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Computer Vision and Image

processing (CoSc4151)
Chapter One
Introduction to computer vision and image
Jimma University
Jimma Institute of Technology
For Computer Science students
CV&IP Abel W.
Contact information
Name of instructor: Abel Worku (BSc.)
Office no: 5308 (Varnero building).

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Course objectives
At the end of this course, students are expected to:
 Define fundamental concepts of computer vision and
image processing system
 Apply pre-processing operations in image enhancement
 Analyze 2-dimensional signals in the frequency domain
through the Fourier transform
 Describe the basic concepts of color image processing
 Apply image restoration, reconstruction and
compression operations
 Design and implement image processing algorithm
with Matlab.
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Course breakdown
Chapter 1. Introduction to computer Chapter 2. Digital image
vision and image processing fundamentals

 What is a computer vision?  Basic concept of image

 What is image?
 Digital image Representation
 Related fields in CV.
 Digital image acquisition process
 Computer Vision Vs image
 Image sampling and quantization

 Application of CV and IP
 Representation of different image
 Different Image processing
examples  Mathematical Tools used in
Digital Image Processing
 Fundamental steps in image
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3. Spatial domain 4. Frequency domain
image processing image processing
 Spatial Processing of Digital  Introduction to frequency domain
Images  What is sound?

 Basic Intensity Transformation  Frequency spectra

Functions  Fourier series
 Continuous One-
 Histogram of images Dimensional Fourier
Transform and Its Inverse
 Spatial filtering
 Discrete One-Dimensional
 Histogram processing Fourier Transform and Its
 Combining Spatial
 Frequency information of images
Enhancement Methods
 Image enhancement in frequency

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Chapter 5. Image restoration and Chapter 6. Image compression
 Basic definition of image
 Introduction compression
 Models of images and  Data redundancy
noise.  Elements of information
 Estimation of noise  General mechanism and
parameters types of data compression
and image restoration
 Restoration in the  Huffman coding
presence of noise  Arithmetic coding
 Dictionary based coding
 Bit-plane coding
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Chapter 7. Color image processing basics

 Color Fundamentals
 Color Models (color
space or color system)
 Basics of Full-Color
Image Processing
 Color Transformations

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Lab activities
Activity one: Introduction to matlab basics.
Activity two: Basic arithmetic operations over an image.
Activity three: Image Cropping, Resizing, Flipping, and Rotation
Activity four: Gray-level transformations
Activity five: Basic image filtering and compression
Activity six: Image histograms
Activity seven: Histogram processing
Activity eight: Color image processing basics
Activity nine: Basic image processing using C# (OPTIONAL)

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Methodology, grading and references
Methodology: lecture, lab practice using matlab and
C#, class activity
 Class work, lab-report, quizzes, attendance ...………………...…. 35%
 Mid-exam ……………………………………………………….. 25%
 Final-exam ……………………………………………………… 40%
References/ literatures:
1. 1. R. C. Gonzalez, R. E. Woods, S. L. Eddins,’Digital Image
Processing using Matlab,’ Pearson-Prentice-Hall, 2004
2. William K. Pratt, Digital Image Processing, 3rd edition, 2001

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Introduction to computer vision and
image processing

What is vision?
what is computer vision?
What is image processing?

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Vision is “to know what is where, by looking.’’
 Where?
 What?

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Why is Vision Interesting?
 Psychology
• ~ 50% of cerebral cortex is for vision.
• Vision is how we experience the world.
 Engineering
• Want machines to interact with world.
• Digital images are everywhere.

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What is computer vision?
 CV is a science that deals how computer can be
made to gain high-level of understanding from the
digital image or video.
 From engineering point of view it seeks to automate
the tasks performed by human vision system.
 It concerns about the theory how artificial systems
can extract information from images.
 CV studies and describes the processes implemented
in software and hardware behind the artificial vision
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 The ultimate goal of computer vision is to model,
replicate, and more importantly exceed human vision
using computer software and hardware at different
 It needs knowledge in computer science, electrical
engineering, mathematics, physiology, biology, and
cognitive science.
 It is inverse of computer graphics (2D-3D).

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Limitations of Human Vision
 Limited memory-cannot remember a quickly
flashed image
 Limited to visible spectrum
 Illusion (false or unreal perception)

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Copyright A.Kitaoka 2003

What is Image?
 stored visual information that has a similar appearance to
some subject, usually a physical object or a person.

 Produced either by capturing or rendering.

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What is an image? Cont’d…
 We can think of an image as a function, f, from R2 to R:
• ( x, y) be the coordinate in the space or in a plane
• f( x, y ) gives the intensity or gray-level at position ( x, y )
• Realistically, we expect the image only to be defined over a rectangle,
with a finite range:
A color image is just three functions pasted together. We can
write this as a “vector-valued” function:
 r ( x, y ) 
f ( x, y )   g ( x, y ) 
 
 b ( x, y ) 
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Related fields with CV
1. Artificial intelligence (AI)
 Deals about robotic navigation
 Detailed understanding of environment is required to
navigate the robot, needs CV (providing high level
information about the env’t) and act as a vision sensor for
the robotic system.
 AI and CV shares topics like pattern recognition, so CV is
sometimes a part of AI.

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Related fields with CV
2. Solid state Physics
 Most CV systems relay on image sensors which detect
electromagnetic radiation.
 Those sensors are designed by quantum physics.
 The process by which light interacts with surface is
explained by physics.
 Physics also explain optics, which is the most part of
imaging system.
 Image sensors require physics to provide complete
understanding of image formation process.

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Related fields with CV
3. Neurobiology
 Specifically the study of biological vision system.
 The CV researches are very close to the study of
biological vision.
 The principles present in CV are very close to
biological vision system.

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Related fields with CV
4. Signal processing
 Deals about methods of processing signals for specific
 Image processing is signal processing which is applied to
images to increase the quality of information.
 CV uses image processing to get the ultimate goals in
understanding, interpreting, analyzing images.
Others related fields:- statistics, optimization, geometry,
computer graphics mathematics and others.

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Computer Vision Vs image
Image processing ;- studies about image-to-image
transformation. The input and output of image
processing are both images.
Some image processing operations include
 Image compression
 Image restoration
 Image enhancement
• Most computer vision algorithms usually assumes a
significant amount of image processing has taken
place to improve image quality.
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Computer Vision Vs Image
Processing (cont’d)
Computer vision is the construction of explicit,
meaningful descriptions of physical objects from their
 The output of computer vision are a description or an
interpretation or some quantitative measurements of the
structures in the 3D scene.
 Image processing and pattern recognition are among many
techniques that computer vision employs/uses to achieve
its goal

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Application of CV and IP
 Robotics (Localization, obstacle removal, Vision based GPS,
Manipulation in manufacturing….)
 Medicine (tumor detection, organ reconstruction,
segmentation, vision guided surgery…)
 Security (defense, fingerprint, face recognition, iris….)
 Transportation (autonomous vehicle, safety, driver
 Industrial automation ( defect identification, barcode reading,
sorting document understanding (OCT)….)
 Image/video databases (image retrieval based on its
 Human Computer Interface (gaze estimation, Face
expression recognition head and hand gesture recognition….)

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Application of vision

Safety Health Security

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Optical character recognition (OCR)
Technology to convert scanned docs to text
• If you have a scanner, it probably came with OCR software

Digit recognition, AT&T labs License plate readers
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Face detection

• Many new digital cameras now detect faces

• Canon, Sony, Fuji, …
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NASA’s Mars Spirit Rover
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Medical imaging

Image guided surgery

3D imaging
Grimson et al., MIT

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Target Recognition (military)
• Department of Defense (Army, Airforce, )

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Fundamental steps in image

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Thank you!!!

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