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By W. A. SKRAPEK

(Saskatoon, Saskatchewan, Canada)

regard to stability of certain differential equations, comparatively few results have been

published which deal directly with instability. The prirpose of this paper is to provide

two theorems which deal with the instability of the trivial solution of the third order

differential equations of the form

The functions f,, f 2 , f 3 , f 4 depend only on the variables displayed explicitly and the first

derivatives (full or partial) are assumed to exist and be continuous.

2. Theorem 1 and Theorem 2

We first rewrite equation (1.1) in the equivalent system form

(2.1) j. = y , Y = 2, 2 = - f 1 ( Z ) - f d Y ) - f a ( % ) - f a k , y , 2).

With respect to (2.1), we state the following theorems.

Theorem 1. For the system (2.1), let the following conditions be satisfied.

(i) f l ( 0 ) = f2(0)= f3(0)= 0 and f4(0,0, 0) = 0.

(ii) There exist positive constants a2 and a3 such that:

and

Y[fdY) + fdX9 Y9 41 5 --a2Y2,

IX[f3(X) f fs(X9 Y, 2 a3X2,

for all x , y , z.

(iii) There exist non-negative constants K , and K 2 und a constant a , sucht that:

and

for y + 0 crnd z =+ 0.

Z’hen the triviul solution is unstable.

8 Natli. Nadir. Bd. 98

114 Skrapek, some InHtability Theorems

Theorem 2. For the system (2.1), suppose thut fl(0) = f2(0) = f 3 ( 0 )= 0 ond f4(0,0, 0)

= 0. Also, let there exist non-negative constants K , and K , such thut:

fAX9

f;(42 a39

for all x , y, z ;

or

(ii) 4fl(4 + fk,

y, 41 2 alza,

x[f3(x) + y? 2 -'3c21

f;(45 --a39

for all x, y, z .

3. Proofs of Theorem 1 and Theorom 2

The proofs will be based on instability criterion established by KRASOVSKIIin [ 11.

For each proof we define the continuous functions F,(z) and F , ( y ) by

(3.1)

Aha, we let

F,(z) =

1 flo

z

f;(o)

z+o

z =0

9 P2(Y) =

1

fio

f@)

y

y*o

Y =0

(a) Proof of Theorem 1. In this proof, noting condition (ii) of Theorem 1, we consider

two possible cases:

(2) G(s, y, z ) 5 -a3x2 for all x, y, z.

Case (1): G(z, y, z ) 2 a3x2.

Here we define the function V,(x, y, z ) by

22

where R is a positive constant to be fixed later in the proof. Since V , ( x , 0,O) = -, it is

2

clear that in every neighbourhood of (0, 0, 0 ) , there exists a point (xo, yo, zo) such that

V1(xo,yo, zo) 2 0. Next, an elementary differentiation of Vl with respect to t , along

Skrupek, Some Instability Theorems 115

= Rz' + Ry[-/z(y) - f 4 ( ~ y,, z ) ] t R [ ~ i z- f i ( z ) ]y + G(x,Y, 2)

+ [y + +

fz(y)l x / , ( z ) x 2 Rz2 t "ozYZ f13X2 +

+ "1 - Fl(41yz 11 F,(.Y)l"Y + + b"71(4x** +

hy using the functions defined in (3.1) and (3.2) and by applying condition ( i i ) of

Theorem 1. It follows then, that

v, 2--

2

+ H F

(22 92) + R[(1 - E ) 22 + (Ul - P,(z))yz f ((12 - t ) yz]

IS +

z. This is always possible since [a,- P , ( Z ) ]5~K , c 4a, by (iii) of

- L ) y2 2 0 for all y,

Theorem 1. .Also, because of the boundedness of Fl(z) and P z ( y )by (iii) of Theorem 1,

it follows that the positive constant R can be chosen so that

P, 2 K ( r 2+ y2 + z 2 ) ,

for a constant K , where R is fixed to ensure that K > 0. Therefore, for such a value of R,

$', is positive definite and the instability of the trivial solution cf (2.1) follows by the

criterion established by KRASOVSKII in [ 11.

Case (2): G(z, y, z ) 5 -a3$.

, z ) by

Similar to case ( l ) , we define the function V 2 ( z y,

2112 -- XB fR [ jf3(0 +

2

0

2yz + - yz + 2.cz,

X2

where R again is a positive constant to be fixed later. We note that V 2 ( x ,0.0) =; -,

and differentiating V , with respect to t to obtain 2

vz = R?A-/z(Y) - + R [ w- Y -

f 4 h Y9 41 fI(Z)l G(X7 !4, .)

+ I!/- ry - /i(z) z h Rz2 + R(hzy2 +

/2(~)3 ~ 3 5 '

follows in case (2) a8 I t (lid in case (1).

'Therefore, applying KF~ASOVSKII'S criterion [ 11, the trivial solution 1s unstable.

Combining case (1) and case (a), the proof of Theorem 1 is complete.

(b) Proof of Theorem 2. Here again we employ (3.1) und (3.2) along with

(8.3) H(x9 Y9 ). = z[f,(z) + f&, y, z)I.

By noting conditions ( i ) and (ii) of Theoreni 2, we consider two possible cases. That is,

there exist positive constants (I,and a3 such that either:

Case ( 1 ) G ( x , y, z ) 2 u3x2,H ( x , y, z ) 4 -u1z2 and f j ( r )2 a, for all x, y, z ;

or

Case ( 2 ) G ( x , y, z ) 5 -a3x2, H ( x , y, z ) 2 u1z2, and /j(z) 5 -u3 for all x,y, z.

8*

116 Skrapek, Some Instability Theorems

Case (1).To prove instability in case (1) we employ the function Wl(z, y, z ) defined by

X2

where R is a positive constant to be fixed later in the proof. Since W,(z, 0,O) = -, it is

2

clear that in every neighborhood of (0, 0, 0) we can find a point (zo,yo, zo) such that

Wl(xo,yo, zo) 2 0. Also, differectiating W , with respect to t , along solution paths of

(TI), we obtain

Wl = R f W Y2 - RH(z, y, 2) + y, z ) + [y + f2fy)l .r + 5 9

where G(z, y, z ) and H ( r , y, z ) are as defined in (3.2) and (3.3). It follows then, by using

condition (i) of Theorem 2 and (3.1),that

@, 2 Ru3y2+ Rulz2 + u3z2+ [ l + P z ( y ) xy

] + Pl(z)zz

and Fz(y) are bounded by

Theorem 2. it follows that the positive constant .R can be chosen large enough to ensure

t,hat

That, is, for R sufficiently large, W , is positive definite and tho instability of the trivial

solution follows.

Case (2). The proof of this case follows identical lines to that of Case (l),after defining

the function W2(x,y, z ) by

I

U

2W2(z,y, z ) = z2 - R 2yf3(z) + z2 + 3 J f 2 ( 6 )dE

0

- y2 + xz,

Xa

so that , = -, and

W 2 ( z 0,O)

2

@Z = -R&(z) y2 + RH(G 1 ~ 2

9 ) - Q(z, Y, 2 ) + [Y - f z ( y ) I s - 2

1 ~ 3 ~ ’ ITZ.

follows as in case (1).Therefore by KRASOVSKIIS’

criterion [l], the trivial solution is unstable.

Remarks. (1) For the equation

(4.1) 2 +fl(4 +fz(Y)+ f 3 ( 4 = 0,

the conditions of Theorem 1 reduce to the following.

(i) f l ( 0 )= f 2 ( 0 )== f 3 ( 0 )= 0 .

Skrapek, Some Instability Theorems 117

y/,(y) 5 -u2y2 and Ixfa(x)l 2 u3z2 for all x and y

r!r

(iii) There exists u constant a, and non-negative constant,s K , and K , such that:

(2) For equation (4. l), the conditions of Theorem 2 reduce to the following.

(i) f , ( O ) = /,(0) = j 3 ( 0 )= 0 and there exist non-negative constants K , and K , such

that:

Then the trivial solution is unstable provided that there exist positive constants a, and

u3 siich that either:

(ii) Z / ~ ( Z )5 -a,z2 and f j ( z ) 2 u3 for all x and z ; or

(iii) z/,(z) 2 u,z2 and f ; ( z ) 2 -a3 for all x and z .

(3) It should be noted that the conditions of Theorem 1 rind Theorem 2 allow for

"non-linear" ternis in the equations (1.1) and (2.1). For example, it, is not difficwlt to

check that the function

C22z3e-(z' ' 2')

f ( r ,Y, 2) = -(al + MI)z + + M 2 )y + (a3+ M 3 )xe"' +

(a2

1 +- Y2 '

where u,,u,, us,M I , M , , M , are positive constants and c is any constant such that

(4) For the equat,ion

x + u,P + u,x + a3x = 0 ,

the conditions of Theorem 1 reduce to a, < 0. The conditions of Theorern 2 reduce to

ulu3 < 0. These results are consist,ent with regard to the ROIJTH-HURWITZ

criterion for

stability of the above equation.

References

[l] N. N. KRASOVSEII,

Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR 101, 17-20 (1955).

IJniversity of Saskatchewan

Department of Mathematics

Saekattoon, Saskatchewan

Canada

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