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# 214 Newton's Laws of Motion

## Conservation of Linear Momentum Impulse

1 b 2 b 3 b 4 c 5 c

6 a 7 a 8 c 9 b 10 c

## 11 c 12 a 13 a 14 b 15 c First Law of Motion

16 c 17 a 18 c 19 c 20 c 1. (c)
21 d 22 c 23 a 24 d 25 d 2. (c)
3. (d)
26 b 27 c
4. (b)
5. (b) Horizontal velocity of apple will remain same but due to
Equilibrium of Forces retardation of train, velocity of train and hence velocity of boy
w.r.t. ground decreases, so apple falls away from the hand of
1 d 2 c 3 b 4 a 5 c boy in the direction of motion of the train.
6. (c) Newton’s first law of motion defines the inertia of body. It
6 c 7 b 8 b 9 b 10 c
states that every body has a tendency to remain in its state
11 d 12 a 13 a 14 a 15 a (either rest or motion) due to its inerta.
7. (d) Horizontal velocity of ball and person are same so both will
16 b 17 b 18 b
cover equal horizontal distance in a given interval of time and
after following the parabolic path the ball falls exactly in the
Motion of Connected Bodies hand which threw it up.
8. (c) When the bird flies, it pushes air down to balance its weight.
1 c 2 b 3 b 4 b 5 d So the weight of the bird and closed cage assembly remains
unchanged.
6 b 7 c 8 c 9 d 10 a 9. (d) Particle will move with uniform velocity due to inertia.
11 a 12 d 13 c 14 b 15 c 10. (a)
11. (b) When a sudden jerk is given to C, an impulsive tension
16 c 17 c 18 c 19 b 20 a
exceeding the breaking tension develops in C first, which
21 c 22 a 23 a breaks before this impulse can reach A as a wave through
block.
12. (a) When the spring C is stretched slowly, the tension in A is
Critical Thinking Questions
greater than that of C, because of the weight mg and the
former reaches breaking point earlier.
1 c 2 b 3 c 4 c 5 c

## 6 a 7 bc 8 d 9 c 10 b Second Law of Motion

11 a 12 d 13 c 14 d 15 b
1. (b) u  100 m / s, v  0, s  0.06 m
16 c 17 c 18 c 19 d
u2 (100)2 1  10 6
Retardation  a   
Graphical Questions 2 s 2  0 .06 12
5  10 3  1  10 6 5000
1 d 2 b 3 d 4 ac 5 c  Force  ma    417 N
12 12
6 d 7 b 8 c 9 d 10 c
2. (b) F  ma
11 c F 100
3. (c) Acceleration a    20 cm / s 2
m 5
Assertion & Reason Now v  at  20  10  200 cm / s
4. (b)
1 e 2 c 3 a 4 b 5 c
 dm 
6 a 7 c 8 a 9 d 10 c 5. (b) F  u   400  0 .05  20 N
 dt 
11 c 12 b 13 d 14 a 15 c
6. (b) u  4 m / s , v  0, t  2 sec
16 e 17 a 18 a 19 b 20 c
v  u  at  0  4  2a  a  2 m / s 2
21 e 22 d 23 b 24 e 25 e
 Retarding force  ma  2  2  4 N
Newton's Laws of motion 215
This force opposes the motion. If the same amount of force is 50 1
applied in forward direction, then the body will move with    0.025 m / s 2
2000 40
constant velocity.
22. (b)
7. (d) Reading on the spring balance = m (g – a)
and since a = g  Force = 0
23. (b) Force on particle at 20 cm away F  kx
8. (a) The lift is not accelerated, hence the reading of the balance will
be equal to the true weight. F = 15 × 0.2 = 3 N As k  15 N / m 
R  mg  2 g Newton or 2 kg  Acceleration =
Force 3
  10 m / s 2
9. (d) When lift moves upward then reading of the spring balance, Mass 0.3
R  m(g  a)  2(g  g)  4 g N  4 kg [As a  g ]  dm 
24. (a) Force on the block F  u    5 1  5 N
2h  dt 
10. (a) For stationary lift t1 
g F 5
 Acceleration of block a    2 .5 m / s 2
and when the lift is moving up with constant acceleration m 2

t2 
2h
 t1  t 2  dm 
25. (a) Opposing force F  u    2  0.5  1 N
ga  dt 
11. (d) Since T= mg, it implies that elevator may be at rest or in So same amount of force is required to keep the belt moving at
uniform motion. 2 m/s
12. (c) If the man starts walking on the trolley in the forward direction
then whole system will move in backward direction with same 26. (d) Resultant force is w  3w  4w
momentum. Force 50 N
27. (c) Acceleration    5 m / s2
1m/s Mass 10 kg
From v  u  at  0  5  4  20 m / s
v
 dm 
28. (c) Thrust F  u    5  10 4  40  2  10 6 N
 dt 
Momentum of man in forward direction = Momentum of
system (man + trolley) in backward direction 29. (d) In stationary lift man weighs 40 kg i.e. 400 N.
 80  1  (80  320)  v  v  0.2 m / s When lift accelerates upward it's apparent weight
 m(g  a)  40(10  2)  480 N i.e. 48 kg
So the velocity of man w.r.t. ground 1.0  0.2  0.8 m / s
For the clarity of concepts in this problem kg-wt can be used
 Displacement of man w.r.t. ground  0.8  4  3.2 m in place of kg.
13. (d) Force = Mass  Acceleration. If mass and acceleration both are 30. (d) As the apparent weight increase therefore we can say that
doubled then force will become four times. acceleration of the lift is in upward direction.
14. (b) As weight = 9.8 N  Mass = 1 kg R  m(g  a)  4.8 g  4(g  a)
Force 5
Acceleration    5 m / s2  a  0.2 g  1.96 m / s 2
Mass 1
15. (a) Force on the table = mg = 40  980  39200 dyne 31. (d) T  m (g  a)  6000 (10  5)  90000 N
F 1N m v 0.2  20
16. (b) a    1 m / s2 32. (a) F  ma    40 N
m 1 kg t 0.1

 v v  dv  100  5
(2)  (10)  12 33. (a) Fm    5000 N
17. (b) a  2 1    3 m / s 2  dt  0 .1
t 4 4
34. (d)
18. (b) F  ma  10  (3)  30 N
35. (b) F  m (g  a)  20  10 3  (10  4 )  28  10 4 N
19. (b) Impulse = Force  Time = 30  4  120 N-s
20. (b) u = velocity of bullet mg 3
36. (b)   ag/3
dm m(g  a) 2
 Mass thrown per second by the machine gun
dt 37. (a) T  m (g  a)  500(10  2)  6000 N
= Mass of bullet × Number of bullet fired per second
 dm  dm F 210
 10 g  10 bullet/ sec  100 g / sec  0.1 kg / sec 38. (a) F u      0.7 kg / s
 dt  dt u 300
udm
 Thrust   500  0.1  50 N 39. (d) R  m (g  a)  m (g  g)  2mg
dt
 g  3g
Thrust on the car 40. (a) T1  m (g  a)  1   g   
21. (d) Acceleration of the car   2 2
Mass of the car
216 Newton's Laws of Motion

 g g T 3  dm  50
T2  m (g  a)  1   g     1  55. (a) F u   20   16.66 N
 2 2 T2 1  dt  60
udm 56. (d) u  250 m / s , v  0 , s  0.12 metre
41. (b) F  m(g  a)
dt  u2 v2  20  10 3  (250)2
dm m(g  a) 5000  (10  20) F  ma  m  

    187.5 kg / s  2s  2  0 .12
dt u 800
42. (c) Initially due to upward acceleration apparent weight of the  F  5.2  10 3 N
body increases but then it decreases due to decrease in gravity.
 v  u  5(65  15)  10 2
57. (a) F m   12.5 N
l l  t  0.2
43. (b) T  2 and T '  2
g 4 g/3 58. (d)
g 4g
[ As g'  g  a  g   ] F  1000  500 
3 3 59. (c) v u t  10     10  15 m / s
m  1000 
3 m(u  v) 2  (8  0)
 T'  T 60. (b) F  ma    4N
2 t 4
44. (b) Density of cork = d, Density of water =  61. (d) R  m (g  a)  10  (9.8  2)  118 N
Resultant upward force on cork  V (  d ) g
l T g g 4 2
This causes elongation in the 62. (a) T  2     
g T g g
g 5 5
spring. When the lift moves down
with acceleration a, the resultant 4
upward force on Cork
m (u 2  v 2 ) 30  10 3  (120)2
cork  V(  d)(g  a) which is 63. (d) F   1800 N
less than the previous value. So the
2S 2  12  10 2
elongation decreases. 64. (b) dp  F  dt  10  10  100 kg m/s
45. (d) When trolley are released then they
posses same linear momentum but in opposite direction. 65. (d) R  m (g  a)  m (10  10)  zero
Kinetic energy acquired by any trolley will dissipate against 66. (b) Force exerted by the ball
friction.
 dv  20
p2 1  F  m    0 .15   30 N
  mg s   s  2 [As P and u are constants]  
dt 0 .1
2m m
67. (d) If rope of lift breaks suddenly, acceleration becomes equal to g
2
m  so that tension, T  m(g  g)  0
2
    
s 3 9
 1   2 
s 2  m1   
1 1 68. (d) R  m (g  a)  50 (10  2)  600 N  60 kg wt
46. (b) Apparent weight  m (g  a)  50 (9.8  9.8)  0  dm  3
69. (b) F u   500  50  10  25 N
47. (b) Opposite force causes retardation.  dt 
48. (a) T  m(g  a) = 10(980 – 400) = 5800 dyne
70. (a) S Horizontal  ut  1.5  4  6 m
l
49. (d) T  2 . T will decrease, If g increases. 1 2 1 F 2 1
g S Vertical  at  t   1  16  8 m
2 2m 2
It is possible when rocket moves up with uniform acceleration.
1 S Net  6 2  8 2  10 m
50. (c) We know that in the given condition s 
m2 71. (c) T  m (g  a)  1000(9.8  1)  10800 N
2
m 
2 72. (d) The effective acceleration of ball observed by observer on earth
s2  m 1 
    s 2   1   s1 = (a – a )
s1  m 2  m  0

##   2 As a0  a, hence net acceleration is in downward direction.

F 6 2  8 2  10 2 73. (c) Due to relative motion, acceleration of ball observed by
51. (a) m   200  10 2 kg observer in lift = (g – a) and for man on earth the acceleration
a 1
remains g.
52. (b) In the absence of external force, position of centre of mass
remain same therefore they will meet at their centre of mass. 74. (c) For accelerated upward motion
R  m (g  a)  80 (10  5)  1200 N
 dv  0.25  [(10)  (10)]
53. (d)Force  m     25  20  500 N
 dt  0.01 75. (c) Tension the string  m (g  a)  Breaking force
3
54. (d) T  mg  50  10  10  0.5 N  20(g  a)  25  g  a  g / 4  2.5 m / s 2
Newton's Laws of motion 217
76. (b) Rate of flow will be more when lift will move in upward 83. (d) u = velocity of bullet
direction with some acceleration because the net downward dm
pull will be more and vice-versa.  Mass fired per second by the gun
dt
Fupward  m (g  a) and Fdownward  m (g  a)
dm
77. (c) Initial thrust must be = Mass of bullet (m ) × Bullets fired per sec (N)
B

dt
m [g  a]  3.5  10 (10  10)  7  10 N
4 5
 dm 
Maximum force that man can exert F  u  
78. (b) When the lift is stationary W  mg  dt 
 49  m  9.8  m  5 kg .  F  u  mB  N
When the lift is moving downward with an acceleration F 144
R  m (9.8  a)  5[9.8  5]  24 N  N  3
m B  u 40  10  3  1200
79. (a) When car moves towards right with acceleration a then due to
pseudo force the plumb line will tilt in backward direction 84. (d) The stopping distance, S  u 2 ( v 2  u 2  2as)
making an angle  with vertical. 2
u 
2
S  120 
From the figure, a  2   2     4
S 1  u1   60 
tan   a / g 
1
 S 2  4  S1  4  20  80 m
   tan (a / g) a
85. (d) The apparent weight,
 R  m(g  a)  75(10  5)  1125 N
g 86. (c) By drawing the free body diagram of point B
80. (a) R  m (g  a)  0
81. (b) Displacement of body in 4 sec along OE Let the tension in the section BC and BF are T1 and
s x  v x t  3  4  12 m T2 respectively.
C F
F = 4N From Lami's theorem 120°
F T1 T2
T1 T2 T B
  120° 120°
sin120 sin120 sin120
T=10N
 T  T1  T2  10 N .
ux = 0 vx = 3m/s
O dp d A
E
87. (d) F  (a  bt 2 )  2bt  F  t
Force along OF (perpendicular to OE) = 4 N dt dt
F 4 88. (a) When the lift moves upwards, the apparent weight,
 ay    2 m / s2
m 2  m(g  a) . Hence reading of spring balance increases.
Displacement of body in 4 sec along OF
1 1 89. (c) When lift is at rest, T  2 l / g
 sy  uy t  a y t 2   2  (4 )2  16 m [As uy  0 ]
2 2 If acceleration becomes g/4 then

##  Net displacement s  s x2  sy2  (12)2  (16)2  20 m l 4l

T   2  2  2T
g/4 g
82. (d) R ma cos
90. (b) The apparent weight of man,
 a R  m(g  a)  80(10  6)  1280 N
ma
mg cos F  100 
mg sin   + 91. (b) v  u  at  0    t     10  200 cm / sec
m   5 
When the whole system
 ma sin  towards left then pseudo
is accelerated
mg
force (ma) works on a block towards right. 92. (b)
For the condition of equilibrium 93. (a) p  pi  p f  mv  (mv )  2 mv
g sin 94. (d) In the condition of free fall apparent weight becomes zero.
mg sin  ma cos   a 
cos  N
95. (a) Total mass of bullets = Nm, time t 
 Force exerted by the wedge on the block n
R  mg cos  ma sin Momentum of the bullets striking the wall = Nmv
 g sin  mg (cos 2   sin2  ) Nmv
R  mg cos  m   sin 
Rate of change of momentum (Force) = = nmv.
t
 cos  cos
96. (b)
mg
R
cos 
218 Newton's Laws of Motion
97. (c) If man slides down with some acceleration then its apparent velocity of rebound
weight decreases. For critical condition rope can bear only 2/3
of his weight. If a is the minimum acceleration then, v 2  2 gh2  2  10  20  20 m/s or v 2  20 m/s
Tension in the rope  m(g  a) = Breaking strength
dv m(v 2  v1 ) 0.4 (20  10)
2 2g g Fm    100 N
 m(g  a)  mg  a  g   dt dt dt
3 3 3
98. (a) For exerted by ball on wall by solving dt  0.12 sec
= rate of change in momentum of ball  p 
| p | 0 .4
107. (a) F   t     0.2 s
mv  (mv ) 2mv t | F| 2
= 
t t 108. (c) Rate of change of momentum of the bullet in forward direction
= Force required to hold the gun.
99. (a) v  u  a t  v  u 2  a 2 t 2  2u at cos 
F  nmv  4  20  10 3  300  24 N
v  200  100  2  10 2  10  cos 135  10 m / s
V 10 cm 3 m3
109. (d) Rate of flow of water   10  10  6
u=102 m/s t sec sec
North
10 3 kg
v Density of water  
 m3
135 West East
Cross-sectional area of pipe A   (0.5  10 3 )2
South 2
dv mv Vv V V  V  
Force  m      
at = 10 m/s dt t t t At  t  A
at sin 10 sin135
tan    1    45  V 
u  at cos  10 2  10 cos 135  v  
i.e. resultant velocity is 10 m/s towards East.  At 
By substituting the value in the above formula we get
100. (c) uy  40 m / s , Fy  5 N , m  5 kg . F  0.127 N
110. (a) Weight of the disc will be balanced by the force applied by the
Fy bullet on the disc in vertically upward direction.
So ay   1 m / s 2 (As v  u  at )
m F  nmv  40  0.05  6  Mg
 v y  40  1  t  0  t  40 sec . 40  0.05  6
 M  1.2 kg
101. (a) Increment in kinetic energy = work done 10
x2 10 111. (a)
  (3 x ) dx
1
 m(v 2  u 2 )  F.dx 
2 x1 2 dp  dM  F  v2
F v   v a  
2
112. (c)
1 3 3 dt  dt  M M
 mv 2  [ x 2 ]10
2  [100  4 ]
2 2 2 F n[mv  (mv )] 2mnv
113. (d) P  
1 3 A A A
  8  v 2   96  v  6m / s
2 2 2  10 3  10 4  10 2
 d p   2  107 N / m 2
d 10  4
102. (c) F = (a  bt 2 )  2bt i.e. F  t
dt dt
p mv  (mv ) 2mv 2  0.5  2 Third Law of Motion
103. (a) Fav     = 2000 N
t t t 10 3
 1. (c) Swimming is a result of pushing water in the opposite
104. (a) Given that p  p xˆi  p y ˆj  2 cos t ˆi  2 sin t ˆj direction of the motion.
 dp 2. (b) Because for every action there is an equal and opposite reaction
 F  2 sin t ˆi  2 cos t ˆj takes place.
dt
    3. (b)
Now, F. p  0 i.e. angle between F and p is 90°. 4. (a) The force exerted by the air of fan on the boat is internal and
 d p for motion external force is required.
105. (b) F  Rate of change of momentum 5. (c)
dt
As balls collide elastically hence, rate of change of momentum 6. (c)
of ball = n[mu  (mu )] = 2mnu 7. (a) Up thrust on the body  v  g . For freely falling body
i.e. F  2mnu effective g becomes zero. So up thrust becomes zero
106. (a) Velocity by which the ball hits the bat 8. (d)
9. (c) Total weight in right hand = 10 + 1 = 1 kg
v1  2 gh1  2  10  5 or v1  10 m/s  10 m/s
10. (c)
Newton's Laws of motion 219
11. (a) For jumping he presses the spring platform, so the reading of Change in horizontal momentum
spring balance increases first and finally it becomes zero. F
Time of contact
12. (c) Gas will come out with sufficient speed in forward direction, so
reaction of this forward force will change the reading of the 2 P cos  2mv cos 
  60°
spring balance. 0.1 0 .1
P=mv 30°
13. (b)
2  0 .1  10  cos 60
14. (b) Since the cage is closed and we can treat bird, cage and the air   10 N
as a closed (isolated) system. In this condition the force applied 0 .1
by the bird on cage is an internal force, due to this the reading 8. (c) Impulse = Force  time = m a t
of spring balance will not change.
15. (b) As the spring balance are massless therefore both the scales  0.15  20  0.1  0.3 N-s
9. (b) For a given mass P  v . If the momentum is constant then
16. (d) F  mnv  150  10 3  20  800  2400 N . it's velocity must have constant.
17. (c) 5N force will not produce any tension in spring without 10. (c)
support of other 5N force. So here the tension in the spring
will be 5N only. F(L  x ) 5(5  1)
11. (c) T   4N
18. (d) Since action and reaction acts in opposite direction on same L 5
line, hence angle between them is 180°. 12. (a)
19. (a)
 dm 
20. (d) As by an internal force momentum of the system can not be 13. (a) F  u   3000  4  12000 N
changed.  dt 
21. (b) 14. (b)
22. (b) Since downward force along the inclined plane
15. (c) It works on the principle of conservation of momentum.
= mg sin  5  10  sin 30 = 25 N
m Bv B 0 . 2  5
23. (c) At 11th second lift is moving upward with acceleration 16. (c) vG   1m /s
mG 1
0  3 .6
a  1.8 m /s 2
2 17. (a) By the conservation of linear momentum m Bv B  mava
Tension in rope, T  m(g  a)
m B  v B 5  10 3  500
 1500(9.8  1.8) = 12000 N  vG    0.5 m / s
mG 5
24. (d) Distance travelled by the lift
 Area under velocity time graph 18. (c) Impulse, I  F  t  50  10 5  3 = 1.5  10 3 N-s
1  1 
   2  3 .6   8  3 .6     2  3 .6  = 36m 19. (c) Momentum of one piece 
M
3
2  2  4
M
Conservation of Linear Momentum and Impulse Momentum of the other piece  4
4
1. (b)
9M 2 5M
2. (b) Force exerted by the ball on hands of the player  Resultant momentum   M2 
16 4
mdv 0.15  20 The third piece should also have the same momentum. Let its
   30 N
dt 0.1 velocity be v, then
5M M 5
 dm    v or v   2 .5 m / sec
3. (b) F  u   500  1  500 N 4 2 2
 dt 
20. (c)
4. (c) If momentum remains constant then force will be zero 21. (d) Using law of conservation of momentum, we get
dP
because F  100 v  0.25  100  v  0.25 m / s
dt
5. (c) According to principle of conservation of linear momentum 22. (c) F  600  2  10 5 t  0  t  3  10 3 sec
1000  50  1250  v  v  40 km / hr t 310 3
Impulse I  0 F dt  0 (600  2  10 3 t)dt
6. (a) Change in momentum = Impulse 3
 [600 t  10 5 t 2 ]0310  0.9 N  sec
p 125
 p  F  t  t    0.5 sec 23. (a) According to principle of conservation of linear momentum,
F 250
m Gv G  m Bv B
7. (a) During collision of ball with the wall horizontal momentum
changes (vertical momentum remains constant) m B v B 0 .1  10 2
 vG    0.2m /s
mG 50
220 Newton's Laws of Motion
m GvG 15
24. (d) m G v G  m B v B  v B    500m / s
mB 10  10 3
25. (d)
26. (b) The acceleration of a rocket is given by T  T   20  4 ….(i) T   40  8 …(ii)
v  m  400  5  By solving (i) and (ii) T   47.23 N and T  70.8 N
a  g     10
m  t  100  1 
15. (a)
 (20  10)  10 m / s 2 y
16. (b)  F  5 2  5 2  5 2 N .
27. (c)
5 F
and tan  

Fy= 5N
=1
Equilibrium of Forces 5
 x
    / 4. Fx= 5N
1. (d) Application of Bernoulli's theorem.
2. (c) 17. (b)
18. (b) mg cos 
3. (b) F  (F)2  (F)2  2 F.F cos    120 ma  
4. (a) 2
Fnet  F12  F22  2 F1 F2 cos mg sin 
 a
2 mg
F  17  
    F 2  F 2  2 F 2 cos  cos     Let the mass of a block is m. It will remains stationary if forces
3  18 
acting on it are in equilibrium i.e, ma cos  mg sin 
5. (c) Direction of second force should be at 180°.
a  g tan 
6. (c) Fmax  5  10  15 N and Fmin  10  5  5 N
Here ma = Pseudo force on block, mg = Weight.
Range of resultant 5  F  15
7. (b) R 2  (3 P)2  (2 P)2  2  3 P  2 P  cos  …(i) Motion of Connected Bodies
(2 R)2  (6 P)2  (2 P)2  2  6 P  2 P  cos …(ii) m
1. (c)
by solving (i) and (ii), cos  1 / 2    120 M P

2 F sin P
8. (b) tan     (as  = 90°) Acceleration of the system 
F  2 F cos  mM
 F  2 F cos  0 2F R MP
The force exerted by rope on the mass 
1 mM
 cos   
2   = 90° 2. (b)
  120 F 3. (b) Tension between m 2 and m 3 is given by
9. (b) A  B  18 …(i) 2m1m 3
T g
12  A 2  B 2  2 AB cos …(ii) m1  m 2  m 3

222 m1
B sin A   9 .8 = 13 N
m2
tan    tan 90  cos   …(iii)
A  B cos  B 222 T

## By solving (i), (ii) and (iii), A  13 N and B  5 N m3

10. (c) m2 5 49
4. (b) a  g   9 .8   5.44 m / s 2
11. (d) Range of resultant of F1 and F2 varies between (3+5)=8N and m1  m 2 4 5 9

## (5  3)  2 N . It means for some value of angle ( ) , 2m1m 2 223 12

resultant 6 can be obtained. So, the resultant of 3N, 5N and 6N 5. (d) T  g g g
m1  m 2 23 5
may be zero and the forces may be in equilibrium.
 m  m1  32
 g  
g
12. (a) Net force on the particle is zero so the v remains unchanged. a   2  g
 1
m  m 2   3  2  5
13. (a) For equilibrium of forces, the resultant of two (smaller) forces
should be equal and opposite to third one. T3
6. (b) T2  (m A  m B ) ×
14. (a) FBD of mass 2 kg FBD of mass 4kg m A  m B  mC

T 4N
T 8N

2 kg 4 kg

T 20 N
40 N
Newton's Laws of motion 221

36 21. (c) As the spring balances are massless therefore the reading of
T2  (1  8 )  9 N both balance should be equal.
(1  8  27)
 m  m1  m m / 2 
 g  
g
(m 2  m1 ) 22. (a) a   2  g
7. (c) Acceleration  g  m1  m 2  m m /2 3
(m 2  m1 )

4 3  m  m2 
  9.8 
9 .8
 1.4 m / sec 2 23. (a) Acceleration of each mass  a   1 g

43 7  m1  m 2 
8. (c) Now acceleration of centre of mass of the system
m1 m2 T' m3 T m1 a1  m1 a2
Acm 
m1  m 2
T
T '  (m1  m 2 )  As both masses move with same acceleration but in opposite
m1  m 2  m 3
direction so a1  a2 = a (let)
T3 (10  6)  40
9. (d) T2  (m1  m 2 )    32 N m1 a  m 2 a
m1  m 2  m 3 20  Acm 
m1  m 2
10. (a)
 m  m2   m1  m 2 
m2 1   1  
 m m
 g

(a) Acceleration  g   9 .8  3.27 m /s 2
 m1  m 2
11.
m1  m 2 2 1   1 2 
2 a m1 a
and T  m1a  2  3.27  6.54 N  m  m2  m2
  1  g

2m 1 m 2 2  10  6  m1  m 2 
12. (d) T  g  9.8  73.5 N
m1  m 2 10  6
Critical Thinking Questions
m  m1 10  5 g
13. (c) a 2 g g
m1  m 2 10  5 3 1. (c) Due to acceleration in forward direction, vessel is an
accelerated frame therefore a Pseudo force will be exerted in
m2 3
14. (b) a  g 10  3 m / s 2 backward direction. Therefore water will be displaced in
m1  m 2 73 backward direction.
 m2  m3  35 2. (b) The pressure on the rear side would be more due to fictitious
15. (c) T1   g 
  10  8 N
 m1  m 2  m 3  35 force (acting in the opposite direction of acceleration) on the
 2
rear face. Consequently the pressure in the front side would be
 m  m1  10  6  lowered.
16. (c) a   2  g     10  2.5 m / s 2
    
 1
m m 2  10 6
F
3. (c) v 2  2as  2  s [ As u  0]
17. (c) T sin 30  2kg wt T sin 30 m 
30o
 T  4 kg wt T
 5  10 4 
30o  v 2  2 3  1

T1  T cos 30 °  3  10
7
T cos 30 T1  100

 4 cos 30 °  v  0.1 m / s
2 kg-wt
2 3 4. (c) Mass measured by physical balance remains unaffected due to
18. (c) If monkey move downward with acceleration a then its variation in acceleration due to gravity.
apparent weight decreases. In that condition
5. (c) For W, 2W, 3W apparent weight will be zero because the
Tension in string  m(g  a) system is falling freely. So the distances of the weight from the
This should not be exceed over breaking strength of the rope rod will be same.
i.e. 360  m(g  a)  360  60(10  a)
6. (a) For equilibrium of system, F1  F22  F32 As   90
 a  4 m / s2
Net force
 m  m2  g  m1  m 2  m 9 In the absence of force F1 , Acceleration 
19. (b) a   1 g 
   g  1 

Mass
 1
m  m 2  8  1
m  m 2  m 2 7
F22  F32 F1
 m  m2   5  4.8   
20. (a) a 1 g     9 .8  0 .2 m / s
2
m m
 m1  m 2   5  4 .8 
222 Newton's Laws of Motion
7. (b,c) Force of upthrust will be there on mass m shown in 2
 m  m2 
2
3m  m 
 g  
g
figure, so A weighs less than 2 kg . Balance will show 15. (b) acm   1   g
sum of load of beaker and reaction of upthrust so it  1
m  m 2   3 m  m  4
reads more than 5 kg.  
16. (c) As v  5 t ˆi  2t ˆj  a  a xˆi  ay ˆj  5ˆi  2ˆj ay
8. (d) Heavier gas will acquire largest momentum i.e. Argon .
ax
m v 
9. (c) Ft  m v  F  F  ma xˆi  m(g  ay )ˆj
t max

By doing so time of change in momentum increases and  | F |  m ax2  (g  ay )2  26 N
impulsive force on knees decreases. m(g+ay)
2
X Y v2  2 .7  10 8 
10. (b) When false balance has equal arms then, W  17. (c) l  l0 1   1 1     l  0 .44 m

 3  10
2 2 8
c 

## 11. (a) Let two vectors be A and B then ( A  B).( A  B)  0 T0

18. (c) T
[1  (v 2 / c 2 )]1 / 2
A. AB.BB. AB.B 0
By substituting T0  1 day and T  2 days we get

A B 0 A B  AB
2 2 2 2
v  2.6  10 8 ms 1

b b dp  dm 
12. (d) 19. (d) Force acting on plate, F  v 
A y B dt  dt 
 
l dm
O Mass of water reaching the plate per sec =
dt
M V
P Q  Av  A(v1  v 2 )  (v1  v 2 )
v2
As P and Q fall down, the length l decreases at the rate of U ( v  v1  v 2  velocity of water coming out of jet w.r.t. plate)
m/s. V
( A  Area of cross section of jet  )
From the figure, l  b  y2 2 2 v2
Differentiating with respect to time dm V V 
 F v  (v1  v 2 )  (v1  v 2 )    (v1  v 2 )2
dl db dy  db dl 
dt v2  v2 
2l   2b   2y   As  0,  U 
dt dt dt  dt dt  Graphical Questions
dy  l  dl dy  1  U 1. (d) If the applied force is less than limiting friction between block
       U 
dt  y  dt dt  cos   cos  A and B, then whole system move with common acceleration
F
13. (c) From the figure for the equilibrium of the system i.e. a A  aB 
m A  mB
1
2T cos   2mg  cos      45 But the applied force increases with time, so when it becomes
2 more than limiting friction between A and B, block B starts
T T moving under the effect of net force F – F
 
k

## Where Fk  Kinetic friction between block A and B

T T
F  Fk
 Acceleration of block B, aB 
m m mB
2m
As F is increasing with time so a will increase with time
B

## Kinetic friction is the cause of motion of block A

14. (d) Force on the pulley by the clamp T FPC
Fk
m  Acceleration of block A, a A 
mA
Fpc  T 2  [(M  m)g]2
It is clear that aB  a A . i.e. graph (d) correctly represents the
Fpc  (Mg)  [(M  m )g]
2 2 variation in acceleration with time for block A and B.
mg Mg
2. (b) Velocity between t  0 and t  2 sec
Fpc  M 2  (M  m)2 g dx 4
 vi    2m/s
dt 2
Newton's Laws of motion 223

Velocity at t  2 sec , v f  0 1. (e) Inertia is the property by virtue of which the body is unable to
change by itself not only the state of rest, but also the state of
Impulse = Change in momentum  m(v f  vi ) motion.
2. (c) According to Newton’s second law
 0.1(0  2)  0.2 kg m sec 1
Force
3. (d) Momentum acquired by the particle is numerically equal to Acceleration = i.e. if net external force on the body is
area enclosed between the F-t curve and time axis. For the Mass
given diagram area in upper half is positive and in lower half is zero then acceleration will be zero
negative (and equal to upper half), so net area is zero. Hence
dp
the momentum acquired by the particle will be zero. 3. (a) According to second law F   ma.
dt
4. (a,c) In region AB and CD, slope of the graph is constant i.e. velocity
is constant. It means no force acting on the particle in this If we know the values of m and a, the force acting on the body
region. can be calculated and hence second law gives that how much
force is applied on the body.
5. (c) Impulse = Change in momentum  m(v 2  v1 ) …(i)
4. (b) When a body is moving in a circle, its speed remains same but
Again impulse = Area between the graph and time axis velocity changes due to change in the direction of motion of
1 1 body. According to first law of motion, force is required to
  2  4  2  4  (4  2.5)  0.5  2  2.5 change the state of a body. As in circular motion the direction
2 2
of velocity of body is changing so the acceleration cannot be
 4  8  1.625  5  18.625 ...(ii) zero. But for a uniform motion acceleration is zero (for
rectilinear motion).
From (i) and (ii), m(v 2  v1 )  18.625
5. (c) According to definition of momentum
18.625 18.625 1
 v2   v1   5  14.25 m / s P  mv if P = constant then mv = constant or v  .
m 2 m
As velocity is inversely proportional to mass, therefore lighter
F
6. (d) K and increment in length is proportional the original body possess greater velocity.
x
6. (a) The wings of the aeroplane pushes the external air backward
1 and the aeroplane move forward by reaction of pushed air. At
length i.e. x  l  K 
l low altitudes. density of air is high and so the aeroplane gets
sufficient force to move forward.
It means graph between K and l should be hyperbolic in
nature. 7. (c) Force is required to change the state of the body. In uniform
motion body moves with constant speed so acceleration should
7. (b) In elastic one dimensional collision particle rebounds with same be zero.
speed in opposite direction
F
i.e. change in momentum  2mu 8. (a) According to Newton’s second law of motion a  i.e.
m
But Impulse  F  T  Change in momentum magnitude of the acceleration produced by a given force is
inversely proportional to the mass of the body. Higher is the
2mu
 F0  T  2mu  F0  mass of the body, lesser will be the acceleration produced i.e.
T mass of the body is a measure of the opposition offered by the
8. (c) Initially particle was at rest. By the application of force its body to change a state, when the force is applied i.e. mass of a
momentum increases. body is the measure of its inertia.
Final momentum of the particle  Area of F - t graph dp
9. (d) F  Slope of momentum-time graph
dt
 mu  Area of semi circle
i.e. Rate of change of momentum = Slope of momentum- time
 r2  r1r2  (F0 ) (T / 2)  F0 T graph = force.
mu    u 
2 2 2 4m 10. (c) The purpose of bending is to acquire centripetal force for
circular motion. By doing so component of normal reaction will
9. (d) momentum acquired = Area of force-time graph counter balance the centrifugal force.
1 11. (c) Work done in moving an object against gravitational force
  (2)  (10)  4  10  10  40  50 N-S (conservative force) depends only on the initial and final
2
position of the object, not upon the path taken. But
dp gravitational force on the body along the inclined plane is not
10. (c) F , so the force is maximum when slope of graph is
dt same as that along the vertical and it varies with the angle of
maximum inclination.
11. (c) Impulse = Area between force and time graph and it is 12. (b) In uniform circular motion of a body the speed remains constant
maximum for graph (III) and (IV) but velocity changes as direction of motion changes.
As linear momentum = mass × velocity, therefore linear momentum
of a body changes in a circle.
Assertion and Reason On the other hand, if the body is moving uniformly along a
straight line then its velocity remains constant and hence
acceleration is equal to zero. So force is equal to zero.
224 Newton's Laws of Motion
13. (d) Law of conservation of linear momentum is correct when no
external force acts . When bullet is fired from a rifle then both
should possess equal momentum but different kinetic energy. E
P2
  Kinetic energy of the rifle is less than that of bullet
2m
because E  1/m
14. (a) As the fuel in rocket undergoes combustion, the gases so
produced leave the body of the rocket with large velocity and
give upthrust to the rocket. If we assume that the fuel is burnt
at a constant rate, then the rate of change of momentum of the
rocket will be constant. As more and more fuel gets burnt, the
mass of the rocket goes on decreasing and it leads to increase
of the velocity of rocket more and more rapidly.
15. (c) The apparent weight of a body in an elevator moving with
downward acceleration a is given by W  m (g  a).
16. (e) For uniform motion apparent weight = Actual weight
For downward accelerated motion,
Apparent weight < Actual weight
17. (a)
18. (a) By lowering his hand player increases the time of catch, by
doing so he experience less force on his hand because
F  1/dt .
19. (b) According to Newton’s second law,
F  ma  a  F / m
For constant F, acceleration is inversely proportional to mass
i.e. acceleration produced by a force depends only upon the
mass of the body and for larger mass acceleration will be less.
20. (c) In uniform circular motion, the direction of motion changes,
therefore velocity changes.
As P = mv therefore momentum of a body also changes in
uniform circular motion.
21. (e) According to third law of motion it is impossible to have a
single force out of mutual interaction between two bodies,
whether they are moving or at rest. While, Newton’s third law
is applicable for all types of forces.
22. (d) An inertial frame of reference is one which has zero
acceleration and in which law of inertia hold good i.e. Newton’s
law of motion are applicable equally. Since earth is revolving
around the sun and earth is rotating about its own axis also,
the forces are acting on the earth and hence there will be
acceleration of earth due to these factors. That is why earth
cannot be taken as inertial frame of reference.
23. (b) According to law of inertia (Newton’s first law), when cloth is
pulled from a table, the cloth come in state of motion but
dishes remains stationary due to inertia. Therefore when we
pull the cloth from table the dishes remains stationary.
24. (e) A body subjected to three concurrent forces is found to in
equilibrium if sum of these force is equal to zero.
  
i.e. F1  F2  F3  .....  0.
25. (e) From Newton's second law
Impulse = Change of momentum.
So they have equal dimensions