OPINION LEADERSHIP Opinion leadership (word of mouth communication) is the process which one person ( the opinion leader

) informally influence the action or attribute of others, who may be opinion seekers or opinion recipients. The key characteristic of the influence is that it is interpersonal and informal and takes place between two or more people none of whom represents a commercial selling source that would gain directly from the sale of something word of mouth implies personal or face to face communication although it may also take place in a telephone conversation or within the context of e mail or a chat group on the internet. One of the parties in a word of mouth encounter usually offers advice or information about a product or service, such as which of several brands is best or how a particular product may be used. Market researcher identify opinion leaders by such methods as self designation key informants¶ the sociometric method, and the objective method. Studies of opinion leadership indicate that this phenomenon tends to be product category in which they are highly interested. An opinion leader for one product category may be an opinion receiver for another. The opinion leadership process usually takes place among friends¶ neighbors and work associates who have frequent physical proximity and thus have ample opportunity to hold informal product related conversations. These conversations usually occur naturally in the context of the product-category usage.

DYNAMIC OF THE OPINION LEADERSHIP PROCESS
y y y y CREDIBILITY POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PRODUCT INFORMATION INFORMATION AND ADVICE OPINION LEADERSHIP IS CATEGORY SPECIFIC OPINION LEADERSHIP IS A TWO-WAY STREET

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THE NEED OF THE OPINION LEADERSHIP

Are you willing to purchase bike in near future? Yes No

If no go to the last question 2. Mention your preferred brand? 3. Can anyone change your decision of purchase bike? Yes No 4. Specify the person that makes a change in your decisions.

5. Tike the charactustic of a person (opinion leader) which influences your decision. y y y y y y Experience Credibility Positive and negative product information Information and advice Opinion leadership is category specific Opinion leadership is a two way street

A Two-Step Flow of Influence?
Opinion-Leader Campaigns on Climate Change
1. Matthew C. Nisbet1 and 2. John E. Kotcher2 +Author Affiliations 1. 1American University, Washington, DC, nisbet@american.edu 2. 2National Academies, Washington, DC

Abstract
In this article, we review concepts, measures, and strategies that can be applied to opinion-leader campaigns on climate change. These campaigns can be used to catalyze wider political engagement on the issue and to promote sustainable consumer choices and behaviors. From past research, we outline six relevant categories of self-designated opinion-leaders, detailing issues related to identification, recruitment, training, message development, and coordination. We additionally analyze as prominent initiatives Al Gore's The Climate Project and his more recent We campaign, which combines the recruitment of digital opinion-leaders with traditional media strategies. In evaluating digital opinion-leader campaigns, we conclude that there are likely to be significant trade-offs in comparison to face-to-face initiatives. The challenge for both scholars and practitioners is to understand under what conditions are digital opinion-leaders effective and in which ways can online interactions strengthen or build on realworld connections.

A randomized trial of opinion leader endorsement in a survey of orthopaedic surgeons: effect on primary response rates
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Mohit Bhandari1, PJ Devereaux1, Marc F Swiontkowski2, Emil H Schemitsch3, Ketan Shankardass1, Sheila Sprague1 and Gordon H Guyatt1 +Author Affiliations 1. 1Departments of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, and Orthopaedic Surgery, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. 2. 2University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USA. 3. 3St Michael¶s Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Correspondence: Mohit Bhandari, McMaster University Health Sciences Center, Department of Clinical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Room 2C3, 1200 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, L8N 3Z5, Canada. E-mail: bhandari@sympatico.ca Accepted February 10, 2002.

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Abstract
Background Opinion leaders have been shown to have significant influence on the practice of health professionals and patient outcomes. Methods Using focus groups, key informants, and sampling to redundancy techniques, we developed a questionnaire of surgeons¶ preferences in the treatment of tibial shaft fractures. Twenty-two well-respected and widely known orthopaedic traumatologists endorsed the questionnaire. We randomized 395 surgeon members of the Orthopaedic Trauma Association to receive either a questionnaire that included a letter informing them of the opinion leaders¶ endorsement, or a questionnaire without the endorsement. Results Surgeons who received the letter of endorsement had a significantly lower response rate at 2, 4, and 8 weeks. The absolute difference in response rates was 7.8% (4.6% versus 12.4%, P < 0.05) at 2 weeks, 13.1% at 4 weeks (28.6% versus 41.7% P < 0.02), and 12.3% at 8 weeks (47.5% versus 59.8% P = 0.02). Conclusions The addition of a letter listing expert surgeons who endorse the survey lead to significantly lower primary response rates. Those interested in influencing physician responses cannot always assume a positive effect from endorsement by opinion leaders

Political awareness, elite opinion leadership, and the mass survey response

Auteur(s) / Author(s)
ZALLER J. (1) ;

Affiliation(s) du ou des auteurs / Author(s) Affiliation(s)
(1)

Univ. California, Los Angeles CA, ETATS-UNIS

Résumé / Abstract
Political awareness affects virtually every aspect of citizens' political attitudes and voting behavior. Among its effects are greater attitude stability, greater ideological consistency, and greater support for a nation's «mainstream» values. Yet there exists no comprehensive explanation of why political awareness has the pervasive effects that it has. Nor is there agreement on how the concept of political awareness should be conceptualized and measured. This article addresses both concerns

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