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LEVEL B2.

2 FINAL COMPETENCES
Titulo:
NEW PASSPORT TO THE WORLD
PASSPORT TO THE WORLD B2.2 FINAL COMPETENCES

Derechos Patrimoniales:
Jesús Oviedo Perez.

Co-autores primera edición

David Fernando Moreno Ariza.


Víctor Manuel Gonzalez Esguerra.
Zoraida Isabel Mohamed.
Cristian Leonardo Sarmiento.
Luisa Fernanda Cuervo Marroquín.
Laura Rocha.
Luisa Fernanda Cárdenas.

Editorial:
En proceso de sucesión para Passco S.A.

Diseño y Diagramación:
David Fernando Moreno Ariza.

Impreso en Colombia por:

Lugar y fecha de edición


Bogotá Colombia
Julio de 2018
Fecha de Impresión
Julio de 2018

Material pedagógico sin costo comercial.


New Passport The World, in its “B2.2 - final competences” edition, has been
designed aiming to give authentic use of the English language in its spoken
and written form. With your New Passport to the World, you will talk about a
wide variety of topics, obtaining new tools for you to face the globalized world
and its diversity.

This learning material was created under the most relevant tendencies in the
EFL area, following a communicative perspective, that asks students to inte-
ract with different forms of the language, understand their functions and
appropriate them by facing natural and real production of the language. Besi-
des, it is thought as a light material easy to work with and supported with
virtual extra resources that you can use for free on internet.

Our program follows the rubrics, paradigm, and understanding of languages


that are presented in the Common European framework of Reference (CEFR),
the suggestions from the Colombian Ministry of Education in their Bilingua-
lism program, and finally, the nature of the methodology of PASSPORT LAN-
GUAGE CENTERS.

To take advantage from this resource you will be guided to understand how
English works, to achieve a contextualized use of the grammar forms, to
enrich your vocabulary and finally, to face justified and communicative pro-
jects while you work, learn and practice with all the communicative skills toge-
ther in conversational and productive tasks.
SCOPE AND SEQUENCE

A) Choose a job. Tenses for continuity and


B) Talk about past experiences. - Career and study. simultaneity (Past simple,
1- C) Discuss advices you have - Qualifications and Abilities.
past progressive,
followed. - Job applications.
Career Goals And D) Justify your current job past perfect)
or career choices.
Achievements
A) Justify lies.
2- B) Learn to add descriptions. Expressions to talk
Adjective Clauses
Assuming C) Talk about lies.
D) Debate the necessity of lies.
about lying.

Responsibility
A)Express fears and anxieties. Expressing frustration,
3- B)Describe how fear affects you.
C)Raise cultural awareness.
sympathy and encouragement.
Adjectives to describe
Clauses With “No Matter”,
“So” and “Such” to describe
Facing adversities D)Talk about fears and conquer physical effects of horror, a result.
Them. dread or anxiety
and fears

4- A) Discuss ways to manage stress. Physical effects of stress. Clauses of condition with
“Even if”, “Whether or not”,
Anger, stress B) Learn to keep your anger.
C) Talk about tolerance.
Vocabulary connected
“Only if”, “Unless” and
to stress and anger.
and tolerance. D) Give a talk about anger and stress.
“Otherwise”

A)Identify the parts of a joke.


Types of jokes, Direct and indirect speech.
5- B) Talk about what others say
C)Debate the importance of laughing expressing how you Reporting verbs: say,
tell and ask.
The funny side D)Present a stand-up comedy feel about a joke
A)Prevent hassels before they happen. Unreal conditional
6- B) Regret about travel hassels.
C)Understand why people travel. Travel nouns
with continuous forms.
Unreal statements.
Travel Hassels D)Share bad travelling experiences.

7-
A) Speculate about a crime. Ways to express disbelief.
The Power Of B) Express the unbelievable. Reporting verbs.
Passive voice with
C) talk about reasons of fear. reporting verbs.
Suggestion D) Share your phobias.

A)Talk about personal talents and

8- strengths.
B) Describe your strengths and Talents and strengths. Auxiliaries To Express
Being Good At weaknesses.
C)Discuss about the diversity of
Describing intelligence. Emphatic Stress.
talents.
D)Present scientific and social aspects
of being considered a genius.

A)Understand the social importance Technologies. Passive voice,


9- of innovation.
B)Talk about incredible technologies
Expressions to talk about Passive unreal conditional,
uses and functions.
consequences.
Innovative Tech C)Understand the relevance of ICT
D)Present the main aspects of Describing social trends.
sustainability in XXI century industries

A)Understand the impact of


Ways to express
globalization in daily lives. Separable And Inseparable
10- B)Analize Global trends
pros and cons.
Phrasal Verbs
C)Talk about the power of
Ict And Globalization. globalization
D)Present social advantages and
disadvantages of globalization.
UNIT 1 Career, goals and achievements.

2%-(&7,9(6
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Choose a job.
B) Talk about past experiences.
C) Discuss advices you have followed.
D) Justify your current job o career choices.

Write below the new vocabulary you


learn every class.
92&$%8/$5<
During this unit you will work on:

- Career and study.


- Qualifications and abilities.
- Job applications.

In this unit,
you will make
an individual presentation
answering to “How did you
get to your current job or
career?”

1
UNIT 1 Career goals and achievements.
LESSON 1A Choose a job.
OPENING: Do you enjoy your current job? Why or why not?
Read the promot ions
following article and raises were
important for
about Job people both in
Satisfaction. their current job
“When and in applying for
choosing a job, future jobs. What
was interesting,
focus on the though, was that
fun.” the majority cared
a lot about present
If you don’t like benefits in their
your job, you aren’t alone. current job, but
In fact, two out of three working they expected
Americans do not feel engaged at work. not to care very
According to a Gallup survey, and many of much about those things in their future
these people spend more of their walking jobs. When envisioning themselves in the
time working than doing anything else. future, they predicted that they would
As a psychology professor at a business almost solely be driven by delayed benefits
school, I have chatted with many unhappy like salaries.
employees. I have found that one big reason A basic insight from behavioral science
people are unhappy at work is that when is that people care about the present mainly
they choose a job or a project, they are not in the present. They don’t really care about
aware of what will truly matter to them once it in advance. In the workplace, we are well
they are in the midst of it. aware that it is much easier to get out of bed
People send résumés and go to interviews in the morning if our job is interesting and
thinking that they care only about salaries our colleagues are fun to be around. But we
and promotions. These are important, care much less about such benefits when
yes, but they are not enough. To identify a we apply for a future job. We fail to realize
satisfying job, people should be thinking that the person we are in the present —
about office morale and doing work that is the one who values intrinsic benefits — is
interesting and fun. awfully similar to the person we will be in
To demonstrate this point, my colleague the future.
Kaitlin Woolley and I asked a large group This natural human tendency has
of employees what made them like their important consequences. We often choose
present jobs, along with what factors would the wrong job or the wrong project and
cause them to like future jobs. end up regretting it. But keep in mind that
Unsurprisingly, we found that if there is one thing that is certain about
the future, it is that it will one day be the
2 B2.2
UNIT 1 Career, goals and achievements.
LESSON 1A Choose a job.
present. And it is in that present that we will friends and break the routine with social activities.
carry out our goals. Do whatever makes you happy at work; you can
How can we use insights from behavioral stick to your career goals longer if your work is
science to increase job satisfaction? We have enjoyable in the moment.
developed a three-step approach. First, Third, bring to mind those present benefits that
make sure you choose a career or project do exist at your work. Maybe you just have not been
that you enjoy pursuing, one that offers paying attention to them. You can motivate yourself
present benefits for you. Keep in mind that to engage in your work by directing attention to the
unless you find small pleasures in your daily positive aspects of your tasks.
routine, you will not stick to it. Adapted from the NewYorkTimes in 2017.
Second, add present benefits to your
working hours. Listen to music, make
Find the following vocabulary in the text and define them, with your own words.
- Employees_________________________________________________________
- Résumés__________________________________________________________
- Salaries___________________________________________________________
- Promotions________________________________________________________
- Colleague_________________________________________________________
- Raises____________________________________________________________
- Benefits___________________________________________________________

DISCUSSION: What are some of the factors that you take into account when applying
for a new job?
Make a list of the things that make your job interesting, then share it with your
partners.
___________________________________ What do you think is more
___________________________________
important, to have a good salary
___________________________________
___________________________________ or a working environment?
___________________________________ _______________________________
___________________________________ _______________________________
___________________________________ _______________________________
___________________________________ _______________________________
___________________________________ _______________________________
___________________________________ _______________________________
___________________________________ _______________________________
________________________________ _______________________________
___________________________
3
UNIT 1 Career goals and achievements.
LESSON 1B Talk about past experiences.
GRAMMAR TIP: Past tenses review.
TENSE USE USE KIND OF STATE- SIGNAL
MENT WORDS

Simple Past - Action in the past taking place once, A: He spoke.


never or several times. N: He did not speak. Yesterday, 2
- Actions taking place one after another. Q: Did he speak? minutes ago,
- Action taking place in the middle of in 1990, last
another action. Friday.

Past Progressive - Action going on at a certain time in the A: He was speaking.


past. N: He was not While,
- Actions taking place at the same time. speaking. as long as.
- Action in the past that is interrupted by Q: Was he speaking?
another action.

Past Perfect - Action taking place before a certain A: He had spoken.


Simple time in the past. N: He had not Already, just,
- Sometimes interchangeable with past spoken. never, not yet,
perfect progressive. Q: Had he spoken? once, until that
- Putting emphasis only on the fact (not day
the duration).

Past - Action taking place before a certain A: He had been


PerfectProgressive time in the past. singing For, since, the
- Sometimes interchangeable with past N: He had not been whole day, all
perfect simple. singing day
- Putting emphasis on the duration or Q: Had he been
course of an action. singing?

Adapted from ego4u.com in 2017.

Extra resources:
Visit the following link to get extra content.
(Link 1), (Link 2) and (Link 3).

4 B2.2
UNIT 1 Career, goals and achievements.
LESSON 1B Talk about past experiences.
Choose the correct verbs. Each tense appears only once.
1. We __________________ to the cinema last week.
a) went c) had gone
b) were going d) had been going

2. A bird pooped on the window that I ___________________ only a minute before.


a) cleaned c) had cleaned
b) was cleaning d) had been cleaned

3. Yesterday at nine he _______________________ in front of his computer.


a) sat c) had sat
b) was sitting d) had been sitting

4. When their mum got home, the boys ____________________ TV for two hours.
a) watched c) had watched
b)was watching d) had been watching

Taken from englishlingolia.com in 2017.

Write about four important life changing events that took place in your
personal and professional life . Explain how and why they changed.

___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
____________________________
5
UNIT 1 Career goals and achievements.
LESSON 1C Discuss advice you have followed.
OPENING:
Read the following biography.

Who Was Steve Jobs?


Steven Paul Jobs was an American inventor,
designer and entrepreneur who was the co-founder,
chief executive and chairman of Apple Computer.
Apple’s revolutionary products, which include the
iPod, iPhone and iPad, are now seen as dictating the
evolution of modern technology. Born in 1955 to
two University of Wisconsin graduate students who gave him up for adoption, Jobs was smart
but directionless, dropping out of college and experimenting with different pursuits before co-
founding Apple with Steve Wozniak in 1976. Jobs left the company in 1985, launching Pixar
Animation Studios, then returned to Apple more than a decade later. Jobs died in 2011 following
a long battle with pancreatic cancer.
Taken from Biography.com in 2017
What do you think these quotes by Steve Jobs mean? Explain in your words
using examples.
“The only way to do great work is to love what you do...”
___________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
“You have to trust in something — your gut, destiny, life, karma, whatever. This
approach has never let me down...”
___________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
“Death is very likely the single best invention of Life. It is Life’s change agent...”
___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
“Being the richest man in the cemetery doesn’t matter to me...”
___________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
“Stay Hungry. Stay Foolish.”
__________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________

6 B2.2
UNIT 1 Career, goals and achievements.
LESSON 1C Discuss advice you have followed.

Listen to Steve Job’s speech and complete


each statement choosing the correct word
or phrase. (DIGITAL AUDIO).

-Steve Jobs (dropped in on/ dropped out of) a calligraphy class.


- He found what he loved to do (early in life / close to death).
- If you haven’t found what you love to do yet, (keep looking forward / settle).
- (Work / death) is a destination we all share (no one has / anyone hasn’t) ever escaped
it.
- “stay hungry, stay foolish” it is something he (has never / has always) wished for
himself.
Retrieved from www.youtube.com in 2017.

Organize the advice from the speech on the following chart, then share them
with your partners adding some other advice you follow in your life.

Advice from the speech you have Advice from the speech you My own life advice.
applied in your life haven’t applied in your life
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
______________________ ______________________ ______________________
_____________________ _____________________ _____________________

7
UNIT 1 Career goals and achievements.
LESSON 1D Justify your current job or career choices.

Read the following paragraph.

“Here is one way to keep things simple.


When I started, it was a little different because
they were hiring for a new department, so they
had these big initial interviews at job fairs. After
getting through that, though, the process was a
lot like this one. A second interview, and of course
my references reached out pro - actively when I
asked them about sending in recommendation
letters instead of waiting to be contacted. During the second interview, we toured the
facilities, and I received an offer a few days later. Most of those second round questions
had to do with specific cases and decision making processes, and I guess they liked what
they heard from me.
Keeping it informative without being too detailed is difficult, but since the hiring process
always works out a little differently from person to person, it is an integral part of giving
people a useful answer.”
Taken from Livingcareer.com in 2017.

Answer the following questions based on the reading.


How do you think he felt during the hiring process?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
Why do you think he received an offer so fast?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
What do you think was considered to hire him?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________

8 B2.2
UNIT 1 Career, goals and achievements.
LESSON 1D Justify your current job or career choices.
Prepare a spoken report in which you answer to the question “how did you get
to your current job or career?”:

Think about your talents, skills,


knowledge and experience to
justify why you are currently
working in the position where
you are or why you have
chosen your career.

Abilities Examples

I have manual dexterity. I am good at hand crafting.


____________________________ ____________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
Share your answers with a partner, make questions about the information given.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

9
UNIT 1 Career goals and achievements.
NOTES PAD
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

10 B2.2
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.

OBJECTIVES
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Justify lies.
B) Learn to add descriptions.
C) Talk about lies.
D) Debate the necessity of Lies.

Write here the new vocabulary you


learn every class
VOCABULAR Y
During this unit you will practice:

- Expressions related to lies.

In this unit,
you will debate about
whether is necessary
to lie or not to live in
community.

11
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
LESSON 2A Justify lies.
DISCUSSION: Is it possible not to lie? Explain your reasons.
Is it possible to know when someone lies? How can you do it?
What is your reaction when you know that someone is lying to you?
Would you lie in a high- risk situation?
Read the following article. of polite statements as it takes more brain
Why telling the truth could save power to consider the possibility that people
are being polite.‘This harder thinking leaves
your life: Most of us would rather lie to us in a greater state of uncertainty about
avoid awkwardness (even in high-risk what is really meant, becoming dangerous
situations) in high-stakes situations.’ Politeness can
also have serious consequences within
Many of us would rather tell a white lie than the corporate culture as people don’t want to
brutal truth to avoid an awkward social situation. embarrass their bosses or their co-workers,
Instead of admitting a friend’s new hair-do is so they hesitate to point out when something
hideous, we may choose to say ‘it’s unique’ or just looks a miss, even when potential fraud
you’. or misconduct might be
But a study has involved. Dr Bonnefon said:
revealed that being ‘One option is to encourage
too polite can have people to be more assertive
disastrous consequences in high-stakes situations.
in high-stakes situations. Some companies, including
It could result in a doctor airlines, have even
not administering the instituted assertiveness
correct treatment if a training programs, but
nurse has not flagged it’s not yet clear whether
up a potential error, a these programs really
pilot crashing because a colleague has not work. ‘Another option is to try to make the
pointed out a mistake, or staff ignoring interpretation of polite statements easier for
strange occurrences in the workplace to people. Say that there is a tone, a prosodic
avoid embarrassing colleagues or their feature which typically signals that politeness
boss, resulting in fraud. An article in the is at work. If we can identify this tone, we could
journal Current Directions in Psychological retrain pilots or other professionals to react
Science explains that we resort to intuitively to that tone in order to treat it as a
‘politeness strategies’ when we have to warning signal.’ Although Dr Bonnefon adds:
share information that suggests someone ‘The goal of this research is not to encourage
has made a bad choice. One of the authors, or license general impoliteness - politeness is
Jean-Francois Bonnefon of the University obviously a very positive behaviour in most
of Toulouse, said: ‘It takes more of our cases.’
cognitive resources to process these kinds Taken from dailymail.co.uk in 2017.

12 B2.2
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
LESSON 2A Justify lies.
Define the following words using your own ideas.
Awkward (adjective): ________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Hideous (adjective): _________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Flagged up (phrasal verb):_____________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Resort (verb): ______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Hesitate (verb): _____________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

Write a text answering the following question.


“What is the ___________________________________________________
relationship between ___________________________________________________
telling lies and being ___________________________________________________
polite ?” ___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
_________________________________________________

DISSCUSION:
Mention some “white lies” you have told and the
situation in which you have told them. Why didn’t you
tell the truth?

13
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
LESSON 2B Learn to add descriptions.
GRAMMAR TIP:
ADJECTIVE CLAUSES

- An adjective clause is simply a group of words with a subject and a verb that provide
a description.
-The clause starts with a pronoun such as who, whom, that, or which or an adverb
such as when, where and why.

E.g. I received a birthday present that I didn’t like.


You have to trust sellers whom you’ve never met.
Omidyar changed to a business account, which was not free.

Connect the phrases


below by using adjective
clauses.

1. We sent a package to our relatives. They live in Iowa.


__________________________________________________________________________
2. The woman works as a cashier. She sits next to me in class.
___________________________________________________________________________
3. That’s the book. Everyone is reading it.
___________________________________________________________________________
4. We bought some trees. Our neighbor told us they were on sale.
___________________________________________________________________________
5. The car has a bad engine. I bought it last month.
___________________________________________________________________________
6. I lived in an apartment building. It had a very slow elevator.
___________________________________________________________________________
7. You should see a doctor. He can help you with your back problems.
___________________________________________________________________________

Taken from learnamericanenglishonline.com in 2017.

14 B2.2
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
LESSON 2B Learn to add descriptions.
Read the paragraph, underline the relative clauses and circle the noun they refer
to.
Pierre Omidyar and eBAY

Did you ever want to sell a birthday present that you didn’t like? Or an old toy that is taking
up space in your closet? In the old days, buyers and sellers were limited to newspapers, garage
sales, and flea markets in the area where they lived. But in the early 1990s, when people started
to use the Internet, Pierre Omidyar had an idea. Omidyar, who was working as a computer
programmer, realized that sellers no longer had to be limited to finding buyers who lived
in their local area. He came up with the idea of eBay, which he started as a hobby. He didn’t
charge money at first because he wasn’t sure eBay would work. Buying online requires you to
trust sellers whom you’ve never met. But people liked eBay. Soon there was so much activity
on eBay that his Internet service provider upgraded his site to a Business account, which was
no longer free. So Omidyar started to charge the sellers a small fee for each sale. Before long,
this hobby grew into a big business.
Adapted from ngl.cengage.com in 2017.

Answer the following questions and create a paragraph.

- Which were the limitations of selling before


1990?
-Did people have to pay extra when the
company started? Why?
- Have you ever used eBay or a similar website?
If so, what did you use it for?

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

15
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
LESSON 2C Talk about lies.
OPENING:
- Have you ever being caught lying? Tell
your experience.
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________
___________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________

Listen to a group of people talking about lies they have told and whether or not
they got caught. (DIGITAL AUDIO).

Answer the following questions about the interview.


1) Antoine was afraid of _____ . 4) Jeff ______ .
a) the police a) lies a lot
b) his mom b) has never been caught
c) his friends c) is a bad person

2) Hoa says that her lie _____ . 5) Emily couldn’t lie well because ____.
a) wasn’t serious a) it was too obvious
b) was a white lie b) she started laughing
c) made her friend angry c) her dad smokes too

3) Jonathan is ______ . 6) Mauro has never ______.


a) told a serious lie
a) a good person b) been caught lying
b) a good liar c) told any lie
c) a dangerous person Taken from Ello.org in 2017.

16 B2.2
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
LESSON 2C Talk about lies.
Infer by context the meaning of the words below, then complete the sentences
with them.
• been caught • as a matter of fact • a white lie
• a big deal • catch up to you

- I used to be afraid to speak in class but now it’s


not _____________

- Sometimes I tell _____________________ so


I don’t hurt people’s feelings.

- ___________________________ , I saw that


movie yesterday.

- Don’t drink too much beer because it


will_________________________.

- Have you ever _____________________ stealing?

Disscus with a partner the following questions. Then, summarize the disscusion
in a paragraph.
Do you think that lies can be justified by any reason?
Do you think that being a good liar is a quality or a defect?
Why do people lie?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
17
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
LESSON 2D Debate the necessity of lies.
DISSCUSSION:

- When do you lie?

- Do you think lying is necessary?

- Why is lying good? Or bad?

Watch the following video about lies. (DIGITAL VIDEO).

Answer these questions based on the video.

Which kinds of lies can be found?


________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________
What type of disorders have lying as part of their characteristic symptoms?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________
What is the therapy used to treat lying as part of these disorders?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________

18 B2.2
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
LESSON 2D Debate the necessity of lies.
Write some arguments in favour of your DEBATE
point of view. ______________________ Get into two groups, choose
__________________________________ a side to debate on: Telling
__________________________________ lies or Not telling lies. Then,
__________________________________ take your time to prepare
__________________________________ your arguments to defend
__________________________________ your chosen point of view.
__________________________________
__________________________________
_________________________________
_________________________________

Useful vocabulary.
• been caught • as a matter of fact
• a white lie
• a big deal • catch up to you

Create two conclusions about the debate.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
19
UNIT 2 Assuming responsibility.
NOTES PAD
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20 B2.2
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.

2%-(&7,9(6
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Express fears and anxieties.
B) Describe how fear affects you.
C) Raise cultural awareness.
D) Talk about fears and how to conquer them.

Write below the new vocabulary you


learn every class.
92&$%8/$5<
During this unit you will work on:

- Expressing frustration,
sympathy and encouragement.
-Adjectives to describe physical
effects of horror, dread or
anxiety

In this unit,
you will make an oral
presentation answering
these questions: “What’s
the thing that scares you
the most? How can you
overcome that fear?”

21
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
LESSON 3A Express fears and anxieties.
DISCUSSION: What do you know about mental illnesses?
Do you know anyone with a mental illness? What do you know about this?
What do you know about anxiety?
Read the following article. because time is the most valuable commodity
What it’s really like to live with and wasting minutes terrifies me. It may come
across as me being a detailed planner (and I
Generalized Anxiety Disorder am), but really, I’m trying to avoid tie-ups to
reduce the anxiety.
I couldn’t sleep last night. I prepared with all the
right things: a warm bath, gentle stretching, my If we make plans, I might cancel. I want
mandatory snack — I even sprayed my pillow with to hang—I swear. Secretly, I’m hoping you’ll
lavender-scented mist. Though, once my head hit cancel first so I don’t have to make up a
the pillow, there would be no sleep. reason not to be in public for no good reason
Instead, my mind drifted to the chaotic events of whatsoever — other than “it doesn’t feel right”
the day, disturbing news headlines, my children’s or “I don’t want to be around people today.” If
health, money, and we’re engaged in conversation
eventually, life, death, and and I appear uninterested, or
all the things I have zero maybe even rude — know that
control over. neither is the case.

This doesn’t just To be honest, it’s my brutal


happen at bedtime. I insecurity: I’m not enough for
wake with these thoughts people in any form and maybe
every morning and they in talking to me, you’ll realize
continue to distract and it. I’m trying my hardest to be
disrupt my days, even if present and it’s really, really
no obvious danger is present. difficult when my brain is running rampant.

Awhile back, I was diagnosed with Generalized Loud noises bother me. I fear the obnoxious
Anxiety Disorder (GAD). It’s a hard thing to clamor of thunder, drums, fireworks, and
decipher since anxiety plays a major role in a lot anything else that erupts my stress sensors so
of ailments– including depression, OCD, and suddenly. I live in a mostly quiet town, in a mostly
PTSD (all of which, I have). So in a nutshell, this quiet bubble, so noises that catch me off guard
is what it’s like to live inside my brain with GAD. can send me underneath the covers — never to
return. My husband, and his very loud mouth,
I cannot be in large crowds. I will suffocate and can attest to this.
die. If I leave my house, I want to know the exact
route to avoid traffic and/or accidents. I also want I don’t like when my routine is changed. I
to know approximately how long I’ll be gone realize this isn’t always predictable but it defers
back to my OCD. I’m able to work around most of
22 B2.2
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
LESSON 3A Express fears and anxieties.
my triggers. However, when I’m confronted Anxiety is lonely and scary — and if untreated,
with things like appointments, errands, it can ruin all the pretty, shiny things and turn
vacations, surprises (no, please) — or any them to ash. I am doing my part with therapy and
other thing that disrupts my usual way of medication, talking openly and honestly about
being — my stomach twists in knots until I the things that plague me. If you know someone
run, submit, or have a full on panic attack. dealing with anxiety like mine, be patient,
This lack of control is utterly exhausting, compassionate — and most of all — accepting.
and I wish I had the mind to let things be as We all have fears, flaws, and things we wish to
they may — but when you have GAD, that’s change. Some of us just stress about them more
not how it works. than others.

Adapted from Hellogiggles in 2017.

Find the definition for the following terms.


- GAD__________________________________________________________________

- OCD__________________________________________________________________

- PTSD_________________________________________________________________

Create a guide with tips to help someone struggling with anxiety and share it
with your class.
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
___________________________________________

23
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
LESSON 3B Describe how fear affects you.
GRAMMAR TIP:
INTENSIFIER WITH SO.

- Use so to intensify an adjective or an adverb to explain the result of an extreme situation.


That is optional. Don’t use a comma.
E.g. -It was so stormy (that) I was afraid to get on the plane.
-She left so quickly (that) she forgot her umbrella.

If the adjective is followed directly by a noun, use such, not so .


I was wearing such uncomfortable shoes (that) I could hardly walk.

If the noun is preceded by many , much , few , or little , use so.


E.g. -We ate so few meals out last month (that) we saved a lot of money.
-There’s so little ice on the road (that) I think it’s safe to drive.

Adapted from Summit 1 third edition in 2017.

Combine the statements, using so ... (that) or such ... (that).


1 The fire was terrible. The building was totally destroyed.
____________________________________________________________________________

2 There are usually many accidents. We don’t travel on holiday weekends.


____________________________________________________________________________

3 The games end late. We prefer to watch them on TV.


____________________________________________________________________________

4 The insects are awful after dark. Most people prefer to stay inside in the evening.
____________________________________________________________________________

5 Traffic in this region has become a bad problem. Lots of people are taking public
transportation.
____________________________________________________________________________

6 It was a stormy day. We postponed our picnic.


____________________________________________________________________________

24 B2.2
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
LESSON 3B Describe how fear affects you.
Complete each statement with much , little , many , or few.
1 They cancelled so__________ flights that we won’t be able to get there toni-
ght.

2 There’s always so__________ trouble when the weather is bad that


we don’t travel in winter.

3 So___________ people ate at that restaurant that they had to close it.

4 There were so____________ seats left on the train that my friends and I
couldn’t sit together.

5 There was so ____________ time to get to the shelter that we just stayed in
our basement.

Choose a time when you were so scared that it affected you physically.

Write notes about it below. Use the


grammar and Vocabulary learnt in
this unit.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Discuss the situations in your note. Tell each other your stories, asking for more
details. Idea: Tell the class about what happened to your partner. Say as much
information as you can.
25
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
LESSON 3C Raise cultural awareness.
Read the following paragraph.

Gender equality means showing no difference or


discrimination between male and female in respect
of enjoying rights. Unfortunately, boys and girls are
not treated equally in our country. Gender equality
is very important because women are equal partners
to men. If they are given equal rights, they will be
able to contribute much to the national development.
paid less. They do all indoor activities like
Although the condition of gender equality has cooking, cleaning, washing, rearing children,
been upgraded, it is not satisfactory yet. Women etc. They are taught to have less than the male
are enjoying many facilities, but they are also members.
being deprived of some rights. Social customs and
prejudices stand on the way of gender equality. Only the male members of the family are
Illiteracy, gender misinterpretation, men’s sense of worthy of best food and clothe. They are
inferiority towards women, lack of consciousness, also taught not to raise their voice against
etc. are greatly responsible for our failure to ensure anything even if it is injustice. In some
gender equality. families, they are deprived of education. As
a result of gender discrimination, women
Again parents generally long for male children so suffer both physically and mentally and the
that they can supplement their family income or help true development of the country is greatly
with their domestic works. In our country women hampered.
have to face many restrictions. They work more but
Posted by Mohammad Kamrul Islam

Discuss the questions below with a partner.


-Do you consider there is gender equality in our country?

-Do you think that there are any jobs which only men or women can or should do?

-In your country, how do the roles of men and women differ in the family?

-In your society are there some social behaviours which are only seen as appropriate for
women or men? What behaviours?

-How can gender inequality be overcome?

26 B2.2
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
LESSON 3C Raise cultural awareness.
Watch the video and answer the following questions.
- What do you know about the situation
happening on the Gaza strip?
- Why is it considered an insult in her
culture to be a woman photojournalist?
- Do you know how the name of the piece of
cloth on her head is called? If so, what does it
represent?

Visit the following link to get extra content.


(Link 1), (Link 2).

Select one of the women listed below and look for information on them, to
complete the chart.
Emma Watson - Marie Curie - Frida Kahlo - Rosa
Sparks- One person of your choice
Name:_____________________________________________________________________
General information: _______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________
Why is that person famous? __________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________
What kind of adversities has that person gone through? _____________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________
What has that person done to be considered an empowered person? ___________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________
27
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
LESSON 3D Identify fears and conquer them.
DISSCUSSION:
- How do you face your fears?
- Are you a risk-avoider or a risk-taker?

Choose a time when you were really afraid. Write notes on the chart, then talk
about this situation to your classmates.

What you were afraid of? ____________


________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
______________________________

How it affected you physically? _______


________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
______________________

How other people reacted? __________


________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________________
________________________

28 B2.2
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
LESSON 3D Identify fears and conquer them.
take notes below:
_______________________________ What are you afraid of?
________________________________ Watch the following
________________________________ videos and talk about
________________________________ your biggest fears, when
________________________________ it started, how you handle
________________________________ it, etc. Use the vocabulary
________________________________ mentioned in them.
________________________________
Visit the following link to get extra
________________________________
content.
________________________________
(Link1), (Link 2), (Link 3),
_____________
(Link 4), (Link 5) and (Link 6)

After identifying your fears, how can


you overcome them? After watching
the videos above write some tips to do
it.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________

Share your conclusions with the class.

29
UNIT 3 Facing adversities and fears.
NOTES PAD
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

30 B2.2
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.

2%-(&7,9(6
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Discuss ways to manage stress.
B) Learn to keep your anger.
C) Talk about tolerance.
D) Give a talk about anger and stress.

Write below the new vocabulary you


learn every class.
92&$%8/$5<
During this unit you will work on:

- Physical effects of stress.


- Vocabulary connected to
stress and anges.

In this unit,
you will give a talk
about anger and stress.

31
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
LESSON 4A Discuss ways to manage stress.
DISCUSSION:
How do you manage stressful situations?
Read the following of the stress in their face.
article. So laughs or smiles can
help relieve some of that
Manage stress. tension and improve the
situation.
Stress occurs when you Meditate.
perceive that demands placed
on you — such as work, school immune system. Research Meditation and mindful
or relationships — exceed your shows that stress can contribute prayer help the mind
ability to cope. Some stress can to the development of major and body to relax and
be beneficial at times, producing illnesses, such as heart disease, focus. Mindfulness can
a boost that provides the drive depression and obesity. help people see new
and energy to help people get
through situations like exams Here are three healthy
or work deadlines. techniques that psychological
research has shown to help
However, an extreme amount reduce stress in the short- and
of stress can have health long-term.
consequences, affecting the
immune, cardiovascular and Exercise. The research keeps perspectives, develop
neuroendocrine and central growing — exercise benefits self-compassion and
nervous systems, and take a your mind just as well as your forgiveness. When
severe emotional toll. body. We keep hearing about practicing a form of
the long-term benefits of a mindfulness, people can
regular exercise routine. But release emotions that may
even a 20-minute walk, run, have been causing the
swim or dance session in the body physical stress. Much
midst of a stressful time can like exercise, research
give an immediate effect that has shown that even
can last for several hours. meditating briefly can
reap immediate benefits.
Smile and laugh. Our
Untreated chronic stress brains are interconnected Adapted from apa.org
can result in serious health with our emotions and facial in 2018
conditions including anxiety, expressions. When people are
insomnia, muscle pain, high stressed, they often hold a lot
blood pressure and a weakened

32 B2.2
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
LESSON 4A Discuss ways to manage stress.
Define with your own words the following expressions.
Exceed: ___________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Boost: ____________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Anxiety: __________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
Weakened immune system: ___________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Exercise: __________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Smile and laugh: ____________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
Meditate: __________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Mindfulness: _______________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
Forgiveness: _______________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

READING COMPREHENSION:
-Which consequences are listed in the reading as negative effects of stress?
____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
-Why is stress considered positive?
____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

DISSCUSION:
Imagine that you are a psychologist giving a conference
about anxiety and stress. Prepare a set of advice to help
people work in stressful environments.

33
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
LESSON 4B Learn to add descriptions
GRAMMAR TIP:
CONDITION CLAUSES
“EVEN IF”
-Even if emphasizes the speaker’s intention to achieve the outcome or goal without regard for
a difficult or negative condition.
E.g. He’ll control his anxiety, even if he has to receive therapy.
“UNLESS”
-A conditional sentence with unless expresses “An action or situation will happen if the other
one does not happen first.”
E.g. You will have problems, unless you change your attitude.
“WHETHER OR NOT”
-Whether or not expresses that no condition will stop the completion of the outcome in the
main clause. That is, if the condition exists or if the condition does not exist, the outcome will
or must happen anyway.
E.g. The project will continue whether or not the researchers receive a government grant.
“ONLY IF”
-’Only if ’ means ‘only one condition happens”. This form basically means the same as ‘if ’. The
main emphasis is on the result.
E.g. You can go out only if you do your homework.
“OTHERWISE”
-It is used for saying that if one thing does not happen, something else (usually bad) will ha-
ppen.
E.g. I hope she mends her ways, otherwise, she will be fired.

Match the sentence with the correct outcome.


1.She must be very intelligent. b. whether or not he wants to work all night.

2.We’ll arrive at 8:00. d. even if he doesn’t say it.

3. Your father loves you. a. unless our train is late.

4. He’ll get his work done. c- otherwise, she wouldn’t have solved this puzzle.
Read the following paragraph: “STRATEGIES TO KEEP YOUR ANGER AT BAY.”
According to the APA (American Psychological Association) “Anger can be caused by internal
and external events. You might feel mad at a person, an entity like the company you work for, or an
event like a traffic jam or a political election. Wherever the feelings come from, you don’t have to let
your anger get the better of you. Here are some techniques…”
Taken from APA.org in 2018

34 B2.2
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
LESSON 4B Learn to add descriptions
Describe the techniques to control anger. Use clauses of condition in your
definitions.
Check yourself: ____________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Don’t dwell: _______________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Change the way you think: ____________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Focused breathing: __________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
Progressive muscle relaxation: _________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________

What other strategies do you know or use?


Ask your classmates about other strategies
for controlling anger and take notes of
their answers.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________

35
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
LESSON 4C Talk about tolerance.

INTRODUCTION:
-What does tolerance mean to you?
-Do you consider yourself tolerant?
-Is there anything you find difficult to
tolerate?

____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________

Watch the following video “For more tolerance, we need more… Tourism?”
(DIGITAL VIDEO).
Listening comprehension:
Answer the following questions about the video.

Where is Aziz from?


___________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
What did he do when he was 7 years old?
___________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
What happened to his brother when he was 18 years old?
___________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
What language did he need to get a job?
___________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
What changed when he started learning this new language?
___________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
How does he “bring down” the walls of hatred and ignorance?
___________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

36 B2.2
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
LESSON 4C Talk about tolerance.
Pair work:
Discuss what you think is necessary for having more tolerance in our world.
Explain your reasons and give examples.
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
_______________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
Disscus with a partner your points of view.
Student “A” gives the ideas written above. Student “B” must find counterclaims for each idea
mentioned. Take notes below.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

37
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
LESSON 4D Give a talk about anger and stress.
DISCUSSION:

Do you work in a stressful


environment?

How do you manage stressful


situations?

What makes you feel angry?


OPENING:
Listen to the following talk. (DIGITAL AUDIO).
Answer these questions based on the video and on your own experience.
Have you ever faced a bad day as the one was described by Mr. Levitin?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
How was it?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
How did you react?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________
What should you have done?
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

38 B2.2
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
LESSON 4D Give a talk about anger and stress.
ORAL PRESENTATION:
-To introduce the presentation make a Prepare a talk about anger and
short question to ask your classmates’ stress.
opinion about the discussion topic. You should talk about:
- Present your main idea and then, -How anger is connected to
start developing it. stress.
-Give a set of advice to help people -How stressful environments
face anger and stress. should be managed
-Give a conclusion. -Give some pieces of advice
to your classmates concerning
Useful vocabulary. anger management.
Check yourself, don’t dwell,
Change the way you think,
Focused breathing,
Progressive muscle relaxation,
Exceed, Boost, Anxiety,
Weakened immune system,
Exercise, Smile and laugh, Forgiveness.

Take notes of your ideas here.

________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________
39
UNIT 4 Anger, stress and tolerance.
NOTES PAD
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

40 B2.2
UNIT 5 The funny side.

2%-(&7,9(6
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Identify the parts of a joke.
B) Talk about what others report.
C) Debate the importance of laughing.
D) Present a stand-up comedy show.

Write below the new vocabulary you


learn every class.
92&$%8/$5<
During this unit you will work on:

- Ways to react to funny things,


types of jokes.

In this unit,
you will create and
present a short
“Stand-UP” comedy.

41
UNIT 5 The funny side.
LESSON 5A Identify the parts of a joke.
Match the images with expressions you consider correct.

1) -TELL A JOKE- 2) -MAKE FUN OF SOMEONE- 3) -CRACK UP- 4) -A JOKE FELL FLAT.-
-CRACK A JOKE-. -TEASE SOMEONE. -BURST OUT LAUGHING-

Read the passage and answer the It means taking nothing for granted, which
questions below. makes the world much more interesting to me. So,
“My plants often die” led me to think about the idea
of keeping things alive, which made me wonder,
“I bought a cactus. A week later it are some things easier to keep alive than others?
died.” Then, What’s the easiest plant to keep alive? This
By Demetri Martin
made me think of a cactus.
Demetri Martin is a New York–based comedian.
Here, he dissects a one-liner:
Sometimes a joke will just float I thought, how can you kill a
into my head, fully formed, as cactus? By giving it too much
though someone’s whispered it in water. But I couldn’t really find
my ear (note: not in a creepy way). a joke there. You can kill a lot of
For example: “I think the worst plants by giving them too much
time to have a heart attack is during water.
a game of charades. Especially if So I stopped worrying about the watering part and
your teammates are bad guessers.” concentrated more on the idea of life and death. After a bit of
thought, I arrived at a joke I liked: “I bought a cactus. A week
Often, however, I get an idea later it died. And I got depressed, because I thought, Damn. I
about something that I feel is funny, am less nurturing than a desert.”
but I don’t quite know how to
articulate it. That’s what happened Now, when I perform this joke, sometimes I add drawings,
with this joke. I wrote down the which gives it another layer. I say, “I bought a cactus,” then show
basic idea, something like “My a drawing of a cactus. “A week later it died”—and I flip the page
plants often die,” and then turned it to show a drawing of a tombstone that says HERE LIES BRIAN,
over in my mind to see where the BELOVED PLANT AND FRIEND.
exact joke lies.
“And I got depressed, because I thought, Damn, I am less
To do this, I’ll identify the nurturing than a desert.” Here, I flip the page, and underneath
elements of the joke and wonder it says LADIES, THAT’S NOT TRUE.
about how those elements go
together. Taken from nymag.com in 2017.
42 B2.2
UNIT 5 The funny side.
LESSON 5A Identify the parts of a joke.
Answer the following questions.
What do you think the parts of a joke are?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

Do you think if it is necessary to do the “extra things” Demetri did to tell the joke?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

Do you think it was a good joke? Justify your answer.


__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

Use the words from the box to crack up a joke.


God - Man – Talking – Million dollars
– penny – a million years
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
God: “Wait a minute.”
The man: “God, may I have a penny?”
God: “To me it’s a penny.”
The man: “God, how much is a million dollars?”
God: “To me, it’s about a minute.”
The man: “God, how long is a million years?”

43
Answer: A man is talking to God.
UNIT 5 The funny side.
LESSON 5B Talk about what others report.
GRAMMAR TIP:
Reported or Indirect speech.
In reported statements, we can use either ‘say’ or ‘tell’. The meaning is the same, but
the grammar is different. For example:
Direct speech:
John: “I’ll be late”.
Reported speech:
John said* (that) he would be late.
OR
John told** me (that) he was going to be late.

*With ‘say’ we CAN’T use the object (e.g. ‘me’, ‘them’, ‘us’).
**With ‘tell’ we NEED the object (e.g. ‘me’, ‘you’, ‘her’).

So we CAN’T say:
X John said me that he would be late.
X John told that he would be late.

Here are some correct examples:


Julie said (that) she’d come to the party.
I said (that) I was going to bed early.
He told me (that) he loved living in London.
They told John (that) they would arrive at six.

ASK (SOMEONE) + indirect question


We can use ask to report questions:
Rebecca asked (me) where I lived.
The guide asked (us) if we had visited the museum before.

ASK/TELL SOMEONE + TO-infinitive


We can use ask or tell to report imperatives or requests:
Johnny’s mother told him to put away his toys.
The examiner asked me to speak louder.

Taken from Perfect-English-Grammar.com and Grammaring.com in 2017.

Visit the following link to get extra


content.
(Link 1) and (Link2).
44 B2.2
UNIT 5 The funny side.
LESSON 5B Talk about what others report
Complete the sentences in reported speech. Identify whether the sentence is a
request, a statement or a question and whether you have to change the tenses
or not.
1. “I was very tired,” she said.
→ She said ______________________________________________________________________
2. “Be careful, Ben,” she said.
→ She told Ben __________________________________________________________________
3. “I will get myself a drink,” she says.
→ She says ______________________________________________________________________
4. “Why haven’t you phoned me?” he asked me.
→ He wondered __________________________________________________________________
5. “I cannot drive them home,” he said.
→ He said ______________________________________________________________________
6. “Peter, do you prefer tea or coffee?” she says.
→ She asks Peter _________________________________________________________________
7. “Where did you spend your holidays last year?” she asked me.
→ She asked me __________________________________________________________________
8. He said, “Don’t go too far.”
→ He advised her _________________________________________________________________
Choose the right words: say, ask, tell,
to complete the following sentences in
English.
1- ‘You were right. The film is terrible’
‘I ______ you so!’
a. asked
b. told
c. said Think about funny things you hear on
2- They ______ if I knew what to do.
a. said
the street and report them to the class
b. asked using the grammar learned today.
c. told _____________________________________
3- ‘How are you both?, she _____. _____________________________________
a. said _____________________________________
b. asked _____________________________________
c. told _____________________________________
4. I ______ that I didn’t know what to do. _____________________________________
a. asked _____________________________________
b. told _________________________________
45
UNIT 5 The funny side.
LESSON 5C Debate the importance of laughing.

DISCUSSION:
- What do you make jokes about?
-Do you play pranks on people?
- Do you like it?
-Why?
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
Listen to the following audio about April fools day. Then, answer the questions.
(DIGITAL AUDIO).
- Why is the 1st of april called the Fools day?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
- What is customary on this day?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________

Complete the sentences with the words below.


• unofficial • in the past
• smart • tradition • pranks
1. He is always playing ________________ on his friends and family.
2. The first day of summer is an ________________ holiday around here.
3. We were good friends ___________________, but we never talk anymore.
4. It’s a ___________________ in our family that we all sing together before we eat.
5. You have to be really _________________ to complete one of these puzzles.

46 B2.2
UNIT 5 The funny side.
LESSON 5C Debate the importance of laughing.
Read the following paragraph a prank on somebody else, the joker usually cries
about a similar celebration in spain. out, in some regions of Ibero-America: “Inocente
palomita que te dejaste engañar” (“You innocent
In Spain and Ibero-America, an equivalent little dove that let yourself be fooled”). In Spain, it
date is December 28, Christian day of is common to say just “Inocente!” (“Innocent!”).
celebration of the Massacre of the Innocents.
Nevertheless, in the Spanish island of Menorca,
The Christian celebration is a “Dia d’enganyar” (“Fooling day”)
holiday in its own right, a religious is celebrated on April 1 because
one, but the tradition of pranks is Menorca was a British possession
not, though the latter is observed during part of the 18th century.
yearly.
Taken from aircrack-ng-org in
After somebody plays a joke or 2018.

What is similar and different between fools day and Massacre of the Innocents?
Write down your ideas in the following chart.
Similarities Differences
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
________________________________ ________________________________
____________________________ ____________________________

Do you have a similar celebration in your country? How is it? Share it with the
class. ___________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________________

47
UNIT 5 The funny side.
LESSON 5D Present a stand-up comedy show.
Read the following passage and decision whether to read further or skip. The lead
answer the questions below. follows the headline and must further draw your
reader in.

“4 Fun Article Writing Tips — Pick up the pace


From a Stand-Up Comedian” An article should hit the ground running.
By: Michael Devaney
Whether it entertains or informs, you owe it to
your reader to proceed quickly;
”…Stand-up comedians, like their time is valuable. A stand-
writers, have very different styles, up comedian, likewise, cuts the
but the format for winning over fat and includes only the relevant
a crowd is always the same. information in their act. They
The best comedians make well- work details into the routine as
rehearsed routines seem random needed, which also serve as brief
and spontaneous. Those who try
to wing it usually bomb. Likewise, stopping points for jokes.
when you write an article, sticking Set your tone
to a proven formula is the surest You set your article’s tone in the first paragraph. It must
way to benefit your reader. Your remain consistent for the sake of the reader.
attention to detail also increases
the likelihood that people will Don’t miss the point
remember your writing. Your article should make it easy to recognize the “big idea.”
what is the format for writing an And the main point should match the headline.
article like a stand-up comedian
would? Kill with your closing
Your article should close with a neat summary or a call to
Craft a killer headline action. The ending should be obvious and not leave the reader
The headline is ultra-important. hanging.”
It’s the first thing in the article your
reader sees. They make a quick Adapted from www.makealivingwriting.com in 2017.

Answer the following questions.


What do you think is the hardest part of being a stand-up comedian?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

Have you ever seen a stand-up comedy show? What did you like about it?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
48 B2.2
UNIT 5 The funny side.
LESSON 5D Present a stand-up comedy show.
______________________________________ ORAL PRESENTATION:
______________________________________ Prepare a stand-up comedy
______________________________________ Based on the reading and the
______________________________________ answers you gave, prepare
______________________________________ and write a stand- up
______________________________________ comedy routine to present to
______________________________________ your partners. In the written
______________________________________ form of your text you should
______________________________________ include the four writing tips
_________________________________ of Michael Devaney.
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

Evaluate your partners’ routine based on


the following rubric.
Important Aspects Comment
Creativity.

Clear headline.

Keeping just important


information.
Tone of the routine.

Keeping the main point.

Good closing.

49
UNIT 5 The funny side.
NOTES PAD
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

50 B2.2
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.

OBJECTIVES
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Prevent hassels before they happen.
B) Regret about travel hassles.
C) Understand why people travel.
D) Share bad travelling experiences.

Write here the new vocabulary you


learn every class
VOCABULAR Y
During this unit you will practice:

- Travel nouns.

In this unit,
you will talk about
a bad experience
when traveling,
how it was and
which factors affected it.

51
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
LESSON 6A Prevent hassels before they happen.
WORD VISA

Suitcases Phrase book Backpacker

Pickpocket Tour group Booking

Read the following passages and


“I’m seventeen years old and my best friends and
answer the questions below. I want to back pack around Europe for the summer.
We plan to stay in hostels, so it won’t be too
“My wife and I are planning to travel expensive. But my parents are worried that it’s too
to Japan in a few months and we are both dangerous – they worry that we’ll have problems
very excited about it. We have our suitcases, with different cultures and customs and maybe
passports, and a long list of places to visit and even pickpockets. They want me to wait until I’m
things to do. older before I travel, but my friends are going this
summer, with me or without me.
However, we can’t agree on one
What do you think?”
thing. My wife wants us to join a
David
tour group. In her opinion, it will
be more fun to travel with other
“Our English teacher asked us
people and she thinks that without
an interesting question yesterday.
a tour guide we might get lost. But,
She asked us to imagine that a
in my opinion, we will probably
friend was coming to visit us
see more things and have more fun from another country and to choose three things that our
if we just take a map, a phrase book friend could buy to take home as souvenirs. What three things
and travel by ourselves. Who do would you suggest?”
you think is right: my wife or me?” Marge
Evan Taken from allthingstopics in 2017
52 B2.2
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
LESSON 6A Prevent hassels before they happen.
Answer the following questions.
- What would you suggest for Evan’s case?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
- How would you convince your parents if you were in the same situation as David?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
- What places would you show to a friend who visits you from another country?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

Imagine that you are in charge of booking a hotel for you and your family.
What would you ask? Create a conversation between you and the receptionist
of the hotel.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
_________________________________________

53
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
LESSON 6B Regret about travel hassles.
DISSCUSSION:
- Have you ever faced any frustrating situation when traveling?
- How was it?
- Was it your responsibility?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________

GRAMMAR TIP:
Unreal Conditionals with continuous forms.
Present Unreal Conditional + Continuous is used to discuss imaginary situations which
could be happening at this very moment.
Examples in the if-clause:
If the sun were shining, I would go to the beach.(Unfortunately, it is raining so I can’t
go.)
If Sam were sitting here, we would be able to ask him the question ourselves.(But Sam is
not sitting here. He is somewhere else.)
Examples in the result:
If I were in Hawaii, I would be lying on the beach. (But I am not in Hawaii.)
I would be rafting down the Colorado River right now if my leg weren’t broken. (But
my leg is broken, so I am not there.)

Past Unreal Conditional + Continuous is used to discuss imaginary situations happening at


a very specific time in the past or over a period of time in the past.
Examples in the if-clause:
If I had been talking to him when he said that, I would have punched him in the face.
(But I wasn’t talking to him when he said that.)
If he had been standing near the house when the wall collapsed, it would have killed
him. (Luckily, he moved away before the wall fell.)
Examples in the result:
If you had gone to his house last night, he would have been sitting on his couch in front
of the TV. (But you didn’t go to his house, so you didn’t see what he was doing.)
If she had missed her train, he would have been waiting for her at the station for hours.
(Luckily, she caught her train and he didn’t have to wait.)
Adapted from englishpage.com in 2018.
54 B2.2
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
LESSON 6B Regret about travel hassles.
Complete the sentences by using the correct tense.
1. They canceled all the flights out of Chicago today because of the blizzard. If it (snow, not)
______so hard, I would not be stuck in the airport.

2. Charles arrived late again to work yesterday. He came running into the office complaining
of car problems, but everyone knew it was a lie. If the boss (stand)_______ there when he
showed up, I am sure he would have been fired.

3. If I were in Hawaii right now, I (sunbathe)_________ on a beach. I would not be stuck


here in this office with mountains of paperwork.

4. John is so incredibly lazy! If we went over to his house right now, I bet he (lie)_____________
on the couch with some pizza in one hand and a remote control in the other.

5. If I were a millionaire, I (work, not)_____________ here in this factory. I (shop)__________


in Paris, (ski)____________ in Innsbruck or (sail)____________ the Mediterranean on my
super yacht.

6. I wish we had time to organize a surprise party for Linda. If all of her friends
(sit)_____________ in her apartment waiting for her when she gets home from work
tomorrow, she would be so surprised!

Talk about travel hassles that you have


experienced.
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________
__________________________________________ Make a list of statements using
__________________________________________ unreal conditionals to speculate
__________________________________________ how you could have avoided the
__________________________________________
incident.
__________________________________________
_____________________________________
55
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
LESSON 6C Understand why people travel.
DISCUSSION:
- Are you a traveller?
- How often do you travel?
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
_____________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
Answer the following questions based on the video. (DIGITAL VIDEO).
- What does travel help us to?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
- What is inner journey?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
- What was the religious function of travelling? List the examples.
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
- Are you a conscious traveller? Why?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________

56 B2.2
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
LESSON 6C Understand why people travel.
Think about a meaningful place that you have visited. Prepare a flyer to sell it as
a destination to travel.

You should include:


- The cost.
- What the package
includes.
- The schedule.
- The benefits of
visiting this place.

YOUR TEXT HERE


You can add more details about your message in this space. If you
need more space for text, you can reduce the size of the your
message here text by selecting it and changing the font size. You can
add more details about your message in this space. If you need more
space for text, you can reduce the size of the your messsage here
text by selecting it and changing the font size.

YOUR TEXT HERE


You can add more details about your message in this space. If you
need more space for text, you can reduce the size of the your
message here text by selecting it and changing the font size. You can
add more details about your message in this space. If you need more
space for text, you can reduce the size of the your messsage here
text by selecting it and changing the font size.

YOUR TEXT HERE


You can add more details about your message in this space. If you
need more space for text, you can reduce the size of the your
message here text by selecting it and changing the font size. You can
add more details about your message in this space. If you need more
space for text, you can reduce the size of the your messsage here
text by selecting it and changing the font size.

57
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
LESSON 6D Share bad travelling experiences.
Read the following story about a bad experience while travelling.
Being in Bangkok during a Thai military coup
“Waking up in the morning very little as all the news stations
to hear the news that the were turned off. Many people
country I was in had just have told me they are jealous that
had a military coup is a very I was there for such a big occasion,
strange experience. It is hard but I wonder if they would have
not to think of violence when been if it had turned out to not be
hearing the words “military peaceful. It was definitely a bad
coup”, and it was quite scary. It travel experience.”
turned out to not be that big a Taken from wheresshanon.com
deal, but we did not know that in 2018
at the time. In fact, we knew
How could this have been a better experience?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

Watch the following video and discuss which one you think was the worst
experience. (DIGITAL VIDEO).

List which were the aspects that made them a bad experience. How would
change them?
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

58 B2.2
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
LESSON 6D Share bad travelling experiences.
______________________________________ ORAL PRESENTATION:
______________________________________
______________________________________ Tell a story about a bad
______________________________________ experience you have had
______________________________________ while travelling, then present
______________________________________ it to your class.
______________________________________ Use the unreal conditional to
______________________________________ explain which factors could
______________________________________ have affected the trip.
_________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

After all your classmates had presented their stories, choose the one that you think
is the worst experience and explain how would you give it a different ending.

______________________________
_____________________________
______________________________
______________________________
_____________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
______________________________
__________________________
59
UNIT 6 Travel hassles.
NOTES PAD
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

60 B2.2
UNIT 7 The power of suggestion.

2%-(&7,9(6
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Speculate about a crime.
B) Express the unbelievable.
C) Talk about reasons of fear.
D) Share your phobias.

Write below the new vocabulary you


learn every class.
92&$%8/$5<
During this unit you will work on:

Ways to express disbelief.

In this unit,
you will prepare a talk
about a phobia.

61
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
LESSON 7A Speculate about a crime.
Read the following passage.
a shot rang out. The civil rights leader and Nobel-
prizewinner, the man who preached non-violence,
WHO KILLED MARTIN fell to the ground, fatally wounded. Within minutes,
LUTHER KING? he was dead.

On the night of April 4th 1968, someone The news spread like wildfire round the USA;
was waiting opposite the windows of the the man who had done more, perhaps, than any other
Lorraine Motel, in downtown to further the rights of Black people in the United
States of America, had been
Memphis. assassinated, it seemed, by a lone
sniper, a white extremist. Weeks
In front of the motel, a big later a man by the name of
white Cadillac was parked; it was
the car in which the Rev. Martin James Earl Ray was arrested
Luther King was being driven and sentenced to 99 years in
round, as he traveled through prison for the assassination. But
the southern states, speaking to is that really what happened?
audiences in towns and cities,
promoting the cause of non- Though James Earl Ray initially confessed to killing
violence and civil rights. King, it was not long before he retracted his statement; and
to this day, there are those who do not believe that Ray was
When King stepped out actually guilty of the crime for which he spent almost 30 years
onto the balcony, to take a breath behind bars.
of fresh air after eating his dinner,
Adapted from linguapress.com in 2018

Answer the following questions. Then, share your answers in class.


- What do you think is the main purpose of the author?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

- Based on the information of the passage, why do you think the author speculates about how
everything happened?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
62 B2.2
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
LESSON 7A Speculate about a crime.
Use the expressions in the box to write down opinions about how the Martin
Luther King’s shooting happened.
It’s really unbelievable. I can’t believe it.
How could it be? Keep in mind.
Lose my mind. Make up your mind.
Maybe we/ you should. Have you considered…?

_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________

How do you think the news about


his dead were reported? Crea-
te a front page of a newspaper,
take into account the time when
everything happened.

63
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
LESSON 7B Express the unbelievable.
GRAMMAR TIP:
Passive voice with reporting verbs.
If we want to avoid mentioning the generalised agents we, they, people, everybody, one
etc. with reporting verbs, we can use the following passive patterns:

1- it + passive reporting verb + that-clause.


In this pattern, the generalised agent + active reporting verb is replaced with it + passive
reporting verb:
E.g.
Everybody knows that my grandfather likes red wine.
It is known that my grandfather likes red wine.

2- subject + passive reporting verb + to-infinitive.


In this pattern we start with the subject of the reported clause, which is followed by the pas-
sive reporting verb and the to-infinitive form of the verb in the reported clause:
E.g.
Everybody knows that my grandfather likes red wine.
My grandfather is known to like red wine.
The reporting verb (is known) is in the same tense as it was in the active sentence (knows). The
type of to-infinitive we use (to like) corresponds to the temporal relationship between the ac-
tion of reporting and the reported event. This temporal relationship can be of two basic types:
The reporting and the reported event happen simultaneously (as in the example above).
The reported event happens before the reporting.

The following are some examples of reporting verbs which can be used with the patterns abo-
ve:
Examples of reporting verbs used in the passive voice

Allege Assume Believe


Claim Consider Declare
Discover Estimate Expect
Feel Find Intend
Know Observ e Presume
Prove Report Reveal
Say See Show
Suppose Think Understand
Adapted from Grammaring.com in 2018.

64 B2.2
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
LESSON 7B Express the unbelievable.
Choose the correct option to complete the sentences below.
1- He is considered to have been/ that he is / to be a good president. Everybody likes him.
2- The company is said to lose / that it’s lost / to have lost more than 100 million dollars only last
month.
3- It is rumoured that he’s left / him to leave / him to have left her.
4- The paintings are reported to be / that they were / to have been destroyed in the fire.
5- The fossil is believed to date / to have dates / that it dates back to the Miocene era.
6- It is thought that the competition to be / that the competition to have been / that the competition
is going to be very tough.
7-The witness is expected to have testified / that he’ll testify / to testify later this afternoon.

Taken from Test-English.com in 2018.

Fill in the gaps with a passive


structure. Do not use contracted
forms.
1- People think that neither team deserved
the victory.
Neither team _______________ the
victory.
It _______________ the victory.
2- People expect that the president will Think of 5 popular superstitions in your
arrive very soon. country. Express them using the passive
The president _______________ very voice with reporting verbs.
soon.
It _______________ very soon. _________________________________________
3- People thought he was a hero. _________________________________________
He _______________ a hero. _________________________________________
It _______________ a hero. ________________________________________
4- People know she lied to her manager. _________________________________________
She _______________ to her manager. _________________________________________
It _______________ to her manager. _________________________________________
5- They say he is feeling better. _________________________________________
He _______________ better. _________________________________________
It _______________ better. ________________________________________
________________________________________
Taken from Test-English.com in 2018. _________________________________________
_________________________________________
________________________________
65
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
LESSON 7C Talk about reasons of fear.
Read the following passage.
Just think about it in this way, you are in a room
doing your work, then suddenly your eyes fells on
See, hear and bear. the lizard on a wall, and you scream your heart out.
Bingo! that’s the point when your fear pumps in. Till
Here is how and why? you have not seen that lizard, everything was fine but
Let’s take an example of future. Everyone after seeing it, you freaked out. Getting my point?
seems to be very fearful of their future. Likewise in our day to day life we see and hear people
Though no one has experienced talk about the hardships they are facing. And that
particular thing is responsible to
it but they do fear about so many
kick-start our fear.
random things such as study,
So think once again, do we
livelihood, career, marriage etc.
really need to get fearful about
When we do not have any idea
the life which we have not
about our future, why do fear gets
experienced yet or, just enjoy
to us? The answer to this is simple,
the present given to us? Life is
that is,
meant to be live with reality and
A thing is only fearful if we have
not worrying about stupid future bills or events, which are yet
seen it or heard about it.
undiscovered to us.
Only for those who are scared of
Adapted from quora.com in 2018.
lizards.

Answer the following questions.


Do you feel irrational fear about something? What about?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Why do you think we feel fear about risky things? What about daily things?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
66 B2.2
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
LESSON 7C Talk about reasons of fear.
Listen to the following video about fear and answer the questions below.
(DIGITAL VIDEO).
What is the difference between Natural fear and irrational fear?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

- How do both appear?


______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________

Explain the process of feeling fear by creating an infographic. Consider the


information in the video.

Do not use sentences to


explain it.

Present your infographic


to your classmates.

67
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
LESSON 7D Share your phobias.
Read the following passage and answer the questions.
Phobias - Topic Overview.

Having a phobia about includes feeling stressed about


something is very different being near the object, being in the
from everyday worry or stress. situation, or doing the activity. It
For example, most people also includes being afraid of the
feel worry and stress at some object, situation, or activity itself.
time, such as when speaking People with phobias avoid what
in front of a large group of they are afraid of so they won’t feel
people. People with phobias worried and stressed.
have so much fear that it’s hard
to do normal activities, such as Taken from webmd.com in 2018
going to work. Having a phobia

________________________________________________
________________________________________________ What phobias do you find
________________________________________________ unusual? Why?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
___________________________________________

________________________________________________
Do you have any phobia? ________________________________________________
What is it? ________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
___________________________________________

68 B2.2
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
LESSON 7D Share your phobias.
How can you overcome a phobia? ORAL PRESENTATION:
______________________________________
______________________________________ Prepare a short presentation
______________________________________ about a phobia that you
______________________________________ suffer or catches your
______________________________________ attention.
______________________________________ Your presentation must
______________________________________ include answers to the
______________________________________ following questions.
______________________________________
_________________________________

When did you realise that you had a What strategies do you know for the
certain type of phobia? management of anxiety while facing a
______________________________ phobia?
_____________________________ ______________________________
_____________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ _____________________________
______________________________ _____________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ _________________________
______________________________
__________________________

69
UNIT 7 The Power Of Suggestion.
NOTES PAD
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70 B2.2
UNIT 8 Being good at.

2%-(&7,9(6
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Talk about personal talents and strengths.
B) Describe your strengths and weaknesses.
C) Discuss about the diversity of talents.
D) Present scientific and social aspects of being
considered genius.

Write below the new vocabulary you


learn every class.
92&$%8/$5<
During this unit you will work on:

Talents, Strengths,
Describing Intelligence.

In this unit,
you will prepare a talk
about how someone
becomes a genius.

71
UNIT 8 Being good at.
LESSON 8A Talk about personal talents and strengths.
OPENING:
Do you have a special talent? Tell your classmates about it.

Read the following article and answer the questions below.

LET’S TALK ABOUT TALENTS


Nguyen Ngoc Truong Son learnt to play Then at seven, he won a silver medal at the
chess by watching his parents in their home. under-nine national chess championship. He was
later chosen to take part in the world young chess
When he first asked to play as well championship held in Spain in
they refused. But he insisted. So 2000. Here Truong Son played so
eventually they agreed and were successfully that he became the
astonished that he understood how second Vietnamese chess player
to play. Why? Because little Truong to win the world under-10 chess
Son was only three years old at the championship and take home a
time! Chess is a difficult game to gold medal. Now he is Vietnam’s
learn with different pieces having youngest champion and on his
different moves but Truong Son way to becoming a grand master.
knew them all. And, even more
amazing, a month later he was Born in the Mekong Delta of Vietnam, Truong Son is a great
beating his parents at their favorite surprise to his parents. They are both teachers, earning less than
game. Truong Son’s incredible US$100 a month, and cannot explain how their child can play
ability for chess was soon well so well. His father thinks that Son was perhaps born with the
known and he was selected to be ability, he didn’t train his son to play, Son simply picked it up.
a pupil of the provincial school
of talents. One year later, at the And what does Truong Son himself think? “I just see things
age of just four, Truong Son took on the board and know what to do,” he says. For him the game
part in the national young chess is logical and has come naturally to him. “It’s just always made
championship. sense to me.”
Taken from www.onestopenglish.com in 2018.

According to the article, what were the main characteristics of Truong Son for
being considered a genius? Highlight them in the text, and list them bellow
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
72 B2.2
UNIT 8 Being good at.
LESSON 8A Talk about personal talents and strengths.
Answer the following questions.
- What title would you give to the article? Why?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

- Do you think Nguyen Ngoc Truong Son learned how to play chess or that he was born with that
talent? Explain your answer.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

3- What do you think Nguyen Ngoc Truong Son needs to be the Grand Master?
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________

Choose which of the following sentences complete the statements.

1-Truong Son’s Parents were proud because...


a. They have taught their son in a
perfect way
b. All of the money they invested
had excellent results
c. His father did not train him to
play.
2-The author wanted to highlight...
a. The age when Truong son started
to play chess
b. The medals he had won
4-The child went to the provincial school
c. The impressive fact of empirical
of talents because...
knowledge of the game
a. His talent for playing
3-Truong Son thinks that...
chess was soon well known
a. Is necessary to have an
b. He won many rounds
instructor for playing chess.
against his father
b. The mechanics of the game just
c. He was too young for a
come to his mind.
primary school.
c. It is necessary to get a lot of
money for being a good player.

73
UNIT 8 Being good at.
LESSON 8B Describe your strengths and weaknesses.
Introduction:
Answer the following questions:
What are some of your best qualities, abilities, qualifications and talents?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________
What are some of your worst?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________

GRAMMAR TIP:
DO - For Emphasis
Sometimes Do / Does / Did are used in afirmative sentences to give special
emphasis. Note that when speaking, the word (do/does/did) is stressed.

E.g.
I do want to go. (We put stress on the word DO to emphasize that we want to
go)
You do need to take an umbrella.
He does like spinach. (You may be surprised but yes, he likes spinach)
I did study. (Contrary to what you may believe... yes, I studied)

Notice that Did is used for positive sentences in the past tense and that the main verb
is in its base form.

Do can also appear at the beginning of an imperative sentence to emphasize the


importance of that imperative verb.
E.g.
Do call when you arrive.
Do tell him that I will be waiting for him.

Taken from grammar.cl in 2018.

74 B2.2
UNIT 8 Being good at.
LESSON 8B Describe your strengths and weaknesses.
Complete with the correct empashis auxiliar. Explain what is the meaning.
1-Paul has a new girlfriend. => Paul _________________ a new girlfriend.
2- My parents missed their flight. => My parents _________________ their flight.
3- My best buddy sings in a choir. => My best buddy _________________ in a choir.
4- You got into serious trouble. => You _________________ into serious trouble.
5- Have another glass of water! => _________________ another glass of water!
6- You knew a lot about pets. => You _________________ a lot about pets.
7- Come in! => _________________!
8- She thinks you are wrong. => She _________________ you are wrong.
9- Your brother needs a new satchel. => Your brother _________________ a new satchel.
10- Sit down! => _________________!

Taken fro.m tolearnenglish.com in 2018

Think of what you and your friends are


good at, express them using “Do” for
emphasis.

__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
_______________________________ _____________________________________
_____________________________________
__________________________________
75
UNIT 8 Being good at.
LESSON 8C Discuss about the diversity of talents.
Read the following passage. But wait, what about programming? Is an expert
on C++ better than someone who is good at
several aspects say, have tried hands at Competitive
Which is better, being good at programming ,worked with both SQL and NoSQL DB,
several different things or mastering fiddled with different JS and Python libraries, made
one thing to perfection? projects on Data visualization, Machine learning, etc.
The correct answer should be : It depends. etc. Well, it is well known that those two people might
You might come up with a follow-up be required at different levels in the IT industry. The
question, “Depends on what?” expert is a perfect fit for a job requiring insane level
I would say, “On the field or area of knowledge in C++, but the
being talked about. Let’s take the second person is more dynamic.
fight between Floyd Mayweather He could fit in anywhere and do
Jr. vs. Conor McGregor. One is a really good job. SO, who wins?
a boxing champion, other is a Is it the master of one? Or is it the
MMA champion. When these two Jack of some?
fought, the boxing champion was Adapted from quora.com in
the winner. 2018.
Thus, it might imply that a
Specialist is definitely better than
Jack of all trades.

Answer the following questions.


Are you master of something? if SO, what? if not, Why?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
Which talents do you think were not designed for you? Why?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________
76 B2.2
UNIT 8 Being good at.
LESSON 8C Discuss about the diversity of talents.
Listen to the following video and answer the questions below. (DIGITAL VIDEO)

What is the learning zone and what is its importance for goal improvement?
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
What example does he give to show that developing mastership is not about
time investing? Describe it.
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________

Complete the paragraph.


“We’ll learn from your ______________!” I
looked for a surgeon who I felt would do a good
job, and I wanted her to do a ________________.
Being in the __________________________
allows us to get things done as best as we can. It
can also be motivating, and it provides us with
information to __________________what
to_________________next when we go back to the
___________________________.
So the way to high performance is to alternate
between the learning zone and the performance
According to the video, how we
zone, ________________ building our skills in can we spend more time in the
the learning zone, then applying those skills in the learning zone. List your ideas and
________________________. give examples.

77
UNIT 8 Being good at.
LESSON 8D Present scientific and social aspects of being
considered a genius.
Read the following passage and answer the question.
GENIUSES: BORN OR MADE?
Jack Andraka is a 15-year- Fair in Pittsburgh and will also
old kid from Maryland who receive and $12,000 in cash for his
just won the world’s largest discovery. His detection method
and most important high is elegant in its simplicity: He
school science fair by devising created a dip-stick sensor that can
a new way to detect pancreatic test blood or urine for pancreatic
cancer in its early stages. cancer, work he undertook after
Andraka, from Anne the disease killed his uncle and a
Arundel County, nabbed the friend’s brother.
first-place $75,000 scholarship
award at the Intel International Taken from washingtonpost.
Science and Engineering com in 2018.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________ Were you born with a
________________________________________________ natural talent? What is it?
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
___________________________________________

Look at the following video and tell the class if you think that having a good
memory could be considered as a talent? Explain your thought. (DIGITAL VIDEO).
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
_________________________________
78 B2.2
UNIT 8 Being good at.
LESSON 8D Present scientific and social aspects of being
considered a genius.
______________________________________ ORAL PRESENTATION:
______________________________________
______________________________________ Prepare a short presentation
______________________________________ giving your arguments by
______________________________________ answerin the question.
______________________________________
______________________________________ “How does someone become
__________________________________ a genius?”

Your presentation should include: ______________________________


a. Examples of people who are considered ______________________________
geniuses.
b. Social contributions of these people. ______________________________
c. Aspects to consider that a person is a _____________________________
genius. _____________________________
d. Difference between genius and gifted. ______________________________
______________________________
Discuss with your classmates the
_________________________
following questions.

A. Why is it necessary to be
recognized as a genius?
B. What is the difference between
exceptionally gifted and genius?
C. How could science determine if
a person is a genius or just someone
with a good memory?

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________ 79
UNIT 8 Being good at.
NOTES PAD
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

80 B2.2
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.

2%-(&7,9(6
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Understand the social importance of innovation.
B) Talk about incredible technologies.
C) Understand the relevance of ICT.
D)Present the main aspects of sustainability in XXI
century.

Write below the new vocabulary you


learn every class.
92&$%8/$5<
During this unit you will work on:

- Technologies.
- To Talk About Consequences.
- Describing Social Trends.

In this unit,
you will present
a technological
project, talk about its
sustainability.

81
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
LESSON 9A Understand the social importance of innovation.
OPENING:
Would you let technology to interfere in your personal relationships? Discuss
your answer with your classmates.

Read the following article and answer the questions below.

THE NEW DATING APP


A new dating app in China is very popular A market research company
with women. It is so popular that Chinese said the app has more than two
women are spending over $30 million daily active users. The
million a month on it. It is a little vast majority of these are women
different from the usual dating in their early 20s. The company
app because the boyfriends are not said users love the idea of
real. There are just four single men romance and fun.
on the app and they are all virtual
boyfriends. A 19-year-old student at
Women have to role-play dating Wuhan University explained why
the four boyfriends. They have she liked the app. She said: “It’s like a romantic novel
to use real money to buy “Purple with fascinating voices. It’s more real than reading a
Diamonds” from the app. They novel.” She said she loved the app’s “delicate drawings,”
then spend their Purple Diamonds as well as the “great voices” of the four male characters.
in the app to go on dates and keep
their relationships going. The app Another young Chinese woman said: “I don’t have
is called Love and Producer. It is a boyfriend, so I’m happy to have a relationship with a
currently the biggest money earner “paper partner”. She also liked getting e-mail and chat
on Apple’s App Store in China. messages from her virtual boyfriends.
Players spent over 200 million
Chinese Yuan ($30 million) on Taken from breakingnewsenglish.com in 2018.
playing it last month.

Choose true or false.


1- Chinese women date real men. T F
2- Women spend real money to go on virtual dates. T F
3- Users find their soulmate at the end. T F
4- Women call their dates “paper partners” T F
5- The app has more than five million daily active users. T F

82 B2.2
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
LESSON 9A Understand the social importance of innovation.
Answer the following question. Write a descriptive paragraph, suporting it with
your knowledge and experience
Do you know any other dating apps? Think about what is necessary to create a profile in a dating app.
Work with a partner and present to your classmates your answer.
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
Choose one of the technological advances listed below and explain how you
would contribute to society or social relationships using it. Share your answers
with your class.

Technological advance: __________________________


______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
___________________________________________
__________________________________________
How does it look like? Describe the object
______________________________________________
______________________________________________ a- Virtual reality
______________________________________________ b- Artificial intelligence
______________________________________________ c- Nano robotics
______________________________________________ d- 3D printer
__________________________________________ e- Biomechanics
Social contribution: ______________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
______________________________________________
_______________________________________
83
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
LESSON 9B Talk about incredible technologies.
Introduction:
Have you ever thought about not using technology anymore? If you had the
opportunity of quitting technological devices or social media for one day.
Would you do it?
GRAMMAR TIP:
The Passive Voice with Unreal Conditional

There are two types of passive voice with unreal conditional; the Present Unreal Conditional
and the Past Unreal Conditional.

The Present Unreal Conditional Conditional is used to imagine a different present reality, or a
situation that is unlikely in the present. It can also be used to express a wish that in the present was
different, or to describe something unlikely or impossible. When the Passive Voice is applied to
the Present Unreal Conditional the object of the sentence becomes the subject of the sentence and
is now experiencing the action.
E.g.
If I won the lottery, I would buy a Time Machine (Active Voice)
A Time Machine would be bought if I won the lottery. (Passive Voice)
Remember that with the Passive Voice in Present Unreal Conditional the verb agreement does not
change.
E.g.
- If human cloning were permitted, so much could be learned about human genetics. (Active
Voice)
- So much could be learned about human genetics, if human cloning was permitted. (Passive
Voice)

The Past Unreal Conditional is often used to express wishes about the past and imagine different
outcomes due to the different choices made in the past. When The Passive Voice is applied to the
Past Unreal Conditional the object of the sentence becomes the subject of the sentence and is now
experiencing the action.
E.g.
If Samsung had tested the Note 7 properly, it wouldn’t be exploding. (Active Voice)
The Note 7 wouldn’t have been exploding if Samsung had tested it properly. (Passive Voice)
Remember that with the Passive Voice in the Past Unreal Conditional the verb agreement also
changes:
- If I had created a new source of energy, Electricity would be cheaper (Active Voice)
- Electricity would had been cheaper, if a new source of energy had been created by me. (Passive
Voice)
Taken from www.scribd.com in 2018.
84 B2.2
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
LESSON 9B Talk about incredible technologies.
Complete the passive unreal conditional sentences. Use the correct form of the
verb in brackets.
1. If genetically engineered crops (not / develop) _____________in the past, farming would be
more difficult and groceries more expensive today.

2. If cars (not / become)___________so commonly used, people would probably walk more and be
more fit.

3. If remote surgery (support)_____________today, doctors could reach more people in need.

4. If artificial intelligence (apply)_______________to cars built now, driving could be a lot easier.

5. If the telescope (not / invent) ___________in the nineteenth century, space exploration may not
have been pursued as soon.
Taken from busyteacher.org in 2018

Write about one technological tool


that you would create to help improve
one aspect from your community.
Then, share your proposal with your
classmates.
__________________________________
__________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________ _____________________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________________
__________________________________
85
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
LESSON 9C Understand the relevance of ICT.
OPENING:
What do you understand by ICT?
Are Communication Technologies relevant in your life? How?
How do you think that ICT are regulated?
Read the following passage. networks and food distribution chains. They support
Connecting the world. ITU. health care, education, government services, financial
ITU is the United Nations specialized markets, transportation systems, e-commerce
agency for information and communication platforms and environmental management. And they
technologies – ICTs. allow people to communicate with colleagues, friends
and family anytime, and almost anywhere.
We allocate global radio spectrum
and satellite orbits, develop the technical With the help of our global membership, ITU brings
standards that ensure networks the benefits of modern communication technologies
to people everywhere in an
and technologies seamlessly efficient, safe, easy and affordable
interconnect, and strive to improve manner.
access to ICTs to underserved
communities worldwide. ITU membership reads like
a Who’s Who of the ICT sector.
ITU is committed to connecting We’re unique among UN agencies
all the world’s people – wherever in having both public and private
they live and whatever their means. sector membership. So in addition to our 193 Member States,
Through our work, we protect and ITU membership includes ICT regulators, many leading
support everyone’s fundamental academic institutions and some 700 tech companies.
right to communicate.
In an increasingly interconnected world, ITU is the single
Today, ICTs underpin global organization embracing all players in this dynamic and
everything we do. They help fast-growing sector.
manage and control emergency
services, water supplies, power Adapted from itu.int in 2018.

Look at the following video then, answer the questions below. (DIGITAL VIDEO).

According to the video:


Which fields are altered by technology?
_________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
86 B2.2
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
LESSON 9C Understand the relevance of ICT.
In which areas of daily life, could opportunities of improvement be evidenced as a result of ICT
intervention?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
What are the challenges mentioned in the speech?
__________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Make a flowchart to explain how ICT has evolved since 1971 till today,
Propose what may be next in this sequence.

Propose one way in which


human interaction would be
affected if ICT continues as you
proposed above. Share your
thinking with the class

_________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
87
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
LESSON 9D Present the main aspects of sustainability in 21st
century.
Read the following passage.
HOW CAN AI BE DANGEROUS?
2. The AI is programmed to do something
Jack Andraka is a 15-year-old kid from beneficial, but it develops a destructive method
Maryland Most researchers agree that a for achieving its goal: This can happen whenever
super intelligent AI (Artificial Intelligence) we fail to fully align the AI’s goals with ours,
is unlikely to exhibit human emotions like which is strikingly difficult. If you ask an obedient
love or hate, and that there is no
intelligent car to take you to
reason to expect AI to become
the airport as fast as possible,
intentionally benevolent or
it might get you there chased
malevolent. Instead, when
by helicopters and covered
considering how AI might
in vomit, doing not what you
become a risk, experts think
wanted but literally what you
two scenarios most likely:
asked for.
1. The AI is programmed As these examples illustrate,
to do something devastating: the concern about advanced AI
Autonomous weapons are isn’t malevolence but competence. A super-intelligent AI will
artificial intelligence systems be extremely good at accomplishing its goals, and if those goals
that are programmed to kill. aren’t aligned with ours, we have a problem. You’re probably
In the hands of the wrong not an evil ant-hater who steps on ants out of malice, but if
person, these weapons could you’re in charge of a hydroelectric green energy project and
easily cause mass casualties. there’s an anthill in the region to be flooded, too bad for the
Moreover, an AI arms race ants. A key goal of AI safety research is to never place humanity
could inadvertently lead to an in the position of those ants.
AI war that also results in mass Adapted from futureoflife.org in 2018.
casualties.
Discuss the following questions with your classmates.
1- What other inventions could be considered dangerous
for humanity?
_______________________________________________
_____________________________________________
2- Name three or more technologies that are contributing
to social advances and explain why.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
____________________________________________
88 B2.2
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
LESSON 9D Present the main aspects of sustainability in 21st
century.
______________________________________ ORAL PRESENTATION:
______________________________________
______________________________________ Taking into account the
______________________________________ reading and the discussions
______________________________________ of this unit you are going
______________________________________ to create and present a
______________________________________ technological project.
__________________________________
Your presentation should include: ______________________________
- Sustainability ______________________________
- Aspects of manufacturing
- Social relevance ______________________________
- Approximate costs to the users _____________________________
_____________________________
At the end of your presentation you ______________________________
should include answers to the following ______________________________
questions. _________________________

1-How can my invention be positve


for the humanity?
2-Why should governments
implement my invention?
3-What type of future research my
invention could lead to?

________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________ 89
UNIT 9 Innovative Tech.
NOTES PAD
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________

90 B2.2
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization

2%-(&7,9(6
By the end of this unit you
will be able to:
A) Understand the impact of globalization in daily lives.
B) Analize Global trends.
C) Talk about the power of globalization.
D) Present social advantages and disadvantages of
globalization.

Write below the new vocabulary you


learn every class.
92&$%8/$5<
During this unit you will work on:

- Technologies.
- To Talk About Consequences.
- Describing Social Trends.

In this unit,
you will discuss the
pros and cons of facing
globalization

91
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
LESSON 10A Understand the impact of globalization in
daily lives.
Read the following passage and complete it with the words from the box.

WHY GLOBALIZATION MAY - increases - boost - equal - average


NOT REDUCE INEQUALITY IN - counterparts - labor - shift – rosy.
POOR COUNTRIES high in demand; skilled workers in those same
countries are less coveted. With more employers
Globalization has made the planet
clamoring for their services, unskilled workers
more (a) ___________________.
in developing countries get wage boosts, whereas
As communication gets cheaper and
their skilled (e) ___________________ don’t.
transport gets faster, developing countries
The result is that inequality falls.
have closed the gap with their
rich-world counterparts. But But the high inequality seen
within many developing today in poor countries is
economies, the story is less prompting new theohries. One
(b) ___________________: emphasizes outsourcing—
inequality has worsened. when rich countries (f)
___________________
Basic theory predicts
that inequality falls when parts of the production process to poor countries. Contrary
developing countries enter to popular belief, multinationals in poor countries often
global markets. The theory employ skilled workers and pay high wages. A report from
of comparative advantage is the OECD found that (g) ___________________ wages paid
found in every introductory by foreign multinationals are 40% higher than wages paid by
textbook. It says that local firms.
poor countries produce What is more, those skilled workers often get to work
goods requiring large with managers from rich countries or might have to meet
amounts of unskilled (c) the deadlines of an efficient rich-world company. That may
___________________. (h) ___________________ their productivity. Higher
Rich countries focus on productivity means they can demand even higher wages. By
things requiring skilled contrast, unskilled workers, or poor ones in rural areas, tend
workers. Thailand is a big not to have such opportunities.
rice exporter, for example,
while America is the world’s Their productivity does not rise. For these reasons
largest exporter of financial globalization can boost the wages of skilled workers, while
services. As global trade (d) crimping those of the unskilled. The result is that inequality
___________________, rises.
the theory says, unskilled
workers in poor countries are Taken from en.islcollective.com in 2018.

92 B2.2
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
LESSON 9A Understand the impact of globalization in daily
lives.
Complete the following statements using your own words.
A. Contrary to popular belief, multinationals in poor countries often… _____________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________

B. But the high inequality seen today in poor countries is… _______________________________
_________________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________

C. Higher productivity means… ____________________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________________________________

D. For these reasons globalization can… ______________________________________________


_________________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________

Do you consider globalization has benefited


or affected our country? Complete the chart
with your arguments.

Advantages Disadvantages
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
_____________________________ _____________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
______________________________ ______________________________
____________________________ ____________________________
93
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
LESSON 10B Analize Global trends.
Introduction:
- How can ICTs help when learning a foreign language? Which ones do you use?
- Have you ever travelled abroad? How can traveling abroad change the
perception of a person in aspects such as: culture, society, economy, etc.?

GRAMMAR TIP:
Separable and inseparable phrasal verbs

A phrasal verb is a verb combined with a preposition or adverb (or both) that means something
different from each of the words that make up the verb. There are two types of phrasal verbs.
Separable phrasal verbs can be broken up by other words, while inseparable phrasal verbs
cannot be separated by other words.

Separable Phrasal Verbs:

Separable phrasal verbs can remain together when using an object that is a noun or noun
phrase.
He paid back the debt. OR He paid the debt back.
The company laid out quite a bit for research. OR The company laid quite a bit out for
research.
Separable phrasal verbs MUST be separated when a pronoun is used:
We ran it up by $50,000.
They bailed him out of the situation.

Inseparable Phrasal Verbs:

Inseparable phrasal verbs always remain together. It makes no difference if a noun or pronoun
is used.
Examples:
He scraped by on only $800 a month for two years. NOT He scraped it by for two years.
They splashed out on new office furniture. NOT They splashed it out.
Note: All phrasal verbs containing more than one particle are inseparable.
I’ve put up with the situation for more than two years.
Tip: If you are not sure whether a phrasal verb is separable or inseparable, ALWAYS use a noun
or nouns phrase and DO NOT separate. In this manner, you will always be correct!

Taken from www.thoughtco.com and www.grammarly.com in 2018.

94 B2.2
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
LESSON 10B Analize Global trends.
Look for the meaning of the following phrasal verbs and create sentences.

1. Hand in
Meaning _________________________________________________________________
Example __________________________________________________________________

2. Get on
Meaning _________________________________________________________________
Example __________________________________________________________________

3. Look up
Meaning _________________________________________________________________
Example __________________________________________________________________

Now, decide if the following phrasal verbs are


Separable or Inseparable. Share your answers with
a partner.
1. Which is correct?
a.- I drove to his house up.
b.-Both are correct
c.-I drove up to his house.

2. Which is correct? Answer the following questions about


a.- The thieves broke in at around midnight. Learning English using as many Phrasal
b.- The thieves broke at around midnight in. Verbs as possible. Discuss with your
c.- Both are correct classmates the answers.
3. Which is correct? Why do you think is important to learn of English in
a.-Thomas’ grandfather passed away last month. a globalized society?
b.-Thomas’ grandfather passed last month away.
c.-both are correct. How would you help out your country to reach a goal
of having bilingual citizens by 2019?
4. Which is correct?
a.- Both are correct __________________________________________
b.- I mix up those words all the time. __________________________________________
c.- I mix those words up all the time.
__________________________________________
Taken from www.learnenglishfeelgood.com in
__________________________________________
2018 __________________________________________
________________________________________

95
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
LESSON 10C Talk about the power of globalization.
OPENING:
What is globalization for you?
How do you think societies have been transformed through tech?

Read the following passage. restrictive export and import measures since 2008
There is no question that globalization - The proponents say globalization represents
has been a good thing for many developing free trade which promotes global economic growth;
countries who now have access to our creates jobs, makes companies more competitive, and
markets and can export cheap goods. lowers prices for consumers.
Globalization has also been good for Multi-
national corporations and Wall Street. But Cons
globalization has not been good for working - The general complaint about globalization is
people (blue or white collar) that it has made the rich richer while making the non-
rich poorer. “It is wonderful for
and has led to the continuing managers, owners and investors,
deindustrialization of America. but hell on workers and nature.”
Globalization is a complicated - Globalization is supposed
issue. It is necessary to evaluate to be about free trade where
the pros and cons before drawing all barriers are eliminated but
any conclusions. there are still many barriers. For
instance 161 countries have value
Pros added taxes (VATs) on imports which are as high as 21.6% in
Supporters of globalization Europe. The U.S. does not have VAT.
argue that it has the potential to - The biggest problem for developed countries is that jobs
make this world a better place are lost and transferred to lower cost countries.” According to
to live in and solve some of conservative estimates by Robert Scott of the Economic Policy
the deep-seated problems like Institute, granting China most favored nation status drained
unemployment and poverty. away 3.2 million jobs, including 2.4 million manufacturing
- Free trade is supposed to jobs. He pegs the net losses due to our trade deficit with Japan
reduce barriers such as tariffs, ($78.3 billion in 2013) at 896,000 jobs, as well as an additional
value added taxes, subsidies, and 682,900 jobs from the Mexico –U.S. trade-deficit run-up from
other barriers between nations. 1994 through 2010.”
This is not true. There are still
many barriers to free trade.
The Washington Post story says Adapted from forbes www.forbes.com in 2018.
“the problem is that the big G20
countries added more than 1,200

96 B2.2
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
LESSON 10C Talk about the power of globalization.
Look at the video then, answer the questions. (DIGITAL VIDEO).
According to the video why is not globalization easy to be explained in single words?
_______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________

Which historical factors have contributed to globalization?


_______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________
How the economic relationships are affected among countries by globalization?
_______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________

DISCUSSION:
How do you think Colombia has been affected by new
emerging economies? Provide your ideas with reasons
and examples.

_______________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
_________________________________________________________________________
______________________________________________________________________
97
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
LESSON 10D Present social advantages and disadvantages of
globalization.
Several authors have presented the effects of globalization. One of the most
common effects in consumerism. Take a look to the following video and analyze
the passage below. (DIGITAL VIDEO).

The Impact of Globalization on landscape of how consumers behave, think, and


the Consumer more importantly, spend.

By: James Scriven The fact that countries are able to more freely
trade with each other, has created an abundance
“If one looked at the tags
of products and services that
on the clothing in their closet,
can be offered to the consumer.
one would see many different
Many of these available
countries of origin, including
products and services would
China and Indonesia.
have been unimaginable before
the many free trade agreements
How about the location of the
were signed and international
manufacturer of your watch?
unions were formed.
What about the place of origin
of your television? There is Taken from www.neumann.edu in 2018.
no question that globalization
has permanently changed the

Think about the questions from the passage and create three questions related
to the advantages or disadvantages of globalization and consumerism. Share them
with the class.

1. __________________________________________
________________________________________________
_____________________________________________
2. __________________________________________
________________________________________________
_____________________________________________
3. __________________________________________
________________________________________________
_____________________________________________

98 B2.2
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
LESSON 10D Present social advantages and disadvantages of
globalization.
Problem question: Globalization has created Debate:
inequality and environmental problems all In order to share ideas and
around the world. On the other hand, some different perspectives of
researchers advocate for the good effects of globalization and its effects
globalization in terms of cultural expansion and around the world, you are
trading. To what extent globalization can be going to complete the following
considered good for societies? guideline for a successful
participation in the debate.

1- My position on the resolution is (state your opinion)


____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
___________________________________________________
2- Reasons for my position (examples or facts that support your idea)
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________
3- Rebuttal strategies:
Things my opponents might say against me:
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
________________________________________
______________________________________

Things I could say back:


____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________________
____________________________________________________________________________
After this, share your ideas in the class debate and take notes of what your
classmates have to say.
99
UNIT 10 ICTs and globalization.
NOTES PAD
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
________________________________________________________________________
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100 B2.2