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Senior High School Department

CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

According to the research about the history of sari-sari stores, As you walk

through the rural streets of the Philippines, you will often come across a Sari-sari Store.

What is a Sari-sari store you ask? In Tagalog, Sari sari means “variety” or “everything”.

It’s a family run convenience store found on almost every street corner in the Philippines.

Sari sari Stores are not only a one stop shop providing locals with everything from daily

food necessities to cleaning supplies but they are a colorful, cultural icon that brings

together the community. These stores are a big part of the Filipino community and are

often attached to the front of their homes. It is a place where locals catch up with their

neighbors and children play with each other. Just like a Sari sari Stores in the Philippines,

Sari sari Store in Grand Central Market provides you with not only delicious Filipino

inspired dishes, but a place to gather with friends. So as you walk through Grand Central

Market, we hope you find yourself stumbling upon our very own Filipino inspired Sari

sari Stores.Manzke(2013)

The neighborhood sari-sari (variety or general) store is part and parcel of daily

life for the average Filipino. Any essential household good that might be missing from

one’s pantry - from basic food items like coffee and margarine, to other necessities like

mosquitocoils, soap and matches – most conveniently purchased from the sari sari store

nearby at affordably-portioned quantities, sometimes even on credit. Apart from the most

affluent communities, the sari-sari store is a constant feature of residential neighborhoods


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in the Philippines both in rural and urban areas, proliferating even in the poorest aquatter

communities. About 93% of all 1 sari-sari stores nationwide are located in residential

areas (Bonnin,2004:80;McIntyre,1995), and are typically operated from a portion of the

owner’s house (Chen 1997; Bonnin 2004;McIntyre, 1955; Silverio 1982). As early as the

1950s, residential area in Metro Manila exhibited a widespread scattering of tiny

neighborhood stores, “the most common of which is sari-sari store (McIntyre, 1955:66).

He describes these stores in greater detail: “…the store is merely an open, stall-like recess

on the lower floor of a dwelling. Nearly every block has one to four such stores, located

on the corners of the crossroads, with an occasional store in the middle of the block. The

range of customers must be limited to the immediate vicinity. Poor neighborhoods, even

the most destitute group of squatters’ shacks, have a surprisingly large number of these

stores.” (McIntyre, 1955: 66) Nearly three decades later, Silverio wrote, “No single

socioeconomic institution in the country today boasts greater numerical presence in a

Philippine community than the sari-sari store. Sari-sari stores dot the neighborhood

landscape so profusely that sometimes only a single house separates one from another”

(Silverio, 1982: 59). His observation is just as true today as it was twenty-five years ago.

In a more recent study, Bonnin (2004: 105) observed that it was not unusual to find four

or five stores within the same short block, and in one instance, three stores were located

side-by-side in adjacent homes. Although both Silverio and Bonnin conducted their

research in urban communities, the popularity of the sari-sari store is not exclusively an

urban phenomenon.1 As may be expected in less densely populated areas, rural sari-sari

stores are fewer and farther in between but just as present as their urban counterparts.
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Statement of the Problem

The general problem is: What are the 5 Factors of Sari-Sari Stores on how they

survive in their economic competitors.

Specifically, this study sought answer to the following questions:

1. What are the strategies that sari-sari store use in order to compete?
2. What are the threats that may encounter in the business of sari-sari stores?
3. How does the supply and demands affect the sari-sari store?
4. How does the numerous of sari-sari store in that particular place affect their
business?

Significance of the Study

This study is deemed beneficial to the following:

Entrepreneur. They may evaluate and seek for further improvement on the
strategies and techniques so that they can compete with the other entrepreneur in line
with this business.
Customer. This study may benefit them to become more wise in choosing a
product that they want to buy. In addition,this research will help the customer who wants
to become entrepreneur.
Future Businessman.This may serve as basis and source of information in
yielding to know the effective factors on how they survive to their competitors in this
particular field.
Future researchers. They may use the study as reference for further investigation
on other contexts of bullying. It may help them in crafting more comprehensive research
other than the variables used in the study.

Scope and Delimitation of the Study

The study will be conducted in two schools of Congressional District II in

Valenzuela City, Bagbaguin National High School (BNHS), and Mapulang Lupa National

High School (MLNHS). The respondents will be inclusive to students who were

recommended and identified by the guidance teacher/counselor. These were based from
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the incident reports and from the lists of violations as stated in Memorandum of

Understanding from 2014 – 2015 and from the first up to third quarter for the present

school year, 2015 – 2016. The respondents will be students who were identified by the

guidance counselor as bully or bullied students inside the school. A total of 100 students

will be the respondents of the study. Survey questionnaires will be given to students. A

film will be watched to stimulate them to express and narrate their experiences related to

bullying even if they are the bully or being bullied. The study will mainly focus on the

experiences of bullying of high school students as inputs in crafting an intervention

program.

Definition of Variables

The following are conceptually and/or operationally defined for a better and

clearer understanding of the study.

Bullied. Refers to an individual who was identified victim of bullying.

Bullies. Perpetrator, in the study the term is used to refer to an individuals who do

the act of bullying

Bullying. Defined by Olweus (1993), exposure of an individual, repeatedly and

over time, to negative actions on the part of one or more other students. Republic Act

10627 ” defined it as “any severe, or repeated use by one or more students of a written,

verbal or electronic expression, or a physical act or gesture, or any combination thereof,

directed at another student that has the effect of actually causing or placing the latter in

reasonable fear of physical or emotional harm or damage to his property; creating a

hostile environment at school for the other student; infringing on the rights of another
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student at school; or materially and substantially disrupting the education process or the

orderly operation of a school”.

In this study, the term will be used to describe behaviors such as kicking, pushing,

excessive fighting, violent actions, teasing and other related behaviors.

Cyber bullying. Bullying that takes place using electronic technology. Electronic

technology includes devices and equipment such as cell phones, computers, and tablets as

well as communication tools including social media sites, text messages, chat, and

websites.

Emotional bullying. When a person tries to get what they want by making others

feel angry or afraid. Examples of emotional bullying include cruel teasing, talking

viciously about people behind their backs, spreading humiliating rumors, and

excluding kids from group activities. It also includes hiding of belongings, extortion

and intimidation.

High School. Basically Wikipedia describes the term as a school that

provides adolescents with part or all of their secondary education. It may come after

primary school or middle school and be followed by higher education or vocational

training. A secondary school that usually includes grade 7 – 10 for junior and grades 11 –

12 for senior.

Intervention program. Comes from the Latin intervenire, meaning "to come

between, interrupt." It is a means based on a thorough evaluation to be used by any

school authority in minimizing the prevalence of a social phenomenon.

Memorandum of Understanding. An agreement between students, parents and

administrations as part of the Child Protection Policy imposed in schools.


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Physical bullying. It occurs when a person uses overt bodily acts to gain power

over peers. It includes kicking, punching, hitting or other physical attacks. It is done

when one person or a group of people picks on or harasses another person in a face to

face confrontational manner. It can be subtle actions to casually degrade the person

over time, or it can be a series of more aggressive and direct acts to purposefully hurt

the person in a more immediate fashion.

Prevalence. The quality or state of being prevalent: the degree to which

something is prevalent. The percentage of a population that is affected with a bullying at

the given time.

Verbal bullying. Define by nobullying.com as means of using words in negative

way such as insults, teasing, put downs, etc., to gain power over someone else’s life. It

occurs when someone uses language to gain power over his or her peers. The verbal

bully makes use of relentless insults and teasing to bully his or her peers.