological oxidation tank, it is necessary to maintain a dissolved O2 value
between 1,5 and 2,5 ppm.

Biomass concentration (TSS)


The concentration of the biomass must be proportional to both the BOD and the COD to be
degraded, as well as to the retention time in the oxidation tank. Usually, the recommended
TSS value varies from 3,5 to 5 gr/l, although for highly polluted effluents concentrations
between 6-7 gr/l can be used. If the mixture is poor in suspended solids, it cannot reach a
good treatment efficiency, because the degradation capacity and the bio-flocculation
capacity are reduced to very low levels.
The percentage of organic compounds in the biomass, the so – called volatile fraction
(VSS) must be maintained between 70-80% of the total suspended solids. A higher value
is due to excessive organic load. A lower value indicates a sludge mineralization as a
consequence of a forced oxidation, very low organic load of the sludge, over – aged sludge
or important inorganic matter precipitation.

Sludge settlement and sl


sludge
udge index (SVI)
The SVI represents the volume occupied by one gram of biomass, after 30 minutes of
sedimentation in an Imhoff cone. It is considered that sedimentation is efficient when the
sludge volumetric index (SVI) is between 100 and 150. The formula for the calculation of
the SVI is:
Dry sludge value at 105°c *gr/lt,
SVI =
Settled sludge volume *cc,

NB: for the quantification of the sludge volume, one litre of the oxidation tank mixture must
be put into the Imhoff cone, and the volume should be read after 30 minutes of
sedimentation.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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An increase of the SVI could be due to several factors, such as: insufficient dissolved O2
concentration; pH or organic load shock; lack of N and P nutrients; presence of toxic
substances; decomposition of the organic matter (rotting); sugar excess and filamentous
bacteria excess. A low SVI value is generally due to excessive sludge mineralization. In
this case, it may be useful to reduce the TSS value in the oxidation tank, in order to
increase the sludge organic load.

7.2.2 Substances
Nutritive substances
A proper amount of nutritive elements, particularly nitrogen (N) and Phosphorus (P), must
be contained in the raw water in order to increase and development of micro-organisms. A
lack of these nutritive elements, common in industrial effluents, together with other
negative factors, such as, incorrect pH and/or low O2 contents, may lead to the
multiplication of filamentous micro-organisms and cause the phenomenon of sludge
bulking. This fact slows down and might even prevent sedimentation. The BOD:N:P ratio
should be 100:5:1.

Toxic substances
The activity of the biomass may be inhibited by the presence of some organic and
inorganic substances contained in industrial effluents. The heavy metal salts are
particularly toxic to the micro-organisms. Generally, it is considered that cadmium,
mercury, lead, copper, nickel, zinc and chrome start affecting the process significantly
when concentrations as low as fractions of mg/l are reached.
Another inorganic substance that can be found in industrial effluents and inhibit the
activated sludge process, is chlorine, which affects the process at concentrations higher
than 0,3 mg/l.
Organic substances, such as, phenol and cationic surfactants, can poison the oxidizing
bacteria. The anionic and non-ionic surfactants are scarcely bactericide and sometimes
prevent the bio – flocculation due to their dispersing action.
It is important to remember that after an adaptation period, in some cases, the micro-
organisms are able to get used to low doses of toxic products.

7.2.3 Activated sludge process regime control


An activated sludge wastewater treatment plant is designed to run with the minimum
attention and without difficulties. When it runs normally, the final discharge should be
clean, limpid and odourless. If this should not occur, it means that a part of the process is
not working properly. Sometimes the problems are easy to solve, being the most common:
• Abnormal sludge aspect.
• Foaming in the oxidation tank and in the final clarifier.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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• Bad sludge sedimentation and insufficient suspended solids concentration in the


oxidation tank, due to the wash out. This situation causes problems as turbid
effluent and sludge swelling.
• Sludge rising.
The activated sludge plant operation requires the analysis and control of some parameters
that show the performance of the process and the need of equipment maintenance.
The analysis is carried out by simple tests done in the plant. Periodically, more complete
analysis in specialized laboratories must be carried out.
A glance on the microscope shows us that the activated sludge presents a community of
life, made up by lots of different organism.

A periodical control must be subject to the height of the sludge bed in the final
sedimentation, particularly in those plants which profit specifically from this parameter
«sludge bed» tanks.
The height of the sludge bed must be measured with a transparent plastic pipe, diameter
ca. 20 mm, height ca. 2,7 mt. The pipe must be put into the water of the clarifier very slowly
and vertically until it hits the bottom. Successively it must be stopped on the top and then
completely extracted. The transparency of the pipe allows the height of the sludge inside to
be seen clearly, which corresponds to the same height as that in the clarifier. The measure
of the height of the sludge bed allows the operator to acquire a particular sensibility in plant
management, which results of great value for efficient performance.
It is convenient that the height will be held at minimum levels along with the lowest flows, in
order to be able to receive the sludge coming from the aeration phase, in hydraulic load
periods of rush. The operator must be able to intervene when the height becomes
excessive to avoid the «slipping away» of sludge into the receiving body, which increases
the recycling flow causing excessive sludge removal.

Sludge recycling
A correct recycled sludge flow is essential for the good performance of an activated sludge
plant, which provides an adequate biomass amount in the biological oxidation phase
capable of metabolizing the organic pollutants load.
It is necessary to recycle some of the sludge coming from the secondary clarifier in order to
maintain a sufficient concentration of activated biomass in the oxidation tank. Usually, the
recirculation (recycled flow) of an activated sludge plant is between 50 and 150 % of the
feeding flow. A recirculation of twice the sludge concentration in the oxidation tank can be
considered optimal because it is able to assure a recycled sludge concentration.
The quantification of the sludge concentration must be carried out in an Imhoff cone after
30 minutes of sedimentation.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
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Total organic load


The total organic load is the ratio between daily organic load and total sludge amount. It
indicates the quantity of organic substance to be degraded daily by the biomass present in
the oxidation tank, i.e. kg. BOD/kg. TSS/day.
It is necessary to operate the water treatment plant at a load range of 0,05 - 0,15 kg
BOD/Kg. TSS/day in order to achieve a good reduction of the polluting load, maintain good
sedimentation characteristics and decrease sludge production.

Sludge appearance checking


With some experience, the operator will be able to understand precise signs from the plant
running as well as from the observation of the appearance and smell of the sludge.
“Healthy” sludge is dark coloured and almost odourless, or has a slightly sweet smell. If the
smell becomes strong or unpleasant, and the sludge is greyish, it means that the oxidation
phase has gone anaerobic. This situation might indicate that either more air into the
oxidation tank or less retention time on the bottom of the clarifier are needed. In the second
case, an increase of the recirculation flow is required.
Other controls are:
The dissolved oxygen value must be controlled and recorded daily. The oxygen meter
must be calibrated and checked monthly.
Temperature must be checked frequently, especially during cold periods. The water
temperature in the oxidation tank must be recorded.
Suspended solids at the outlet must be checked at least once a week using the Imhoff
cone. In this case, the sedimentation should last 2 hours and its maximum value should be
2.5 cc.
Outlet water must be checked daily. It must be colourless, rather limpid and almost
transparent. If there is opalescence or turbidity, it means that the biological oxidation is not
working properly and corrective measures must be applied.
Foam presence must be limited to a particular area of the oxidation tank and its aspect has
to be white, with bubbles of medium size. On the contrary, if the foam is dark, thick and
covers an extended area, it is necessary to add anti-foaming reagents or add bacteria
capable of degrading surfactants. It is also important to control the dissolved oxygen, the
air flow and the pH.
Usually, colour does not represent a big problem. If in some periods, a strong presence of
colour is detected and its value is close to the limits (dilution 1:20, thickness 10 cm), it is
possible to add decolourants or other products. The first ones must be dosed directly into
the sump or into the feed pipe of the clarifier (10-50 ppm cationic polyamine or decolorant).
The second ones, such as hydrosulphite, have to be dosed directly into the storage tank.
Feeding has to be kept constant within the 24 hours a day and at least for 5-6 days a week.
For a part of Saturday and Sunday, the feeding flow to the plant could be limited, so it
could be useful to reduce the flow which is forwarded by the pumps using inverters, in

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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order to recycle the purified water from the clarifier to the plant inlet. It is very important that
during the weekdays, the inlet flow to the plant is constant. This allows better distribution of
the polluted load, higher plant efficiency, better energy use and more homogeneous
environment for the bacteria and the micro-organisms. Consequently, better global
performance can be obtained.
Observation under the microscope must be carried out every 20-30 days to check the flocs
consistence, which should be compact, well defined and with no suspended bodies
between the flocs or dead bacteria. The water must be clear.
The presence of filamentous micro-organisms must be quantified properly. If it is
necessary, they have to be promptly eliminated using sodium hypochlorite by dosing it
into the sump or into the sludge recycling pipes.
“Healthy” sludge denotes a proper status of the bacterial mass. Moreover, the presence
of ciliates, such as vorticella, aspidisca, euplotes, paramecium, rotifers etc., provides
an ulterior confirmation about the efficiency of the process.
Previously mentioned nutrients balance must be checked monthly. The C: N: P ratio must
be equal or close to 100:5:1. If it is necessary, the missing nutrients must be provided.
For mechanical parts, electrical parts and instruments, it is recommended to follow the
indications of the manufacturer, contained in the instruction manuals.

7.2.4 Laboratory test


For plants with small potentiality, when it is possible to locate an adequately equipped
laboratory nearby, it is not necessary to have a laboratory on premises. A room close to
the plant with portable equipment is enough.
For a plant with medium potentiality, the strictly necessary equipments for a laboratory are:
• Analytical balance
• Muffle furnace
• Various glassware
• Microscope
• Sterilizer
• Spectrophotometer for COD analysis
• Thermometer
• Filter paper
• Turbid meter
• Ph meter
• Dissolved oxygen meter
• Imhoff cone

ATTENTION: The laboratory must be equipped with water and complete with
analysis bench, anti-vibration bench for the balance, aspirating hood, washbasin,
security tap for eye washing and security shower.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
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Sludge volume or Imhoff cone test


Imhoff cone test defines the settled sludge volume in a cylinder (or cone) of one litre of the
oxidation tank mixture after 30 minutes. Although, this test is not enough to give a
complete description of the plant status by itself, it is able to detect process abnormalities.

ATTENTION: This test must be performed every day

The procedure to be followed is:


1. Pour one litre of the oxidation tank mixture into the Imhoff cone or into a 1.000 cc.
graduated cylinder. Observe the settling process. When the plant runs correctly, an
immediate and clear separation between sludge and water can be seen. This must
remain limpid.
2. In particular, after 10 minutes, about 50% of the sludge must have settled. In 30
minutes, practically all the sludge must have settled down.

Every 15 days, it might be useful to record the settled sludge quantity every 5 minutes and
write down the registered values in order to build a graph.
It is useful to carry out an Imhoff cone test on the recirculation sludge at times in order to
see if that flow has been regulated properly. Its concentration should be about twice the
concentration in the oxidation tank.
If the settled sludge volume is higher than 700 cc it would be necessary to run a test,
making a 50% dilution with water taken at the plant outlet.
A test which could be carried out daily, consists in taking two graduated cylinders and to fill
up one with the liquid mixture taken from the aeration tank and the other with the effluent of
the clarifier.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
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Figure 2 Scheme of the aspect of the two graduated cylinders, for a correctly running plant. A)
Cylinder containing water-
water-sludge mixture taken from the aeration
aeration tank; B) cylinder containing the effluent of
the clarifier.

The goal of the test is to verify the following:


• The settling of the sludge particles present in the aerated mixture.
• The quality of the effluent from the clarifier and absence of sludge particles in
suspension.
• The test may give precise qualitative indications about whenever it is time to extract
a part of the sludge as «excess sludge».
The cylinders are stopped for 30 minutes; in the meantime the operator may check other
controls and perform maintenance on other parts of the plant. When 30 minutes have
passed, the operator must record the following observations:
a) Liquid mixture taken from the aeration tank.
• Percentage in volume of sludge by reading on the graduated scale.
• Density of the sludge: dense or light.
• Clearness of the surnatant clear or turbid.
b) Effluent of the clarifier.
• Presence of light flocs or ash on the surface of the surnatant.
• Clarity of the surnatant clear or turbid.

Oxygen
An oxygen control must be carried out rather frequently. This control measures the
dissolved oxygen concentration in the aeration tank and clarifier. It can be done directly on

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
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site by means of simple electronic read-out instruments. This instrument controls that there
is sufficient oxygen to regulate the development of the biological reactions through the
proper commanding of blowers.
Concentration of at least 2-2,5 mg/l dissolved oxygen in the oxidation tank must be
assured. It is convenient that the concentration will never descend under 0,5 to 1 mg/l in
the water at the clarifier’s outlet.

Microscopic observation
During operation, it can be very interesting to carry out desultorily microscopic
observations on the sewage and the sludge’s characteristics, which are able to supply
useful elements about the working of the plant.
The basic element used for determination of the types of micro-organisms is the organic
load «Fc» factor.
The test to observe the characteristics of the microbial flocs could provide lots of
information. An experienced operator who learned to recognize the normal aspect of the
sludge at the plant is able to detect any anomalous situation, such as the following:
• Dense sludge flocs, of small to medium dimensions, together with a big quantity of
dispersed bacteria, are an indication of an unexpected rush of organic load or toxic
conditions.
• If there are big quantities of filamentous micro-organisms or fungus, it means that
either the aerated mixture is in excessive acidity conditions or is subject to
insufficient aeration.
• A sludge floc, dense, of small to medium dimensions, without dispersed bacteria, is
an indication of a well running plant.
Besides examining sludge flocs with a microscope various other micro-organisms are
clearly identifiable.
The concentrations of these micro-organisms are between 106 and 108 unit/litre.
The conclusions that may be drawn from a microscopic exam on micro-organism present
in the aerated mixture of an activated sludge plant can be synthesized as follows:
• Predominant presence of rotifers, free ciliated protozoa and peduncles is certainly
an indication of a good running of a plant at low load.
• Predominance of Sarcodine and flagellated protozoa is index of a plant operating at
high load (or a plant at low load, actually overloaded).
• Absence of protozoa and rotifers or presence of dead bodies means that either the
oxygenation capacity is insufficient, or there are toxic industrial discharges, which
prevent life and development of the superior micro-organisms.
When an anomalous situation occurs, it is necessary to intervene promptly, before anoxic
conditions start, or the bacteria will be harmed by toxic discharges.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
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Other tests
Other tests easy to perform with simple equipment are:
Determination of the ph, which may be useful for a control in case the plant reaches acid or
basic industrial effluents.
Residual chlorine valuation, where chlorination of the effluent is carried out.

In plants with chemical treatment (either treatment of sewage or conditioning and


stabilization of sludge), the control of dosage of the chemical products assume particular
importance. The optimum dosage can be determine by «jar-test» in order to reach an
efficient treatment.

7.3 PERIODICAL CONTROLS DURING MANAGEMENT


In small plants good running controls and depurative efficiency can be based on simple
measures. Particularly visual monitoring can be associated to direct experience acquired
by the plant operators. Therefore, generally quite simple equipment for control is sufficient.
For the analytical controls in waste water treatment plants, the present manual bases its
information on the American Standard Methods.

7.3.1 Daily controls


The following activities must be executed:
• Checking that each single unit of the plant, such as pumps, mixer, blowers and flow
get is working properly.
• Verifying the storage tanks have enough quantity of reagent.
• Monitoring that the dosing pumps are working properly and the dosage of the
reagents is correct.
• Cleaning the screening equipment at the inlet.
• Washing the overflow channel of the purified water from the clarifier.

ATTENTION: The chemical biological controls are presented in the Table 3.

7.3.2 Weekly controls


If components are installed, the following activities must be made:
• Cleaning the pH electrodes.
• Cleaning the dissolved oxygen meter
• Cleaning and calibration of the conductivity electrode (optional).
• Cleaning the temperature probe (optional).

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
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• Cleaning the turbidity meter (optional).


• Checking the paper from the recorder of the printing unit if it is installed.

ATTENTION: The chemical biological controls are presented in the Table 3.

Table 3 Recapitulatory Table of Chemical Biological Control.

FREQUENCY INLET OUTLET BIOLOGICAL


DAILY
ASPECT X
COLOUR X
ODOUR X
OXYGEN X
pH X
SLUDGE CONE AFTER 30' X
SLUDGE FLOW X
WEEKLY
TEMPERATURE C° X X X
SEDIMENTABLE SOLIDS 30' X
SEDIMENTABLE SOLIDS 24 h X
COD X X
BOD5 X X
FORTNIGHTLY
SST OF SLUDGE X X
SSV OF SLUDGE X
N - NH4+ X
N - NO3- X
N + NO2- X
P TOT X X
TKN X

For some machines the weekly controls’ activities are described below.

Fine bubble aeration


The frequency of the drainage operations of the system could often vary. Plants in dry
climate zones might need to be drained sporadically. Plants operating in humid zones
might require a daily drainage.
It is recommended to make the following maintenance activities at least once a week, or
when necessary:
• Draining the aeration batteries from condensation. The excessive condensation in
the pipes diminishes the passage of the air, with consequent increase of the speed

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and pressure request. The drainage valve must be open once a week to drain
humidity from the pipes. The duration of the drainage varies and must be stopped
when a slight mist is coming from the valve.
• Checking and regulating the stated pressure for operating. A higher pressure
indicates that the diffusers are clogged.
ATTENTION: The necessity of drainage of the plant may vary according to the
seasons. It is recommended to drain only one or two screens at a time. Opening
of all drainage valves in a plant with multiply screens simultaneously, could lead
to a dangerous fall of pressure in the aeration.

N. B.: Under normal conditions, the liquid coming from the drainage system
should be of a light colour. If the liquid coming from the valve is the same color
as the sludge, it is possible that an infiltration in the pipes has occurred. We
advise to consult the guide "Search of breakdown” to detect the problem.

7.3.3 Monthly control


It is important to observe the indications of the instruction manual of the different
machinery or components of the water treatment plant rigorously. Especial attention should
be given to the following activities:
For BLOWERS, it is important to check the following:
a) The oil level.
b) The clogging layer of the aspiration filters.
c) The running hours of the plant.
d) The pressure in the inlet pipes. This last value always to be registered
separately.
For oil change and any other part, it is important to follow the indications of the
operating manual carefully.
For ELECTRO PUMPS, it is important to check the following:
a. The power absorption in the three feeding phases which should be lower than
that nominal.
b. The electro pump by extracting it, checking the oil level and verifying that the
impeller turns clear by hand.
For DOSING PUMPS, the oil level must monitored according with the indications of the
instruction manual.
For FLO GET, it is important to verify that the advices indicated for the electro pumps are
valid.
For MIXER, it is important to check that the electro pumps are started and the vibrations in
its support are as standard.

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For OXYGEN METER, its sensor must be cleaned following the instructions manual.
For SCREENS, the oil must be checked.

7.3.4 Controls every four months:


months:
The following activities are schedule every four months:
• Calibration of pH meter with 4 and 7 pH range.
• Calibration of oxygen meter.
• Greasing the electromotor blower.
• Greasing the in scraping bridge, all moving parts.
• General monitoring to the other machines.

7.3.5 Controls every year


Once a year, it is important to execute the following tasks:
• Changing the pH electrode.
• Changing the oil sludge and biological pumps.
• Changing the oil blower.
• Changing the seal rings submergible and dosing pumps.
For some machines, the controls and the activities are described below.

Fine bubble aeration


It is recommended to make the following maintenance activities, at least once a year.
• Empty each tank.
• Remove the excess of the solids accumulated over time.
• If necessary, clean the diffusers.
• Check the supporting elements and assure that all compounds are intact and
tightened.
• Assure that the metal rings of the diffusers all are in their place and are tightened
properly.
• Guarantee that the connecting metal rings are well tightened.

Recommended methods for cleaning the membrane diffusers on-site:


1. Draining the aeration tank, keeping the air supply in function.
2. Rinsing each single diffuser disc for about 20 or 30 seconds with fresh water at a
pressure of about 4 atm. The air flow to the aeration network to be cleaned must be
regulated on about 1.7 m³/h per diffuser.
3. Closing the air flow to the aeration network to be cleaned.

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4. If necessary, use a piece of cloth or a brush with morbid bristles to clean each diffuser
and remove every remaining trace of sludge, chemical particles or oil.
5. Opening the air again and rinse the diffusers again, as described in step 2.
6. Inspecting the aeration system and make sure no element has been loosened or
damaged during cleaning.
7. After having cleaned and checked the tank, fill it with sludge up to 50 mm above the
diffuser elements.
8. Regulating the air flow on 3.5 m³/h per diffuser and verify whether there is loss and
whether air is uniformly distributed by the screen. Carrying out eventual fixing.
9. Operating the aeration system during a few hours, before considering it as steadily
running.

B It is highly recommended, if possible, to drain and to check all aeration


N. B.:
tanks once a year. During this process every aeration screen should be checked
as a preventive precaution. Check the tightening of the iron rings of the diffusers
and of the joints, as well as the anchoring bosses, tighten them if necessary.
ATTENTION: Remove the material accumulated exceedingly over time on the
bottom and any other accumulation on the aeration battery. Avoid any settlement
of biological particles on the diffuser elements.
If the diffusers are exposed to sunrays and heat for several days, remove the
biological particles with a jet of fresh water.
WARNING:Avoid
WARNING: exposition of the plant to direct light of the sun for prolonged
periods and protect it always from frost.

Submersed pumps
Periodical control and preventive maintenance guarantee a safer performance in time. The
pump must be inspected at least once a year. In case of performance in particularly heavy
conditions or continuous service inspections every 3.000/3.500 service hours must be
carried out.
In the Table 4, the type of the control and intervention activities to be made are described.

Table 4 Recommended control once a year for submersed pumps.


pumps.
Type or
Intervention
control point
External parts • Change or fix the wear and tear or the damaged parts.
of the pump • Tighten the screws and the nuts.
and • Control the condition of the lifting handle/shackle, of the chains and steel cables.
installation • Control that the guide pipes will be perfectly vertical.
• Change the damaged parts.
• Eventual wear and tear on the delivery flange of the pump body is normally cause of an
Pump body
analogue wear on the coupling foot.
and impeller
• Eventual wear of the impeller and of the parts in contact with it, rend necessary the
substitution of the warn parts.

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Type or
Intervention
control point
ATTENTION.
ATTENTION In case of infiltration of the tight joint, the oil tank could be under pressure.
Keep a cloth around the screw of the oil tank when unscrew in order to prevent spraying.
• Check if the oil condition reveals eventual infiltration
ATTENTION. A mixture of air/oil might be confused with a mixture of water/oil.
• Put the oil into a clean container possibly transparent and control the eventual presence
of impurity or water content.
• Change the oil when evident traces of water are noted or the oil is strongly emulsion.
Oil quantity
Check the oil after a week again.
• For the machines a continuous service is important that the oil volume will be reduced
of 10% from the indicated value.
ATTENTION.
ATTENTION If oil is mixed with water again, the reason might be that:
• A screw of the oil is not sufficiently tightened.
• An OR ring under the screw is damaged.
The inferior tight is damaged. Contact the supplier.
ATTENTION
ATTENTION.
TENTION In case of infiltration, the stator housing could be under pressure. Keep a cloth
around the screw of the oil tank when unscrew in order to prevent spraying.
• Turn the pump, in a way that the inspection hole will be turned towards the lower part.
Incline the pump in such a way that the eventual infiltrated liquid in the stator housing
flows out through the inspection hole
Liquid in the If presence of water be in the stator housing is detected, the reason might be that:
stator housing • The inspection screw is not sufficiently tightened.
• The OR ring under the inspection screw is damaged.
• An OR ring is broken.
• There is infiltration from the cable inlet.
If presence of oil should be noticed in the stator housing, the reason might be that the
superior tight is damaged. Contact the supplier.
If there is infiltration from the cable inlet:
• Check that the cable inlet is securely tightened.
• Cut a piece of cable and make that the rubber cable press tightens in other point.
Cable inlet
• Replace the rubber cable press.
• Control that the rubber cable press, rounds and cables correspond to the external
diameter of the cables.

Substitute the cable if the insulating external covering is damaged. Assure that the cables
Electric cables
are not bended or pressed in a way to be subject to breakage and wear.

• Verify the working.


Level • Clean, regulate, change or repair the control’s equipment of the damaged level.
regulators or • Follow the instructions supplied for your control’s equipment.
other level
control’s The level regulator is equipped with two chambers to grant shock and pressure resistance
equipment and 20 (8) Amps micro-switch. Eventual damaged regulators should thus be removed in an
adequate way.
Switchboard If damaged, please contact a skilled electrician.
Equipment for Follow the instructions supplied for anomalies in your controlling equipment.
revealing of Check:

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Type or
Intervention
control point
anomalies (to • The signals and the eventual disconnection are working.
be checked • The relay, the lamps, the fusibles and the couplings are entire unit.
frequently) Substitute the faulty components.
Invert two phases if the impeller does not rotate clockwise, seen from above.
Rotary sense
pump (the If the sense of rotation is wrong, the capacity of the electropump results less and the motor
tension is overcharged.
necessary)
Monitor the sense of rotation in idle, after each new start.
Pipes, valves
and other Repair the damage and inform the responsible of the plant about each defect or trouble.
equipment
Use a megaohm meter at 1000 V.
Insulation
resistance Of
the electric The insulation must be superior to 1 megaohm either between the different phases or
motor. between each phase and the ground.

7.3.6 Controls every two years


The following activities have performed every two years:
• Changing the oil of the dosing pumps.
• Changing the oil of the scraping bridge motor.
• Changing the oil of the screen.

7.3.7 Controls every


every three years
If a submersed pump is used under normal working conditions, it is necessary to overhaul
them in workshop every three years. This overhauling requires special equipment and
must thus be carried out by a workshop. When the pump is new or when the tight joints
have been replaced, it is recommended to carry out an inspection after the first week of
performance.

7.4 PLANT OPERATION WRITTEN RECORDS


For efficient and consistent plant management of plants, it is necessary that the assigned
technician keeps a continuously updated records written. These records should include the
main facts about the plant's life, the flow discharge effectuated, the repaired machines, the
terms in which preventive maintenance must be carried out, the state of the flow, of power
and chemical product consumption and the pertinent costs, as well as the hours employed
for management. These records facilitate the access to precious information not only for
plant management, but for eventual expansion as well as guidance for other plant’s

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analogue. In the following Table 5, the parameters to be revealed periodically, according to


the various processes and pertinent frequency, have been reported.
Hereafter, a chart of a weekly report («operation check-list») for registration of the
performance of a small activated sludge plant is presented. The written records’ layout can
be simplified, amplified, modified, according to the plant’s specifications.
In the part related to «remarks» all most important facts pertinent to the plant management
must be reported, including inconvenience, registered malfunction, and the interventions
which had been carried out to get over them.

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WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
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Table 5 Form of the weekly operation report.


report.

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7.5 MAINTENANCE
The operation of the activated sludge plant requires the control of the main running
parameters described on subtitle 7.2, and the regular maintenance of the equipment is
referred on the next section.
Control is carried out by simple tests (pH, DO, VF) conducted directly on the plant as
frequent as needed, according to the operator’s expertise. Periodically, more complete
analysis in specialized laboratories must be performed.
The operator’s observations are important because if he is experienced enough, he will be
able to estimate the plant’s status just by checking the sludge colour and odour.
The assigned operator to the plant management should have at his immediate disposal,
suitable equipment necessary for scraping, cleaning of the bottom and walls of the tanks,
lubricating, keys and various tools.
The operator must frequently carry out precise washing of the external equipment of the
plant and surrounding area to maintain the utmost hygienic conditions. The most secure
solution is that at least two people are assigned to manage even the smallest plants, as
accidents cannot be avoided. During periodical checking due to presence of electrical
equipment, machines with exposed organs in movement and deep tanks, an individual
alone might have even greater risks. In the activated sludge plants, he will provide
periodical lubrication for the adjustment of machines and controlling units, cleaning the air
diffusers, scraping of the clarifier walls and periodical cleaning of overflow among other
tasks.

The main maintenance operations to be carried out during the normal running of an
activated sludge plant are described below.

Mechanical surface aerators


Lubrication of the moving parts and checking of the bearings as indicated in the instruction
booklet provided by the manufacturer.
WARNING: It is important to pay particular attention to the correct alignment and
anchorage of the mechanical aerators because dangerous vibrations can be caused
in the tank.
In cold zones, when frost is formed, the mechanical aerators can be damaged. In
this case, it may be necessary to protect the motor and the turbine or to provide
some heating.

Volumetric compressors
The oil must be checked periodically and changed as often as advised by the
manufacturer. It is also necessary to lubricate the moving parts as well as cleaning and
changing the aspiration filters.

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Electro--pumps, submersible aerators, submersible mixers.


Electro
The following activities must be performed as much as recommended by the manufacturer
at regular intervals:
• The inspection and the oil change.
• The lubrication fatting of the moving parts.
• The checking of the condition of wear of the bearings.
• The shaft and eventually of the impeller.
• For the submergible aerators, the venturi nozzle must be checked periodically and
cleaned if necessary.
• Preserve the functionality of the submergible mixers, the propellers must be
inspected periodically and eventually cleaned out from thread adhesion.

Dosing pumps
The following activities must be conducted as much as advised by the manufacturer at
regular intervals:
• Inspection and oil change.
• Lubrication and fatting of the moving parts.
• Periodical cleaning of the valves in the aspiration and delivery area.
• Control and eventual regulation of tightening pressure of the piston seals.

Scraping bridge
The following activities must be executed as much as recommended by the manufacturer
at regular intervals:
• The lubrication and fatting of the moving parts.
• The checking of the wear state of the driving and the loose wheel and their eventual
periodical change.
• The inspection of the wear condition of the supporting wheels of the scraping blade
on the bottom and their eventual periodical change.
• The control of the wear state of the rubber scraping edge of the blade on the
bottom.
• The checking of the wear state of the rubber scraping edge of the skimming blade
on the surface.

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Cooling tower
Working with discharge waters with high organic content, the bacterias are developed on
the filler body, micro-organisms and algae reduces the yield of the tower; for this reason it
is needed to make a treatment periodically with chlorine to kill and to eliminate these
micro-organisms.

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8 TROUBLE SHOOTING
8.1 THE ACTIVATED SLUDGE
Due to the nature of a biological process, some factors, such as a significant temperature
decrease, an important fluctuation in the organic and/or hydraulic load, a pH variation, the
presence of toxic substances and nutrient deficiency, etc, could reduce the performance or
even prevent an activated sludge plant from working. Some other problems derive from the
malfunctioning of specific unit operations.
In Table 8, a classification of the activated sludge, based on its characteristics in the
secondary clarifier, has been reported. It is possible to observe that numerous types of
activated sludge with undesired characteristics are present:
• Deterioration of the sedimentation characteristics of the sludge and of cohesion of
the activated sludge; this causes a bad liquid - solid separation in the secondary
clarifier, with the corresponding negative implications on the effluent quality.
• Rising sludge towards the surface could generally be associated to a nitrification
process occurring in the aeration tank and to a denitrification process with release of
gaseous nitrogen which, once absorbed within the sludge flocs, causes its rising.
The denitrification is due to very long retention times in the clarifier and to excessive
nitrogen quantities in the water to be treated.
The main corrective measures to be carried out in this case are the increase of the
recycling ratio or a change of the running conditions in the oxidation tank in order to
reduce the nitrification.
• The sludge de – flocculation happens due to several causes (toxic discharges, acid
discharges, lack of dissolved oxygen in the oxidation tank, organic overload,
nutrients deficiency, excessive torque induced by the turbulence caused by the
pumps or oxygenation systems). When the causes are eliminated, usually the
system goes back to normal.
• The presence of pin headed flocs, whose size is usually inferior to 0,8 mm, indicates
an excessive sludge age, excessive oxidation of the flocs or excessive turbulence in
the oxidation tank.
• Particularly frequent, especially treating industrial effluents with high carbohydrate
contents compared to the lipids and proteins, is sludge swelling (bulking), due to the
development of filamentous micro-organisms, visible under the microscope under
shape of filaments of various sizes and shapes, able to connect the different sludge
flocs. This phenomenon shows up as a significant increase the volume occupied by
the sludge in the clarifier; the sludge practically fills the entire clarifier, coming out
with the effluent.
To this problem, chlorine, hydrogen peroxide or inorganic coagulants might be
added, but usually they remove only the macroscopic effects , but do not act on the
causes.

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It is important to mention that the addition of chlorine or other strong oxidizing


chemicals must be controlled rigorously in order to avoid causing a permanent
damage to the activated sludge. For safety reasons, it is better to start the operation
with very low doses and rise them slowly until the desired sludge characteristics are
reached. This can be checked through microscopic observation and SVI tests. The
best way to attack the bulking problem is, of course, to act directly on the cause,
however, sometimes it is difficult to point out the exact cause.
• Foaming in the aeration tank; causes hygiene and safety problems (aerosol forming,
wet zones on which it is easy to slip, etc.).
The phenomenon increases when the suspended solids concentration in the
oxidation tank diminishes, and due to an incorrect aeration rate and temperature.
Obstructed air diffusers lower the air flow entering the oxidation tank The corrective
or preventive measures may be of three types: installation of the adequate
equipment and maintenance, removal of the causes which caused obstruction and
cleaning the obstructed diffusers.
• Difficulty to maintain an adequate dissolved oxygen concentration in the oxidation
tank: if the dissolved oxygen drops below 1.5 -2 mg/l there will be a significant drop
in the process efficiency.
• Decrease of the process efficiency due to an inappropriate recycling of the effluent
coming from the sludge treatment at the inlet of the waste water treatment plant:
sometimes, out of some of the operating units of the sludge treatment line
(thickener, digesters, dry beds, mechanic dehydrators) come liquid flows which still
contain important quantities of pollutants, and thus must be recycled to the inlet of
the waste water treatment plant.
• Difficulties to maintain a constant substrate/micro-organisms ratio in the oxidation
tank: if the ratio is greatly increased, an important drop of the process efficiency will
take place.
• Difficulties to maintain a constant organic and hydraulic load in the oxidation tanks
which operate in parallel.

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EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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SUBJECT: TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR THE BIOLOGICAL PLANT
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Table 6 Activated sludge classification in the secondary sedimentation


sedimentation tank.
SLUDGE EXCESS
ACTIVATED MICROSCOPIC
CHARACTERISTICS VOL. INDEX SLUDGE
SLUDGE TYPE TEST
ml/g APPEARANCE
aggregated
Normal activated
20 ÷ 200 limpid bacteria
sludge
some filaments
at intervals the sludge rises to the
Septic sludge surface, frees the biological gas turbid
and resettles
"Stray cloud"
rises to the surface and goes
shaped sludge turbid
away with the effluent
flocs
the sludge rises to the surface
limpid, but under aggregated
Rising sludge and then resettles with a simple 20 ÷ 200
the sludge bacteria
agitation
the sludge rises in surface and
Super - aerated limpid, but under aggregated
then resettles spontaneously after 20 ÷ 200
sludge the sludge bacteria
some minutes
the sludge has low density
Floating sludge compared to the water and rises turbid variable
in surface
the sludge de flocculation
aggregated
Deflocculated produces a uniform turbidity in
20 ÷ 200 very turbid bacteria and
sludge the excess sludge, the sludge
single cells
settles well
small sludge particles remain several small
numerous visible
Pin headed flocs suspended in the excess sludge; 20 ÷ 200 aggregated
particles
the sludge mass settles well bacteria
interference between excess
Sludge with sludge and sludge does not exist;
1.000 turbid single cells
dispersed growth uniform turbidity in the total
volume of the mixture
Voluminous The sludge, even after having aggregated and
filamentous settled, rises again. The excess 200 ÷ 1.000 limpid filamentous
sludge sludge is difficult to compact bacteria
Non filamentous Large
Same characteristics as the
voluminous 400 ÷ 700 slightly turbid aggregated
voluminous filamentous sludge
sludge bacteria

Problem foam
Due to elevated concentration of soap and other surfactants in the waste water, during the
first aeration period of the sludge, it is possible that a lot of foam could form, while the
concentration of solids in the aerated mixture increases, the foam diminishes. Between the
activated sludge plants, the plants at prolonged aeration are those characterized by the
lowest quantity of foam, as a consequence typical of elevated sludge concentration in the
aerated mixture by which these plants operate: with concentrations of 5.000÷6.000 mg/lt,

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EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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SUBJECT: TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR THE BIOLOGICAL PLANT
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the foam problem is practically low. The limited presence of foam in the plants at prolonged
aeration, is explained also as a consequence of the elevated nitrification that occurs.
For efficient abatement of foam, it is necessary that the spraying nozzles orient the jet
towards the zones where foam easily accumulates, particularly in the corners and in dead
zones generally.
In commerce there are also special chemical antifoam products, with a basis either of
silicones or of fatty acid agents, which can be mixed to the sludge at the inlet of the tank,
much better if directly in the biological oxidation tank. Use of these products results
anyway poorly efficient in those cases in which foam is due to development of particular
filamentous micro-organisms (specifically of Nocardia type): in that case, the addition of
activated carbon in powder, has been demonstrated to be efficient in limiting the
phenomenon.
Performance problems related to persisting foam, could occur, above all, in plants at the
service of dyeworks, laundries etc., from which, discharges particularly rich in detergents,
could come.

8.2 FINE BUBBLE AERATION - SEARCH OF BREAKDOWN


In the Table 7 are described for each problem on the fine bubble aeration system, the
possible causes and solution or measures.

Table 7 Fine bubble aeration - search of breakdown.


Problem Cause Measures

Visual inspection
Diffusers not on level To set the level
To act on the draining system of the screen
Screen clogged by condense
(see plant operations)

Scarce air distribution To clean the diffusers


Lack of air supply To clean the die opening
To clean the surface of the diffusers (see plant
operations.
Insufficient air To supply more air
Visible concentration of air in
Breakdown of pipes To repair(require manual for repairing)
one zone
Big bubbles Diffusers clogged To clean diffusers (see plant operations)
Operating trouble
To regulate the valves
Low oxygen concentration Insufficient air
To increase the flow
To regulate the valves
High oxygen concentration Abundant air
To decrease the flow

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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Problem Cause Measures


Sedimentation solids Insufficient air for mixing To supply more air or to mix separately
Pressure control (if supplied)

High pressure in the diffusers To clean the diffusers


Diffusers clogged
(see plant operations)
Frost in the pipes
To pour warm water on the pipes, pressuring
(rigid temperature)
Lack of pressure of air in the
controlled pipes To blow compressed air into the pipes to
Condense in the pipes
Discharge the condense.

In the case a tank should stop for a long period of time, it is necessary to take some
precautions.
The plastic pipe network must be protected from degradation by the light of the sun and by
ultraviolet rays, covering the system with fresh water.
If, on the contrary, the plant foresees use of membrane disc diffusers, it will be necessary
to put periodically air in the submersed system to maintain its oxygenating condition.

Should the period of stoppage include winter season with the possibility of subjecting the
plant to very rigid temperature aeration, ulterior precautions will be necessary, as the major
damage to the system are due to frost. Frost forming around the pipes and the diffusers
could make them fragile and crack the plastic parts. The tanks should then be filled with
fresh water up to a level of at least 2 m above the aeration network.
If operating of the aeration/mixing system during winter is required, it will be however
necessary to maintain a minimum level of two meter. The air flow should be regulated
periodically, according to the temperature, to avoid frost forming.

8.3 SUBMERGED PUMPS


The following checking list intends to be an aid to eventual trouble shooting. Anyway,
presuming that the pump and the plant previously worked in a satisfactory way.
• To troubleshoot the electrical plant, it is necessary to be in posses of a universal
tester, an insulation meter and the functional electric diagram.
• Besides those controls which need presence of tension, the troubleshooting must
be carried out only at disconnected electrical feeding, assuring that the pump can
not start, even not accidentally.
• Be always assured that there will not be somebody in the neighbourhood of the
pump, in case of start up.
The controls and intervenes to the electrical plant must be carried out by a skilled
electrician.
Follow the local security standards and the recommendations stated in the paragraph
“Security Standards”.

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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8.3.1 The pump does not start.


start.

Figure 3 The pump does not start


start.

EUROPROGETTI SRL | OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL


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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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8.3.2 The pump starts, but the thermal protection intervenes.

Figure 4 The pump starts, but the thermal protection intervenes

EUROPROGETTI SRL | OPERATING AND MAINTENANCE MANUAL


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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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SUBJECT: TECHNICAL MANUAL FOR THE BIOLOGICAL PLANT
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8.3.3 The pump does not stop.

Figure 5 The pump does not stop.

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

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8.3.4 The pump starts and stops too frequently

Figure
Figure 6 The pump starts and stops too frequently.

8.3.5 The pump works, but the flow is scarce or null


To check:
• the rotary sense of the pump. See "Before start up".
• that the valves are open and intact.
• that the pipes, the propeller and the screening equipment are not clogged.

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Rev. 01 - Date: 20/03/2017
EUROPROGETTI S.r.l.
WATER RECOVERY TECHNOLOGY
C.so Stati Uniti 23/i - 35127 Padova (PD), ITALY
E-mail: europrogetti@yahoo.it - Tel.(+39) 049 6988432
Fax.(+39) 049 8702422 - P.IVA /C.F. /CCIAA IT03076510241

Sheet
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• that the propeller rotates easily.


• that the lift has not changed.
• there is no leakage from the pipes.
• eventual wear of the seals, the propeller, pump casing, bottom pump housing.
Do not force star up of the pump when the thermal protection intervenes.

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