A GRAMMAR

. ~

ARABIC LANGUAGE,

0' ft.

AlIf- ItlnTKI'

,y

W. WIUGHT, LL.D.,

LATA .tlOJ'ICfIIIOaol' AIWIIC • TilE QXln:1IIII'I'Y OP C4)J11I1tDc1&.

THIRD £OfTION

AD

M. J. DB OO&JB.

~ OJ' AlIA." .. da'1IIII .... " 01' umMIlf.

VOL.UME U.

wmt A PI\IPAQl AND AIlOINDA IT COlllUOBNDA BY

PIERRE CACHIA

LlBRAIRIE DU L1BAN BEIRUT

Ll~I"'E DUll'''' .... Sc6 Scpaafe • 8einat

AuocM,., ~ •• ~_ ...".,...14""

- tIt~ tltelflOfld.

PtiAted in Leba.on

OONTENTS.

PAl\T THIRD. "",IX

I. THE SBVJtRAL OOKPONENT PARTS OF A sdTQCE.

A. TIlE V8RB.

1. The States or T ...... 'Die ~ •

"

... ~OpIMiye ~ .. ..,. .... ~ .

as the Pl~Jndic.. .... . ... Pl~ Subj.D~ in to;ro correlative

~L_ :.. . .'. -.>' - '.,

Il~""""'''' •. .... '

.,

~t. 'UI ... __ t ...... : -~..I· .. : __ 1 1 ... _ _h-

ID wo ",,"~ve ~l __ 0-, .&liar

"

"

.,

"

"

01. etc. .

" ... ~~,~.

The Imperfect Indicative

The LatiD ud Greek Imperfect, ~ .!Jti:.

Thehtue-Pedeot, J;,i (.a)~.

.J

. ...

1

1 I

S ,

6 9 U

us 17 18 11 22

iv

The Im ..... S." ... _ive .

. , ..

The JUIIi"e,affier ..J and ...

II ia~wo ~~ conditional claues,. after

"1,··'

The Energetic • .

2. The Moods.

The SU!UUJi.ve

The Buhj1lllO~ve after "I. 4 "lor ':If. and . .;J

.. .. .J,;j. .•.

....

.... ~

alter . ..;

after;. .. ..:s after ;t

"

..

..

..

..

"

, . '"

after '''1 or ~l

The J Gallive

It &fter . ..}

..

... .,

in two· ~ye COIlditiouJ ... after

"l .• " .

after ') .. &nd .. .:s .

"

"

The Energetic of .t.iae t .. ,...rect

a.ftAlrJ.

"

in ... ~·(.it.h oj),. wishes, &I1d

~' ..

intlae~iI of Lwo ~~ye con~c],._ .

iB .~ protatia of a aeateace, af~r '1. ... ,;r.;. •.

..

..

"

tt ~yehBperative, with -1 .

.... e~~ ~

23 24

2" 24

23 28

29 30 32 33

33 33 35 35

36

36 41 41 41

42

42 43

43 43 44

COIIIU'l'B.

3. The GoY'8I'Dment of the Varb • (a) The ~'f8

. (4) The ~'f8 COmpJemeat in. the AOO .. Mh·.

Two Objective Comp~ ia the ~'"' .

'_. . _ ....

~.~,; ~if;~ etA, .. the __ ate

... ~ .~'&ndof

tbe with . ~

V ..... .J .db· the. ~tb .... ~ 0Iie0- " .. ~ ....... Of .• (.~~ tJoy~""l{ __ "'tilor~. u. of .J ...... ~ ~io ..... 0I;ec-

"ve~"""t. of t\e.~

CoaIII .... ., V .... M~* .

o-tl~of~ .. hperIMi ... of 'tiae form J;.Jf

'1'he ~ve after • Verb whicb ill uadentood .

i.;11; j.r~~ 51 .

TheV,*"ve . .

. ..

... at ", e~. exp: •••• rl by the

ltomillll\ive .

"

v

.Ma

.j" 41 46 41

63

11

61 63

68 70

71 71

U

16 7~ 8t U 8G

86 II 93

••

<P) Tho Adverbial ColUpfoulent Tile Pnxli_to of ~

, " .. ",

" of tho .;," .., .... 1

The Pl'CI:Ucato of , and i, when = ~

" of •• ~ t;t1 and of .~~

Tho Oolllitruotionof· tlae ~lu.;r~ The Adverbial ~vo ofTirue •

" " of~. ..'

" " of·~ or~itiOilt

~ ..

" " oC Qa .. ..., or.~n .

" " of ·· .. ~~~Or· De-

~tion •

"

..', ',.'

Qoutnaetiun of _"".,

;;s.. and ,ji,

of Comparison

"

(b) The·~.

·The.· SiIQple .• Prepositi0D8

~

".

u;..:~ .

. ... ... .

~ . .,.. .eom.-.ttve Adjectives

.,

(,JIf

...

~

.J

;.;- -.---

PAG.
98
99
101
1M
105
106
109
111
112
121
122
125
128
129
129
129
131
132
139

lU
146
147
152
153
156
.. l6! .;,;r.~ J$

... ~ - '"

~".,. .

,

178 176 175 176 178 178 180 180 182 182 182 186 186 18'1 187 18'1 187 188 188

--A

til .',..

.:..t

,e"

~

J;'

,,-#

QJ)

,.,

~

;.:.

;,~

'tIIN,

-!a,

~ .,;.;. C;

The .a.poaad Prepc.iCiou • 188

....

tjHI ~ etc. • 188

....

~~. etc.. • 190

Pre,oeitiOlUl in ooeneotioa wi ... followhtc CJ..ue . In

~ ~ .... .).., ~. ad..., . 193

.. ..

0mW0a of .... ""'ition before ~f ud 3 198

B. THI NOUN.

....

I. The ~umh", V Ol'bi or A~t.fu n ~ .A.gentla, and PaUentia.. 193

!!. Tho GOYOnlmttnt of tho NOiln.

Tho ScatUIi Construetull and t.he Genitive 198

~.--,

Po .~ etc. 2()3

Jt. ~ !l()j

Oa!; 206

2.Ji! ......206

)C _

~

••

...:. ill

,

.~, .:,.

"_tJ~' III

.ti6j. . III

......

poJ. • 212

~w.,~ 112

...,.. ',' - - ,-' ','

.~

~J . 214

i('!'; ;';)' ~t JI 116

Ja1 Superlative. JI8

~ .. J:t. . . . . . .. 220

,. .' . .. ~

A. a...." iawod..t . b7' .~. or c.e, as a Genitiye '20

_OtIdt£yeof~ or U .......... Par·

~ .... A.djeetivee . 211

lD~of."'Ord."""" ........ o..t ... oto

...... ~.···T. m

a»rrIlI'TB.

A Genitive in ApJIOIIitioa . to a IWMive Adjecti'nl •• •

,a ""'= .

Deanik ao.d Indefinik Anne:c&tion .

OonHrac;tion of J;.il .. a ~tive . The Genitive of the •. J&.t.eri&l •

.4ppoeItPt of ....... )fatedal·

'l'Jte .G.'tiv, ~ in p_ of' AppoIiUon

3. TheN ........

..

_,- ,',- ":',:-:<_:i_.:·I,,:.

~., &bel ......

~.~.

tt

,. from 11 to $9

,. •••

~

... (100) _ ... (1000) .

OoapoudNamben

A ..... eptof •. th()OardinalN.hlbRI .. in Oeader with thtt

)foana . ~,t.Iltt .. objeota •• Dlberec:l ,

w,_ tile .o.rdinal Nataben are det.eruliaed or"'Ke . ~cot· ..... Ot41_Nam_1rith·theo.ltive . .n..

ne. Da,. of the )loata.

11. TIlE SBNTJlNOB AND rrs PAITS.

A. THB SBNTBNOE IN GBNBtU.L. 1. The Part. of a Sentenoe .

The 8a~ and Predio&te •

'nle . .c.,.; or Connecting Pronominal Suffix

,

..... , , - - - " ..

The ~,~ or Proaoan of 8epu'ation

Iii,' - - _ ',_ - 1#

When ihe Incho&tiYe or Subject of a Nominal Sen· ..... ...,. be &Jl fadehReNoan .

. ....

• ,I .tI

IU JIG lit 219 131

134 136

136 137 J37

'38 139

240 243

"I 148

S48

x

u. of ~ .. , ~. ia a Nomiul 8ea.teaoe • The SaIUeot DM Ip8GiW

PenoMl form.

Im"_''' fonD •

The OorApl •• te of the ~ and P ..... lWIlxive pI01lOIDiuI"&.mxe. •

~s, ~ •• all nflexive oJUects •

~-it';!n.. .

.~ve. Sabttaia&iv.. .

~ ... ~

., ,

. ~) ~ ~ ~);6. (~),. ~ .

J4.. &,.., ~

~~., ,r;:.

~I. •

~t~t t!if . .;.~~~

..;Ii, • ....

" '.;,tIl- • • •

~ ....... -Oon6bolUioD

J.:\J or ji.;g~ the QaalifIoMive or Adjective

'-~-':,,:_--::: .'".', ,','

~ .... Pec~ .....

.:P Jr..,·the ~ Appoei&ion Appoeltion of V ...

2. Ooaoont ia Qendv uad Number beWeen the Pan. of a ...._ .

In VtIW .....

ta __

.....

265 266 266 26'1 218 in HI

272 272

273 27.

216

276 27f 278 t'18 Ht t80

taO 28' 183 1M t86 287

wa ....

B. THE J>tl'PDtIN'l'···· .IU1fJ)8 or SU1.'IIN0B8.

1. Beptlve and ~ibit.m sen ....

.,.

.:J. .;;. . ..z

';c ~.,"

• - .-.:.,-.>,' -}' "'_.C'- -,~

.' yi .... '. _" Q- t!.J, or'~

i 1rkh &he Pe~ ',.- a,,,, •..

. tt II .-.~

#:,~._::: __ -'_,_:\'>"_., '," ""0, -: ::._,, ,_:_,_:,:' .• ,',', __ '," '_.', ',_ _.< _,_,,',

'f ... u .... alter ............. , to forWtt, _, fto.,

........ ;; wM the' "'~ve c4 "l4l) .

o Iii Ii. of ~ in DeaW by -th, and iu I ...... in ~

~ ia ~aoa., witll the htaiveand ......

t. .In&a~."'___ .

t . .l .,

'j;.~'.

4,~ ~..,.,;), ~ .

." .'

~-.

~ J:f .

3. BefMb. Sen __

DeW. and IncWnite. • . •

The.CoImecting ~ ~ or ~"i

~. . . . . . . . "

..... 299 299 300 300 BOO 300

36t •• * S04

SOlS 306

306 306

-

-

..

alo au 31G

31f 317 alt

...

xii

4. Copulative SeateDOell

j. -.i

'.G .... .,....,.n. neptive

The Oonlliet i.Oo~t, .PT ..i,. ti~i

~jt;, the.Wlw of.· -. ... ·.or ~ce

o. 4d ...... ve, ~'¥8, ·Bxeept.ive 8eatencea .

; .. ~.~

, .... ~

...

J.I.

~l· . ..1& ..

~.

,

14,.,·

..

-u; "'t~ ~ ~ .

..;;a, ~,ti;. ,;:. i.

..

.....

HIS

Sili 32'1 32'1 SSO

ISS 3SS 333

334 386 3S1i

340 Ul 341 342 343 3'4

346 3U 34' U8 348

PART ·POURTH. .... DY.

I. TQ roBM o'A ..... le POlft'aY.

.... 8110 108

.. ,

set set 3G8 sa sa

"' '" HI

H5 S6G NG Me 867 ,.7

I •

'.

II. TltE FORtl8 0, ·\9'6B1)8 IN PAl18B AND

BJIYId . ._

m POlITIC Lt~ 871

.A6,c of the Jettei' f 37.

lrrep in the ... of the •. TYdId 3ff

Unocmtnotedl"orma for Contracted ones 378

.~ of .bal u in aome NOminal and Verbal fol'llUl 3ft

ott- L.tten.. and even SyIJablee, dropped • SSG

LenstheniDg of • Short Vowel in the middle of • word SSt

~oI- •. Leng Vo'" __

xiv

.....

S .. pprea.iOD of a~. Vowel IN

AddiaoD of a Jrinal Short Vowel to some Xerbal Forma and

Part.ieIea. . SSG

ll:l'ep ..... Ui18 of tile nnWln. and other ~dinga 387

Seppra •• ,.. of the T .. Wln • 388

~ for ~int.he OeDitive PlurtJ of If.,.. . 388

J~ . inVerbtsand N.. derived from Bllclieala

..... J ..,14.1 • 389

P ...... ·' __ ()1l~of Pause . 390

. J

PART THIRD.

SYNTAl.

_-:,\

A. "'·VBlUl

1. "' .... or T __

.,a, _-_. . .. _:

.. 1. ~PwJM!~\Jt (VoL L, 111, 7'), indi __ :~. A.

(.) ••••••••••• .AII .... &of; •.. ~pIetea .. at ... ,...time'&ile .• ~ • ._' .the Gre@ ~, ~impetfect. and.,iatl,.,>; as .~.t;...!f

.. ~. ZJi4r",(Ji rfo .,.:..c..;. "-'.at ~ (# •• dtJor.

(ij . An &of; which, at theBlOlllei1t ofs~bf. bu··· ... · already

~~"" ..... " in. a ..... ol~(tJa.~ Gemat.n -~~); .. ~J~~(c .. ! t34f1l ......

f/"!/j •• , ",1 ........

(f) ~ ~""Ql which.itoall"'._"'i~~" place B or ............ 1188 ofthtperftiO\ whichia. 801D1IlOIlia)rOT8rbial

~ _ which the Greek aorist ; • Sti!i ~,;;

-_ .. -.. . .. .,

,.",.,.. .,. <_ ..., it ...,. ", wl.ll .~;/'f'wt mw 10

...".,); ';'J;,:;Aji' Jilt COftI"''''''''' ..... .".. <_ .".,. ad

ttl _- ,

1IjU.,,).

(4) An act which is jut CODlpl~ at the . moment, and by the

,~ ... , I • ,!, .. I-

very act, of apeakiDg; as MIl ~.a.wl 1 CMtjurl IMI ", God; ..c:.,

..

.. ,

10M 1 .u IMI 1M,.

W. IL

1

,.

111

i

I

I,

A (,) All ad, the ocoun .... eI wWch it 10 oeNia it .,

be.~ II • __ a1nadr .... place. 'Phil pNfti1I iD

.....-. ......... _. ud after the putiole i •. 8II)I8Cia1ly in" or "'T~; .. ~J.,J ,d"\!1 ~ ..,# ~~~1i ~it ~ ~;.u J;. Ut» bI- ,; .1;; ~ l!t; ~ :..u:;; ~

.... WIt ., """." dill .,. ~ e .

.... i'~" .." (lit. ~~., - fIJ'fIIIII!IltI "'"

(lit. ., ....,.. .., .,. ,..,_ .. 1M' .. .." .. (iI)

B _~(Iit. ¥II ... _., .. JIIII)~.i",..,

.., __ ",.,.rlAl ...,; ~J.;I1 ~; 6IIi«l,

I .wi ." .., ..... i. M»k i~ ~ ~~ tf J)1

• #. • , # '. .' • ~t_.Jr __ 1_

• 'ft: .~.t·.u .... I ... (dill).., -.." -.,

u, ,,-, ~~ " - ,- .~,; -

~, til ,., til "6 ,." ~ .. "., wI·

Bu... Whea ....... .,...DCiaI.with o§ is eonaeo&ed ""th

. . ~

• prmou ... befJbuliDg 1rith to. followed by the perfecl, or .",J

followed by tbej1uilive, ia that ... '1 does not sive to the 101- 1owiDc·.,..b ill. petfeeltlle- _et .. fUure, beeauaeit merely

<,' ,-,- ", ,', . > _' - _ - • - - _- ,'#1' .,.. iI' ,.,._.! i!~ _, " •

aupp1leI the pJaoe .. __ puticltI j .. ,! '''''' Jlijt ~ to. ~

. ~~ ..;j. .~ a;ci. J .. '.;t.a; i ... taoI ,..lUI", .. ftder

"' ••• ..,. • .,. t1r ..".,~.., ~. 1 _,. II;. .. " " ...... for

.. ...,..,; ~ • .zi;~~-' ~ ~r.;a" ~ ~jli 1-- .. .......", ......... :tiW """ ............... ..., .,. .......... U. ..,.~.,.ri

(1\- 6. lMt.n_ of the .,...,_ retaining itl oripIat meiming after • Ii ... i ..,extremely rue. Ia later pt'OIIe,Wwev.r, we often lad Jtj oj M did taoI _ • .w «mIintUtl (10 do) empJoyed

J- .. Jtj ... or J;..J (l"IeiBcIaer, Xl. &/w. i. '" ..,.)]

c

D

(.I> ...... ftioh. we hope ., be _ or IDay happen.

H8nC!e t.ht~. ~\1y uaed iD ....... prayen, and cunea;

.. ~ltl~ .... 9orI(Jdou ....,.all)Iaw~_

I J] '" .,. ..... -1.. ... or·... :.

.t ~ :.: &,,:_. L- 1-..1 :"~.l :. r_~ .

' .. ~ .. -....,.-_., .. ~~..,I" A

,.,...1 i;M ~...,., .. GWIitI ..... (a ~

in t Arah .... )!*'IW., --.1

.. ~ of • ...,... in •• ., nifit_ .. 1

wiIlI, ...,. W on Ilia j" &c. ........ Matlaia

":L.......A_ .. ., , .. .,f . .t _, .

--_ .. ..-: ,; ~ ~~ '"7 ~.,.. .... ..,tNi

~ .. ., .. ,.. _I;j,l ~.tj., ~"'(Ii. _,..,_

. . . . . " . '

., """l..,.' ef .... ,.... ,:,. .' ~

........... · . . , "I' .• to the B

.... , .• .,..'... ~ Ia' the

f __ y_~~it; ~:'!!' i-,t ;" ($ -:-14 ~1

V'_ ..,' .. ,11 ..... (Jil ... - tV' IicaIIIr.Ja). !IIIIJ'III ... N

........... ' .' , ..

~. 4tter the ..... ,of Goa. .. ~ pe JW, .-;~

JW;' J.;.;~, ~;. J,;.. .,. .. ' lib, DOt optative but

~ve or aaaeriory; .. ~w; .iJj\;i at Ji God (_ .. 0 ,._" ad ~ ..,. 4ll) W\ .«Wl-. [Oom,. Vol. i. I DO, rem. .. ]

.....;~ is o~~~y'" ~.i.i (Vol L. t .. ,.~~.iathe _. j£the~has~~.~ __ •

~ .ll~t~d, ~.wi •• '&w the. in.l1yfinial1ld ud~J. at thelllOJlltQ'of~;,. 1. 00IIi ...... ...,

~ (.liD • .....,.. ofaild01a~~ji. ill. ~

.... .,. II' t.o uacenainij';. or(6)iD illl • ., taken ... D

in ....... t or~ODt . With what ,.,.... i,·iII accor4Moe

or n_..accordaDoe 'With what na, or might be, .~ or j-. .. &

little before the time of .peakiog. Pot example ~~!i, U;'" ,jj

~ .. iJj., ~ ';"jj; /~~~ ~ .&;; ~ # .. ""' fIlrial, ..,....0/ 1M ~ qf ,_ gra-V'" /I.4lM'ilna lkwfIIa

ita 1M ... o/II-Jl4flfir, .." ., tI1ill "". IJIItI! 0/ '*' ~ 0/ '*' ,.", (in thit example the juat completed act ia contftated with tire

[S8

A i,t ~n _ ... , ., . .. .. "' ... a

fu_ one); •. .. ~ .tP • (a- 0/) ~ ;, eoIIIi ~, "1

JJ\,; .a _~ ;" .... ,..." ... Mtl, or ,. ••. ..,.. ;,

jwII Mtl;;':'~ ~ ~ h ~iii.rt!1 til ,..,.,. •• ",.,0/ gowrrtrII'. JtJpptJi" 141 .. ~ tV • .,., (! 1. d); .:,.;;; ~ JU

.. H '1r "."" ~, 'A.'l ... ... . -.

..,.~.~,., tP~u...- . .e4" ..., .• P- 4..,,,.. .. MU, aM

III. """:1<.,., .. """" .•. '" ....,1"""..{IJItl.

lQIt..+'iIIl~.~t ... ~~ ..... mtbe .• bov~

" ~~fromitooly~~oMIlot ~v ....

~ ; ;:'r+t;.-1i "'.(1tNJ.~."""~.WIll;i~ . ..:s

• . i· ... .... ..... .... ..... .-

fIt'""~~ "ijfo,l~ ,_...,.,.. ~."A&~.

B......ilia.u.a by the ..... .n •• ~J".;. .,.. ~qf~~ g .. .w Wbe • ...,..;.,;~,.,in4~ ,...ftc'.,.iWr.- ~ .. ~~tZtr~.#Co"~ lAc pall. ,.. "'- ~

B

o a.. The pz.,r11tJl ia~:-

(a) .• Brthe';"~"".f_,blrt1ative aad conjllDclive clanses-, tb.t ~",,~~ •• hicJl thev"_in ~e.~ i.M

• ~·~ .. ;;t.fJ~i.~"'.~.6tf".·" .••. __ •. "Jla'''' W ~;:"1~~";*.",,, ",,",j;,~W"; ~" JP.~J1;;erJ'J ••. .:u.·'" """. till .. ,.. .. MtI.09JU to •. ,.",.,..,.., .. ~ itt ~; .~ J:f .JJ '-'j_;;r, "'ft-l

_'" - - " '_, ',-,', ,'_-: ',- .", -,',,' " " , -,,"

D tf/t«' :i".~ W - .iClW.

[lt1l.1l. ...• ~. tht ... ..,.ib tb4we clauea baa tbe meaoing of the pI~ _pat in every .,.e c.- be _ided by the OC)ntut, or by the na .... of...... It mAl.indiea\e .. time WeDti ... with, pd. 8\"8D poelerior to, .. ~ by the pe~ in the cl&U88

•• By ~ or ooqjuc\ive cia ... we. meP· a .... tbat is

joined to ~ ., I.), meaoa of a Nlative prollOP or .. COD-

~~

58]

- 5

.pOD wbioh it;..... ..,. ~1 ~ ; .. ~ ~.";;'j~ ~A

,J! ~ ~. ~i;;;. ~~. J:J .. ~ J1. ~ ...., /.&

.frtJtA Bht'. fIIiI/a eM Bmt'I '11W#fl Ie eM ~, '- ,.., J,...

-Htl ~.4it ""'*'" .~ .. ~ ...... "..",.; J.;Jr \!;

~~~ .. ~.;,t ;,lClj;r.~;~;:'!;; __

...,.,.,ncl,i. 119 • .." -.:]

.(.l.~tlia~.t'''''''!tlI tM~~ •. ~1'.r; or without . l',.~~<tIJ~~ii~I8 ... (dI~.~~i ....... iD the B ~; ... i~Jfj._..~r~ii~!'·~.~ • ..,-W

~·~;~~<,,~.,~.if··~~·Ao ........

~ "..".""tofl.~ ~ .. ~.· .. .., · ,."._

·~ ·IAI,.ltI;·41· ... ~<tlt· .. t ... ~~ ··W ......

,.. ). ~ .1rith JI ..;,;. are.· 0 ~ a

... oroilrlditioa(~).

(e)Bl tJ$ ver1t ~.toHJ""edto the ~ ... ~ c

~.;J.~ •• ~~S;~ ~~~~~;-~ ;.>"

'ar-1ltJIfcJtlitrl (lJ .,.,. ~ '" w-.- 0JIl <lit .. "..,,, w ., "111) tw ..... ,., .... ..,.· 'ihll4Aih ...• ~ .~ . ...., .....

t:he .. (Jt.;Jf).

(tl)By .~ the ptW/ftfI. with" •• ~ .. JJ .• bderpoeed ;

aa . .jli1tJl';$J!f;t ,;!~~~.J..ij';;4b. J W~

._ .lIlfltlllWl CI ~ ... ; .1''''' "._ .... *' II-FtIIl. D 8ometi.. die particle J,Jia ~ before .' IIot.h •. Yer1Ie, iD8teId of ..... them; as .:J; ~) Usw JU...,:s.. Jli~" ~ f .. '"

.. .. . . .. "'-T")~. ~JJ14

#fI' ... "' ....•• ~, •• !!,.,..!,.,.", .,11

t" ~l ~ ~ ...,. ~ '" ..;,~ -:.J\6t ,.,., ;, « ~

'!" ,_ A"_" 0.1 God (God Hw .- Btl ,,_, •• II'fI" /) 1tJicI,. 'A'Us (God ...... M6t't:1- Iur I) •. .,.. .. MIl __ (lit. - .. __" W fJOtJMl) 10 ,., ftw ..., ,...,.. qf • t:liItlna A' J"" ~ . ~,

--~-~----------------------------------------------------------------------------

6

,

! '

A Bu. .. W'Ja. ..... WOOl' ... p1 $O

the .. ill poiU of 6iae, " •. i __ tecI bJ of the putic1e

.a the .... haTing __ , ~; .. "., ~ ;.~i ..:,..;

~ .1i t.16 ~ ~, ,!:rn .;H .. ~ ~ ,,",;.L Jl ~ :Mt.,;:. ~ ,.; S~ij iad..ti il4j ''''_lWftI dNd ., f1i-. ~ M w .. -/fir ....... ,. .-.MIN' 'ih II-1.JiJ.. .... W,.."",. (a _Iiit ".. W ...." ""'1iI), tIfIil .., 01'", ~

fI1IItI .... ,.,.,. 11"'.'. qf or.L

B [Ba 6, ....... " .. aad ,...._ a COI\iuno~ve clause

.. , .. ~ .. ~;. ~;;t. ~i:i.,; e;.'lj ~

.;."fJ __ ,. ~rM1i"o .... ,. ...., w ....w ~ a.u.., M W •••• """ .. a.....]

.. C.) It _."""iw .... follow the bypothetiea1 particIes .;J v.:J ,;;v.,,~, It;Jlarad;;;; "_(VoL i .• § aS'l, 0)*, the ~. ill hoth ..... haft ~,the aipiAc&tioa· of euf plupe..tect 8tlbjUBOt.i.,. OJ' poteuUl, thOqp oceasiOWly too of OUJ' impeifect

o IUbj_cUTe or poteBtiaL POf inataDcle: 4tJr 41 .qi Y ~ ,;l u;"if v.,., 1M".". .. ,AM (beaven and earth) !JfIII.be8H1u God,

'- '_,; fII. ~ ., ~. : '-=.~'1 ' A.o -., ,."" .

.,...""._., ... fIIIM 10 ,.,.;~,l.el """"" ~ .aI.o 1\:,>"

if,. Lord W~, H, tDDUId """ Aaw matl8 (all) rnaHliml one

,.,i ~ ~ ...... ~":I,li ~ ,,.;3' ~;r til ;~

': -_ -':--' .', _-,_,'" " '-"',,-,,'.',':-_.';.;>'\',,>.~'-''',:.''-''';, ., >- ~- - .: .,- ~', ":', ," - :#

ad ", .. ". (6ocI), _, v.,~ Wt16 (or WEe If) ltaw)

WW ,_ ... .,.,.,. tf!OfiId ...... I.,.. 1M' t/Jem (or tlJt)llld be

, '~~i~' .-#~ -.*,,~'- 6-''_~''''' ' .. a' ......

~ ~ 01& tMir ....,h...,..._.'·.J·.· ,,at_, I,:..' W-' JAt vi"",

~~ .r.;."r. ~ ~ "'"' iliA, ~ of t_. tOWN8 !tad ,..". -lfIIftJtl (U,). w, tI1OUI4 Mw .rel, butowed upon t!ten,

",_.", /rwa .... ad ""'j ~j ~;,; ~~ ~ ~ ;t

• The protMia of a ~~ when introduoed by i;t, although it .. , .. _ •• a verb actaU, expl'8lllleCl, yet inclndes & verbal idea,

via. tlaatof the yt,:b ~.

I

II

8

A IOIIltt8Det ~... is tepeUed Wore the perfeIst in the apodGIia. If tbia lie the..., the ~ of tile .... ia both elaues is &1"11

aDd ......., that oUIle pluperfect; .. .Q ~ ..:~; ..: :. ;S

if I W .... diI. I tfJtIfIltI '-' ,_,. ,.: " t.t .. ~ ;S ~.: .'S :._; .. .,:,; tjl'" u ,. W ... it, ~ .."W .." ~ ."...., .. IAnI tI/ ""i~<-) If "" .. ~' of ....... be an

~ _ tW of t1ae perfect. both·· .. - .. _ .. lated

B "' .. """""" ~ , ,,1.411 .. ~ •• il

if w ",_." •. ",. _t. .for ,.,; .·",:~.iUS ji

°il_""' ... MiIti .. if" [If the.,erh oftlut protaaia

be an impQrIeut; ,.... by ~. &lid that _the ~ a perfect, both -1 be react.d by the phlperrect nld"-- or by the

iIIlperfect 1Rlli~" ~ ~" ~ .,;; ;,tii·~ ~;;, .,w. ;S

I.j' ~ r if'_' W ~ ia (JQJ aM Ny".".. - in __ .. ,_,. ,.,..W ,. Ai., ,,,,, 1DOald .." -- ,,.. ,_ lor

o I ; ~ .Ja;~ ~ ~ ;,1;' ~r ~ ~;.; ~ ;i

u .w ..., .froa .... ,.,w, .. --- (9/ tA, ./riftuh)

tDOfIIIl · ',.,,1 .. .tr- .., ... Wflh' tJ. (;;.;, in rhyme

for jJ.;.).]

, . ', - " '. , ~' " :,~ I, _, "

........ The", U& i (it ..,...,.. ,.., ........ ~

ot ........ tI/ .) • ' ......... , -itte4 "ben the OOIltext

. ._ "ft"" to- ~. ..#. # .r, a' ......

,...,. ..... it; .. AI ~,' ..,......" AI ~ • ~ ~,

, ": --: ' " 'III" - - ,- , til;' -, - - ,

p ~ ~ ;t .;:;.;r .. V"" ...,.,.. .. could N ..... 10

D __ If • ,.".,., or '" dIIrlA .. o¥ '" piMM Iv II, or 1M diad ~

. '. - - . - _- - '. " .'

....... '" ., ." • • • • (1Oil " tIIfIUW N ", IAN .f ....... ); -:,,1 ,J

~ ~; J1 ~i j\ I;t ~ ~ V 1 an; • ....ccA for fot5 in

... .,.... .,. ",.", .. ,.....,... 10 .. ~ .. or '_"'t or 10 •

. a, • ,~:', "a

...,.., ..,.. ( 1...,......,,..); .,;.-~,. \4Jl

M; ~ IfI. jli~;_ ~ ;Wt ~~l _tift 4~ ~

....u ........... ....,"ow~_o/ow~;

15} TAl Vn.-I. 211.". or .... •

.." V 1M ... __ ... ..;4 ....... ('-' •• """>. •••• A

(tOiL .-..u -- ~,. ,.,.,' .); ~. Q JA" 1;

_ •.. ~~.r . .I;.JJr Q; r ... Ift .... .... ~tat s: ....... 0 .&~t' 'tPV"" " ~ '" toh ~ ~ 71 _'-'

b" ~ b" ·~f:~ AI- if., .(8MiIk) "' •• ' ,.11 ...

,.,., hi ""!"-'t ffIIlW ......... ." .. ~ :.- iI,

~ Jor, .. ......, .. ,,_ .'--",..,1 .. 1 I_ 1...

. .. ~I .. ,T ......... - ."

.,.., • • • • (1OiL ""..."" k " '\ . < .. JIi C!r ~tiif).

[ .... ~.·.YIPb lld.~ ''' ...... pre-

... bf ~~ ... if. .~ '_;"fll '. .'

. n. ......"........ . ..." \PM 451' - .... of B

.. _to_ _., ".J'3i.li; .p~1

,..,. " ........ -~" .. ~ ... ;.~ hiPr oj

.~ ~Jd;';& ~ I.·J!MI'·....,., ". ... 91",.

........... V .,. __ . .., -; .~J! .Ii t,U.;.;

r': ,.. " It _., 1tMtf;. ~~ ~!

~ "",,, '-' 10 V"'''''h) ...

(I ... ' .1: .... • ~# U..., it. "'" -~j.:.. ~

' .• ram •• ); !-!', ~ ,., A,I!t# ~.~ ,.. 0

'" ... .,..,. •. qf .• ~ ... ......,., _, ..

..... ulllji. ... fir Ji'oIA- ;6;;.: ~ ~

.~ "'~..IJ;r; " ....., ... 10 .....

.............. 1

•. After" III .,. J". (VOl. i.. I MT. 6), the ,.,_ iI

anaJly eaid to tIJae .. _i.,.. of ~ ..........

... .. ht.YiDg , pIaee j .,;;:. " .if.,.' D

;::Ji.l will ,. .,. __ rffI; .,:., ,~ •

~ ~~i '& ~; ~ r,.,,"'" QtI4 ..." .. 1M A';"':' ... " ",. ,.. 10 ., wiW CIa ". ,.. 1tt.--OIaIIequ.tIy, if

the " or' tis be lollowe4 ." two CIGIIWatiTe the ...

~ ita ooaYellife to the of the .....

tIIe~,... iaJi ,...u or .....

~~ t

10 PA. TBaD.~_ lS 6

A tiOll. Por .... :·tW/ ~ ~.~., . .a;; .r; tit} -- 1M"",.. ,... V 1M /ttItIN lift. __ (or ;, ..... , or fW. --

-...). w tfIiII""" tJIl ""'(*' jtMl,._,) j. e; .,;.tij....:A 1.# .;i4' ...... (thepvQblP8ll~./4III. (.JIOIt ,..), .. ,. ~ •. iI

;"/~~"" ';;'~~'iI'" f .. ,."..,. ...... ill _' • .,; .1Ii .. ~.~·.0M'~. I. i\lCh ~.~ ...

~··"fa""~ia"""''''''- ~e.~ ... i,·~ ....... ..... lICJt.ii ..... 11 ~.·.~of.~~'!"tlae

B'~ or~;11 '~'tJl a.iJ\D"~.~~-

"""" .......... f'rf!IItllo"'. '. -_. W4_ ..".,,; 'r';6'

~ ~'f4~J..!::t *~~ ~;; ---, ~ 1M

.., 0./ • .A/iriI.for IlIfr.,· iI NIMI.·,.. '", '* ~ (~ ..

l1li) .. if(,. .... )nll.,(..:~ in tJt)'DMfot ":.;);~W';

.:,;." ~, .-~ • ., .. __ tAmt '." ....... ~ .. 1M

".,.." ~ .. too theiDiperCeot ocours in both ,clause, jaB

O· ,~! ~ .tA~.'&A."'. ~.. .. .. ;. -' ......•. 1.!; ~~ .. ~~.~ ... ~ ·tit;

~- ~ ,,, u: ..".." _ .- ,# _ '

- .ow __ ... ,.., 10, "tJfI"'IWli9("" cIUt:maut ~ ........ ./tMNllo./ .. w.~ .. ~ J~J.sPi~

,,'" .;..;~ .. u ''; $ .. ;-' :; -- -- ,'{iII f~)""'_""

*' .: ,- ,- . .,. " ',' - '_" '- ' ,- ,-' ,,'; ":.-'

il·"'_'~. ~ ~·_.·toW""',RII 0/,..... . .,. tM"diltl

hi - n./I iiili'~ Jl tJ .t)Jj [';::Z;'if~'~/(a(;~ lOftlil 4MrittI~if,,*giww toAtJI ...... l- .... ;,~.

I) or,..,. ..... 10. _.-" COJIIftI·-If a cla1Jee~ODtll is .. ~ h)' .. cha~ .. ~'" or J~' .~ verbgovereecl iD the ~. by IlJ· is likewiae a hiatorical. pijt'ec:t; e.g. i'f_ja .')J JJJ.

__ M 1pOirf, - .. ~"j rJ,:,;J,fN ~r .... =;;:,i,

~ y~ Jl~. ~ ~ .il ~ .. ~r 1OfIItIl«ml«l._" ..,,.. A,.,. qf ~ ..... ,,...,_ o.l,...,..~~,.~,.,Io~.

- "~.qf_~un~."~~ectil ~

II)

11

.... iD .. ,... or apodoeiI. II ~ oj iJi. ..:.:t it J..iIj. .. ~ uiJ uo:t ..... I..,. ... ., MtItliM.., .... " ..

-. .-i·,'" ".~f ~lt'" .. "" ...d_ I._I. ~. 1._

--; ..... " ~ ,_., &l " .. " - ..... - ---- nII"."_

tii II .; .. ...,fIIffiI ~ .....".i ..-.r.;;,; tlJ e,U ~.i

~ ~.~ ~ ut ~..,~ ~~~;.,; .. 1M ......, .... "W ...... " '-~,,_..,tIfI!,,". ...... ,_.for ,. . .,..,., tI' If ....... W10cliHed by

"'--'if .Q.~ola .anati¥t! ot,.~. ',. ~,~ B ., __ or ... -1lWorioal. ~ ru"..,.".. .. ~ ... Ji.t..i

..lO,lii..;w.<.; .~~~ Ni";;l!, .. m _ ....... q/IM ••• "",....' __ ... ".,.. of'_ '" '" ..,.. qf MI __ ,_' -... I40W ellIi11ill.fMa •.. ,~ ... ; ~i ,,,, '··.1U : ... .L! ... ~ tit ~W Jil..;;s...; .::,JI ....

JIll...., .,,_ g.e~ .. ~, " ., " ..

.••• ,.. .. ,., ,_pwtcI • ., " .. ..,. " etJnIIl "'"

.. " iilItJd, .... .., • tlid; J3M .1.;. III ~ ~ ~; ~;1 0

~!V .' . J;. !l~ .:; 6 ~ .. -'w ~' . A G ~.. , ~

w;.", ,...J wr- .. .,.,;J.J '1--'''''' " }J"" w~

G I __ fir _,.._ ..",,_ .1: __ , ... .."., ..... w

~ fill .",. .... "- ...... qf .",. 4li ., ,..,.

,. ... ., ... ~.J

...... Ttte .. or tlj .. a ~ ..,.. iQ ... ~ out of iii ~ fI!8I"IiDc .. .. telDporal deatoDItrative (lie Vol L,

A 361, '6). Like ~. -:J.;.;;;, eto. (1188 § 18), til ia ... accaaative D ill the ....... state, aad 80'." afollowiDg verbal cla1I1I8 'fi .... tuaUy iD the ~.. Under theee oUeamltaaoee, the acti0D8

both of the de8DiDg cIaue, iDtrodueed by Il. aad of the clause dehed by it, are ncb .. woalcJ be appropriately expr..d by the imperfect ~ TheIe two .... being in COl'1"eIation, and that which is JosicaU1 primary (the defined cla1l88) becoming Byntac~callyll8ClOllClary (the apodoeia), either action may-without;

.. [Comp. howeverJ'leilaher, Xl. &/w. L 113, note 1.]

--~----~--.~~-------------:--------:--____,-----------------

o

refer ... to .... teMpOral relr.tioD iio one ~ or to . __ aclioaIbe nprded .... (.) .. besi .. am, or ill ......." or (Jl) .. ~ ud.... Ia the one .. t1ae UopeIWwiU be

UIIIId, ia other the·,..... A •• nJe,bo~'he ........

_ _ too t1teaotioa of .....

(Or".,...) .., the j or .., " ia IIMftl ooa18Oll,

......... Gf tba oorrtWift....· ..... ~ of

.. ........,_._ t..:~' jl" ooacIiti.... Wid '- ~

.............-. -... .. ,...., '" 'V .

Gf "" po,,,. ILl to ...... ,...w f4 time ~.WeIt_ ...

~ ....... Wher .. ,... .. to be bJ" put.

~orfIMn,.....d •• """"", .. ~tWed

Sa VoL L, 177, _. .. .

Ball. 6. 1'M....,... ... iaWoctoeed bJ tiJ ia ........

. .

idea~ in ... Di.., with • ~ ... ~bJ ~

(-16)* j bat il ia vet1 rve riD P*l}.. to W " ... _ wi. the joMi ... .)a (81' aad UfO)," ... :,;. ~i1:~ 6Jj .... ,_."....", .., -.. .. ".,_", E.J~; ; ill'.,.. for·

J:,..i); [ ... d ~ ~ "1--,... ........... .." Ionoew .. ].

..... .. It .... ._ aaicI t.t.M"beD " QI' ~. iI· ja bUta ... ..,

........ bJ .;;. ...,." foIIewe4 bJ·- .. ,.1Mbe ......

....... 01 wWoIa .. ia ,... tile ....

of .'l;LW __ .lIlt "'1rtaiob.'" ....

of '1'WI· _to .. ~ooa "

, : .. ,-': ,tt, - i# <Ii_ _" ' __ ', " ', - " " '_''_

id .... of 'I 01' '" 'I'" Dot. how , ~.... ..;- ia

OQllJi;lnecI witJa .. ....,.. to _ple~ limi\ or

..... 01' Of 01' ~ of .. ; wlt.h .... .....,_

Wl.-.tve, 01' ... ia .......... _ .i~.""

...,,... bat .. ,... ill prop., _ • ~ ,..._t (_

Ila,., /II. Thia il ....... the AaIIio laM ...

to ..... ia the Of ttro oorteIati intnJctaoed bJ 61.

• (The --- ia ... .:.s cleaotee "w ia poeaible, tit wW ia

~ ... 10'" GlUt .. .;c; J,f. ~ V 1MtI.-., bat, ~ it;. tit .;,u--- •..... m,"· ...... ." ...... 1

A

B

D

I

~ ~~~Je':; .howa ..... '. ina._. of theprececting verb on the .... "011 of ... ~ in· the aubordiaate ola1lleLJ'.,..· in the latter 'n ..• '.t.o ~.~. ~ "W ~ at t.V. '. qf

A,., .. _lIfIitLlJ. Q.) .. .

, , I •. !

11

I,

16 PAD TStm--Splu. (16

A ..... '. *""i t,d.;J ~ ~ ..:;r:r ;ru. b, if " .. .... i .. fiftI, ,,_, ,,_. ".., .... ; 4 ~u jf;Jar ~;;i

J,;'""; j1 ,=,;;S Jw.: .... ., .,. ".." or (til ,.,,) 6. w.".,.·U! .. co"""". ~ fir • .fi,qJ,U.-:-(d) ~t it the

,..,... ....... woNa it to .... tIM hWOIioal (JInsJiM put

~ .. J 1, ~","'~t er _,of ita '. __ , lie ,.....

.......... __ ;e.g. .~. t~ ~lct.Jti.V.,.",.,.,

B··....,.. "'_ ..... ,. .. D#Jja,."" .....",., (" ~4\ t;¥~.i ;:;jIrt .'. ' '~ .., ....... filii . .,. tfiltI.""'"

fII_'''~'''' i# 4"".; 4;1 Ji.i ~"'il .,j:iJI.; __ •• M"""t"'_''''''~, II. __ • ...,);

tJaoaP ii it ~. tMt \U~.. .·be

depeatitat .., , .... ~;' .. ~~:.. ~

~ ~~;r JJi ~-:,; .;tIS. :]:':1lj 1.,,.i.J ."W".;".,

c "..., ((W). ffr ..... , .. I (., • ...,), t"'.pfW,

,.,.,. to QH. [(.) If. howeYer vetil .~, OJ' ODe of itS aittera •

....... wonIt;iI foIknred by all .. ,.... •• ~ we J808t

..... " .. $ht,',~,'.- (llal)~ ~. ~.ar_:,: f;'_;!., .:. V __ a.l •...... *; ;Jf JJi '~,~;.!J ~ ~ tJ;

~ .. ~ .. ~.~~~,..t ,.".,fiw'" ,.....,

... *", • ...,.,' V .. ".,., .. liM; ~

;,. ,;.:' """ ',' .'", ..' , <t .• ' ,.'

D .. _ i!i,lI .. ~~~JI~~U .... .,

:~ ..... ,..,.,; ,i ....... I.II~..,.l

..... WW laM heea IIlcI of ~ ~ral til ill I &5, rem. a, ia,_ ........ to ........ gl,. for "1 is .. oripall1 a d~~ •• (..,.... )tit ~l)·fa tWa cue. bowever. the

. .. .• 'fl.,. .... ~ BeYer the . ....,_ in-

.' .~ .. ,,,,,,,,, woNj .... is to., ... eoD4li_ . iI~ la~.~_~~~ ia t~Itioe_~ the G~ U a

S1]

11

,. After .alt~ ~,.'_'g (4I.IIlII/tt. ,.. ,(,,",,(II (Vol i .• 5861. p), the .. ~ "'kess tlt~. tUeMiug Qt ..... i,,""t· (p ..... t or

_ _ '.-4--', .. ·, ",_. ~ --... , ",.

"'~) ; .. ~~ .. ~t L.. ~.., ... ,_ ..... ....,fllid __

(J 1./). ,.,1ciij.!JlH' liw! ~. ~~!M .~.~ .,;..; ~~. D

_II MfI ctI""'_;,.. 10,., a, Ilk/lin! ;a I'_· WJrH"ItI(lit. ..,..;. i. I-

, • # _;,., ,.. "" - "

lifo tV W. fIJOrId); ..y~ ~ L.. -!'WI "J I .,;u ., ./tNPI*'. tIIltntg .

1# ",.. 6"'." , ~1:

III fJ ,.. riM; ........... ' .:;,.~ W At"Cflr. tUn."..,. .. . .".,_ '" (er

.,~) !JON caU iI. If this illlperfect is to be .hiBtoriGaI, .... nile I&icl down in ••• d. must be observed. '"", neptiYe III IoRg (II -

, ... ,

is always expre888d by JJ L.. with .ale j .. ive <_Ill).

a.... The Arab grammariana reprd thiaJ t,; IW s:.;» ~;;.,;

W. II.

3

i'

I I

A or ~. i.e., &Il fllJ'Iivalent to a v ..... MQII or inftni\ive in the

, ,4/1:'-_

. - __ - - 'I', ,',.. ~

8CC1IIIMive of ~ . 'l'IIeJ 1A1 .... ~ ~ ...... Iortg .. lioN

. " -, , .,ioiII>',,, ~, I., 1# ""., ...

,.,...._ cal""" ill· -.uivalento to .a.t" Ctl' ~ ~" ..,...

TIdI .. not, howe ... , be t.he cue, whenee .. ' .... come tim

._.ve foree of thia~' Itil ill fact -1 .~,. in its ~ .. _ to timet, of Ute'~ t.; or ~ .. (16,.),

,.B ' ... TJ./,._,./_ IlHli~ (i ... ::r It'' ~.fi) '~aot in j~Il"'" .,- of time; it l....ti iMi-.. a '-tiltH. i,..",pkk. I'M."i", . existenee. eitlter ,itt """.'. "..,. or 1",,,,,, II.,,;, ~ it

sigpi6aJ:~ , " .

('f) An act .bitlt .. ~ tako I-at au,. OlIO laart.~ time. to tllO ~cluHi.!l1 ttl .. ta, .,tlltW ti_~ lmt \\·It«:h WcCII ~ at. an .. ~. or rattler; in tcl'Cftkillg .,f w',ic.m' lid :",~K."tl i.e t •• of ti_.l,.J.fM'" or

:- _ '_'_ .. "','" *',' .",:" ...... '"

duration (tlte ilHlr:/liti'r., prrwRt); ~ ~ ~ J'fII!I \.JW?,' ""."

C filrJIfB pItJHs ,,,,,I (h. ,'it-eds tArIll (IIltfH PIWfIfllJt'8, 119tl tliIIpM'$) i ;.:..;r .. ;~: • ~';Jr, tluJ' fl- 1M" i. elf8lc,fJI'f' I~, w,ft'fit$ (cultfCJ'l't'tl,

, ' .. , ..

"1"'" ItttH).

- {b) ,All Ret 'W1,kT" Utollgll c.,m',oouCCtl at' tJm tfllle or spc.oaklitg, ill Rot l&tOOlllplctotl,-wltiuh ecn.mallC11 .... ring tlte preseut til1lO'(tItc

tie",. ~) j ftIJ';"i~ ,.~ ~i:'; ;in (/,)J l."... tt'Mt1 !Jet are tM1I(f. Henee itA UIiO 8IJ alllKtOfieal present in lively <lescriptiotll$ of

., 0\ ~..... '., ~~ff,: I.'; .• f~ l,' ", ",

D 1l8llt even"; o.g. ~ .... ', "~",,",,V ,...., tJ"" ...,. JU

~ .~ .;!; 2;Lt, _,HI TftIk &, ,Ilfl I ,."Ii" ~ pili 011 "'1 cutrt qf fll4i1, ,.ltd ilsi~ 1Il,,1lfWtl. «JltlCtI:ft 1116 Mield 0. 1111 bl'«I-'. (c) An act whidt is to tMc IdM"O I,crcaftcr (the Mill",,! I"'are) ;

,.,. '.,. - -..... - " • ., , ,e" I:;"'.,

:\IJ ~ ..,...Ai ~ ~ ~ -j .... ,Ji 'p, "ud It!Or ,e. day (in

• -' ,I -.

,dir.It) t. IItllll Ji"'l lu4 IIl/U·t! lftl,il1ficetim. fiJI" a 110,,1 "t ,ell. or

Mall ~ giRl "",,4iHfj tU " lIdti_larl;m. lor (f Ifml; A~ ~

"'! ... "-~ '-~""-' , .' _". -, " '_'

-..»'~" ....;..., btt', 0_ IlJiIl JttJge bttlM!II tlwlll 'III ,Iw df'lI " tlte

;~"'f!diYM."":'To. rCudur. t.he flitttrity cI ~aO act atilllltufC 'm.uuet,

18]

18

,. , '.' • - - - • < ,"'0 • , :~_-" •

the ...... ..".. (Vol. I. J"' .• ). or .ta ..... '1 ..... "" (Vol. Ll A

.Ml, 6), itt 1M _. it ..... to the wrb j U 4t_;;.: ij J;Ii .;,.;;

!P ~.~ :'i.J;:J ..:u; .. tala IMf ...... _.....,.

/alii, ......... toiJj ~; !~~ '..t :;f"~ .. will

.... II .. ." ( ) .,'_' ,.~' ..u. .... ", '" ~: .JS:, ..

.' . ",.... . ' "'If" " , , "", "

.", 1M ~ (,..,..,. W.:",_,".-r .... 'f.''' • ., __

....,: ' , .

o

..... ia ol ....

'NueIt ..... "t )1 "_ Ofllil • .,: ~

... ....,. II _ . .,. ~1 ,... 01' b7. or ..........

.......... '"

! .

I

! I I;

I I

l l

, '

11

.: ' -. <>.",:::. :}

.~!oe~ thei~ et .• G.ek' aml~~.

~,~,~·~·.·tO the im~;";.1"~~;·~ .r;.tij~-.f- q/'ptJ6If1.Mtl,.,.·.·.;t:-....;;J4 -J. .~.'e;; ,,\i-

, .. ' , ;""'"

.J~lllJ,,!!,,-ID"* - ~ #r ..".,t;w,; .:f\i~ ';,li ~ .. ; 0

~ .. ~ ~. Ad ,.,. .. ID I»( .... ~M) ita it (the cit,)

G~ a..._~; 4P~b,).Ji ,. .. ""~

-."",. ..." to liw ,.. ·~·lf $his ~ is to

be· i ca,ifiii to JM.

to ~".~ ~If .. ~;trlOl'e pr8ce4e ,ulect.

or ·if . the· eoa,. deadJ .. ~. tht Verb ill ., ·...,ect

baa the8e11118 of. lite LMi~. ~. JJI.. need DOt hi pm6ud to it; D It .~ .~." ~g.,r,G-'; ~ .. "~flJMt MI_'''''' ~ '(or rwiMl, or I~" • ,.,. ttl ~;

J:.i. ~ # ~ ~,a; JJ! Jj &y, Wly" did Y' all • ~qf (W ,..",." Here ~ aad ~ stand for P ~

-: tu« A· .. •. ·.1.6 •

and ~ - [So in poeky after ;i~ see Vol. i. § 868, 1',

footaote, B.s.] .

H PA. TJuBD.-""'" lS 10

A 10. To ...... the ,. .... perfeet. the i.~t of ~ ~)

is hq __ , pnlbed to tile p .. feet. the ~ :.J .,., _..;iaterpaeed. ,or .... pIe, ~~.';;:' Jl Z,t~; l \!t;Jf ;,.fi.,1.;j

~ . .£_" ~"~ ~ ~ Vi . _u-~ ~ ~ it;~,..i ut

~., .,#-:_~: '" ~ ,#'1 , . - '_"'!I '_'," -, " -'. '

;.; .;~.~ ~.~;! ~ .:;.. ~ ~'1 ..(. u }~! ~;r.i1 ~

_ I." Mre ... 1'!I'fIII tollliWr if,. _1.,,. 1M

"'" ",.... (to ~. tIN ,.., .. - -- TttIt (*,II fUJI

B I¥ lt4) WW .. .,1;IIag to •• ..., ., ."w W;!ti .~, ..

,-lit; qf lI • ..,,,, • .,." ,. 1,,,.. ,... 1./_

pM7'1III ... ". .",v( • .,r- ........... ,.., 411 1M ,.,... .

." :

[B ... In ............. iD ........ bJ~~~.~~~

..... $be ~ of the -'iaactiw., .. , ....... ) ~ 01 ~

tI ....., hi ht '.,. if _ ,.,.. (abierit); u! ':';~i ...AI::;!

~; <* _;,,ii j=) 1t1 ~ lAc ..,. .. ,..."......,

o Still • .., .".,.. 0 .... ).]

i II

I,

, I

I:

I I· Ii

I I

, . . , . ,

S 13]

la·A.fter4_the various· worda· that .... the __ of

~1 tbe jU88iY8 baa the aame....nllg AI the ~ (I G); as

#.~. r ! .. ~ .•. V .. ·~.;i .. " . ·it u '''. I......

." .. ' ..... "JI1I1I'/"""u!"'* 1.Ml'~.""""'" ,*.,.,

;. ill IfJ#I' ~tW'tIi"'iI.IhtJ}_' II; ...;;.. .. t,JiJ:i t,;

4li ~ ....... ".,. !Io,G«l ~ II r ..t;~ u!'~. ~1

;t.~i .. ~...;.~ (1; --., IM'_'''__ •........

,." II ,_, .... ,.,. trill lie .,...,.,.,. for II i Ji'\i t~ ,!I'll bs D

~ ';'.fJi ';;';;;i/,.. do .. JuI~O.l.a,qf ....... _ ..

~_ I .,,- \Ij~ h ~"'~ ...... .

_fD rl«I#' 10 ,_; ~,..,t ....... .pc t,;,_ t...:i. _,.,.,.,..,.., MId

ttliU ~ 1f'''; u~;; '~~1 ~ ... I ltIJ __ ,.,

..

,~..J.._ . '. .:i. .... It,'. 11 • .;,." ..... \ ~.. .t ... ..... !' .. f

""_". ,. ~ez. ... ; 3 ~'" ....,_. .., ~ '7 O..,..:....e .;.,..

, It" • ~ ... '" ~ _ _" - II'

~\,; ~ ~ ~. - _ .. ..,. proleditnt_ rwdifI(Jlof-r

... tHW ~; 1HlI· _ .. 40 IltitkI HfII 00 .. 10 ,_.." .ili •• ptIIiI

A Ai, lIig/tl. ",iUHI.,. See. 11. c.- Wlaen the &nt of two eoft!lative clau,. eontUna a v_" ia the i.~YO, ancl the 8!IOODd ia the jnMYO, tlltl, tilt jnaive has the eame .... i. &8 1ft'" 'rat

" .

e __ had contained a verb ia the jnasiv. preceded bJ ur; 6.g.

I,;;;. t.$;~ .i'" b_" t,s,. ,,su 1M, _ • .,_ J.,or Clri ... '-' ( •• 41) " ";11 hfJ gtlitkd ",,;gil. Here ,~ ill equivalent to " l,s,t; bl. q'18 -- JeW or OAriIIitJIu. 1JtI .ill W !I"i4ed arigAi.

Bee 117,'. "

......... - -'

B (Ru. a. ~ anct. ~.to tho KChotd of JlaI}I'Bt, ...,

t ;i:. fonn ~ cx~ to the .. .,.., t.IIM the j_iq ..." btt eu.ployed in the ~wo ~"\'e ... ~. M"'1 p_~ .• w no other coneJative c"'_ after ~. p&r$iclee, but" .... COJl-

tAm the imperfect. i~veof tmuIUne~_ if,r iiJJJ. ... #" 1Iw" JoM,._ """ I do. $eo, however, an example of "Iw jWllive

in I)()tI\ 01 .. _ •• § 11. c.] "

(lto. b. . ~ .".if both' the jUlltlive amd the indi~t.ive iliA)'

. .."J.'"

o I.e UH8tl ill the tWet correlative claUHt.'M, All ~U .Ji.'l "11 and

\k" ••. ... . . . !'.l .. ·i _ .f: "

V--1J JP-'1twtll .... _,""" "'"'_1-.at .... ~."'fl-

fI1ilI ~ ;.., __ 10 ~ (lAclt) I .nu Ml/. "- '1 . • • •

"'. '

l"'.rtteJ1~fotItMor~ illl~t have always a fttWre

.. ~'" ~. - .... Jr.t t.. .....

fMltIH8.; asl 0-' QJ,.".· ......... ~· .. ·~ ~ .. if ,lit,. de-

,-' -_ - - " ~ -, '!' ,- ~' - ,

li~,.."tIIlnHH '''.( •• !IfII''. _ilj_ .,illiRs ttl ,,.,,Hther qf) ,_

glVlfl_;.afi~ ~ .. ~r,; b,G_! ItI1illctd ,. .... ..,.q# (lit; D ""iIRIlqH~."S.5 It. '

I. TAlI JIoqj/&

".TlIe &Ii~i_·1I!lOOd ocean oad, in subordi_e clauses.

It. indicat .. an."hildepeDden. llpOn that men~ iatlte 1..m1)'\tJ *t188,aa.dtatareto it in poiDt or time <_ § 11); alld

• !

• rr ....... .., Dtw ~..,.,... p. - MJf:. rejecta this view of

the ~, ..tt ~ I_ween the juDiY. in the apodoKis

of an _,..... of. eon4itiout~)

I

, ..

SIal

16

heaee il ...., ~ to ... lMia ""_ye after til. .. A

ill au--bJ the toIIowbag ~ • ~

., . c •

(.) .. Dr.,:,t,." .,... i or ...

iaoli ..... , ... 01' prohiWti~ ,4tat" , ",

peratiIIioa. etc.; i J or .J.. _; aad . tJ (f.. .;; i, i.e.

/) ~. i II ",iIl- lie 01' .... _> ~;_ .. ., .a.

, ''':1:. ~~_L u .. , •• - tt.. :, .... , .

For -.,Ie: ~t .:;c",- M' .:J .... , ,..,.;1 I.,.,,.

.... ,. .. ,..Io ... .,pad¥,.",..;'d~ -;,(; i B

.; Iii.,.,." "'.';"""l ,...~;"",.; ~~.~ ~t

· J;(" '.;ut ... ".,," if ..... ~ .... ., ..

,:,,<_.---,--~~".- --,:- <,',' _,.-,:--,: ,'""-:_,":,:-.,,,-:"""-"--'--,: ;", ,?_ -

~'_L ....,,,' ,nJ '~~iiai .~J •• .. 11-

..,..........,- . "'" .;~.# ...• .,.,.. -I

L_ ~i~ ...;.;..... .. :-{I ... I. !'f .is lot D'

UfI ~ ~~_, ""! ~ ..... n.

(W> .. ~ .. (hI ., .. IAM.""""'~).'" II " .. .for ""6"~';".,nMpritk / .. iI; {UAt . '!·.u;;tl ••• ...,.

., 10 ., ... CJ fling i] ~;t .,. JWj u! I - tI/twid " tt:iIl 0 .... __ • (Jr, in aeeordance with .. pariiculV idioM of the Jusu&e

· (t J6t], I ... ~-), .,iIl ~. _;j;"-i¥~-rt; .., Ada

1&4' _ .. ./tv!!tt ..,...., (M.),i.t".~ "t ..,. », ,-= a ;7 ~ ..... <v MIl) ." ~ - '"'" ., ... .,.,. (tWltIIrlIJifllr "*' .. "." for) ...... ,...,..' oJ.; fl it.;JrJ,:';; .~

· t,J;":'; ,;I .... .!JJ" ~ .., ." ..... - .",.~",. ,_ .. .. J .. fir tJAri __ ; \#,1 u! ~. Jr;. .J;" C~··~ I.

...,.., .. ,., ,. laM (of fcntt) ..,., .,./tIIfIJw,_", IM_. D

(a... It .. w. to i the .......... or nlohed

upoD" ... aotaaUy been done, ..,b .. ,befelloftd by b1 wWa

the perfect, .. ~ ,;~ i a jJi 4' ~, ~, j.iJ ¢ ';.:J :.II

~ (Jed AtId cfetnwtl ,. oall .. ,. Iff. for .. ~ ,.... (CII H, cli4), B. __ ,. _" ""'" 10 tv. • ....." ,.... (_ 1'JeiIcIaier,

n. &Iw. L -IIIIIJ., ii. 3N).-Ia .... thaee ~1 with the indica"" of the imperfeCt is often 8IDfIo1ed .. tile equi ..... nt of b1 with ..

•• IL

18

£116

A nbjunotlTe, .. in the .... ..;_;,; \p~~...:.1If ~J..;~ .~,n .. Js ,.,.qff. ".1 ~ •• t4J -.d :~~ .l1li ~.tI..iJlor fill ,/wI.tweltfo ... to ,...., ~ (}«l (eeeJ'leilcher, Ill. &A,.. i. 5'6

Iff·).] .

(fJ). But H: •• tIle ••• yarb to. wlti. j. il. nbordio&te, does not iudjeate Illy wiaItt ....... ~ •. or thelibt-ud~e verb which is

go..... .,,¥ buthe .. tlin' or the perfect or pteaent.-the WieatiYe of ... ,.,. or~ is_ after ~1; .as .~f~:;.; ;t

B ,i~_ iI~." .• ".. .. ~._ ., .. JU;&I.;t:t./~. ,_" ~ Mid; ;~~~~I lir1cJ.,..,"u ...... 'AI ~'~''''t1ritt. a pronoun (';I,.).i •• ore .~ In eoeh e"B;h •• ,.~Ye ~.

mariana .' d....... .tl when. it has .the"1De\meaai"' ... ~~nd goTefll8 them.iicMiTe,. by.name ord.a!ir~"Ci:r~;tAe

'." u,..... ~,..."./"...~, ~ore .:.nly.lili $ 9t "'JigAInIftl~(I," j but when it~eqniTalent t6tbe ~till'"1 they ~n

•. '''''' •• _ " .•....... : ,_".'_,'>., ",' "" "~' _." t!',I·.,;lfi"

01t ~UHyl"" 1-.d4I.~d6I1-"i.ucti" (~"'.·"I ~' • .nJ.

After ... of ~t8Dppoaing,&nd doubting. When they refertf)

the Alture, ~f ."...1·got .... the ~tive ot .. iJpperfeet,as 'iii), 01<* ~ .. , ~i~;e •. g . ..!,i; j·!r.iltllilll:"e fIJi/I fIiIJ up.

D

RIBr. J. .Tbe ... n of ~ before the subjunctive il very

'" '.,~ ~.~" -_ .: '6 f, -. ' ;.0

.. i .. '~r' ".. . .,.. -. to Mwl il; .IJ.u..'t Jti~t 4

• eM ~~J LiII: •·•· •• Ae '.. '.I4H __ ~ •. '. . .....II ...

..... . . ......"..,r~ ..... ~. fNf. . ... ; -. Ul.,the Verll£lBl,\ "". ':f1

".A...1 .. 'L: # "'~. t:. _.n . .: .". "'''' .• ' ....... , ... ,./., ....••

.... ~ ~.' n .". .. ~. ...,:.lut,".i6.':tII ...JiII. 0 .. A

"-'-'" ,', ',,',',' ,,- ,"",- - - ~-- - --~- -.".~

"-' "_,,. j'ro". 6.ri,., ",_", .... ~ .. ~ . ......,. ,_,

'" .... H "' .. .,." ..... -lfwj'or .... ,._. pill-

....... t.Uua that IlOIDt of the AraJ)e~ J,,1....,..with the iaapedect indi-ve, .. J"ii ~I It,fl .- "",10 -...d

., .. i.,~~·.aeoonl ·•.•. to the. readi ofl .. bn .....•....•..•• Jltd] .. · •• ein~.Jor'IIl it .• ! '

"''! ........ ~. n "' . .f ... . . .. •.

~"'...;r ~.")J~j'or "im .. ~.Io C4U.,J* .,,- qf

ltIC"i"'lU~ ~ let. itco~u..s- tIae 1aUl- B

.... ·.·.• .•.. .,..·····.1 •. •. r;.~ •. '. t(;;;''' ~1 .•...• .JI ·.~."' .••. '.'.' _

... «' .< ..''1 g , •. ~ . .,.,-,... .....

(or .. ~) ..... ';'.gatIw;~

."

[a~ ~ ..... .;,\~to tI.. ~et_NI .. ,.

'~:"'.'. · .: ·1 .. ·:...· 'L. -: ~. ' .•.•.. "'.'. ".;;t;. " '." .; ' .. "'"

._.. ' ID. • •. ~" .•••...• ~ ..•.••..• ~. ' •.•..•...•... ' ..•.. f .•.•.••.•• ·.·.·.tI.' ' .. ' ..•.. ···."".~.; .r '.' ...••.. ' ~ ..•.• , ' .•. ,' " .•• d.~

__ .'. ',_',,", .. --'.- _ ',,'--""." ·,'----:'--.'::-"tr:VI! ',' .' .....•.. ,;', .. ".: '.-.',",.-.' ,;>'"',,' •• ,,.:.',e"/-'-'..,,", _----'::">-~;:--;.~ ,_. ~ .rr-

. ";'1 ;;/1tCIw~.'4",,""'1~ .~~l"'.'_'"

-- ,. Ie n..,.forf..,.. "/.,J,oWd"~(f'~?""'''. po. '"'

•'.3'.') rtk,.. '.'.~ '.· .•.•. ~!.f . "' -.1 ' .•.... ' ..•. !f ".,' '.. '."

...... ;--.,...~~e~,~l/'--".,....--.fcw 0

j',.,. .• ~I1 ......... _,hi ~.u. '.~ .•. ftIH· I _, •• '*;

"'.~:··*'·',<~-,"~·'·:·i .:f~;:t·.'··'. -,' ".- .. .; '., '. '.'"

~"tMoI .; .<~~ ~.';pI .t. - qf ..

.".,. ~ tMi4 ~~ ...., .

fJ.or'kt ij. lit). . In <lot'- b· •. l'Il,

~ to7, xlix. S. IAIle p.loa.J)the~~<.....,~or ~»-In~' .• it .... ,beex~,. .• ~ ~ bDpl1inl ••• pMlIibi~n •• ' •.• ~ •• xxx~,· •• tl •. ~.i..t,l8, .SOH,

L , .. In th.~ ({lalirt..~ 88) ~;t ~".;;4 bf~,f D

~ ·;1j·~' .. e,;.,;, ... ,1 -, have tile _oi.., of ;,;~f I ....... ~ "1Av,..,.~ tAotJd ".,...., _ ··hI 1M 'fItIor """'" d~. D. G.]

• [aitJi", on I$:or'in ii. 77 .... ~J;; 't addiQa that. if ~ fa omitted, the verb-' Pllt in the .inc&ative.R. 8.-00mp. q,..,..., p. 438, I -. 6. Iff ...• aed .Iee .... IAae p. 104 c, C)D ¥oran xxxix. 84

~; ~#;:iJf.]

[516

A (6) 1,.J". i. .... '441 ([ealled ;;. ';i] orighIally a

prepoeitioD. Vol i, § 366, c) ; ;;., ~, and ~~, llull, ill order lAa,; ~. i:b. and .;:" lAtH fUJI. in order tAIM noI; particles which

.. '"

indicate the. ia.teution of the agent and the olQect of the act. For

- 6J~~ ", ". ':' -. ~ . 1. .....

....... : .·tWI A.~ ~ "'}ltllt, t~ (;,111 1II11!lfi"'uU8 1MB;

~~ •.. ~. ~t.t.~~ ~. ;.it ~:;"J!!; .z,t ~~; il b8/t0'l'8'

"., .If ..... ,.._. GMJ· <_ ;8Bzaltl'dfIIJfJ~'fll) /Ul' 1",,111t, ,*"

. • ':~~i "'.,<l.." ..

B 8. """ ~li"lrom .;'lQrtlljn,·~_". ~ ~ III

tt!fJr~ ~i~ """JOtlIetu-na",tltil1u,write;t «(lIl'/,,80 tit«,

u ;;J ..... L

row fiU4, f,Q1l1l,.Rtlyrt/81'to it .. ~l .. ~ .. tAtU J mal prtptrN

'_,' I~ ~ l.:f;i.3lettrn tltat!!" map tlf"f"I,; ~t ~~ .;,~t; ~.~~ .;;. J;taM I alii ortI41'ea. (11ti,) i" ol'der tlmtl IRa, be t4e first qf Me JlltulIIII:d(of tb~ wllo surrender $hemaelvC8 to Qim); d~~ ~:; ~ flfllt tMte mff!!"st Imote me to be &peakiNg tAl'.

o tl'miI; .. ~.. .;, ... J., t:,;4~ tmm dnitv!R to We .... ,,,,

, ~ ", - , :,.-

foNr .,/lw witla Illil .. ; .;.,tdrJ~ ~ .I.u)~. j.:!\..J

< - ",' ,,' ,- " - _---' , "'" ,'.', '"

w .. .", MI lItt9ittl o,.rWl_ttit" !li"hl, altnrctmnt qtlAg, in ortIe,.

IAtJIIM 600J:. algAl ,., ··Ncmne 160 10fl, " .~tr ~Si»~ oJ.:t;.

" . - ,",

;,t;. . .., i' (_spoil) _,M IJI! a tAiag .".". ", 'terR, 4mo11g tM

ritJA"'" Pi.J,6l· ..; ~ .;;h ~tltt"!18 flUf1 "(Jtgrie~ over to'" D _", 10" ; ~ ... 2ri.$:'. ;.~ ~ JfI ..;fl M N,id ,Ai, .,,1, in M'CIw '4M 1IIf.w.~ mit'"~ _ b4 tl~.

R.Ja. fJ.~After.J the grammarians UIIu~le the ellipse of ~t. which alway. apJ*P'IS before the negative,~. The inaenion of

Y ia allowable, .. 111 .lAs..: ' or 1;1. J.,~. I a,,, come to tMt to

.. . .• ~ ,,;If .. L' ...~. , ..

mr4 (w .... _ t'-te ~! .... ~.~'_I.:lf~~" by

·4fklI-"~llifw.j.Nr".~;·ueaptwhaitia

Ill)

80

A .... qf AU ""'j ~ ~ &;;;j _ -' .~p f'" II~ ""

_ y;.. ..;, ..... J .."pa ..,..

.:.;Ji ~ .).:. ;kIM'" qf .... tJ ... ott • ..." __ tJ ",.,.~ qf .... , ...... G«l .. U".....",. .....

.... Go After';;'. ~ the e11ipIe of

~t .... ., ...... it • __ , ia .:s J& .. :J-,

.. Iwt • .. ,,11 .'- ••

.. .".., .J-- ~ Yr'! hU 1M t'*'f""" -(0' JpIuJ ....,.,.

B 01' -.,t:,J. ... ~),. ... ' ....

-'.': -_", __ '_ ':-."'_~'"J:::'~''# -, - _',-,'-' ",,:~,<

._ &.., la •• ~~ •• ' ....... _,M ; ..

#;.:J .;j:. .. ;.,w '"j~f1G ~,:i.~' .... .fM¥

..... ~..,., ..... _ ~ or .. ·.,., ""~ ... cJ.4i). .MIl" ~ ..,...., dI4.L. "._ ~ ... of (JOfl (~}'-la"".';;' f_ . . - ./~

whiob ., be ~fted th .. : '~'J.: . I ~ tolr-.c..-. .,,' I..., .lIIer II (= ~WI ); .f;_

c "';; J:. I ~ Co II till I .,.,.. II ~ ~

..... .. Vdo., ,~ II., "' .

~.--u..;. "VoIIIiI~ '- ~ ~ I ....... jn,."... ... illill

.-. 41 -y~." ~',,' " ,-, -', - >

I .. ( .... )........., " (-.1§i .;u~ " J;,.); ADd .;;. ~ ~;I ~"rl,. J (~) .,1ImtI it·' " ..

(4)' . ,,'..1, when dBa ..... iDtrodu_ a oIaaae t1t&t 61(1111.188 ,

.,.,at or .... ofa ~ ('I;.' M. ,,;".i 11.01'

,...;.:';' u,.. aut COIttaih,., ~ iaapitatiYe

PlAlI,.".ftor, ...,mveJ. or wolds equi .... in ~ ...... im-

,..-""; or .. " ._ wW1 or 1Ippe. or .. a quediou ;

or, &..i" be a .... Ye 'The aiabiA(satioa of J in all these

• {la _. __ the indicMive k employed where .-t &.- .t

we 8Iaoald . .,.... .. "bjuaotiYe, .. in ¥or'in luvii. S6"':;; ~ i

~~ II .." ,....."., 10 tAc. Co till .. ' ...... (Utey

..... ex_ ); .fl~ po j07, ,!.f ij ~.~i'ji

i~a&---'--" ,- _' -~ - .' - '. -,_'."

._,. __ ~_.-.-. ~....- ... __ n-J);--Q.j

1

I 1

!

111]

11

u

I

I .

! '

I

I

! I

I !

.;Ni;.g,I tJ.,4:..., ... ,.".". .. go ~ "

........... ,.,., - hf 4J, br

..... iapliecl ....... ; .... ~fi~ 4t 41 ~ ~ .., .......,hI .... ,. .. -"" .. ~i ~?H ~ Jtji,~ ",-_,,,,,,,,_,(,,,~)""" .......

MIl.' ~1'" ",,-,~." ~ ~if we ltJrii lin_

the .... to ....... ." .,· .... 10· .. _(clM .) HI ..

:;=t=~:' ::'::., ~~

~. J'i,!,! ~ ~.J' ~ I,'" -- ~, .,_ ... 1M ... 1' ....... _'~~.,. .:I!~ · .... 1 . ..,. '-' "",. (Comp. laP; B~ Zll .. riih,~ 13.) D. G.]

. (I) .,;..ile ..... ~uJ. __ ~~...verb ..,.._ au act aubordiDt.te to. bat siImd.....,..·..ntta; the act

'".:, - -, I,,' =1..:'1:' ;:-I! -~.: •• ,." , ••

o ....... ." the previoltl clauaej AI t.I, ~t ~ ~'~ .... 1

~~j;'tl!'~ ~ :li~ ." lAW'., ,..w ... .r.n._ ... ~.-.,.,., ,_iQ,.,. ..... t-f'I (for

m.), Md",,,,, III ,. .. , :1\. ~ dJJ ;;;. .. .:r.,. __

" _' ":-'_""-:_- .' - ,:--, .. ~ ''''', -, .. --_ .': ,_':, _- ,.,', - '.

,.... (,.~")_: .. WtI; ""ibI ;o.:,~,.~..,.,,;

." " ,j ~ 1 .'. . "If ~. _;h1"'~!r Jill. ~ I Mid (10

~ ~Q ~ .. ~ VI .~..,;r"' ..

_), c.u._IttHII "".'(eJI.,.,_").;':'iI ... "" .... go

Dfri,,"fI ~ ",... ed ., Il1gtlMr; ~ ,,~* JI.)f u.,; c;Jr~; ... I ".,,,,,,,. ~." bel,., (ttll") btrItrlIIrJ .... ,. ~ .. IwoIWlr tdidimt, 4l; a .i .~tf Ja sJI _;;JJ; • ,.. "" jW .,.4 tltid .. eJI ,. -_ Ii_' ~; ...;us "" ~ :.sa. ~t ~ ;if; .. ~ ." • tIItItJriftg iQ «

" '_',_" -n' ~',,: ,.; "-'fIf __ "', - " -,'," (II, _, • ,,'. '". - ,,'; Co, " ,'::

__ chd ., ... ., (1lOl· with .. ); ..' " .....

"._~, to-., ___, -41JrMI!' -'1'Jae AIM ..... -

, '-. ' ,

A

B

I

, '

,i

, 15]

__ ..a; ... ued, (.iJt it;. 01' t~' ,;.;. or .;;. ~:r jI;', A

" " - , " - -' tI_, ",' " __ ' _ "', _ fI' • If

,., '. .. ~it .. .,~.e;.

K ., ~"

i

w •. II.

M P.urr TmJU).~ [§ 18

A 1 will eta .• ori •• f ,;A ~ " ~ (though ..... yprelerill this Cue ~f). It the ~ ; or J.he pre&xed klb)l •. tlle Yerb .y

'" " , ,:,_', " ' ,," ,- ,,",,' , _I

be ,_ ill the i~e .. 1ftIl .... the subjllllCtive, e.g. "J '>1.t

~ 11 ~ (var. "t~) ~~" _,.,., .. .,'llXiuldflOl

-- 4/tw"" hi. Ii". ~; but if.y of~'"

eoadidou fi8d .... beviOll.ted •• the ill~ve .. ~ C&Il be

.... : ~tl .• ~ ....• f/ ... , ~(or ~l) Ja1.ili~..u.

B I ~.".(~ ~....,re~tAl~ and

not to .r.._ t1.);~.j;ai1/,,", .... ~~.;.J¢il.WU

: :',' ,-' "',,,., .,', _ .' '-.', -' _,'"',, •.• t4!'· :,,' " ".- ' :',.,

.... ZH4 .. ·"".~.".wiJrwipecI(wh.~~~lfrom

the .,erb) ; •• .ilj,$ ••• 1 tIIiIl ..... ·."",. ; .. a~;~l •.• ~' ", •• ~.aWl .....",. ".i"(~ Jil i.~),or'-'I ~f 1 tVUl ".,.. .. .rIA..,.." .... ,." .... OJ'. ~~u; 1 ... ~.., ...

a .".., d. Wi.· fYIiptIJt:I; .. J;A 'oj. ~1 ~ ",(Jod, ., 1 aU ttOI

· ... •. , <_l:... .. .: .... ... .' dell 1 .til

_.iI;. ~ .• Q)J W!'" .~.iI"" .. "" Ie .,.. • ...

, ," _,",' , ,-,' ,-.''''

to ",,<iawhicll'tour .... "'" •. ~ doea •.• ·aot COfIl1JlellC8 the elauee. or ia~.!",.~~)'

.a.. •• ·.~_.I....,..~loettlaea.l~of ....

ia~~"'''' .~ ... ~ ..• ..,.". -oJt ••. ~ ... ,.

1'I ... l1f',·",l'!.I • ..,_.DO ~

...... ~ ~ .... ~ .. 1t.e ., .. ,,..~

.» to .. '* ;bId .. ~ ... ~ ~

~.,.. ,.~.".(: .•• ~(l'OQ&l1it: ...,..,

'to.,..,_ the ~ _~(,:".,.,. the Ill))..

....... -. .

,. ... ' in. Arabic. the nhjallOti.,. .ie. goYerHd. only", ••

~ Y, .... _ .. ~ tItM haft the -taa

of Y .• ,..~ be .... iaall ~ .......

.1 ... 1IJaer·· .,..~ ,·.

117J

......, .. - tAl • udefilltd~ .. ; .......... ~r .. A ,.,. ... .., I ... 10 .; ._t4l, ~ .• ..,;;. i ,. ."_ ..J

.. .- ',_ ~ .. ~-/!- -: -_., .•. ",;:- .~, --

...., ... 10 III,' '" ~ ~ ... ~.,.,. ... ...., .,.._

c'.. .. .... " 'til ' .. '.- ... ' _----_--.~

..,.''''''''Io.~ i. ,_ /(Jt'''''. J. ~ ........... Arabic

~ tIott aot·.diati~sh the .• ~ .. froIq a. •. ·.,.".a ..

.. ' y _be~" "._ ....... 1;. (CII

... ,....}t I .. ( .. )_",.--,1.,<..,.>.;

th!~I"'- Alii "",.or fIIill ,.; ~ third, itt ~ ,.,.."

~~~. B

1'. TheJ_.,-eouaeete4witit theillipera.tive both intenD and sipi&er.tioa.-impIiea an.. It is ... :-

::,',' ',c."

(4)Witb~e~cto . .J.G;-lt;-§'.~qf"".l) ~ ~of ~i...,...tlve ;u~:;'t .~· .. ~."'~1~.'_' ••• """ 0/ .. .... C#~~'Kii'.CW"IUMNU; .~\i~~f;!"'''' .. IMcI''

.. - 0/- ·l( the particle j orJ be ~'toV." ia often the 0

oase. .. thenV .-.y loses its voW6l; u¢,~~~~j .JM ~; .<1otJ. -,~ .• ~~ Ir_ j ~#iSi~i .'~~' .. u!. ~ ~l ..w. ,J'! ': ~. if tJ~iNg ... 10 -. '" " ... ftU _ (1M

~)II.i~."'.~ alld ,- If"";.~ ~ .• .iJ;t';f;,r.;;

~.' lJ.""!.~ .~'. .... .' . .. . .'. •... .

_Ut ~. tuN¥Vt1J' .~tog'~ up(.,." q/) 1M.

~. oj' tnItt.fot ~.';', l6t Iti. tlo._ 110.,. It.ie the ~ .•. ,..oD of tile. jusaivetJw,t.¥Schiefly ull6ll ill thia n.y. -bile the MIotul is yery D

rare; examples of· the fir. persoa are . .:JS ~fJj .,.:,1. rill. uti 1M

- JNfJI.!m·IO";,;t.t;tl.i ~ aN l6t .. ,_,. yorw ... ; [of tlte M:tWId ~ ... it (IAI "'ay oj'~) lar,., said to a woman, Ag. xvii. 99.1aet line. D. G.].

Ru:... The particle .J is rarely omitted ia clMlical Arabic, except iapoetry; 8.g. ~ ~\i.!,lU ~.i';.;1 ....,,;;. .:..u

,.. . , - '

~.I."-IfI. ~ ttl.., ..... _ ....... A'" ( .. ), lor. 1 .. _1 __ itt z.." a4 _ ~ (an • ..-nce of \he

!and pen.); ~ j6 i'ii·.,,1; ~:;~J(.~","''''

_ .... _ - '.-' _ i

......... jor""*; _;.!l id!J:,;J!~ ~;~,"'o!':'".~ ~ .~o ... )fi'tma"'- •. Mcm itt,.. (..".>,. ~J"...;c;;

~G1M~~", "'-lfll*,."..eJ .1...,...,.oJJ(~·""'_· Some ..... of·the J.C.or'~ hoYtever, admi~of heiD,· vie"'l • .in tbiB

".y ;M~;~ ",(;ji,L!tr .,;.;;,p .o.,#i~ JI .., ,. .. ., jet" ... ~ .. ~ ~ ~>~ .~ .. ~~4 ~(-~)oJ~. ~ .. tllllAaw~ .• .,.". .• ~;~t; •• tbe

juaaive. may laere be cplabtecl in ~ ..nth w1*l;. fOlio.".

under c".

R ••• 6. . 'l'be vowel of· J . ~ abto lJ()1Iletimea dro,ped after..:s ;

all ..:;ti5 ••.• ,. ';;1;S ·1AetI· ",' ~ • "..,.tDU4 1IKir .. tl'"'''''' or 'J il;i;J.

(b) . Alter the particle -1 not 4.?Lj 1M Iii 0/ prMibilioN), in

o eoanection. withwbiehit expr-.ell· a prohibition or a wiahthat .. ~ .. ynotbe done; .. '~;; "'r~l ~ 1. bs no4 grW". for God. ~ .; t~.,) ~. 'i~.;s i~ 0 our Lortl.l*"Wt '"

~, ..! . . ...1C: :~A _ t!:: . a.... . L:"I!~ .. _2._

,"".iI- lor,.,; ''eJ)' •• ~1 ~ ••. ~~ ... '1 ",.,...__,,, -

--:·~_~,'_'.r'~l,"'·- .~_!""-,~ -hi --'&_:-'" -

. ~. tU ~; ..... .,. • ..;...~ ~ ..:.,. ...... -.~ ""'-. w go

,forI4.frowt, .l1mJatuc"" ", til ., ,.".,.,.,

°D (0).. 111 the apodoais of eorreJ.,tive conditional

..... , which ~ u~ •. ~·or auy partiele havins the BeDBeof "1. G,b. and 1.). It stands in the protaaW. when the verb is n«Qther ... peIfeot. nor • imperf~t preceded h)' ~t6, but .& ailflple i~;a,nd il1 theapodotill. when the verb is like. a limple

~, and 110t ~ from theprotuia by the COIJjanction J (ftlJ ir t.bi8 .• _ be the cue, the· iIldiea.tive muat be .,a). For

...... ..: .. .,iJ'!i ~illIwa.,., ... J .... ,.., II;

A

B

§ 1'1]

3'1

I#'~ '6."'''.,

~ ..... Ie,.., J-aot ~ /w .. dod ".u. . .w hi , .fortl; I A

~;:.. .~ ~tJ;" ~J !lU • .;... JJ ,J.!i .'i!J ~ ,_;,p .

,.", •. #0 -, . ...., lor 1M ,.,41 0/ 4iI In, .. ~ ,.. .,_ qf

Jrfit'" .. iI. l/w'_ qf lirulIIJn,·" .iU ;.;..: ;.f·, 1;1;;'

, ..

",;,toft ~'J. .~ .. "t;J ~ (or ~. .) doff ... " IR""'" (J

". ." .. " . ..'

r;,M .... , Gt14 tIIiU ~.-., ...... .,..,_ ,,--; ~

J,l '. ~p i:i)f w4ft~ ,...,..iwath if~ i,..; ... ;;.

.~ .•..• ~~:.,:.;pJo,.,.,. ... _".-. --fDi#'" IOid B g«I(i/fJli'*j1 .. J,~. ~~~;:. ... t •.. ~. ~t;/!1~1.~'-rf.

.''''I'''''',~ !J8 tbfItfltJ ~.,,~Io,.6r""" toUl ,.,.,.,,,, ~, .• "'10';""'111*; ·ti~6.Z~ -t;s .~

, .... , .,,'~- ':; .,. _..... , ', ,',"

~ • .J.P ...• ...,. """ ..:"..1' JljootJ "" "..,,1 ". ......... Grl

"'-. - _''-_-'',,'' ",' " ,,"-_ _',' ,_. • '>: '- - '_ "-::-,,''',:',, - - -,- :.'<,'_

-.,., /rfJta ..•.. (411) .... /mI •.. ,";antl ~ ... dota .•• ." ...... ~9

froJa .. , 110M t"MIIIUI ttoI to IRJ~; ~. ~(~ J..tU.~.':'~

a1ltlw~'As wiNd tWIIII il cuidtJ.iI ... ; but .,;,.,.;. 2Jti. ~ c

.,

. ,. ~,."" -... , . .,

~ .~ IfJ .t;i~1' ~.,.. • . cIooHB ,. I." qf tAl lifi 10

U __ .";!11 ..........L.. . . Ie·· ';1L._ !,' • ... ·

COtM,Io...,...,..._ fl've,..-"-.,,.. ttl ,. .. .,-r;.".. ~~!

.J:i.··~·~·e~ilAs .... ( ... J(J~qf.ItU WOt.,,;

~ii"J, ~ ii.~ .• ~ •. ~ _ w.-." ..

lArd, aWl-I.,. a tl~,(Of his rewa.nU ttor fI1fYIag.-{J. The juaaivealeoMllda in ~apod~,1Jheathe~iXNlt&iD8" verb

in the inlperatlve [or one oft;he expreati_ that have the .... ins or D

an iDlperative (VoL i. § •• rem. 4)]; as w.; ~ ~ J,. I"",

~ (ud) lJo. willb. (J ki",; .u._,.:;,:"',f \I"';;, '';:'; b6

, , " . ,,,

lail4/WI9{Jow) ~ will fIN. (cmd) IwiU lRJ/tltI4/fIllfl (..y)

~ wiIi·p. r;''''',.;Ji I/wrVorf kI ""'6IJI,. J:If ui~ ";,;. kI fIN iii JrtUij;:~t.; i.~ uf.; kI fill iii AU· W,,,

c

, - '---_." .

....... It "'11_ .,.... that in f,wo OOlftlative CIOIIClit.ional 0 ..... Y8ra1 moct. of _pr8Il8ion are ,_.1Jle; viz. (a) perfect. x

perfect, &8 ~ .:.:' ~ if lAo. ~ I 114JtJ; (JJ) ju.ivex j"V~8; #JJ J-.:.li~ Vlltn #w, ~ ~ wilI;..".,.,_t;

• [It ia"~"'" ~~. to ... .,w~ tIM 88ClOIld Ot.U1I8 COD""" _apoct .... _'-'_ve 88Dtenoe ._,),. a circum-

.-\iN de&Aitioa~). .. \1!I'W twO ... of 008ne, tbeindicati.ve ........... s..ta:"*worda~.tf ¢; .ilI.;;'~ t.i .:..;. (~I.n

D ~ I)" • ...,..., ...... ti' ftW .... ~ ,-- .. "my Mirt·'_" ia • Ji.." bet .-e naden. pronounce ~ &8 an .apodo8ia;

~.. .. .. ,,-

in the·,....... 1;1"" .;.;.u; ~ tJl ..;, ~ ~i ~ ~;

..:,~ ~~ ..;;. ~Qr __ ( ... y 904 "..,., ~ ~I) tJlMing

..... "" .... .JtJ tAU cool ....,.., UtIIU'...,. CfOIIIU to w,

J..,J and ._;;.!l are a Jf-.].

t [V4If1 r.r.a, poetI ..aYe the iDlp8rlect ~ j 888 ~wfih i. 388, "Wp. 78. D. G.] • ~ eD1Ilpie .. Tat.ri L 1113,

1. 6 .~l.!':.-:t'~~ .

.. .,.. u; _', # '

IJ7]

A

....... ;,.Ii .ill. =_:r J,.~' :rr ~ .:;f ~ if.., .... " de

." '. - - - . ,

"."....,. .. ",._._ ""'" ,_., "AiM. (6) After ~

- - .... , .- ...

"'*" oal, die ...... 01' dae j1atJift witJa~, fa uecI; .. ~ oHJ

J.~I a.; ~ _ ,...IN II f'Wt, ""..; ~ -: .:JJf&J; -:..,.Jg;J~, ."-~~,~"",..." .... _",,

ftO-....... _" ... ,. ...... 1 .. __ .... (')Ia:~ _..~ • .,... .. t .. P!~'.,..H,pte-:

~"""""".""""",_ ...... _ -Ul ....... tt..,~-i~ .. pfcW"" .. ; ~ .... ..... "H _. -

.... 6. Oa the __ io "hich \he of a · ... ocm-

... St. or _, of 1 .. " ,-trod'" by J; ..

. 51"- -

a.ifr'. ~~(l) "\VIuta.T .... hi aa ....... - a arb •. u. ... !e, ...... follo ........ yen~the ~ ooa1l8!'MClwJtJ) 6he

fonMr by aCODj~ ~ (a) if the OOIljuaetion.'- J or ;. the ....,end ,._., 18&1 be put ill ., juiaiye 01' ia .iadieative, more

.rareII ill ... abj ......... ~w 1 ;;..;l" t;1 ..I, -~ ~ t!,lJ .u; _.).; ~;a; ~j&ti at .,..:t:.~ "fI_'"

; ',';',' - #' , .' '>, >,-,~"'-,,- ,/" -'-~#_-." :",,_ ': " .. _ :'''',:

__ if .. ,..,. .... fir' ...... " -(/fJ!I'w(Il .... tRIA ,... Jtw-it,

_A.~" B.,.,..., .. ~ __ Htl pllrMluj

' .. ;!'ii ... -:.~., _,- ~ _.m,.....,. (.;;.

..JA~!1I- ..... i.., ,.., .. ",->; 01' ~l, jaM ad

'f*. ,·-ItI_'_ifI ." . '. ,"." . - ' •. : •. .,.... •

..;,J;.j;. pYerBed by (J ~; W(II) if the ~ be

..:s, ..... ~ft._.Uowecl.{_p..16, e, rem.]. (1)'\Vhea we laaYe ill_ ."... _ YeI"b. ia .. J-ve, &Qd thel'fl foUowa ..... ......, in ... illapelfeot, 'Oonaeoted ... the former by

.J 01';' .. eeooad ...., ahoUI· be "'~ m the J-ve. althoup the ~ ia rJIowable; .. t.~ i ;J,r lit ;J'!,; ~ .;.; ~1 iH.!., : ~r;.;.' _.., _ .... ~"..... 904 .." MIl ,.Ii_., (loll

i ... J·,._,.. .. ~.,.i"' ..... .......t ...... d..,~,,:~

- . . . -' ." 1J-< ,_.-, ". _--."

B

o

D

II.f)

'I\d"'n ......... t.a.e ..... ;; •• aad ¢or;iMti the .. ~.·.I. :t.;.s"~ie.g. ~..;; ;f:,u

:.,.1· .. -.., , ..,.,

........ ; ytli .J.,J,; " .. dq -. ,., ,.". ., ,.. , 0

(for ~J;). See 5 It. TM verb after.!i and 0 has. hOweT8f. OBI, the ,_, .. tile aipific&tion. of the jUlin. and ... ect upon

the~.~ to .. Ii.· .. t'-t1fhieh. tIM. Behle •

__ GMT J._ (., upoe .. 'J.perteet aa..a.d to it.

.... R.~.)c"~byhio-OI' I""""'"

01 IIOO1ld .. II ... · ...... _ tIiW .....

II8OII8d; ., -. tMa, ill ......, ~ III pd ill the

jaIlYe; e;·f ~~." - tIicl __ (_> 10 -- D

Bee lit; "'Ss, 4, ••

1.. The·~ of the iIIlperfect (aee 5 14) is a.t :-

(.) With the .,..nicle J """ . ..0,. ,.,..",. pn8Dd to it, both in aiaat*..,..uiou" ia .. that an ....... ..a by ... oath;

.:(11 ...... ;t.. I .. " ~ .f:-' .

........... ~.; ~ t~ ~, ad .. ..to ....... it

'..,. (W,) --~ • will ..." ,.., ..... pal"'; ..;.....;.r ~

,

w. u.

6

.. PBl' 'hJQ.-8pfaI:. 111.

A " ...... _ ..... ; ~6~; !*' ~.~....,tfidia_

.h." • f !,., :J.:';;lc ~-""'_ n~ I .., ... ., .,...,11; ~.,...- W" . . '7~"" ~

I • ,_",.. ....".. ..... J-."; .:.;.t~f; Ju~ .; .. ;;I.,_, ",n,~. I _ll.,.", "., ,._ all."..,.

.. .

(6)I •.. ~. or~"" ........ &11ft ......... ;. all

~.:;m; . .Jt ~~ •. tji II • ." • ..,.,,, .. __ {or

D ......,~ ) ..... t; ~;; •• ", . .....,.,.. ... JlItt

_, WI ·~t.wI, •. ".' ,w, ....... ' (l.~ ~. ~)"""~",,,, "..a.IdlUlI """,,.. .,>tA ... ,., ... "";;_'1J~ti;;7; . ..p;.;,~;.;., ~i"'~,;

w ...... _;"";" ".. .. _ qf.~/~ 1IItId;

'\i; o; .. ~. ~.AJiJ·.,., ...,... -rill." I ..

_. " _,' '}II: _ _ .. ',,, , .. ~.' " ,"

COlIN "'* 1Id·_ ."....; [U.\A ~. i''_ •. .", .. ,. ... ;

a....... ". ~t·r!. .. •..••. "'Ii! . II._....I 4 ~. "'.1

c ~ ............. ~ _". i"'flO f •

....,. . 'Ib

~ The ~of ,,)witli the in

~.~,.....,..,.. ... ~ia~~ ... ~~.

.... to ita ,.....,. or ...,.. which ~.t.c»

a,...,wbi$lo..i.· to it, the,._,.aIIo ~ ~.' ~ )Ii.

...... _ ..... D.O.]

(c)J.tM.~ of CQI'leIMiu conditional .... j in which cue J is"" to \he prot,aIIia .. well as to ·the apodotis; as

D arM;Jii.;.;ll;l-:i'wi;;t;;.-,;~a'i Ji.'...~.;::,t~;

-if'- ~. '-'. WJo """'." ~. _ '" ~. Mltl o6li'" .. _ .... N __ Hi.' Wrily ,"-' will _" G«l j

~. I~";; ~" ;;Awrily, if u .. not tlaW,w dtJIlfliu

, #.'- "-,,"

_ 1lnIg.(ii.) ",.~.

[.... If·J ...... Bot bn~ly p~e the verb .of ~b8

. .•.... .' ..... ,.. 'fl_' II -,... ~ ..

.. ~ .the bt,*-,," is ..t,.' lUI ~.'t.J1 ~ "t~ "',

~i:l_ .... i ... V,. tit. tw ........ (0 '(IM"" ,. MiA

,.. .. ] . .

fa .".. •• of a _ .....

rJii' ~·'~V'" ,.""_,,

ii.:'. !UA ...• .., •.. ~

((.) The....... _, lie _ (.) after ,~f;';' _ similar C01DpOtUIda, .. .lui' ~Jj t =,;; _ ... YN ..., be. I toill ... 10

. .-IJ ._

..-. 11ft ., t;..;;-J" ~ <Vol i. I JW) II.~ \! ..;.;., toil.

T""' '1-1 ... • II" .

.. ' --,,-_, ,- .' . \, .'\ - ,:. - . ".."..; .~ .

.... ,..,..,.., ,.. ." ...,.IW tI,' ~I \,; ~

.. ..,pI. _.,.;,,_ ]

* [Thill ~ ill called ~ ",i~; ~l1 ~ 10 ~ 1M .~ ........." 'BWfiwl on.~ vii. 33. R. 8. Sometim _

l!l is followed by a J-ve, .. ' it,L' ~.~ l!l tllAot. COlIN 10 me, r tfJiU ,,., 1M ~...... 8e8_Palllple 5 152, J, rem.]

(§ 11

A~~; ~~. ~ de .. ,."., ...... "._1a

_' - _ CI. ."

(co ....... _tfIiIIal .... ;, i~-fte .n,tic f-. 01

the i.perati .. llerYe to in __ ita foJee.; .. ~ ~ ...... hi

004! .~... ..;!#»!"f ~. ,.". daI ,.". qf W. ;. CI

- . -"

• " , . - • • ., ,""'.I!: -Ai

p •• ..."or ....., (~iD ....,,_ro..~); ... ~ • ..,.,.t

~.;t;t';iC.J~;; .~.~ "",,·"""'10 lMI~) •.... ........ pIC ..... HiM; ,~ .... ,.",.,.,_. /ifItII .. v ...

B ".,. (.m.). . .

( ......... la ......... aipifJlO ~. ,. ..".~-di.

Jt,. e;.e~<~") tJae 41_- .... ~of.~~ of·ov ~_·.are often ,.,...·10 ArI.WO . .., .... ~ve

with ~ .. "(J N, ..... d), .. er, ~U." ..... , ~ """.t.o,,

,- WI' - - - , " - fII'_ ., ~, . .,. _,

, , -j -, ., - "-#'-, ,.,. -

~ •.. "",, ~.,WO,...,.....·\;t , t.;f .. ~t.o~,.,

... go.. A~ ·O« .h'e..;. ';'.i. t.o. emPlo7

C tbe~veot " verb lipiffiDJ _1M, .. C.., ~~) ,~# or

e~(u.,;.i. ~;) ~i (-.p. "'cIae,.Xl. &JIttr. 6._.,.).

.... 6. .• ~veof.~.~ ~ of ..

pet'lIOD1o '.eia '1.· ir , the

penIOIlwholD or GI18 with, " that

~vi4wd, _,; " .. ~ 1,.,.._'.,.,...... '.., ..

..... ,..,.; ~ .tt1.:J.. I,.. .,,... an ..... .,. (See"

,

D QIOIII.GD~) D. <1.}

a. De Gowrw .. qf 1M Y""'.

II. The.erb .. ,. .,... eRIaer (.) the __ a •• " Of • BOWl. or

(6) .p'~ioa .. ·.·,..._ of a the ,a.oe of

the si- .... ~-..,...". ••• ex-

pr , ~.Iiot~ 60ite __ of

the .-. .. .,.. __ ~ t .....

........ _· i, ·_·..,.., ~ '"" ~

S II] ftt V_-a. ao. " fA_ Vri~-(.) • Ace... G

whenever..aiD 10 far.~ di~ kiodtof .... ~ A

..,....w of .... ~OD or ,. of the ~-. \'Wb. too,

aeed DOt; aeeearilybe Pl!'111.llj it.., ·be .......... , "01' it..,. lie Co"", ... it were, in.plriiaethat baa a .verbal'"

(a) De ACCUJli_

.. ,.. .. ~ ..... _of.tIuJ·. BOWl-which we ma,. -ltf,hethJ;"".,,,,,,,, of "" •• OI'''~''' (188 Vol. i .

1364~ B

. ..(.) .•• ~. cH4." .. .,.

by-.lta~t .... , "'j~."";if

(');'~ -.~~ .. h..' .. iD .' ..... _ ..... iadieatiog ~.i"".of·the ··'~"_~rL~"""'itic

...... b?~.,> ~ {~ COD-

~~or( .. in .. IJt,aVOJdO.~I.., .. i tal

..

••• Mollt ,,..,,..,i. verbt ~ .: th, objective aMDpleraent in the C ~vel ttl. a eo~~Bum_ of them are CODDeCted with .. ·~·by""'otda .Pl"'tiolL Not .. few. CODlkUed in both '.~ .. wi •• V&l'ietyof.ilcatiou. -~~tiona _, .... ~ be .i9iMd .. ·to ...... ,'ferI) ..... -ereaee of

'. ~ r«: .. ,"#. ~.~. 1111' ,-

....... i ..... \l)M 0tJlW •• ~~_)M""'''' MfftigjI

';' ",-,-",: .

,...IIItA., .. fiWIJ ••• ~..., ._ . ..,... •• ; ~ ~

.;,;t ., cowW .,., ••. ~." .... "J. III other .... a ~ .. ftl'b..,. be coutrutd iDdiI'~ ~.8CCUIa&iY8 or D

.. a~apd ... pldti_, $he .,. .... older .-

IIIOl'8 Yiprou,fM latter the ~. aad """"ction i ..,.

~ 10 ...., .,10 CJIICJM.",;v 10, .. J.,J 10 10. 10 "...,.,

, . ,

are oeutrued iDdiI'erentJ,. with the accusative of the perIOIl or 1ri1lt

• [In ~ 'i M IJI.-I Ai. and ~ 'i M etmetl -., the object. ~ .... been omiUed. The proper 'lignification is • prtJJ«l 10 Qotl lor -. aad .,..... AlA D. G.] .

PAin' TIIIRD._"""

A _" and the pnitive. ... rarely the COIWtrI8 is the cae&, the ~" .... the later and 1_ ~ coutruction j e.,. I! 10

'. .. -,.

--1rrMW, 10 law .", 1I1id. is eODatraed with ~. and tl:..! 10

...... qf, 10 .. in _, qf, with Jl. ",hereM ill modem Arabic both ... the ..,.,..ye,

..... .. Trantiti", verbe are "W by .. .Arab ,....,.,man.. ...

J;~;,::r _ and "'-1' ct.ipMe by." II&Ille n~ QIlly ..

ft.- ~.kt:_ ~ alto lhoIe

wllioh·~:"""'Y8I.1ri'" it by'."". ofa ~ Ttie

'. . . .; m~ , ...... , ... J ... ,.,.' .:

former ~ ... ~.~.;.Jt wjl 1M ..". IAciI

,., (10 .. ~)"'_'A 4 .... 1 ••• (and __ by ~ of a

: ~ .fI'- _,~ .. ,#,,,.4"·1: .. ,,!~_," ,

preposition) aacl thelMter .. ~ ... ! .. ~~r.H Jw~ ,. .... """

,_. Oft (10 .. ~) ....,. ~., • IAn "..".,... (vi&.

~ ~ 1Motfg' a· ,...o~: For ~ple, i}i to ~ to

tm'iw ( .. a JIMIIIIaI8, etc.), ie & ~ .. ';~-F;~ ~ becaaae W8 8&y ;;,tif ..",r: 1M __ t'IIGeW .. i but.j.afo __ pour, to h tJIM.

it a ~~.;; ~beca"" it i, construed with JI.. and we NAy

... .t:.... .... _1L...J __ ';""JU_ ..

V fl"'"JiItI IN .... _.10 -~.

B

o

.' ... 6. . Oat, .... 1 .ely ..... ~ uae of the dictiona'7 can ... the ..... wIt,_ & Vert. .. ~ with the &CCUIative, or witIl • ~~. 01' with both j &ad, if more than one ~ ... ftioo be~ w • .,.. .......... ' meanings "-t the ........... !We we ......., ftIII&I'k that verbll aipifyln, 10

.. ...... ~ in t.Iin._ B.aglilh with ~tiona,

D CIOIIW, . -: . are . '. . '. .

admit ia.~ aIao ., acouIuive; aa ~ u.t;. 'Amir CCIIIW 10

_~. ~.,~ ~~ ~;-h'j ;~ tlalrG,.,...MId

..... tI' '" "... .... to .. Jror» {GIl) .~ qf • ecwIA (eoaapat't inllebrew '" "iSh the aacuative, e.g. PI. o. j, Prov.

it 19, x..t. 1. IO~ " Renee ...... ·ftrbe have in Arabio & jMr"" pctHtw, aotilat ... i.,·.:J.i ;,;) - tc7IU ~ eo ... 1AitIg.

i e. it".. ..... ' to him, the .... aaaubotUOQ ...... ~ :df A

" ...... .w.....".. Ii.." Le.J .. ~ iU.""" . • J

!.~:- . ..: The place of t.h& ~ ;~" ... y be

....... RP VI an entin -.., .. t" ... ....., ..•.. t: ~. I --

., JIliIl .. ,.., forIIt. ~ • U. 6, 14 78, 88, Ill. I, 18&1

·~.be to ~ Jti .. .." or a

... ...,"~ ie ~'b7 ~ .. ~ ~.~ ;wbiob that

vetb (~~~ ... ·el".r(U::i1s·· Ii

~ .. I'~ ,.. ~" •• ·~i..;u ti:".·4alMl· ~

. ',lII1ttlfl,.., IAat .. ~ .. " ......, N) .., did

., -., (fl-'~ 6&);...)ti I..u.:."""" Sid ill

:. :' the "fot~~ ... ex,... "WI. ..w.

" ...... be in ihe_,."t,ft,·;" ,'_ '.iIi ~ 11 .:t

~:. ~~ ~f 1.~""."''''''':IW.14r ftitMr .. u6Ie ... t4cst tAOI&..., i • ..,...,; .: ;.:.r .)j. JjI ~ JP 0

at.,., ~r. __ I tptKM .. ",., I",..... C«l. The oonjunction ~,

it "aIIo w'_ Jti h .. the meanins of ~ eo lAW (It" rem. c) .. ~ ~ ~'J,li. '):'foMR .. ,·tAoU 1M ... "..,' ..... goiftgl

...1.-_. , ... Jr I.: "

--~.aul !JAo"";" w~ mean· .... -.. "'* .,.,

'_"'''''''l

... M&nyverba"'w~~""".~'

. .." .... of the p8l'IIOllJ or both 01 the thmc,or .. ODe oftheD

pertIQllllld the other of the thiag.~Theee .Y8tbe _ .....

~ng to the relation of their objects to OIle ;thefint

""in, of ~. who8e ob,ieC1tt are diWerea& rr... aDd in DO .,. connected. with, one· another" the second of those .'._ objecU stand toone another h. the relation of 8ubject and predicate.-(a) To the JnI .. belong all caUB&tiftS of the 8000Dd and· fcMuth verbal forma (VoL i, II 41 pd 46), whoee ,ronnd-fonn is traaaitive aad govenaa aD accusative; &8 also verba that signify 10 .fill or ~, ,_, ..... ft1t'lNl, _, BfftrlGl. and the like, the moat of which have

A likcnriee. ~....u.,. Por.eumple: ';;i~ ~ INlGugM

. , ,~ .. , ~.' _, ,

.. 1M. qf .,.,.,..,; ..,.,.t~, . ""'d~JJ / ,.. Zftd .,

,...... ".' '.

1woIW •. ..,... ia ~ i ~. ..~I ~.' . I IN .1fI0NMl "" qf

, , " , ... _, ,

".. IMttg. (lil. IN·_. ... -., i,); ,t; ;lU~ M;#IJ«l ".. ,_.,

•• , ""1'

wid .... ; .~ ....,t. ".IP .. _ . ., ••. ,.._,. ",.,.. tmdd

<~ f.}."''' III ....• 6rwttJ .. ,.. ~ ;. i;",r ;;.1.1· " Ia 4i.

_,t# ~'. _, •• "_.,.,,

B ,_,.".. ~(raD him.throap withit);';t.t ••• ~" .. ~ ••• ~

,_, ,.., "'~~ .. "'""illl tIrieI; ';'~:~f,. "gtJWM"..tAe

... ~It' .tlc'" ~r." . -. .... .-: -i.'t ".4, .•• .. •

'_;.,..,. ... ...,,Jf.hl,.. Mm Itill.,.,' ~.lI~.M {JCWI It,.

, •• '1",-" .,_.,','" .",' "',',,"."._".-'#1'

".ili "'~RCf;~~~.tJt ,..NCit«la~ to "., ;.u1 U~,

,~ ...... 1r.. i,.~;i .... f.1tMl.·· ...... ~ ••. ' .... ""'*"'. in'.lifi.' ".' u...'. ~''' .. ~14;...'

" ,'-' ,'> " ." ,",', ''''',' '-',,' "', ", ". __

,,'t __ ! ,,. ", .,

."..:; f.1tMl ... ~ ..... qf "...,..,qf ,.,.,.in9; 11,;jf· ~u-.. ~

" "" " .. _", "",',_.', _. __ ,' ,.,' l .: -" .",', " __ , ,: ,', ,', . , ',_'

o pi'" .. .,. lIN ,.,....." qf Wl-fire (~ ilaperative of ui"

Vol. i. • 178); ;wrar J!! _ panIon 0/ God; laiar ;~'~·,f !;.; : .!·l/,., jor'_'_ o/Gol/or _ I_I/a".HOt abk to

~ (COJQP.. . .•.... ' .. ~··"'.f).J" ...... : ..•.• ;...t .•...... ~ ~ .... ~ .. .id,;.;11 ..,

..... "..... . . . ..•..... .": .......,'_.,-::" " ,,- --.-- ,',-.-- - - .". - - -,', - -

".IieI<".)."'i( • ..., ... .".,_.~ 10 dD].-(6) To"~ .,... .. ~ (,} .. 'fel'be.~ ..... 10 ..... appoin',

ttfI4 ·.aai··".liP;t,ad<Mthoee ...... wMchan •. calIe!l ••. bJ. the

D ~~~.".qfl"~,i.e.whWa ... ifyan

act that ...... ,. •.•• ~ ..... ~,or.YI;~~l; .!d~ ..• ~.~

~ qf .,..,,_'fMM or,.. <qfprobabilily), $ach as

~ III." #AW, .... [~t < ..... IV. of "t)· to IMni, bel_].,.,;Jf III ~. ~J."~, ~, .;;,18 • .....,,; J\6. t6 IAi"i, iflUlgitN,

.'.-:, - " 1ft' -",_ , _,' ,'_1'

.)it III IIW. WiM. ~ III tAW ....... "'PJIM, .;J 10 'Md,

j,,'-', , ,'.', __ "_,' fIi,,' __ ' •

.... .- ,..." ...... , ....... 10 IMd. opiu, J.-t. III bel_. 'Ainlc,

...;:.t;IIIi..g;..''''''''''Jd.-.tbe tense of to lAW. and·tIie im-

S 241 '" "''''.--3. ~ of lIt, Vtr6.--(a) n. .dtct,.. '9 peraaives...:.li lit"... A."""., anti ; .. -~ •.. 'Ainlc. ·ror 8Dlllple (~A (.). tA~ ,j/;',;.4 J.~ . ..s.4i ,,"1M IHJd ..",J, tA, «triA a W lor' JOlt ;

, : - - - - - ,

'~J~~ IIHtf't! m(t. tA, tIt'l (;II'Q)(,jHf,;",;";~:.Li J.iJT; ~dllll (W 1081; Alwd«", (for) a /,.;,l1li; ~,.M.;it ~J tn(l.'1

'- - -. ,._ ,- - .,', --.-',,-"'-', '," - ' .

- .: "' ...... 4 .. ,. 1.1· .....

Goti"'-" fYf""'/OI·tlwl' . .fteo£ ..,...n~,..~f.1I4 it (Pate

. . . .. ', . '.. ..,. " -~;I ~#''_''~:','' '.

OJ! P.'M) Im"lltd 1M,. blt~I:AtUr vi~; ,~.. .~jlt.J / MlW Imn

Mft#lU'''·'fI);JI.~~!~ ;.s,;a;5:',J ('lffll'.n,,_ it (illY B book) '1'I,.1"_'·ltd;".·tf. ,,,,~,,,,,,·iltflt,. Pall. .. 'ff.. ~"'1I;"!I'; (6)J;.~~j;t~!~ ;H~."';"I: it j(troJl; .. J.;. .~ ~f~~

~;;;iii~i'~~t~fIt!t.'l"(JlI'IJ to I' "f!,n·tle f/1WII- qf dltlif'; iii~~J~ ~ .~~r~1; 1 A'"m;"NtGfHl is tMgrtaI!st 0/ ,,11 ;11 ~ qf"'ll~," ~ .. ~ .. a irItwe '''ink t_ #H,t B;/n· is

' .•• ;ti"I,::~."._.I;.#

lIitlillgl]; ~~ ~. ... .... ~ I l'lloWJtj", tlttm ,,,., lillmJ ;" tile

,.- of 11Or",t!li~tli..;.;".t u.;~; ';'tJaHf( wdly "Ire 0

• , ...., •• ,fII.

/08114 1Ifod of lAna ~1"; ~ ~. ~~ / ./0",,4 !tim

.,', __ "",;_,1"_.,, ,._.':*., •• "

a . Mil. O'tt""'" .fI1tl ..... ; .".., •. I.N.f . ~'__11 IAlnl: .Z)id II tlly

broIIIw; ~.'_t!i ss.f .~ .. "ltloi8Ol·~""Ao" (0/

'_, .-,,',' ",'." ," ,~ •• , ,'- .,j,;""., ;,. ',#. _, "

j...."._...,; .... " ... fI~_...~'uDt~ld_ed

.. piItIf ,.,.,...,.""..._ tINre~i .. ,..., til projil; i;

U~ # tb! "ut I,J:' &~ t;,':i_tl do ~ __ t_ cleatl D .. -- ... ...,.',. GfJII pad (i,e. fighting for their religion); .);J L.t •• ~ ui;;.tr ¥!i ii tIo ROI ,''' r,.". ".. fltGfflii (or

_u_ .. , -1.-- '.1. .&1. __ ' C_' .n .1IiI__ .... ~'1 "

- a ...... ""_ ...... (_ Ii",., 0" I """'_'K"; ."......., .~ .JJ

~ "-.1 ~ lI1/ • .,,_ 'Abi 'A ... 10"" a '""'!/.f'rVrul; ,,b.;.;

~9~:.;.t ;~;. &#,~ alld IM!J bel;" 'M tIfIgfts, ""m tIN" as.." q/ .• Nmjlwl, (10 1No)/"",aIni !!:~si . ..::;. ~!t;.;..

~~ ,

·'·····P.&itT·TiI"a~--······ . _······I1"ii

A I tlNnfgAl it 1 . ."".."; ;;~ u:i J,jj ~1

~,~:::..:r ...,1;:", br,. ~.ljfo • .., .. ,"'j .... of"itt., .. ~ ... ( .. )~,. N MIl (hlmJ1B8 tOr

.~ .''':'~ .~;t ..,JIf".G:..;Iif 1M ..,..,qflltl

~~) "." .

• ",. ,I. COfffwr'i", of i"·",.,; .~. 11; ~ ..,1.' ·!W ~ t~ .... 1 .. 14. ~ •• O;'''''''J • .fHIV- •... _

d~"_ (in rhyae for ~); ."~ •• .w -.i:' /Nrttl

B oftAu.... . ...•... .. '. .•.... • ' '

.... 41;' Oft.ht~~.""e ..... t.t, t.hat·~hiehia the

au~it .c&IletIJ1'JM ..• .,... •.. ~.nct ~ .... or

predt.te.~~."''''''' .:

.... b.. .~ ••.•• ~ •• ~ . ..,,~~~ ..... """"-:..:~J~ or tM6t of ~.....i,~\.~",,"'~of\be'~ orpDa.~ ~-the,.-t;diIJ ." . .,..~ .. tb'wo ...... ~ bUt the ~~Vf"110.". ,u.~; or~~

o bUi;"J"'or·~~""".i. ~ •. ~t.i.e~pr •.• '.

& ~"~ .• ~ti()n .• ql.~ ift__ ·eoD~~ ....

···.-·.u,'_", , ' ',', ',.,',.,'- .. ' ~"·"':~~Ma

MtI;e.s-~"')1 _... ""~",J"""'~~/" .

ft.'i(bl~ .... qf~OI"Q".).1a • ...., ~~ ...

Jt:.--.~';i"~·".ibe WeNt"' ",!'IIIJ!,~ ....

~ •• thft·~ ~J.If~"";I~""'rbut, i~."" .. __ ........ o\ieclt. ia .... , t.lt.e·imli •• ~ •• " •. .,.,.~ ..... ~Jn thfonaJr.it'iat.he ~~,.. ........

D MIClIIfI.-'" tbat fa to .. ,. the .~ ..... po.""'OI' of thia q ... .,..

.••• c. 11teabove ~ Of •• ·JQ ..• ...u,.~to th.'ncl pe .... ling. imperl. indio. la _ interrapt.ion, provicUd tbat

. ---- .. -- •. ~---,.-----------

• (1D8tead of the predicative aocwIIitive the imperfeCt indi_tive ., be·~ .. ~.~1 ,..It .. flo, Comp. § 8. fl. § 14. _daleo the perfect, ... ,Ji, ..i.L'ii' .• ~; 1.f0u4 lAde.",. W dorN.1tttA aM MA • IM .. .¢}

;1

S ttl TMY,rb.-3. ~,.,.'IItf14oJ"'. " ... ...,...( .. )ftt...... It

the~.partiele" -aepN'&t.ed.". t1ae ~ ... -y~inalA bat. ".,.,.itloIl wi~ ita oofaplement or .~qfthe..n, ..

in tbeexample citecl.· w. muatnot _)' •• I'~~ r: •• ~ .J,&.~Tt. but ~'- ';";;;'in the nominati..... [Comp.! '3. rem. 0.]

B.... d. The .foutth fol'lll •.• oftIHt ~J"f pV&1'D8 three ~vea j e.".~4!'~~~MIbill"'.p. eli,.. ~r ~NJ.· .~ :~I.;;; .. :t;~';";'.~lw God""

", .• ,..,.t.~:"~~ 1JGl,~~_~~~~Jj"'~' B

~1~t .,....,0.· ...... " ....... 9~\ti1, .,. .... t.U Ol'~

'~ ... The~~atr.~~y...,be+ 10 ... to eJ;~1),O."'~~. ~." •• ~ ......... hicb is im . ~,~~~ .·~··.~~J!l"!hen the verb

ia~ ...... ~"b.."~ ~.r.owe..,. the _tive

.'. . ~L-/t'···#, ····f~.- .:~* ..

iapl'efetoable, .. ~""'.- .·~.or~ 8iid V,

I 1AitM,. f60l j (2) when itia p .. ~ .. tthe.nd of thel8Dtenoe, in

which~t.lje nomi~iveie~ ... ,.!t'..r. J.t.;.:.;;. 01' 0 .~.~Jit. ~ 1~. ZAfl ...... ~ 1~; (3) .... i{isPlacecl at tbe .. ~ ·of. the~. bat.·~.·~Ddent ••• ~ ia.ei .....

....~ot~~ .. ·J.:!'!~~"."'·'ilsWodaoed

bJ ...... ~1e '" ~t .... '. " .~ .t..(.. . •. 1 ReI .. tIOI

~..;,:.;;t ~ . .:ut. .. {~ ~/. - ¥fttJ'

va. _'·4otI.·or 'A .iI~1 ~ ,!,;,.'/ qf,_ u

,. .. . ...,

tAr,follt.r. ~ J;ji. ~. ia. .IIAW ~ " ~.. lathe D

·m··.... . . r:

lutexample'~ ~ia vinaH, ~"U-' GOIDp. Vol. i,

• 8101la theaocuative, for if ~ object be adeled, without the particle J beins prdxed to it. it ia put in the aoou&tive, as

."' •• _." .,~~ ....... !~!'t. .

~ !H-_,;Ju oIdf ~ ltAini Zftd v .ttding up fJruI 'A.,.

.. ". . .

,., -In the Snt two C&II8 the infinitive ~ lDay be 1I88d

in the tin inateatI of the anite verb, .. ';'1) .AZr. .z; ~

,

51

PART T.IR.D.-~.

[I !5

A.'.}!I •• ' _filii!" _, .. , .,,'"

............... ,..,., ......... ' ,~. ·tNJ •. ' ~ .If ..... ' ""j.-

, ., , ~

In aaocIem ~ t.he S; ie ~ ... ween the

-.,l8r ~ and a d., ~ ia~e cItr.ue; ... ~, .:...;.; ~

~_ _, ,_ , . _ _ ,__ , til

l;;;:;,,~ ~;I;f:J. ;;~;i ~f 1;( ~ s s«

""" ",:~ ...,.i,,,, . ....,tAe .... U.

'1. If the .... of the two ~._ JdDt.ioueclia,., are put B in .,.,., voice. o.ot {he. ,... ..... t1ie Itomina-

tiYe.-& ..... 01·" J81 ... ~'. &eeu_" 01. iI\e penon;

... ..., "t 't! '. . .' ,.a'", "I J

8.1- """~~ "iMI*""" .'--,.,~;.~~

" .,., ... to .. "- ...".d(wuatahbed'with il); At1~ ,~;. ;,t; ,., .ir .. ,M" pohDIIIIfI .".",.., drillk. or poiMntetl _,. .. (Ii"" •• iI' 10 flrlat; ;.:;r .if; lifo .. "..tMJ Ala,'

... .."... t... ..ot_d'... : • ....1

~ ~ ,;.~, a pol" ~ __ ,. (oIAor) .. ~ ttl me,.

o .J"Jr iit'."i;"":' IN .., fkpriD«l qf • "_;Nf/ qf I«wH;"g. Should

, , '- - ~

it happea that both aceusatives are aceuatiYea of the person, that

, , - ,..' #'~ - •• , , .. ,

which ~ __ to the verb ~ the l1OJDlQ&tive; .. "*' "'IJ t~J

~I »ttI- (Ii .. ., 1wvIIW, da"fl/l*r iH ,*,"u,,. or 1II,6ro1ltsr'8 ""'fir .. ,_:itt ,*,"iMgf Io~. If both .. accuativtHof ... thi .... thai. one ,hcoaaei th. noalill&tiYe whicb ~ the thiaa that is ........ b.1. or teeeives or ..... iDto theoUler, or tbe

'D mene;M st; 'r!ot ~ia: lIN brdel .. filIMl tf7iIi tOUW.-ln tlte

- ~.'-.-", ... -"

ClII8 of tile that aocuative 1tIrioh is the subject of tbe

. • - , .. !~ • lot ! L"

other beoomeI the DOtDtaative; e.g. t:,~ ..,iJ"Y',AN ~ IAf ,"rtA

. ~

At" ,_,. .... W.for ytHI j ~1 ~r;;.; lIN cla,. Aa, ,-" matU

- "l ! .~, •• , .. , •• • •

."*' a j"l/ i ~ ~ "'IJ ZHtl iI 'lwllf/Al bmfJIJ,' t:n,..' 1,....-

~._ - ",. - . - ~ .

.,G,...,_,;;;.,; ~ ~)r~;,_ arl k,IOlD"a..

.folI4fflU.,fII' qf~ ".. 0 'Or.,. (for I~ ~.

I

- S!8] til Yfd.--3. . 00.,.""."",; tN. VRb.-(.) • AGe,.,. 51

....... Aa the verb Jt .10 ~ia with ·the A

...... i.Ye of the ~(§23, ..... ~), it. fol'm(J>

1I:eoo •• cioaW, traauJitive,aacl ·tNtw· an .~. bo&h of the

JI'I"IOD and of the thillg; e.'·";"~~l ~ ~':'..Ji JltHIa .,.,... ~("')"'Io. c4i1m.,." 1:~ .(tiI. . __ " co_ 10 ~).< Now ... W.acoueauveof tIle~"ia •• """"objectOf

..J!" .... ~ex~itt4 __ ft ... ,~"'~ the vm ....... ~ ~ •.. ~.(.;,:.).; ~t' the·.·~iathe.-. .....

.~ ia~p.""'iRl~llce thaD ~ ill"". W. "yB

.~ .: W;·.~ .. ,·.·~ .: i.I)l·~(~~'" .~.'Io

~~.'ll'.t~_riot .. ~;.1 •• '~ .•.• ~~ ;,.-;f.

,~:~.Ift.he ~.~~\fI.,.~m.1'88 accuatiVeI in ... .u .. voice(f~'. ~.~.~ tfJlWlia nUt· to the verb

.~ ...• thenoa;inati~totlte~;e",~~";;; ~,

'8al~ ... ''ffW_- ':A,..' .. ~m,; J.tj ~f '.! 1 .. ;

-'.',', -"".-"'~-- . "_-, __ .' ,,-- ~:!:~;.---.

~ J.!G.4.'" 1.".,1o·'_' zaa. __ (-...o*,) Mid,

'~._J . ({ .. " ..... .r~{ • hu.

11_; ~ ~~~ u-r ..:" !ll .., told (tIICII) uu« tIHII - C

in. 'PlnJ4:,· .'~ ~_;;"f IiI .... tAo. arflOld(~) I am .w.

...... An~_,w"'trMti¥'e.~ ti". ~ or paIIIive.

-,taketh-on ~QOUD8( vertKorial8itivea, VOl. i,

§ 115).&8 ., tIuI .. de ...... BeltJlI. or dte 0 D.OI8i'" vieil and

~ . ..-iei (Vol. i..t19. _), 18 .~ _te in the

~"e. . '1'his 1D*J'be the cMe either ·tIae,ltave DO other

oIjec&ive eompIetueDt . or .~.or ~ have one or

more;_ the verW. Donn 1Il&1 either atandaloDe. or it may be D COIlnecW witb an acijectiye or dehlooatrativeproaoan, & noun or proDOUD in the genitive. or a descriptive or relative clause. For

_ • .,. "",; -, *'., ,,,

example: ~ .:r.,... lit. A6 IIl'd a lltrikiRg •... .,ti .... U ". tlt1pt a .rMp,

~ ;-:, IuJ jolll'N6!/fJfl 41 jourfl8!1 j ~;.. ..;,~ lit. 1uJ· tNI IIt'ld (w;l4)

a llltUiNgi ~~ ;; ~;.. ~;J,j £I;" ~..,..b I ",.Id Aim ..

~ .:I 1._ • __ 1. -.. #,t.. .... .. .. "

fJ, Wlw Iff' llt,·_,. me two 01' fIIOrfI llt,ooku,' ~ .... !J loIotIJ ¥.."...

PART THlaD.-S,,,kw.

[526

. ,. ., .. ' .. ., .... ,

A lit. II. Mud ~id (GlIo)j;' MatI (fDilA) tI .erik'"g i ..",~ t,.,.. ~.,..

or, omitting the DOIDeD TtJ'hi. ,~ ~~ I gave "Ai'" a tHolen'

- 'I __ ",.,,,,. til ' . " , _ .~ ,

Halillfl·; ~ ~ e:! M r~ (.I'A) a gl'fJfil'joy; '-"1. ~

~~ t!l ~ :; • t~_IigAIlJIo. br«Jlt; 1'.' ~ 1;i,!,.,:.; '" ~ (toid) a fl'WlJN'III gail j ..;,;J.i tJAui;';' IuJ heal ., i. dU

. . . . .~. t~. ft-~· .. .. .;fr. ... , .

......"., lit. (..".) au ~ i....,' ... ~ .. , ,.,.,..,. Iu,A1IJ71 t"'~

~ _- . '_ . _- . ,

, . . -_ ,_', ~ ..• -4t: ~'''''' ,

B .", ...... · ... (wid) 'ar, .. la, (i .... ...,.",); ..,H· ....

~ '" . .., .,. •• "WI ",,,,,"".or~~~fta

..... -r 9.~r.J~ ~ fl ~:r.I; .:;w.

¥'~~ '" lWwrl a# HC;''''),. WtJ/ Q 4,.",,<_.) ; QtJiJ '..J,jj1 -:J;;' .• t1J . .,. ,. ........... ( ... ) .... ~.,;

~,;t .. ~ ~.i4M iNbI .. ...- 10 ".10 48H_ "'''',lit. "._, ..

.. '. . .... 4 " ...... '.4I!J" •• ,... " ..

( .. )CfM#iIw ,.._""j .. '.~ ...• ~ '1 "'.,.~~

o ..,,.. .. CJ,...i~i ..... iM.WtrIl.lit. M ,.., ... (ft'i,l),_ IIfaIittg tMW4 ill. -fIW.tro- p.-Thia objectiv8CCQplement,

"JUchia ca1lia hj5 AljlJ.'~ ~ j_.:i!Ji~ .,... .. ~ ~t. or ;.i~ji (see VoL i. 1196 •• "r. gedia .... ., foDowiqg ....

(4) When it .tieda ..... _~ .at:;::). it is employ~

~ ... /tJr • .,._,,.,. or 'At' ~i. .. to add

", .. ",., - - _" , '_ "

.... ~ 4": .... ~

D ........... Mje.,. ' • .......,.. H. W _._

.' !~ ,

(tPit.\) ,. . .........., (i.e. ·tDid ....... ".",.,); u/I)-,t ': .:11'1

. . .

• .-, _I"" ;,

• .'l'ht ~ ~.iJa"'ph ....... t~..;,.,.. may,

ho •• ,_, tIM ........... .,..une it, MIUDle ~ 1II(ft" deftnite

...... " _ be Yiewed .. an MfIIIIMive of Ii.; e.g. ~,Jt. I,,;"

... f .. .."

... , be dq "..,.". ~ ,-,ft_, 1011. "N". U\1I.

t it cWI'-'- ..... aJdeotin. D&I'I'01reI' ..... depend

... , .. a YeI'lt ~ ~ .Wot or u..e. accuIaUYeI in the

uIIw-YOiae, _ 1a1lae .........

126] • YIr6.-3. 60M'1f".' of fA. V".-(.)n...4..... ..

.' t.'_ y .~, " .'" J '-I """T'" i-IJ .... ) .. - 1M ttWlj IWlN __ ( .. ) • .w;,;, It.

Cu. --ftoIMtliy) •. 4N""..,,-., N tr • .-w (fllid) .tftfJIIJli.,

(• . _'.'_.:I . . -I'L.!''! ~;li:t

Le. cr._.. ,. 4l1li); !I~' .•... ' .... i; flfHl ., ~ ( .. 'A) tI

IllIIal"'(1e. Itf'tJ ItuJtP.tily t/i .. htllll)j 11;. ~ ..; AI. crwW .~. ~ (.,;'!) •.. erWIwg (i.e. ~.I,Y'ilo ,,)..14 .'l\it air-

aiI .. _ mtiW ~ ', tJf · ·ao, .. nich Iea_

they i .. .;Mntedmitt er.t.

. ,...*P~~~-- 1' ......, B

"". ~:,~CJt-:~tif,.. ·~." .• .....,( .. )

~...,.... .

[1\p:;.··N~/~,..,...... ; .

~."a 11IIb:.~.Io ·~f* ia.the

' '. ..I ' ... , .. >. .

,..,.. e, .. '~' a,. "".!4 ~ '~'" (properly

At. .... ~...,.,. ~ .. ...., ); ~~ _ ...

. "~i" """"~1U mw'.-"'" wnw.....,; ;~ .. # ..

...., .. II... .: . t/II&I C

- .. .., f.,. q/';'~ ~ •. ,_., .... .,.." ' __ •

~_1_._:1 #_. # -.' - ' "_.',:_ ,,' _- , __ '. I

.. ,.. t. ... - 1M a· ~. W. ha .. a .......... of

~- .......... ~ . ..:.;:, ..... ---.,. Wr:

, tt .. .'. .: • ..... f": •

~~~ .... 1lMI ,_,.., .. J!1 .. t,JfIa ........ ..e,AI; ~ _:,;;

• ..,...,4MIA".J!tj ~.;a~, .. D,O.] ,

..... co A. ........ ot"'.kiad of 008 ..... __ a dual

Ol' ......,Ior the ....,.,. ." 101lrinp it at __ under a

"_t ....a. . ...;.;.a. ~.oaa".r ..... _ .., ... ora ,., D

~ ~,. and in dual or pbuaI is only

........ w.·iJa the cue of. a Dlafdar l~ (lee the .. of the

Itction),,,hen there ill a eli ....... of kinds, as ~ ~ ~;. C~ ~ 1 .., 1M'_' ,_. (or «JUt'.,) ; .8lirI.IM ,o:a .nc1 • W,. \i.,~ J:. ~1¢.; ~Ii;; ~ y~: 4f 1 low 1'_ (_.,.) ,_, iii,. ",..(~) ,. ,.. of 1fI'~ .. (toitA) ."'''''ow, ~ f'Aou an -UktlIlMrwo (or tI1Of1Ar 1Iuww/).

68

(§IG

A (b) When it i8 eouected wi'" .. adjective or d~&trative

proaoun, .. amtive. 81' • _ripai,e . or. relative e~ (see the exaaplel ..... aMe). it de6ne8:~ lOlllta the verW idea by an

addition lIWe1i is com_ in onr _ilt of IQgltage8 by

~ of all ailnrb or a relMiYe e .

If the J:tI.Ji ~ he a nmuen Ticia. it is ued ~,~:!a!

for ~" and if it be a apeciei. or have all' adjectiVe.

etc., ~ with it, it is i~ 10 WietJII ,. HM./or

'.. " .. ,'. _"

B ~. or -i'i!i"! er~."~for'~.

au. ..IlIItiI!ld of the verbl." a ~ Anite v..-b,

.'.'of anciUlet ron. of the ...-, ......... '"" of the

". . "',~ i8~em·

IUD8 Dlt&IlUl& or .. .. oonOre.te . " Y«\ '., ,

poy.J; _ t:lt: ~ i ,._ ............ WIii'(IV. aad 1'1.);

~..:. -JUJ ~,~ _ tNl OtIC 4."w (VIII.) 4 Nml.IttAI

, ", -4J, ,', _,', ~ _ '.' , __ '_ ,_ .. -:

(III.), ~ ~ Jt;; _"..". ~ <!.) w Jram(witA)."

(_ .... )' "':. __ (JI.),i,.:1 J~:;l~t:~ t;i; ~ ;~. u. ;;,;r; ~ .;u.; ~, 1 .." ........ (tNA) • ,.,...

• ;.,. ....... 'G.!~ ~ ,,;;~ 1Mr~ 4 ....,.",NtI,~; ..;,tIS - ....., ~/" .;-::.;. ~ ( .. Move, a, reJIl. c), .. ft·.tbi .. ui it;. . ~ ~ ,~i .... !t - ),Ii .....

~ '-~ ,_,' ' . .,,-.- ,: _,.,,- 'C:;~,' -. #":"", :. - ~ - _'

',' . . .

• .. 'II,.. 10""" .for JIN'IIIfi- ""'" • .,.,. .... 4 .... ' .... ;

U •• tJ J'~S'- .... ~ '.ft-I, ",- __ .-

•••••• 'a _.tAw , .. iaterpoeecl, .. t,s.,J jj

# J,J. do tNt __ ...., _, (from one of tUm).

~::r wi!; .*4;,;1--" .. ,.." ~ ,:,j! ~

i ,.. Ita _""J';' r .;,...:.:.; J.. • ''';' 1 .,

..... ~; , _, .. omitted, and ibl place

......... " ....., ~. (for -?,~ J..U). ~

... ;:, I ...... (.) (lor ~ .... ).

o

D

'lfJ 2h " ..... -3. ~ oftM Yfrl-(a) 1'1

.... 6. TIle aeoaaative of the noaen " , ._ A

have..., 1IMhaIIpt, .. hen .. ~¥e voiee, 1iie1l,it..,. rb,

,... lato ve. It.,. ho ... .,er. be _np. u..dlellOlld-

_..., ~ ia no other aub;'" pro"'" .... " • fIMIifled

Of .,.,.........by lOIII8 other WOl"d. (an acIjeo&iveot .. d.t •• tift Ia

• ....... " .. ~~ .;,;.;. ~J Jqi. ;;:, ~, ~;;:. ~.

: ,,',;'~' ~ ..... ,. .

.. ..,. , -.... .... .,.,~.tr:.

.,. It _ _~ ..... IU."

'~'.'~-:~:-~.' . '..,~

-. We ........... ··mto ... ,.,.. ~0Jl thiI

~t.

(4) 11'.., the Qbjtcti~, , qt ... (_ DOt .....

ita·. ,-.Ollled. i~ ,. J*K,'" .1Ii ill the

....... ; . ",it by .. or

more '.~ in wIaWA ' it ia pat i. the ~ tile

,.utive ....... divided froIn the ' .. Old tWperu it. For 0

~: P~~";;';i; ~.~ .. ...,. . .,.".,

... ,..,., j ;,;s .t;; ~ ~..:J,;t.!l oj .... Wag " .... ...., qf' "...,..,.for fIIItJl; .;t!i !; •• ; ~.? yt ;.;£.J j1 (If' ,.

/fIJIl ... ., ttl .,_.. .. ..,,_;~~ ~~~ ~ ",

...,.., ,J. .. .tIMl!4J.,.,. 1 _ ...

o1tJM.,.tia __ .,

.. ...., "hea 10 ....., eIIl80t a-iti'" D

. ~f'·A~6' ,

.... it; Ii . ~~ ~.,.,.. la, "",.., ,."".._;

,~.! ..,;JJr ~ JSf..:u - J lid ..... /'rM IIrfiIg

.. .... '.

..... If ...... be two or IDGl'8 OOID,.... .. they ....

.....u.r all pat Ia,the paitive; '1m _Obl, the 8m ia p.'

• Tbia ia eaIIecI the objecti •• paid.., to ........ i' from • ......... aeIlflit'e or that which deIp ... the IIQbject of t.be acL

~a 8

58

(6) If liotb the ... ~ aad tIwl ohjec\iye. complement oftbe ~t btl ",,1.811 .... ~ are permi\tA!d. (.) Tit. wbjtA:t,_Y B be put in the ~,_ tile ,-v.eoUipleaaent in. &CfSU~ft;

.. !: ,1ft !~ I..f!~.;~.;r Ji".~ i. tiil ,_,. ,,- eHlfl.pwt th'.fo.r to .. 11 (lit.:. da/fr.,fUl •• g G . .,.. •• ' fAil ".,.); ~ ~ ;4.~' # 1M ..,.w God ;" ,. """' .... , Ji*r fGlUn; ;t4P ~ .• ~ .,., ,.._ ",. '_"', .. .,

..". .. ; .il~ ~¥"J' ~);i t; tDMU ;, ~ qf"

c ~for~~,,'_;~;'~J,j;AnJw

. , - - '. - -;. ' ". . . ", -,'

:q ..jJ.i..f§ra.:,..., .i,·~ ",., "A~IJW.tmwd_;

;;;"t"" ...dJ .. ..;,t ... " .ud(A .. ~ ~;:i .a-f!. ~ ~.\it W

__~_~ ._~.;ip,--.~- _~."-'" _,_.,_"., "if~c,,-:'_'"" :"""""~~' ~'~--' -:" ~ -', -.-

?'~--,'- ~ ,#~":"~-"'-L'- " '-.-.', ' _, ': , ' • "_j- - ',--_'.

Ai"'~.' .,;.... IQ.> ~ ,..., qf J'~ . .". • .,u. tI-

...... MIIittg ....",." _ ~ ,_ ",.... aM

...... .". 6taii" wiIittgI. (II) .TIt. ohjective ~~t

-.,i!eput iD the ~Y' &DCI the .lQect i_the ~tive;

._.~- ''''',·11 ."_"'." - • -: illJi'-,'. ·""'·0-"- -, .,'

D .. ~ ~ ~ ._,J- • .. C'l'" •.• ' • coiM

qf .... AIItIIi_ .... """ ..,.,. tu iii ... qf.. .. fDirul

- /:-_ ,'_ , ".~' '" , .. ~- ; ."..,. , '''-' ,.,

,.,. .., ,., .. ",,",,; ".?t\6,.,. ~ ~I \6~ u'fJ

".,iiI-,. #.,',' , .. ,.' - - ,.' .'

~~f .'A::J~' -Itn-f- ~ 1M gr.wl MJW1 ".~, (U

.. " , _',-., ,: .

,., ".",.,...".., _".,. 1M fUr""" .,,4i/II MkcIing 1_; t,;.';~

#r~ •• ~·~ ~";;p ~b.,,~ ~ ;~ And at lite doorqf my

" __ , _~ ... tPotll.lU" ~i~ 0/ M-Jla4;it" (tlteSeven

OJ \ 1._ 1._ • ..' • ,. ~.r,~ .. II. d. J: .... " ..

gteepers, Mpllo 1_ eaee i li~! ~~, ~w...e ~ .. """'" r:--' A

u gat6 onItr.'o '*! Miin JWPle agal". ali, 0.' ......, Ai. ", ~ IAt lill8 of" HI' LnnI." (y) The subject may M put bl "'- _i_tive

dthe bj...... I ..... _ • • ... II'"

an 0 "", .. lVe comp elllent In _ accusative; ...... .,.. ~ ~

,,~,_ ..... • • ., -. •• ., ,. If • .' - ,

~ tIIfj. I.f ."'<1 ...... y.ri ~. I W10IUkr a' ~, 6M., c.d,.,.;

~~t ~ Jilt ~i; J jaw 1te4nl. ,/un JI.,.id ... ~ ji6.1mt#Mr j ,~ ·;U.~J.~t.l u~ 1 ... ~.,., ~ .. ".,4(t'OIWfl m.,,; ~ ;:.;,: ~:.H ...;;",-r u!;.;&f I •• B ..-_ til JI.1ItlfMIl. UjilDtlilg '.A~r (m 1,*,. • fint of ... th,ee ~ is ........ uut/ 'Rae aefoad ia llOt ~oa'. eepeeially .he. w... .. -ve c~.". ponoua. 'l\etlilrd. 111 wtdch the nomell actioai. may be aceotapaoiedbl'the .dcle,er· by a .,eeileatiOaOf tIle ... e or place of tht act in the

.. ni~ it 01 CICNQ~vel1't&rt occ~ .

.... ca. If "'active·" ..... eclto the _Itject ill the C

paitive. it is ~Y put in .ee,"tiv., bat the DOminative

• _.I ' 'L.l_ l.t.: II, ,. i., f. t.. •• " .. ,

.. _m ... _; AI ~' _';--!~ ~ ~.,or ~I; ~\6J

":J';r :t.:. ~;:Jr ~ • ~ Aw, tJI It\. ...,. cajkr .w tlw., wAo -~, ".... {AU tWItw), iaatead 'of ~ ~

;1; ..,u.Ji. ....

1#.. _ ,.,1. .,.,

• ....- IS, stnotly speaking, an ................ ~ and Dot an actual)JJW

(see § 26); but it is used,inatead ~f ~~1. as the ...,.r of ~I

11 , '.... • ,. ,,,. ..

(IV. of ...... ) to 10«, [as ~for ~"'1. ~r of ~1 to~].

Sue rem. c.

60

i

I

A RIUL C. N •. onI, t.he .... ...., but..alto. t;h(1e8 ......

"Iaiob ..... of ....... force aa4.~ wIaiQ .....,..~,

~,,".'" ,... of .. tonaer.-., ~ .,nth .t.bt

paiti ... ~the .. bj_ pel the ~ .. of the ~ J'or

exam~:..;u. ~i ;~,,~'-j,j.j.~ ~l.~.~f 0 .., wrUJ,.... .. "i •• ....,. __ ,_..~>..,.. fII.""~

... ( __ ~ ... _,(~ c=~l);..:;~!j;f.;.~~i~

..,.. '" ~ ...,., ~·...".h ~ ..... oj

,..' ..' . ,

B .. (~=J;:...:);.~j\1-~;J •• ~. ~ .•• .>: •• ~~ ..

(,.._,..~ rr)., .• ".." ..., -v. ••• JM:'.J .. I!);

~,.~.i;14~.iit .....• ,..".."."IttJ ..•• ~ .• ,.;..~ ., ...... t~1J the 1lOIDeIll'icia); [~~'~:~~$' for 10 ~tOiI4_ ...• ,..."for .. ~l ;~u.; ~J ,~i~..,.,..."'f'"'"'lU_chtl j~("") (.u.- == ":1; 'Y III rh;rme for t~); IoU ~Jl At'

o In' ;:f...iji ....... IM. cW4'. oW __ 10 ,., ~ 01. QOtl

({;~ ==~;;I:i\ll.;.;Ji.:..; ,u~ .. '"

~(l.-;.»t; .~,;.ti~.., · ...... 10

, t .... f,..' · , .... ..t, .. "i~1r . ,!.J ..

"'_(~ .. ~: .• .,); -"Jl~.~'J..tt81t~ 1_

~~(oril) .~ '" tfiIcI..",. ,ei .... ..,(i. ... ill ...

..., .,.. ........ I __ . Doti" ). .. P ..;.' .ttl:'; I

, --_-',- - _-' __ . -,.,.'-:-' t/IJ

g.

D .... 4. o! .. , ·---,of.~

....... ~...,~ 1t .• ~ 4...., · .. --

'Dae "'~"r .... " ~ " ... ~ tIte

~~ or ~ftt.othe'"

.... --p.,)IiI JiI. ~ .• ~ • ~'~oa •• '__' ...• ,.t!IMrwl",;~~&}i~.~ ~._c,I~

1M"_' ~ ,., ...... Ai,..., .it.U.".''''''''-

j ... ~ ... .r .. .,.,.;ie.t~ .. ;:.; ... ~ ",#.,J,s

, t

!

• ,. ~ ", . . , . " i . ,- _ _ - _ •

...,.... '" "..". ~ ......... .r, ,..., '..t .... ,..,.,.. dA

...,,._. .

Ba... .,... complement in t.hepaith .... , pr •••• LI,

... it bject of bJ ~; ~ .....

... the object, ." .J ( "); " it i.e. &iIDe or

.d__ .... ." 6 • .. #'.. ••• I, .. ~ "61:

..-- .Ulc~; .. ,. ~j .. ,1D ..... 6 •• by M ~ (~,) _,...,t

.. '_'i(WA~ ..... )./rt*- """";i1J$~~;;:', "il7,J;"~,~~I~,..·~.;).!nJ'" ~:~ .. ~~!.

i*,y.bt!;.'K~ uf.· j.,~. . B

'.,.. v wJUch goYerQ··t.hti .. ~ .. OODl,.._t

.".~.,.of.~theaolQeD.~ __ •• ....,.._:

e ... i~'~,~~"I~.~Io."".,..~. J,~; ~.;-" .• .:.! ..;>1' __ tritifor iI ••. frota ..... ; :' .. 'J j...u .• ~. ~ ~

___ -"'~'"I -." - - .. '.- ,-,.-:,;-r:., -

.4ii #.-,j

.... ..,_ .. qf ill,. .~. ,.,., ."!.--'rhe thiaa holds

,.tiau.. ...... of. __ ~ 4ll'.MC1lI&ti ....

...... ,eded .i ... the .. ",.. t1ielQore ~Ding ita 0

".'0titittIl; .. ,··~t;Jt:Jf~ *!.' • ...,.~ (bJ GNI).

,. </1" .. ). a.-....,'~f ~br .....

of Te ' .... llItj .... - .. ilooeer with •

"'.Iietl; e.g. J!i;Z,fJ:.; ........ (qf '" ...",....,.. .,. ,.._, .... J!i!f .}t J;;1i.

........................ i .. objeoti .... ~t DotB ia ... ....mY8 batia the .. De 1rith y, ill wWe1l .. tm.

JIWIIIOIi- it~ ... 011 __ ...... torthe relatioa that Ill"" ...... tile IlOIIlIIl ....w .. ita objd. H..,. &he Arab paIIUDUiaDI

., call it ~ ~~;iA ,. ,.. ., ,.,.,.,.., ,. ,.,., (tile .... __ or. verbal power which' it poll .... ) j for, aiaee &he vethal force __ dwells in the Domen &ctiowe iiI. than ...

ia the· Wte _,. the l&upaIe '. tiel,. the Fonner . to uerciIe i ..

61

A inftuetaee upoa ita objecl b,....., to ita ~oa ......

the direction of the to". object .'J!aia ~

with yie _ia ,.._ ....

(.) ~the tMiordt _ ....... , .......... the.object

aacli. ~.(aee '. H •• ); .. ~;;.; ~.;! ~ #- .>:

.~~i ..... .., .. /tttltIf; .." ",..,.· iI.>~ •• of

:.;~; ;a '.'J.'his is e8peciatlJ ~

B iaiD.the.tId'etbiIl Q (.-ell'); ~~I .. ;.'.j.~.··.;,.u

1.1tfi ..... ".".. f> ,. .,~; •. .;; •..•. .,iUQJ

~~jl.l kf .. "'~." ; •• ".,_,;; ••• .a ..

::~l:'.~~S:A'!:w.-rt!.:

"_" ' -','-,,,!,' ,"-, , " -'"

"".,.,. ... ".. qfGNl.

(b) ••.• \Vhea actidai.. u..etIiately precedea •••• ~.

O_ia de&aed bJtileuUole (tee. H •• ); .. ~ ~.-;;

,_~:, ''''' . - _-,,'.- ""_, '_ _ - - ."'-:" _ _ _ - - ,,' " , ,,-" 1,:_,,:_,'- '_,-OO!

,.., .,....,.~; ~,i..:r ~ ·~~.·!!';f;r .\j

i;;~~ tVNr (,_ .• ".... qf) ~ . .." ~ 10 14M .•. M. .".., •• qf r ...

(c) .. Whtn 0( .t.\e.~_is ia~ •. ~· .the

DOID4Pl ••• ~ .• ~i •. ~.obj~(":·'·'" .b); ~t'!·f~' •• i.iJ.i

!"Jii~"1"""" ~ ~'I.!tJ, ?Jfil ~I,.,,'"

1) .. ~ .,.,..,. ~ ..,..,. .......... .,,... hi .• .,. ligjI •.. (liltW'"

... ·j .... ~''-.rIt;,.".1II ",..,qf ~.Iig4I). ,. . .;;,,; ~ ~f ~1IfOtI.., qf., __ .. ~_, tor, ~;

~ ~t~-,." Gotl; ~JJ •• ~ ff9. "..",.,., ,.. 10 .. i,. ,., ... ; ~"S;.' •. 9 !L~"t .~,n ~~Jl ;tu, In ;.t,.,. Iii, ~,~ - -"!I. "lid "~.,",

", - ,; - ',_ "", ",','_ ,<':":'._.

_u.cnc".,.dqf$J,

S 80] fAt.Y.,.".--3.0 .... ",,., o/th Yfri.-(.) ftJ..t_,. 88

I ... yallo lMtextended to .... -w nOuDlof .... fcfte aacl A ~ (Bee I 17, b. rem. C;)j .. .}a;.; ~i~~ .JI jpJ

. !~t~ ~tJ;6.f' IN "",*'~Io • ~ .... Ail ~-

itMl folI-, .. 4 Iq .. f/w ¥JI .. ..._ WJpIe qf &.~ ""kilkd Iti'

.-..' .• ; l~.' .•. ~. ~ ~ .. pt.~:; .•. ~ .••.. tf'. ~r 41

~tJ1"" .~qfM~1tIt!·i"a" 'AU ."J{. wr,

gtfirtfil · t~ .• ~ ,.,· .. ·fItir ........ t,],

Iri ~u~~.~IJet~~o~"'"aad~ ... COI18trtlction B

... etie~~v«t ..... tbt~~~.~'"thth8~0Il, is

left in ·1llO!Il ·.··~.tile ~ aildj~.t.Qf ·\htwritet.

R"·:fL ••· •.• 1 ~ •• mocIern.AMbie ••• 0·i ••• often.· ..... ~ ••. ~

1~~y;.lul~t..4!'e'~!..,....., """ t.tMnd; .J1 ~ ~ .. ~~ .. ~.

It ...... 6.TJ,l olyto~ate ~ objecti •• COID~_ent

ol • ..,.-b moaUa .... __ o, rare. in H~waad JEthiopic C

(. Di ,. Ur., § 1'19). "131, rem.

. ..,. .: t. Ol'~~ea,.~.Il9ld.& midd~

.... ticP.a~ .. - - ..... "' ... ~(ttlttWce of

.....,~ aoam.. ~·.foIJOw.~ ~ ~ of.the

.«~ n. or ol.~ .. The. .~ruhl8 .. tobeelilerved

..... -...

(") It~ --"-"1m'_' ohjeetiT8~t, tbie matH put either"' ~""'Yeoria the •• V8 ; .... ull ~.," D '.;Ir".~!.; ~.!f;~ ~'i,~ .. 1Vid .,.- .. __ ~

10 " ,... (P.,._), wJW i • .,.",.,. .for dtJ· Go4-f«wi., mul __ •. ,.", •• ,.,. ."..,j; i~ ~.J;;;r; _ .. .,10 JIll,

"'~; ~;b; ~ d; ~~~;:. t:;;rr~~W1

,. ~ ,._., (~bJ poetic licenae for ... Qa) ....

, , , " ,

. ~, 'A. ItIerwl HOWl (i.e. the Ka'ba). ftft'W piIIiftg II tatl)

110

A -itJiW itt JfMIw f¥ .... fOr ..l!;'); !'JM e; ,;. - ".., ....,. or (-..",) """"'. ,. 1M K.'N;~ ~ .......

, ~ ,

Jw,.w,,;. ~.lIsii..,Ji Ja. ,.", .." ... ",.,. tJ/ tI«IIi (,.,.,

. , , ;,"', - ," , - _','" -: '

or ....... ); ~ ~ ~I ~ ... 1M'fl1 n.fIIiII .. _

'. . . • _'t.,S ~ u* ":. ~,,': ~ '.1c

- ... 'If {MIl _ • .,.,. -MW; 411,1 ,.,,_.....,.,.. ~ ~

.. Mid""",,, ....,. . ., ( .... ) ... Jtri; ~ ~L ~ .. }_d IIf ~~ ..• -Jr-"''''p. __

, . • ,. c .~ ~ t"I. . ...... _ . ..." .. ' . . .11

B ~ tftIl,."".. ."",. (fIIIIl..._,_..,. )-The .....

";"iI""~ :.~ ... ,.;;;; ... ~ •• i. .. they ..... ,.... ,.,..., either Wi. the ~ or ·with the

paRi .... ,..mew' they ha, •. t.he ....... 01 ... _ (t~u.:Ji.

hiet.orioal ........ ··· ta_). Aathe .Jeaitite.....- is ill

tbia .. ~.~r ·imptOpef or ~tatl'fe <_176, ".).

, -f/!.", , _ " _

the ..... WOld may - 'defIMcl br the article: .",IA·.PUt or

,- , " - .,_. ~

','fit t ... t. " .. # .~k ' ". f.t=

o """","~, .. "" liIII JItIIlIM .. ..,..wI .pu. or ~ ~"'J AI ..

., , " , " '-'",. "

'JlllI JNiiI*- Jit \IS; u, accordiaI to &1lOther Nadbtg. ..,.lj .JI.

'_ . ~ , - ,'_'--

~ U!i (- aboTl); ~ N ~,ti fl- .. ,.." II

I".til "':J- . ...,. ( ... ); ~.~; .... -I"'forwt

'.' ~.~" .. : W ... t'1f ~ _4

IM •. u._w> ".,..,.' ~ J!I1' ~ .... .,. 0 .. .,

...,1lrtgJ. ...,. "'_',.;p. fte1l, OD .. COIltIM7. the DOIII$aa

D ..... Of dinetly traaeitiYe ..... haft the ..... of the ,.rf(pedeo\ pluperf'M, aoritt, and tUtme-peftect), ., approeoh IDOIe

IltItly to the ..... 01 the 1lGUD .... .,..u.p ,_ ... (aa ~. ",""", II --), aad __ are ~. lib tbia .tter, with the ,_ithe _y. PutIaei-, ai1lee this paiU.. COIl1leCtioD it c,...;..

'-'I

poper GI' ... < ... 171, 11&), the aoveraitas word e&DDOt be ....

by the ariicIe.: ."AI ~ (aiad .. .",;~ ~ti1i or .;,.aJi Jaili) ..

c, ," " , _' ,. ,_ .-

_ MIW. _. MIMI. W JilW. GI' ." .. MIMI -I .. ==

---- ----- - --------""------_-----------,---"------------ ~--

I'! f! i

, !

t

I 1t ! J!

'. -,

,-) .Vtr6.--8. ~o/"Y""-(a) • .A_ II

1"~ _ .. 'L:& ' , .. 'i~ ...... sr. /IJI . '" • 41 fI! # •

.,_ ~. or v- ~ ~~, or ..,. ~ &.1,/,,'; ~i".I' ,,~, A

...:jJfj .~tI(orH ... _~. __ - ...... ........... Dat1ln1fyapply, w_ the ..... it. prcmomiDal

"'1Mtead o, te mw..tiYe: ,;JI-~ ~1 .. _

' ~DWff;,1;; ~ _ .... ' 18

~ .. .;.~.~~~~O,.-~~ .,,_

...... ..,.., .,#f/WIl;ht· ,.~ ._~

.. . ..,,fi. is uli ~~. ·.···If~ die '~ .. ti1 be B

·'·d' . _ ..... the~ .. m~ .....

(.)",._ it ii'tta, .ttriba_ ..... pI~·.tla ~ ,)

..... ..... ,.th8~. to ~ ........ oJ·~itioDor

.: ~';: ". '. .. iI., .... ...... ~,.'" iii .. ''',.I

... ~ .. (- 1'4); 6.1· ,.... -r1;W ~ .. or ,.. .."p ~~!.

.. it ,..,.., (ar tDill,*,) fA .. ,· ~ 1£.\ ._" .. ~ ~ ZIU'. ....,.. Di4. .B / .• ) it ,_., (or tDili MIl) • IwtiIMfo of

• ~s '- "4.'-" , "

... ; ~t JW ~ ~Pt .:-»- 1 pMftJtl ", (I <_ wcu) 0

, , • ,c .- ,-......... '~L

...., ,... for (1M .... tV) /tit,ltldw; ~ ~ ~ A-

~ .;,;, .. _., II tmf P. (or ,.,., Ail.", tDill .. w;;,;" ,

*' oIiwI. -~ W'f* ' . .;.; ~ ~ "at ';.~" ,. II 6tI4t .... WI"., hIIiag a .... *' bMIJ iI.- ~u ~; ~

, ... .'.t.. ....

~ ~. ".,. fA .. «fIN *' .. IIIIIIiaI i~ . (JI) After aD

iaterlotlMiYe or Mptive ~ wllea it it the atfIIiItute of a p. D. . ... ...... !.~! r: cedbtg or (leaa ....u,) folio.... aubject; e.,. '--d ..:oJ1 'r ..,.

• doff "." ~ toiIIt f'fIl"d' ., ,! Isj ,--;,;st ~ will ,.'

, ttl' . #. ...

. .~ ... ,. "; .. ,,

fiIfIU II ,.._.;" ... dici 1 ,ww1 ~ ~~ -:..JI \4. I_ doll,.,

/6lItnD (or tadtp) IArir ~; 41 _;.a; .;.;.t ~ .; teO .. gifW ~ *' ,. .,., of ,,;; irilrtd& (}').After an iDterj~ (_ • 38). u thepndieate 01 A auppreaaed subject"; 8.«. ~ ~ .;

W. II.

9

66

A 0 (tAm' .110 tll1) climbing I' !till! '- ~ ~; l:!; i:;;n ~ "l~ l:! o (tAol, '111M arl) t.,.,m,g (J1M11,.". lit, (''1) _!

R.M. tJ. The nomen apntia in the sinplar number, when follo..tby a ... btttantiYe in t.he ... it.i~e, can take the art~ only when u.. subtttantive is itaelf defined by the artiele or &Ovema

....... &.t&ntiYetJa.t is .. delnedj e.g._';';;i ";'Jt.1n .u .. ." 1M "_', . ...:ar. "t ~p.£n Au.o ,_,; .... ".;. on 1M 1ae4rl

, , _ ' -: .".~ .',- <,., ,'-~~ -, '_ ,fi!. __ . '_,', . ,_' ,_'--_ _., _ i' __ _' ;, ~

B (lit., .,. 1M __ of "" __ ); but we_nnot _y ~~!,.w,

nor ~ ";'J~'ao,. ~ ~J':';;';;'''~or ~..;.,,\J.J. The

.'-- '!-JlII,< '-::',":"'--'_ , " "', '_:,,_""-.:'_"f"'.-,':': _ ." _,*

riuon of tide .... to be tJa.t a eertam eq.ipoiIe .. , be pn!88I'V*<i

between the· p~n. word. ":".it:, .,\ and the pverntd woN, ;;S -.J,1;". Oa the 0" ~. the articht may be Pretxed to the dual or the pl.ran. ~ .. .....,..even w_ tile following ,.ni.

tive ia _deb_ iDei~ of the abav:e .. ya;,becauae, the

" ',/' - ", . .: -:' :',-_'--"~-._:,_---".-' , " til. _ '_-" -"'-',, _'_ . -, - ,,'_ - _ - __ .- j- ....

C rejection.of t.heterrld .. ti_ UUd .;,:(Vol. t § 316,6. c), ~

r_ - ,_' - - '. -' , c

aDd ~ tooi'J.Ji become. more olosely connected. _ grow, as it.

"' ..... ~to ~ w9ld,lik.u'_'" .~ ~.wJt~~ ~ b..r t..\e article aDd follow'" by a pronominal..... ~ce we .... , .y

.-:;')tJ.Ji.~ ~~.~~. ~ ~ utJ"""~ as"eIl

_-":,_"': - __ ":'-_'~-:itI!-"--_"-',*;'_-#f- " '_',t#J" "'~

.... 4'.;' It , 6 a. 6 , •. +~

as ........ .;f#IWllt. 1"'CJ .:jiIJ-I'M. ~ .:J)I~, ..,.. ~\oIV1;

~ ~;it:h' ;,;. .~ 4" "- ,_ .. ,..... ", 'AdM ..

D. . _IA ... (_ ., -! Me); I;; :=l,1..:,J; ~~ ~

1M ....,. .. ali '""-' ., ...., ......... ;

t';"; '~.!6r J!;.. ~ii tMo .... ..a cAl "..., < __ ) "'"

A.-."""" There., a third Io~ of ex,..... Mlmis-

/,- - -, '> _ ••• ,;, iJ,.

lible. ariainr out of a ~t.ion of theIt two, vii. t..... "JI.iJ'.

,-- . ,

It ... "'. fof ... ..... ~. '4.' ~ ~. tI. i Lt_L ... L~ ,.;....~

1.a(J UIJ~', ~ Jota ~ , n WUIVD _ N,,_...

J, __ '" * ' fill

tion of 'the terminations t:I and ~ l81'Vee only to indiaate tile o_

r . .

..... ooameeIilaD, ,...,_,::; ~ ....... r ~ ~!¥ 4

,., ' •• ' _~.- ~ ; .. $ ••• ..,,_~in·-whtth

'-1 I'M Vn-a. (h"" 11......,.oJ' · v ... --(~) •. ~8'1.

....... _ ..... ~ .. (:~f)it , i~ ............. A

...................... tlled~~"" i .. W

Itt, .. ~ .. .... <> ..... .

~)·-When a........ ... .. or

.......... __ el.by the

artioJ-, of JllEe ....

:.;~ ; (I) .·~.iM .,.

D

(11) If ~ .. 4 ,.·

two or thNe~ye 14., 16), it takes the first either intbe ~'f8 (which iabf- the more uual) or in the

pattive ... dtht others in the &CCQ&ti't'e; as ~ti ';J b;j ..,..ci. lit

. - <11>_

• [_ ......... , X..u, 206, L 16---206. L 9 apeab of thia Yel'I8 .. ~ - . .., ......... uclaan annexion is not aDo .. evea by -~J~B.8._l .

PAM ""laD.-B~

131

a.... If the oh,iecIi~ ~ .. of .the· 1lO1Q0Il ..... of a ...., w.uitive ~ •. bbe ,.. .......... maybe appeJiCIed to it

~.i L!~ , . . .' ,.,,# A •

.. ; .. g.~. _ ... '_"U 19 r-,~ .... :.~< .. ,

,. ",..,. {co...p. Yolo ~~Il'''.l .'.

... b. ftI~.·;a_~ta ofanOllltD.~ ortbah,fliob"" '.' ·· •. ft· 1 f ·~tw .. the nom. '.' .. th&* ~. '. "Hn . .~ve;

.~ ntt .~ .. ait.: .'~ ... da .. ""~

~ 1.:::~,,;·:-~~4;';:i:'." ;;1.1 ~; ';:,110'

tAW _".~·Gttl. i.i .. ""11'- ~·~.II~ ;'~I.", In t.be ,.,.... of \IaeIe ~plea,' wltiCh ia ,. balf .. Y .... H ... peek'Y. th. eoastnlction has '*- foUowecl in. order to twing tile word

11",:,; ;rr into the· rh,me; in the latter, which is taken from ~e

""·.~t ~ ... , ., ,-'" ., _,I,_

~ xiv. 48. the preferable reading ia -"'J ~~" ~.

ai.' What bu '-' aaid ill' ft.~. the UI8 of the pre~ .J ....... .,.is eq~ ~le to ft_"'''tis.

(4) V. it tU.~ ,_,u.Jmm.tely preeeIles _object

~and.ande&ae4i .. -I&i -:.,: .. ; _1,."Aet _."j ~~; ~

D tIIiW.· ... ....,.'"" (ia which eample the ~ DOIDen ..... is tIle'~ 0I· .•• ~ Jil,.; or cil'Clln~tiaI ,clause

(1188]; ~~'~ i ~ .. :; ";~.i.1r ~ 'll4ij,.;J oj~;

4_ ~ II .. ..."". (in arsn-t). tJ.rCfp' toM" 1M tlJlPflHflHI i# (I ~,_ ~._ ..., " ..,. ~r llu trutA. This is espeoiaUy the _ wheD tIt6 DOmeD apntis is in the adverbial

.... tiv. [5"' .}; .. ,;I;; '!";.;; ~;Jf ~ t.t¥j 4Hd bIIiM .1I1AaI I J _ _, .... ~1IfI ., .Wl4idillK'tU 1fJII (tlae

B

o

. sat] n.v.,-b.--3. ~ f/ tIw V .... -(a) .. AtlIMII. .. 8ariptane wIlich,. have aI .... , received); ~ ~.~ ".-iiA t;i M WW btt/ON tM ci" ,. -. it; ~ .:.,. urlJl, at ..

*" • " 4!'!'F- -, - "...,..",

~ • II~. qf I:HtHJJWfI'J ;11 II "",.,' w......, fI_

;,.,;u.,.IM iRHllifllHl. (6).J Us aJeol18ld", *_ .... tis ~'.l)rec«des tile q", and is defiaed. by .. utiicle; as #~.~ .. tf1 ..... ,. o~·., .. ; .;.;:'~

~.~ til' " .~ ~/";~P~;if B

> .a; ~;r l:tit "

...,_,*7 ~·.~to·~ OIW·'..,.· •.. ~

it~,.-.. --iv)W«.,.,_. ~,,_.~.,,'W.~;., UJj'

:·;~·lt. > • ..' tUM .... ';"Ih..t~ '. ~: ' ~>' •• "', :"

i .;~".;; "fI"'J... ""1> .~,., ,,~,.,

__ ,.> .' ,

. . .t!fiif!'",.w,. (f)' ~~ Y i. u8d .. & .. tm is

ill.,.. .. " .. the.· ....... ~._ the ~; .. t.i. I; :'!I.;

M,"".f!1M ;'tv._fat. . C

R~ ·v.'" beued iutead of tbe ~ve, "hen .. object .,of ...... _ ~tis ia rhetoriGUly transposed uaeJ. ,._. before it;

" '_:,' -III ",. '~",.,:", ,_:. -," , ._- , " '_,'-': ':'-',

.. '.' ~ d ... '-it to..l"- -_ ..... --J,.;_I • : .. 11.£1:' ':1 •. ~.1 .. ~ 7" ~- ,-.....,r- .. ,~.~~..,l..

," e «. "'.,,~_',:, ~

--.,., .111 ..., .... ~ (in the future); :'.' .. ..:.I :i t4

""" -- toill ,. ~ of -i;;';·.I1i ~ ;J .,. ~ .......

... ,.., ...... _ ...... ...,.." ., ........ 1M '""

,..",.,..-~ aIaowith the ~ .,..." ~ ,~.;~ 4 v,. D .c:""" ........ If the tn.aapoaed oIiect be a pK ... iM1 .... \tJ (Vol i.ll~ 189) _, be _ple.yea in*ad of J; .. ;,;.:; ~

~, "c .• " .e a , _ . _l!

~ .. " IAH IN ~ GM 19 t.W - fW1J for A4+i

.,. •• __ I a •• ~,

u~ • .;,1 ......... Ae Ill_ 1M, _" "'tll' (in rbyrne for .:" !:;). Cotnpare * 99, rem. 6. and Vol. i. § 189, 6.

•• If the verb, !rom which. nOID8Jl pdentis is derived, goVerDI two or three accusatives in the active voice, ita nomen patieatia ret.aiaI one or t"o of them, the other having paesed into the nominative; ..

'10

A ~ :;.:. .;.;:. ~. &1 • ..., (lit. .." Au ",..., [lllOD

.". I ...... ! !t.... .. .... ~ .. ',Jff. ,_.~. .~.' . ._ &0_

.......... i ~. _. ~..ad -'''_ ., --r-'" WI

.l! .. I!....' I. d 'f! I .... ,,~, ,_.~. La~.... .

.. .., .i .~ ~., ~.A"'IM ~ ..... , " .. - "...--

., 'A ..... ,..,...,.. .'"- U.

- V_"'~"""'''' .hicIt. i.lI .. aj ..

....... __ ..., ......... ...., ~liU ..

....... • 1IUi" or the ~_ y. BiDct.

B ...... , ~ ia..,.' ·~.ia by

. .L"",&:":,, ·~~J:..t_-.~--a...Lo L: ~o. ·.TJbs l"IIU..: '.' ••

IIII' ~.-~~.~ '. ~ .. , .........

~to'" ~.-..lt'i (yoLl •• ,.- ,..4,

ltaa); ... ..., \0 .. ,...., uJ.,i'.,t,. '~. (id.).

ad ~ (t _, __ 6). .. 1rithtM·~.,.: ..:1

, '_ ',- ": ' '.

~. q.~ ... ..,;..;Jt Io:(lit.. W.qf)_'/~""""

.",.,., • ..-,. /01' d i .~.Q.;.. ~Js'~

o r..., ... ..,~ ill ...... tfil,....,.'Af ..... (~'iIi ill~for~.,); I.~y;.;.ij !;'!' ~ ~'1,i~.~ ~~ ..... ~ ... ..,.. .,.. ,., ....... _-.....", .... --

'"'_ .-"'" ~ ~

~ ..... ., • .,... -"AiI-"1 ~ ,,»-i'

.,.,:,r.tf;I.~'!{.'i'.~". ~";.1fIJt1N •. ~ tf .. ;.~;4 :~~';':'l ~'.~ '..;fs.,,,",,.~., ... ~I

, -.",;,' _,' -';-,.,,_6~

J) (or ~l" .... ~. tlaiNJ"· .... r ... ill rhyme ,for

~ .. ); ;.'''' ~;;\ ~ ,.,." 10 ~ ,Wr _. "" ~ (;.Li ill dallle for~; 1~ J;.,U';;~f ~ ,. ... '(.,) tf" ,.""".., • .., MOM (iabeauf1); a;; b~,,;t,r~l

;_ b,.; 901 .... ,.,,,..,.,.,,, '.,. Hi".; ,~1 ;~

;.ti -i .. "'. ".vI ••.• ..., dGt ..., i";twe (Ai.); u!ut

.36) ft, Vri.-8. 60wt ""''''' old, V ..... -(.)........ '11 ~ .~~..:;I il leu .., 10 ., (10 .,.....,." "., .. J. A Mi--.. (lit. ".,.., .. p;,.) ., ...",. i ~;~ Y ~ AI

u ,. • .".,.... qf II. fill .0fIII ..., ,.. (the ); ..:A

~.~ . .;,.,.;.; -ugM,. ,.., tI1i" qf;'

..~.,.,. BaIuplea ~ . I:.:'q!j It ~r .alC. ~

y" " ~ .

.....,.,."./tr,..,., •. ~ .. ."., qf tf1M#u.~ I,t;;. .~IJI. Jj.

.I:-"~~~ .••. ~"",*", " .•..• .:.;.,.,,_ B ~';';".tt.:""IJJi;~J\i~Jjji "';'~.,., 11M

~"'.(fftillfD .(tI); ete .

. ~J)·~~Y.oItbefonj~t~ to 0111'

~~. . jYI·{V'oI.i ••• ' _."._.

.. ~.. ~.i"_'''Witll~. _,......,. iD •

.... .." ·Jt.t.,.~." ... \!.~'· .<': •.... ......, ....

~; u~~...,..,.J"'."'."'."",,,

.... "".,'.". I ,."u·.'

,. M; .~ ~ ........ ' ~,.,I '" ..... ,., Q«l ....... 0

"., -' .",.,-., - ,.. --,'.,

.Ai..v ' i .. -~ -J : .•... 'I k!\ t.· .. d<.·.·i.·.· •.. ~.· .. • ·.··..,..2 .. ;; , •....•... ";J .. '.; .• "".l •......... ~.. .'WI.'"

~, . !J~. '.' '~" .,..

qf"'-~~"',,"qf",,~.- _--

qf~",~.~i;J/1~~ Q';; " •• t~,~ ..

~ji'."r'" _...,} ......, ..• ,.. ,.,(,.,...);

~ .. ·~,"~.fItIIitI ....... ,... .. _ ..

...... _ ...... ~ ill ....... ·lot··~ •...... )i

6~ l;~~ 41,..". ".:..,qf.,......., D

:a .... y ~el tJ.Ie,....Pt ,_ -

~_or ", ., ....

ilu tIae·~ .. w..teltlle ......,..;

....... ...., ,.... ...., ~ with

• .Aa ...... ill .." _ for _ 1IaperIMi..,

it .. ,. he cleriYedfrom Mijeotiftia of either ao&l .. or JIUIi"

, ~~ . I ". I... .."

ar-&ioa; ... , ........... ~ ,..,. _from ............ ,.._"

.... [OoIIap.VoI. t ._,) , -

j

i :

72

[S35

B

, ". ._'" • ". , ~ , It'

V'!. aB ~ •. ~ ~, u'l ....... ' ~, tA, bJiet"er i. ,,,ore loMl 01

, •.. > .. , . . 6 ,., , ~

God tAcm Imy em, ttl,. , .: W .•. u'l ~, ,. la, t. ,nor., ha,tttful to ,n,

lAta" .",.,.

I'.'

a ... 6. .Verhat adjectives of the fornl ~l, derived from itl-

''''''''iw verbs [i.e. verllfJ which pnrn their objed· by .meaoll of .. prepcIISitioP.§ 13, rem. fl}, .reqldrethe II&Illepreposition after them

a.".i," It

aB thole. verba ;. as.",. y,_" .... tlaU ... Itt""". or ~,ltW flU.;

u~ ~~t;# ~·.~f; ~~;r Jl.~f;t;l!t1.~ ':"Jf~

.. !;'; tr M ~.fRON /t·o". .UJ()rltll, pl~ and it·. tuk., r ttJ .tlo f!OtHl, mu'~)fIlar""".J'r'ofM (JIGm' qf) crt .. " and u mor' ~,... trjm' 1M ",....{qfGod) -. They often, Mwevttr, taketheiraigniti-

cation. from one .01. the derived formfJ of the<verh (aeneraUythfl

fIe(IOnd orfourth)j lUI ,~..:,;i\ ~ t4i. coY"'" a..,_Mac.

, . , . . ..,

dill "tort (from ;ut,IV. of .... U IQBlarld) j ~~J,; •. ~

,;.c,t ~ ...""IICU"" of a ~a" .~. I.i. "';ligion lletkr (f..6m .:J; or..;s.:,\, n, or IV. of ~ Co b., eqf");~C~ j;.\i~r J!i.

. , , ",

• ~.' .. '~.,. ...• , .. ' ·.i' Ie',

~'» ~ ....... ', 1M Ila~ of "'lbJ~ i~~. ".., JIOWft' of

Il.u.,. cmtl ~ .,......_. terror inlQ ~ • .",..,. ""'. llela'nd t"-;

,'fj:' _-,_ •• , ',' -'_, _ ":' ·'.'iht '. ' ' ",., ." :":-, '. •...• . ..... ' .. '

~~" ~L".., ~f/a" 'ft&J!'.,.. ill crtJ1) aftd make.

.,; •• ·.oU· .....,.i_~~;iJ ~'jI1~~.hUidu ,.. ~i-

C,.,...fiIla-<.,.) ..... ~ 1"'_ you,. aceotltlt (/ltan. II.,

..... ,ft #~., .. I

d-);91~"'I~,...1 ,.14 ltu tIIOf'f Mtd qf- tlaatl I ","",.

•. _ .' ,-'" ',..,' ., :f' ' .. ' - ",

qfA_(ftom~ tt:.-1, VIII. of ~~,. MtHJ r&t«l qf). See Vo).

i.,t •.

a,_ Ttl, ac.-tive aot unfrequently depends upon a verb which is ~ This happens:-

(4) In phruee expreuive of command (positive or negative).

wish. ~h·(worded illt.rroptiyeJ~),· praif!J. salutation, and tho like, in whieh we .... ,plythe yer\) from whiebthe.noun in the

accusati,ei.deriYeti,MJdto wl,icldt .. atrY~ .~ •. ~iC.:r_ GIG).

}por : ;';":"'4!"''' fit .•• J.;. ;r ..;,;.wf,;a. $A •• tJ.:,_,tsiW

. . • ....,-:- .. ' ,,'. . '.' ." .'. . . ..... ., ," , t

c

D

,N] "' Vn-3. ~ old, Vtr6.-(,). Aeou. 7. ,til, l!tI d;~ JQ;ir 'J1ti .., ... "...., ( • ..,.),_ ... A IHliIwI _, ""* .. ,.. .... (i.e.c"'· 0.1,.. .,..., IjIJ(GI .,.,,), .... ¥f ....... til • ..,.,. __, ..... ,." /tIJI 'M foJIwI' ad (~) .,.,. _." Ii,... (by letting thal ,. free) (It' ,..;

,...,. (for .. ), where .Ai.;,';'" '" ~ ..;, ... ,,f,J" l1; ==

J, . .1" '.'.,,- .' _',:':.: : ·:·r;< .#.,-

~ ~".apd ~-:1~~,.1fj;~~ Jt;i. a;.;; ~

rMY7t1 ."..", 0 .~.tJl/~ ~41( ... P"I)' where

~ .. ~ •. ~ .•. 4JJ ~~;~¥j~,.~_ do fIOt giw B Ill$'lto~~.J.e.,~t~;'i~~!; .~ ,.,.,z,1

..,,11.1. ~ ~;.iU y_; "~od,. """nl i.e. j\'c

.... ..-"" ~ .. ,., .. . . ~.(... '

~ ... ;M.l "J may God -, t~'~~e.~;.w ~;.; . .iJi ItO:,

•• ,.,.",~!i.e ..• ::' ·~·.j;~9;;st.;.At~t dtJll 1be."..,.ttl qfUr tAo" .. tJWt_tkfIt4/rma-'~e. ,~. ~tt ;

.:. e~ ;" irji. ~;. ~J~1 dM '1t0l~ tlJay (or ltJiUt·). _." llIat ".,1 C " ..... ~ 00fIIB tIptnIIl., i.e. ~ .. yitJ,;Ji; # ~,"':6, Ik ~ ••• ,."., qf.Gotl tor. ~,,;; I, . H"~e gII.wr!. sciL c; :t

1 praiali<trhiCh is ~ ;~lor statement of fact). or iJ", ~ ;", ete.; p"-'-. etc. (which is an ~,a .CQInlD&ndor with) [often ueed .. ap1lraaee .... lt wottclef] ;Jtti~ (Mtlltriicl! i.e . # )~ ~t 1 _ •• ,..,. qf G«l; ~; , 4i~ .Jaw fII8I'C1 011 D

O ' .. ' • ." ." ..... , a~,.~, .....

." MY 1Artl1 I.e. utt... ;,;.r:. (v:w or) ~.;........ .dItJ 1 tIII4iI

J."", tpN n, """;u, 0 G041 i.e, Q .iaS .!It = titJi .iJj ~f; lad.; I;:: Iwritg and ublyillf/, or 10 Mar .. ,. ,.,. i.e.·~ t;:.t ~Ut~;; ~ ;;,.. wIcorae! i.e. .....a.. ;.. ~ lAo,. tM'I

, - ,.. . ,

....... bM qf am""'; [i.;a.l't; t!.:. fbitlloee and Ao~;.(willl

do what thou 1'8CluiTe8t) i.e. ~ ~f; t!.:. 4f~

.. .

W. II.

10

'4

i '

A a. ... 1D ..... of .. .......,.·wieh,a04~.the.Aub ............................ , not· ... ~ ;;;; IH).

... ......., .. ~r .;;.. J;.l ... ,-"",,. /fW '" ..... or ...)0 Ji,4T ~~;.,., -:.".. 0/ -'.-6,. IOlhat, accorffia; to .;..;.., ~ .;ll • ..,., =.;;.ti .»it . .a; ~ = :.iii JilL" and

~f.,,". '

......... IDAch. __ .. ~~_ ...Qihe·dual ..........

B ... ~ _!;! ... !.,. ...... ,_~ bU~'G~

10 ~.··IlHd~.[8i .. u.r ~ .. are

'-;';::' • .aGJi. ~1';.'; .'-;j~ and ~ ... ;]

(II) In varioWj~cuesti .. whiehtlatt vetlttolJeaa.plie!Iilaot that wheucethe Munin theaccu.tiye i. derivtwl. but., 1Je_, g1le8lleCl frolDthe maa_ in "hich the ROUn i. utteredaad tJ.a cireuBl-

I .

lltancea of the speaker. Buell are :-

(ca) ~ expreaaiye of wiah, salutation.· and the like; ..

,,. ... II· _ _ - ", ,A..

o .aU .~ .. , ., ...... b.. cui 0.1'1 J.U '" ~ 10 ., it.

' .• ,: _ .~J_~ '. ./Ii._ .. " ...• ' •. '" -_~., -. . '-.~. ~ ·t " .. -, .

t .an .-.,pI or ~; ,.,." "MIJ _1. ~I or ~t

.,.. "" tMtIJ#o. or ~ /tnlM. " ,...., ( .,) ,- •. .,.

. -. - ; - - _-- - . '-, - ",' .. ,".,;" .

f,. .. , ~. - • .....,. (~)".,; ""!......,... I.e.

, • ~... -.A/'o -~.~ -' -,

"" ~ u~ ~, .. arl MffW 10 ;, P4w .... ".. U ,,_,

.. - '-, -, ' ,.- -,

ft! ,.,.. ./fir *' (10" .~ ,.); .,...._ .• Tahm$ to

~!~ ar ~ .: ..;;;,; nMY. fhl giw I_ ,... III .....

D __ I·

(/I) Ph,.,. in which .. indiYidaal is eaHed Dpen to·.aard hiRllelf, or .. part of hiapenon •• _ ~. one or ..... tIUa,

(;'l': SIi); or in whick one or more indi:rid- are UJpd to do

,,- - , .!

80Dlething or attack _ object. (¥4i). In the t'ormer eue, the.

,

,.],.. ..... - 5_fl/.V~a) • .4 71 ,

....... ' •• Idi-(J) ,..,. who it to Wa t A

or ') fit ~ .. is to . ..-.. ...

or_ ; «; ... ".,.1IotIa , by

•. ~;. Ia.~ .. ""·~ .. · •• "",,,,,,,,.~to

......... ., , ...................... :

~OI' .. ~ /i..,.*'itIa .. l·;~/,.

/fill ..... ~ t1;~-...,rtleil.2 .: .., ..... ;

j;tJf, .. ..,f .. ~_I t_~J.tI. ;... ... ~.,..-cl B

... ,,;~;~J( r •. tMlIt~.:; .. ·MiItlI

",eJU4I·_.·~.· .····.."",1 .~! .. i. . ., .... ;

~~~i"U1r1."'''';;''~J~(;;~f~; ~ )';1

'~""".ifl.~;.~ ~ ,.., .... ttl ......

........a.c~ __t..i6_!, '.. .'

.. .. ~~ ; .... / .....•....•....... ~" .. '4 01', -correctly,

~ .~ .. .;,fJc4, III .." • ..., -.(where .;,r.~ hy 0

tile ~~'" isM ....... "_ . .-...i. 01 .. DOUB

~" ... c)); .. ~ .. ~J!f.lt~ ~ ~_.,. .....

... ,,.., qf'.n'·_;_~t Ill ..",. "'1

.... w;.;r.-. _.1! .. ·~· ...... " . .:..1 " ... ~ .•.....•. '''... .J.::Jt. e: ...... .. " ....•....•

., .... ~ -~ ~; . .!).~ Jt:. ....... IItIatl

..• ~/.~ ",.:".r*iiM tI· .. ~ \j; .. :;ar.~ ,.".foI1 !'" J-I JCiL P:I.,u ~ fItItMIi; ~t .. I, or ~,

~~f.i. '- ..." "".,..,.--, -~ .... ,.; D i.i~ .. ,... "..1 .u. ~ j ~ .iu1.i ... ",.. "'"

,... ... ICiI. J;I!,.; .r- .i;':, 4; ~ JI. ..".., hi ,....., .~ ... I eci1.";':' ;;'-" ~ ..: .·_l.f.t ~I'

.. , ,7,1~ ~ ~ ~,'

i.;~ ,.".,.. .... , ~ WW .,1 ICiJ. ;JUt w; ~ lAy

· lIi:. •••. .... . '* ..

... 1 -. or~, ,... ... ; ~"".,.",I aciL ~

......... tfIl. ... .. .. '

'16

'\

A B..... If. --ill ~ .,...~ .. ."reel oalyOllOllt the Yerb

.. y be added i ba~ if the aocuatiYe be repeat.ecl ... if .. be two

...... v .. OOQu'" by; tAle verb ia never .,nIIIICId.-V.lprly.

z,f;j ~lis UIfeII of Z'lfi""I. and the Ijke.

.......... l'ia , ~ ......... ~.ftioh is com-

.... ,......... .....,...oftbel.QdUtiN~.ve rare;

e.,.;&r;~ • ., ..... ,ItfiIlt. "".,/eoil. j,br2tili . ..,... U!~ i

B ..if.i.~ • .;I..~ •• ~;i~t;iAr"-IW.~-15"'~"'·", of~~"(CK'''''')4''/lJCn.>~ !_~~~.l

~~:,~.~ .. ~ ·.~J.;.~~1lJi~J.;;.rt"til

'T'~' ''If .. 0.~ 4 Mlt"leI ~·1Ae ~

...... (~ ..... oJJWve.thei".. u.e.of4l,'"~ ~ti .. ~

(y) Variouph ~ otwhi\,h u.e tW~i ,WY. as ...........

o We maY8&ltoahu ,p .;; .;,~,_ 'lwlJlf~!

eeil. J...' .,. .. ; orot a penon who .. ai at .. target, .;",~

~- ' " - - - - " - .',' ,

#' .,_.,."", ~/aciL ~ •• ~ •• fI1ill 4it; •• ()t it -bear~

sholl., .. .., ..... ·.~ .. of tile ,.~ ••. J¥.,....,

....... "Il19di eoiL t~ ., ; Ol'to one who .......

'~" "a, "., .-.' - .e . '_' _,' ,,',,:_, ."

.... .J-!i·..., •.• ~ ....... ;. ,... -.4 cItfJtri"" aoil, -;:..,; ... ,,_

... ·orflf"".M; or .. a man Who Madone ~ 1IIeaD.

D ~. ~ •.• ~ .• 4Il dJI- of ~'.eciL .£ ..... _~ ..... , ~ ~l.t1J4J ~ Ji1.I~. leil.l,J ~.,.,. fIIoIlw)rm. MIg *"""Mi./tw V.., ttl 1M ai,." ... , (itril _redly bappfm). ~;. it iI.l... D. G.}

<') .•... ~. ill .~ a ~--(eDeraIly of the rarely of

the ..... petlOD-it bl the .. n, to which it. in the

aocuati!~~ , iIlter"'...... ~of.thia~o-

t.iort • .... ~-.,.··~·~ ... ·~'i)t¥·~· •• ·or

~<.,· )-ia Iet .. .

R .... 6. 111 auehphraeea .. ~1 ,_.. " if for '"' I ~ ,i)\A ,_.. •• .., IttJfftl for you I l.:lU .In;.i A~ tAM .. 4 ,_"..,;,. '"' I

I . Ii

I

,

! I

'II

(I-

A

B

o

D

.... fte IdYerb ta ,...., _...", and the conjunction ~, ""', .. ... tM padieIee ooaJMMlb!!hd with -. theBe _ wOlds,

Lol ~ A~ ~f",. IU

..... ~. or ~, 6., pi, .;,.. .. if. til IAtnIgI, aad "1 --

( ... 'VoL 1. ,IU •.• , «It ucJ 1867, g), fellowi,_ ti.,. •

... _( i · · to , .....

........ fI ~)in .. ~

118). "..".-4. 0 •• " ••• 0/ .V ......(.) .,.

...... ~. of the _~) A

,.,..... fhia Wa ...... tIM , 1",1J ~

.._ ',' .' " '. .' .

.... .:.J. .eto.. ....... i6 "' of

... ~.,.4 •. _ of. of •• · .

~ ... ·iW·~· ·Ia_ y.

'.,1 ,

gt v.Ji'i~ . .A'_"'".",.", 0

., .,..., odr gotb tfiIj IM(""') God, ~~~~.~ t-:!'Jf- ;,. 1M. ,...._ ," V 6tJliM'.'(""lW) ..• .,.,.. .. ;.,~~~~ ... ...t ··Pl ... 1Ml· ... v .•• .,11 (or

";" ":,!!to "'~nnei qf~; ~~t.:t( . .;j.~'fi ~4

~;.<!. ;. ~,.., "., to cIItJd, (J/4 ..... ~ .... u .. ..., to .,

~~; [~:;. ~'.~ rr .ut~dt; l'~'fJr.~.,;S t;;f. ~ D

.£;.~. I tftd ..., .. tI 1M ~.,., ..., de ,.,. ......

"., -- Z. I W .1igkI--l; ~~. ~ ~ ~t J!-

I.;..jj ~ ~ ~iI is ft4f'1VItItl _ (JIll qf 1M Ii." qf hMtI W

• qn; il.;J.!~ ~ '-I # J,:,;.i JU;';; ~f -:"L1.:r J;

tIN i. 1M ~-or ~imt of ~-(_ f'IItJ4)"" . fJIGtt

: !

80 PB'r TUlaD.__""'_. 1136

A MUJ, 0 aptMIk nf·fhtl! ., -Mr: - tlW ...,.",,; ~~ J.. ~

.-~.. . .... .~ !L :Ii.

,., al Vi ... ~ ( ..... ) "_I"~; ~ ",-..-',J

'. • • _ !.~~. • "L~·· .....

"" if it ..., fI gl;"".g • .,.; J'; ~'J';~' ,,~ u., ,..

(h JUl) Ii;' ,_.". I~ u .. lig/tt ('" ,._ Mllditm (6Vor,

JIIWIW) i_ a 1igII; ~ of ~ .;0; IJIf't~ • ..,..", tkJ WJI

, " ' ", --,..' II

,,~.

RD. ft.. Th_ pMt.id.., Mo~ withClIOl8 mft .. timll~cl in nun. f, are ~ ... , .... n~ ~; ~l 'iBM N¥I iU ........ (w ~ i;:':Ii J;.:Ji' ",-.~' t('I&ldt ~IJ. 1M ""' ill I",ving" ~"Il v~n""~ _, force, ~.~ uo:;; ~~

... ee « ..' ••• ,.".. !'. i.',·· it_ i~~ t!:' I~~~I:' ~ .!a

..: *'*', ..... ~..,,, ..: ,J ~ ~~, ut .... 't'iP;-.~.l!

,:._;".,,. (" _" - -'_,- .. ' ,-"';-:,,- '"",-,_.'

~.. . ~. word gov(lt1lfl(l by thfllll. _ called tl~b;A-~ tt.· fII1IUf,

", - _'-,", '_- - ;_ -.,~ '-

","I the prt .. lic3t.e .Healkod tltcit.l'4"- ur ,WtHlir.t&ltJ. t

oa . oa.

Ita. b. If' ~lan ptfl(liefttn is placed bC!t.Wtlon "1 ur ~ amd it ..

noun. UI.. logical aeoont. liM uIM.,. the noun; whel'fmll. if tbft pmlieatn "tan'. af'wr thfl noun. i~ rooei,'C!I t.he ."giel" accent.

itee1'. For ex"n1tdA. ~~ ... ; ~ means '!IlItu' "'imlll is witll

you; but. ... ; ~~.~ pur .-,.,;,.,ul iIt wit.l1 ymf.

. . . .' .. iH ·4'

a •. i:. A. III'!COIld n.L aftr.r ~ .:"lj .. tel ~ Illay lJfl put

'n tIu.t ....... ve; if &lie COhItlJOI' pt'mlicAte bAH lM'nll ",....,\tty .x.,.......; .. ~, ~ iNJ ~., .. ~j. rmI, ZftJi. ltilli"g.

,.,.,lllUr (i.e. ';"';".:Ji; or .IuJ.&. ~,); ..;.,..;. tZ,j ~f ..: ;A& ~,. ol' .~j, ; . ....,: 11m ~ .. .hang, "._. BUr; ~ ~

";..iA'~:, ttl' ~j. hut 'Am,. ill goirIg "'my. tlwl !14lid,·

1II ' ' .. .-

B

c

D

• [lft">"l'lUIC~~ ~;:.. ;;~)i~ ~ ~1 Of" oflle be., i~ ~"~ ",. de ""'Y I. of~u ~Wl. wn lUUSt. not

wrltetMl)~ .~ .. ~ -, ~ lao R.pPtk-daf ...... ;1. !4;o"i x\·iii. 71. D.O. J

§ 36] f'h Vri.--3. o..r..,., (1/ d •. Verb.-(a) n. AOItI.. 81 ~

~f ~; .:,ta;r; ~~ ~:; ~ J.l 1M ..tV..,. A

-. __ ttl~.""'.'" <itt· ),_....,.tW~

-~of..,,_.....,Iw. .

. <; oa olI' ~ l.t olI ,

.... tl. When '" 18."_'ed 100.,,;+ ';". ~. and ~, it

h their ........ qr, 100 apeak. ~ Correctly. \heir ...,....ung

power _.~ ~ ~1f (_~ toW ~ tJ&C1).

. ana he:lcetheir _11ft .,.;tin thftJl~UveJ ~ ut tfit.;11

!'. ;. tfI!f'iI, .....,." " i" tAe· tUtt,y . (it ~> i . .w..;.:A"~! B ,i¥f! I/JIJDlJi".""." ... 0Nl6~'fMM'" (~l iii......,.

rMt. ........ 1 186. and 'Yolo i. Ii".); ~ _olIJi ~ 6 t,j

• ' ~ 'I~:" .' . . ",' Vt ~ 1 ~IJ ""'~, .ufa 6rJ,1I •• ", .. ftI 10 .\,'" 11'*" OeiJ. DtM 0«1;

lib ~·t":.·A~'f ..;r.t~t .~. hotO lAM' ftIfItJlIA tmd

, . ~!t~ . ~ .,_,.

YOUt' tAiI __ ~ •• ",.,..; ~.~;~~:~ .. if

~ of atJplur ffImJ it. faa; i.jI ",.;i'';'';; ~\;... ~ .. if C "if ... tIIIIN ,. ftmItltml ,."..;, .. .,:. The' MBle .. intluence is

exerci8ed by the yUii ~ or ~:!r. .;.,.. (Vol. ~ § 367. g)j

I' _.t: ~ ''''! ••

as ~ ~ illJl wrilv 1M 1Inft(~ of Ood .. ckparti"ll'-

~ ~ .;,.; .:fs .,..",. ~ ~ 10..., toIJ .".. go 10 Ai.;

aruf ~..., I ... C.. .

• B t. ,he lightened (~ :) forma ~. J,l ~,.: and

~. be tiheir.,vertl_~ fa Hbwiae hiadered, and their D

noan is pu. in the IlOIIdnative.~ fa ill this cue a.lwa1l ~

.... .. [ • _ ' , • iii' .,'" .... •

OIl" .J VoL.L I MI. c, c]. as ~1" ~ U1 wril, Jlittl if g0ttg

til I' ',.. - ,1.1"

...,; ~U ~ "1 wrilr ... ,. ewe HreC,.,..; tJa "I-' .

~..;,.: : ~ ~ t.;i .... .,.." aU, gaI/ttstWllogelAw (J;.q.; ~

~~), .wi N '"""" ~ U •. -As 100 ~;J the anmmarians

81"- of .. L_ ·t .. ~. t.~{_!~ .... •• ~."

....... ,.._ _yWl~as~~"I~

1 L.. __ .a._. ,,~~.. .....- • .. • f., .,

____ .. gosrtg -'J l.8. illJl or illJI; .&UtA ", I~ ~

. .

W. II. 11

i I

'f ,

I'

i J

82

PAIlT 'J'Ju1lD.-B,., ••

B

~ ~ ~ jI. .. __ .., .., it ~ ••• .,

.. .w. tIIiII .. ~). W ..., ....,... AI .d ;U

~ y~ ~)f";; ~ V ...., tIN to ",;, In-

IMt ...... ., qf ct/ftA .... for ~; ~ .1:'; e,,; ~ (dq

how) Ileal lAo ..., .. ..z ......... .." • ",_, ........... lot

.d,; ...:;s.::f . .;.:- .• ~~ " .JJ,. .! .. ~ -.",. "..

<II •• !I:..!IIIt. '. -t'"

Lord' will ,.... ..., .... (- .r., lit) .. -- .6¥ ...;

• -'u.. _I~ ... .',L.tL

~"".... oihen ~-....,.. 91 ~:w1lilt

y~ ~ .. V '" ...., .'$1'; .. !)i,

..:ur ,; .JI,~ c. ,.., (Aer~ to

1M ~ ".; "..... ~:'.At.;t4. -0' w..

,"' . ":' - ",",' :-"" ' '-' ,,'-', ' __ ->

or ( ........ ~, AI ~) .~. ~. ill die piU\, .. -

'. ~.,. #~l B~ of ~: ~' y1i; u!. .... .;& 'hi ""

-.", ....... ;.. .. '--.v-~~.~~ ~~

. 4. . .

~ hi.., qf""" .... __ *'*'''''' ita ...... .,.

..

o

D

,... i ..

.... .t. TIle .:..,). • ....",,,..,_ I and .,}'" or

JilNri". , ;~ ., ... ~ :.; ..

.,. :J( #.~ .",,,.. ......, ... , .

';'P*0 .., U!tU"'" -=.' Ii 0., ~ ............. :...4

.ii" .,.. .• "~,,,. ._! ~.;;rilCi ,;:1 -i.;i if~eJd

_ .•. ~,.._ w '" ."'1 :,;.,;, _\!I ~ .-.;; ...;;

-.I ...., ,. ·t- ..... ) ,...h_ "" Aow (ttl de...,.-

...... ) it~, I1:~'" ~ ( ........ fI). the pn-t of J;. or J;.; is w~ ail ~ -:J I$; ~ tAo.. tDill w.. ... "'11_ (or~); .... &be. IlO8D of t.;.::ima, be

. ::', , _ ,-:·'i·-_, -,- ',"" 4 .• .".,

l*t either hi the ....... tin ~ hi *he ~ve t.:.J ":1f ~.

Ii ;,,;,;Jf tJ.'._ ...w; 0 tIIOtI6l ,..., "- .... Otmr I

~ ~ .~ t,; . .w .. 0 _", ., oW MOIMr ,. AIr "." J ..... !-!We .... -. ........ alreed,l'8III&I'ked in

§ 371 TIN v.r6.-3. Uo~ of "" Yerb.--(a) ftt Ace.... 83 VoJ. i. § 364, rent. 6, to be YotblJ; and if 8Gt '"' IOYeI'D til; A 8CC ..... t.ive by their ow. fol"f)8 and not by that of an OIDiUed or

. pI'_J b. . ~ ....

lin .... '·8r . Jat. how.yer, lIOOJetiloea [~llia the dialect

of -O~eU] takea a genit.iye j as ~ i\t~ .JI;'~"J J;i """. 'Jb" 't.J1ii/1II4r nUll 1M ","r 1Iue; :~ I~;l; ;,ts.:' # J;,J per_,. (l0tl .. !! Aaw gi"." ,_ ... ftJ~!I ".,. ...

1' ... g. With tbe 1R18b:.,. ofthelat .~ we -y ~I. ~1'

:ilt~t d '.1.... t1,.!J:. iJ • , •.. t.:i ...

or ~. wi' an 80 Wl ... ,..:,,1 • .....,\l1li and ~; but~ is more

WNal' .... ~.wbilat Cl()fty~JI ~ .. h. .• ...,. ...... '-;. The oorre- B

1IP!~"'H.brew ~le to. ~l> ··yi& .. ""', a1eopverna the ~ ... ppeamtrooa the torma 'lJ"I ... d .,.,.., .,. ....

.:,. Ii ...

R. i; So1I1e of the A4'abs.' ~.tbe precJi«rat:e of .... worcIa,

as w,u_theirBOllIlt iff the ~\'8 j 0. •• .-,;:.; • .:ut ~

._ tIf 'I .... ,: ", __ f,. _ " ",',_ " " ',_ _ __ - _', it'

Q~ ~.~ ... ~ •• ...,.,..~ .,looA:I ow ...,..", "".liis G

_.31 ., • ,".' . .,~'.- • .,'

v-. or • ~ •. 'n«lflJl"; u..-t· \W!I- wi wrll¥ .. ow,.... ....

lionf;~'';;''';';;:~'4 ~O .""".*, .. ~ ... qf.,..". 0

«)JI/d ...... 1 o!'41 ~ .; O·~ ,., I .,.,.. '**1

'f. If the ...... ; ·cooatcta··· -JIOUMia __ "" that

the ia~ ~aad .of~11ate With. ........ it

.vema .~ 88C08d ill ... ~j. II ~ .:d JI.. ZNI

_, .,_,. ~J~;~; .~ "';1 ... _ .. ,., ., '" NiU ;",:"~,~,,,~b cIectd. MIll ... ,,_. ""_' . .,.,A D

".". "'''''lIMj [i~'"r.i~t.;H",~ _",. .. ttWtl""lfMl]; ~1; ~ ~ trtAaIW ... ... IogtJIW toil. ,., ladtJr I

• [~.j ,... , ....

. • ..... to be oIaaaced from ..::...rJ =..::...r!J Rea. it caa be

conatr\lecI with two objec&iYe complements in the accutati .. (like the

.. 'I~ ~"" ".~ ... , .....

.",_. Jwt) .... ~v ~ .:;,.J 0 _.,,, Zfttj n.! prop. ut.iDaua

videu··&idum 8UtpIllem.]

P.urr TBJRD.-S""_.

037

A ;'4.'''::.I'"! /."" ,..,. tDiIA A_· j t.HJj.~ ~,or l,;;j; ,iUt,;, "'''"' ""'" ,. 10 do.,ill gjitll .. ~ •. \ J);. ~; .ill ~. ",,,", MIl

-

IMII 10 do .ili "';""i,., abo", fnItll (illai or ... ;i,,) :a.;.,;,

."'.' ,t". .... ...'" " -'"," ,~" "

~ t.ao, • tlirifl. itt 6IWlf{Ji lor lA.1flge1Af#f' tlJill.~; .-;-,

;'1;; J.:; .II,! l~a IfIJOrd qf ,., ., ;. ~lUUIfIj ,,,,- ,. ",il.

(when .tJtou IIJ __ )fI$I-Qu#til ;t;~J ~~ .Mllto"~ (186,6, (l)" .pilgri"'"Jlll (= i~·" i-.;,j:, .iaj0J; .!' ii; ,;;.!

-., , ,~."., , '.,

B III a Ma" ." (= ~ .!; e--l). '1'hi8Jit ~ted by tile srammana,..,

like the ;tbat govem the aubjuuctive(§ 16, #1)., ~!,Jf jt; Of ~r .i'; 1it6 .'" qflimullmteutuJll!III, and .~;.;., ;z;rj".,.·..aw

, .

Ii j

.

~-. .", • __ ._' '., _-_ "" - ', _'~', JII, ,_",' , .,

• [Fl'01Il thta.~p~ modem prepoeitiOll,,:' .or"', . .".". III'" been

fcttmeci(ooJllP. LuM"p. 131S c). Spitta, C ..... ta$. § 83, p. 166, D adduC!8ltthisatl .au ovfdcmtproof ag"'..-t Sprellg$', wlto COll8idu~ the

.-~~, ,~, " '. _','

whole .• tbeOry.·.· •.. • .•. of t.IJ& ~ ........•.... , . ., falae .. (4 e fA>!p'. p.' ~80. >.' D. G.]

',"_", ,'._._ "._ .-',.,.:#!I,.',',',,"'" ' ,,' '""," -: ,','. '_',,' ,,_". __ ,._,' ,

t.Qui\e.Oort'eCtIy .... ,or the aubj"notiveof the vol'b corresponds

hodl in 8~ aad in·t'ortn to the aQOWj&tive of the noun. The

o~ tbowatla&\ or tIlina cIepeada upon an act, the ..... er that

0118 .ct depmda or is ..aeoted or IOverned 1),.. another act. [It

is pert.p.aupetil to l'eDl&l'k .that. tile UI8 of Jwith the .... tive

ill Dot. lbai~ b7. Mae .... t.ton. given for tbeue of J with the. 8Ubju~]

~~~] is UI8d in calling one who is near, i in calling to one who is

t [NOldeke.write8 in a note on Dtl.cIu p. 67 I 15' &111'_ ld

in "-"11-.- :_..1 ..... _: ", • ,",,&V qUI em

.... - nomen ~tUUl .. nego,''J

86

(§38

A 11;'i, P,ibfJ (~I-MPfliua); .!.~ ~ &St,;t.l.i ~;i .~ ~ \!l ~~ III t;rjj ~ ~f Q ,.ider. if , • .fulks';" acit!(tAem).1dl fII!I COJIIratk., qf Ii.fin'-'*" "'8 ;. no fIIIJtJIi"fl (lor t..,). (2) When it is. directly acltl...,.>tlhy the t!}.eUer, i)ut I. a~ ex.,lallat,qry tenn AJ'pended to it. namety, either a gelUtive. or .. All obj~ive c"lnplelUent, or a jlI'8pusitiou

,., ,

wIth its~.hll,lement, or _ • .tetenninative orlilnitiug t.enu; -.J.t,I-' ."

•. '" .. ~ ...... ~ .. "" ..1' ,L..· 'I~ 1. ••••.•• _

...u' 0 'A/Jdfl-'''''' j """"'" oAr ." 0 lo1'(l . tf! I"",.w,""._;

", .. .'_-:- :, ,-," ,'-, - "" _.,_,-: '",

B ,,:.':ittf'tll.· 0lfllk,. tif .• ~ liItIe .. ····/~(.an e1Ii.t .. eto.·.·rthe ..•••. {tlX);

", ", .. ··c· ',:0: " . .' '.' . ,',,' . <

It, ",::'. _,' "._., , ',,' ".:_ :',', ;;\::~., .,",_'

~W.~O"tlOO ~".". qf til;"'; ~~t.$~'" 0" two

, , 'iiN •. : " ,,- '_',_ "_', " ," _: ":,,,,~.,

l;illdlwlfJ/' ",,~r.;J.!~l ~." 0 cllildr4fHol 1~U!l; Wf""l'

o brftlWn qf iHU'1I;. i;.;. ••• wu. , O.,~~ .'4a#(,rl a."Ji,.g alri#;

0.. . . ~_ .. ' ,'. ,_. ..', '_'. ,._

~. J;. "",i.; •. , 0 Mo" tI,u' arlgl/teJ w#AetJeI'N .fJflDfl· 1411f~;

'# '::-'--<>";' .' .. ,.. .' . .... ....' . -' ,'- "----._".', .. ' '.~.'';:;,!,

~~ ~ 1I Q I/IO"um (u., kffld lo.,.,rtlII fIfeH; ~J~ ~ - t,

o 0 tAot, .tI,al t4rl 1Nd1e#' IIImJZ~d; :';";'j>I!#';' 1I0 tMalM' arl ~ in J(JC6; ~il~»J.:.' 0 14011· ""$la'1)6 Iuu~,. ~

The .... ~, when tbe~veis qaaikismereilau ~n .: ~ to ~one inpartieutar jbutwlten the ... i .. native·· ~taaed. it is·_ real ad .... ·· ':"tj.~ , ••• ~ a defin~tAJ. individual.

I~ tbeCOlllpoand .iQJ·oo .. cia ~on is made. - eV8Jliu a.~ ,.d~ .,.~;'.is oaed," ~ the caae.that~epe"'. on _

D verD,lIIId~ whiCh, there(ore, other ~i~ and verbal d~ies can be~oNrtIMlil' ~ ;iu.con~aetionto the noouBatlve, which •• ~.and .Cloaee tile c;onttructioo. Tlte ~n of the oDliaaion of the .. WiD in the nominative IlitJgular ~lD8 to lie in tbe eueIfY with "hiel, the word. is uttered, whereby its terminatioll is shottenect 88 ill the imperative and jUS8ive of tile verb (see aIao rem. 6).

1\111... When·.1U) in~ is exJlNlll8d, ~ aame rules applJ ... ve;",,~ Q '1 ... ; ~ti () £onl 0/ lIN

S 88] n. Y..t.-8. 00 ...... ' tUde V~.)fh"... 8'1 f'AroIwl.:"-a4. 0.., ,.. ./rtMtIa; Ii .. , • ..;..;.:.f ...... ·" ~ A

1OtIh11rr:-:' 0,.... ttl 9IWJ " ~ . .;;; .~ J_"" ...

...., ",_ IAN <-- it .~ .ftt,dItw ... qf it);

f~" .'.0" . .:.-., ". ':-, ,.'# ~ ._"';_.

Vfle~1.6«onu morni..,.O'"!,; ~ .~ ...,.f.

O~0rt4; "f".t.$,l~.~~ I~~ ,...,,OW 6e

-«".,.~ tMo~to .~.~.".,.1 With

.~J18 this. 0 is v..,~t .. ~6 ,."., ....

~flJIIlI),for .. ti'; 1~.~;;'~.iI!~~ 1M,. 0/ B .·tiM, ....... ·.f~t~J<.( .. ,,)·~· ... ··· .• ~ •• (or .... )j

.7r .. ~·~I~~~'!~·tAm,.~.,.,

,_,.. Otmt ...... ;~ .. !>-........,!.,:,~ 'J. ~ 0 ..... *' ~ ftOIJ .... ~!.."..4 .. 1Qt\o .. ~;

1\ •. 6. ~81l~"f~Jit8'~.""Iar, \I-!t ........ r .8hort.enecl in tI •. vocatiyO imo .• ~ ... ( .... llov .... the tmd of

~'> ~ .' .' .: -'>.,' ~»'.... ' ..

tho aectiOa); .. "!"J I,r 0 ..., Ionl;~t "!"J ..., Lord, .... tIN; 0

~~o".,...z"t.$~ ~. or~":~.o.¥ .... ",!; ~f .y .fri,tnad.1 :.71 , 0 "'11 dear.."., Thia........-k cto. aot, of COUI'IIe,

,. _ . ",

...,10 ..... ....nng ill \1:' or ... ,. ........... .1 8&...,; u

e >, '. • ..••

JI:i ~(fromJi."_' ~\".'" wf" •. 1"" Odaer forma ........... __ t,ko .. -; ... InJIIl~ • 1Iaw,

#- _._, #, • ." ;,.... '.'. ;'--",._ ..... '.' .... ..• .... _ ..

..,.,...." •• .,... I,r or t..$.,... t, ...... ", and in,....,.".. I,r, D

:t~~ .~ (-pare 1lO. e, rem. 4). a.,. ..:1.~ 0 ... 'It . ., ;...,.,

..

~ vii. 1'9.';: &"'Ii.o ... ttl"., .... :;: Ii 0 ...... .., lot ;1,..;a, :;.;; ..Jj j.;..;.; ~; Ii 0 .., 1M'ti,.forriee_ i ..: \. ~

, I' , ...' .. . . "."

~i; ~,1f .; .:; 0 ~".., ..... ." ~ "" f/fI

.. ~ ".. ~!.J ~ ~ • Ii" #

10 .. i W,. -=-- .".,. .... ." 0 ..., tntc:l8, ..." ....... 61_

ttl 0tN . .,., The word. _;,\ jJII/uJr and .!1 moIMr admit of the

.'. ,., . ."

pecabar forms ..:..,' t, and ..:..,.1 t, (alao pronounced with f~t{aa,

" - .

88 PUT .TBUlD.-BpIcu:. B 88

A ~1, .=..:1)' which beoomein pm. ~ 'and ~.,. We Hlrewite

, • ''''·''f ..

meet with -\:it &.I _ ~ &.I.

B. ... 0. On the principle alluded to at the end of ·tlle.teetion. .. 1r8li .. in nm. .6, ..,..... c ...... of ~ ........ ·.aclmi. of beiag ~ in the yooaUft b, the ~on of one .OF moreoft.heir ...... ...... ftia ..... viatioa ._Ied by the ... ~

..1 .. ~",~ oftbe voice (CIOIIlJII',.Vot. i. 5~) .•• If.ely: (Ii All -bItoaIm ... whether .,.... or OODl.,n.~or

B feminine. ~"In '+; .. ';";J'; for ~ii' .. ~lfor.~~;' ~r-' for i;';'(~of .... );~.fot '~~~~;fot iZ; ~t :,; ., for .i!; •• ". (aameaol w~) ;~~, f.'~l D.t1tou ( ..... ) . ..._ ... ~(_)j JU ,. forUU~~ •• ~.·

~ ~ .. (or.~) ,.·.~ •. ~ •• O.,,_,1.for.'U,&.I.

(I) Sbnple proper ...-,- in a:..,.t.Iaat .~ at .....

C lOW' lettenti .. ./t,;for ~.'" ~~rfor ~:. .. .,,:t.for ~1,

~ 'for~' ( of a woman).Ihbe word~of"'"

than f01lr aacl the penult • ..rviJe and.quielleent, it

. "S:' ,,'" .,'.iII" ,~".'

diuppean with the .... lett.er, .. ~. ", ...,.. .\t, ..,.... \I.

• ••. " ,... . 6"1' I ,., ".'~" .~ ;~ • bat

.,._. ".~ .. ,for~.ot~ J,......,.. .;

bt ........ __ be ........... ,~~; " ~,;,. ja. ,.

.;;~. ".:;;. " forj61.~ ;.~ ;,;;a. ~aadJ:i' .. u.o.p

D ~~the"'~'aDd~,.W"-~in~

.. , .... be i.,., ...... ' ...... to .... ~ clropped; ..

);'tf, * .... .."l" .iutad·oI./";'., "'.,.aDd,a(for.~

..... .. ....':,3); aDd .. -. is aclmiaalble when the

~L • DOt; of the , .. ,;t',; ,. mat.d of

.ki';' torl;J' ; (a ). .Pnpet -.,.,..poundtMI with

a ...... (.w ~ •• J:;), or a _,... propoailloa ( ..

;;.:,J.J;i. ~ .. l$)~ao&.~' • ., .. , ~,~" ~l hd ...... ~ .. ~ \I. dpppi .. ·.~.; .. but if

I

> ,

i ,I

..,. ~.to the claaR caU" ~":&)..;(VoLi.I_).they are A

.'.1 ~ . ~

......... by the rejection of· the II800IId word, .. ~ Ct, ......., &.I,

., . "

6"" ..", ..... ,

for....,. ~. ~~. (~) To.·th,ae .... 1 be added aome rarer

--. .. C...;. , 0 OOJJaPIIfJima, for ~~, art· Ji '1, >;;.:, ~'-

.. ..

.;,;;r~~ ,.,.",.146'" mtd.~., to H ~ qfd_; and~tfot~~, intb, pmverh~ J,J.1 ~A ....... ~"O ~ }or'_rlridgel; .. "ell ... the words Jj.'ffor "yJ) .•. ~~.''''.l:-j'. [Comp. V.,.. i.5363·, 2.] B

~ .... _in~.·folIOWIJ:-

Phlr. DUal.

';',IJ~ .;.~ .1f

.h~" .;I4S , ~,

., :- .... ""

(~")

~"

.',' - "',... '"

(~t:.:A ")

..

Sin,_ Ji.' M. (Jj. iii)i1I ~ F .

.0" " ','.#' - '"

( ... 't, .~. \I)

, ".' - '"

.;..~ .. 't

o

J:tQ. d. We have ..wabove .... ~ the nOtlb w .... it ...... iat.el1 folIQwa ....... in~na dOes !lOt __ it. the........ One exoep-

tion • the .. of god,~, fIoom. w"ichwe_1 .,:li.; or, i~,.~ •. ~....,:iar' •.•. ~ ...... oed by the ....... of the ,......n jor ~ .bet..,.. the interjectioo aDd

. fIll,:". • .. • .;;i '!I'! . i M.. ..

tile vOOIt.ti .. ; .. ..,.._", ", \I, instead of """J ",D

• The ,__, however •. te;;.t.i. """' •• y Int.erjee$ion

pre6xed, we 8nd OOOMionaDlba YeI'I8..:;ti ".The oriaib of

II.. • ... .r •

the termination.,._ • 1l11cert.ain. ~ """"" Ie ued .. a oorroboratiye

i1aterjeotioD In the .,...rona 4J..:;Lt __ ..... or _,_ poeft1JIf

(I 188, .. .... ,,), and ~ .;:Ar ,.. i...." or ,. ...." (Lane, P. 13, 0).)

W. II.

12

o
I' !
~ I
\
,
,
! I
"
1
P f
,
,
,:1 D
~;
I'
J I
II
r:
"I
~. ,
\,
~ i
~~
6
I
rrl
n
ul PI .... TItI.D,~,

1138

A

J.t.1 Ll; !~ :~, .Jr..;! \!I;' :r Ii , 0 ,_., _ ~ ...

toiIi 1M ...... qf fir ... Sal Uke W ;;'fJ.; 0 (1Aou

.', .,.

__ 1_ '~L..,\ 41. - I' . Ii •• .J:.. .....

-..., -, - .. , •... tflAi ~ ~ ~' .. ~, ~

..... qf ""(tor ~r .)..), 0 IAoN - .,; .,.,, __ war _.,;

ADd " .;.tllI ~_ " .... 0 ,. ,. ....... -. J-; are vert rue,

... ,.. If a vocative, e.qtrellld .., the IlCMainMlve, be limply .... 1 ... Of another .... be .......... fer it (~ "'11., nIL 6. I). or it be _aeated with ".r~ .. bya ~

<.;:II _... -, JUJ~' ., S), .... ,...._.,. ra" ant·..,._.; .. .Jd" ,;ij, Ll 0 Zild. IIld I' .i;j J;; \i (1" ,.... tIun-ZAU;

;:.,; ~. 'O.1atl .. 'A.r; ~; J,;; .; (1 im4

'1JIr~ ~",""-."!I'-,#; -'_ '- ,_, ';I_~ •• " ~.~, _,

-; ... ,. "'II'" 0 'A.ri .. ~ .,... oItIJ " (1 IfttI-

(I' \ ~,,"",' I~JI.I. ,,_'" .;...... .

.... , ,_ '_,, ~ ft".J .,IfJ ~(1 :r&l .. tAU. '.,._

If, ........ the 00II ..... wont (~) ... die &r&icle, Loth the '""Diaative &bd aocaative are ad ......... ;· .. ~ ;:; ,. or

.:-,..;.1';' 0 .,A~'" "_¥"i;~.iU tI. or..aar;O JIIUl -- ,.. ... ;;,\1; •. .;J Jt;,. '~Hor ~ (I ,,_..,. .... .,..., .. (. "..._ tJ/. 9~ ".AiM, ~ .. 6Ir6.--AoaW a

~""rl'.l""_.,,,,"'''''''''''''''ia'''ltLil . ..uy

_.· ~ .... a " -at Uo_ '. ,.

r-" . . ~ .-"",ve,-"'~"

...... ... " ...... ttae ........... '1'01'

......... ~ .. s;a", ;''', ,. or ;,;at ,. 0 &'d, "~qf ('" ".

...It U' ..,,~ , l~ .. ~.. .

.., I ., ... ~ AfI ·.,OI' AlII' 'Ci, (1 ~ ,. qf (1M .....

. ~l'Mf; ~.~ ~ ~ .; 0.." ., "1M 'If' .6nd

...... " "-.....eift

~.~ aoollati-"",:,;'l: ."

.....,.01' tt.t laM drvppecI iutuaae.

I ...... ~ ill.,." ;: .. , \i; ill the

otMr.~. ;~. ~9r~.;. ..

B

S 88] 2'IN V,Ii.-I. ~ 0/41 V ..... -(a) D...... 91

.....f. If • ....uive, bJ the _I ..... be -- A

~ with "ve by a -!~,;If ~ c-~. lat.,~·

....... .) Or a y(3. ~ (-Ilat, rea, 6, ,). ......... hi .. 111&1 be ,. elt.her i. the llOI8iaati .. or the ~"j .. ..:.J .; .:.:;;: .. or -:. .• ;~ to (1riN .. 4"\~. all A'. ' tat~· ~", I~

• .. .. .., I·~ .. ", pa, UJ"'!" ........ 'If.

or ;,;t. 0 •• hi~l.l" IA4 ~; N ~j"" .. ~ (1 ...

-- ..., atI; J;j tJ,i. \i. 01' ..... td.; ~ j~ ~,CJI' "' •

{J .... "'i [~tU,. J;;I .a . ~,., 'O~fo-ffl4 ~ . B

~.." Tab;ii. IJ1', I. ' .... J; it. ..... ~ ... it.,

~i.lIf_ be'~ tJ.e ~{ ' . ..:.J"iI.(... d)

fh6t, -Sw ~; ~ ~. ..;, 0 A~l., ".fNatI " QMi J~ti!~.; 0,..-" 4j ",1 .Ad1 (1 ~6ti __ ,,,;'W,.,..; .' ~j' 0 _" .,._.,."

lOill '¥ijJ A .~ 0 Ii*" ..., ...... ~r.-Uthe word

.. .' ' .. '. .",. . ... :.. .

.:N! ....... ~.the ...... 01 father, i& ._ ita C

~ • (Vol. LI tIt 6), and:the 01 the ................

-ybepat ei~ia"" aaoad.ve or the ~ .. ~ the

..... ie . ........, ~recI]; .. ~ ,~ . .t.(i\i, or _;;,; tt, (1 Aid,

"'1/ '_; ~, ~ c.:;.: .. ;.: Ii~ 0 • .".., ••• ""' qf 2'&1; .}l.>i ~ , .;.,;Jr ~; .tItl ~ .'.., ""'t o 'OtIW .. tJ/ "".i r....' :'..;;1 Ji '.I "~"~'.

. , .• .. "" -:. ...,IfI7wI . .. "",., ,...

"fJOft ,., 0 ., .., .{l-- 111 wJtJt' 1M' •. ~~ D

The .... ~ ;na.L .:-.. .! I'!!r ~.. ..

. . .... .., , uJI!I'I*w.." ....... or

'. , . " " -. -,--, '#. ' , "

~~, 0.." " •• kcli tV'A,..

au. ,. An +tift ill 00IUleCti0n with a vocali\'1t, e.,. _eel by &be DOfIliaaaYe, ID&1 like.,. be pat ...... i. "- lIOIIIiaative

or the aceaaMi .. ; .. J!'M ~ tI, or J!'fi: 0 IfttlIM ... "",.,.,.,;

J-;Ji UA ti, 01' J!'lt 0 dou IMN, '" ittUUigenI;':"" .-u " JJ. Ol' ~ 0 .&I, ..... /tJIIwr if tI06Ie~, u.; .!J .;.;;. lJ

92

, ! \'

A bl;.;J' ~ ~ itf! _~ ~ .;Hi; ... x • ." ....... nor .11m S1J'cl4 ..., taON ~ 1M ..... 0 'Omar ,. ~;

j - ,.; ..

[~ ~ ~ 0 IAOI4 ..................... ...,.,., "Bl-K.barrad,

p. 573, L 1).

a... 1. The interjection', is ~xed to .. impera-

tive, till ~_ "; , if· o. , ,....", ; ;, , ..,J ",t t.l 11

.J./fJi; :;. 0 N .. ~O -- of •• .,.,.~(.,,)..,.

B MIl ,.;.., or ..,. tIfWl ,_,.; v-.:: f;J. J;j' ui!; ;~ if

o iria,' ......, ..... ¥w- .... .".,.. 01l8iwlll~ .• "

~ ~forlA 10 tiHIf'. "",.,' tooth. optative ,s;t(':: 536, rem.n, .. ~ .~j Ii 0 tfIOtfl4 doe r--:JI.·u'!1 \I

•• 11' " ,_ ':-:',:", _, ':.\ ,,', _ _"-_" - '". , '_,' :"-,._ _ _ ' " ---;

~ 0 1Mt.W .. 1 ,.. tCIiI4 .... ,. IUld to " nOlDi .... or

. ".. . .• -~ W ..

verbal Pf'OPOIItioa, .. ~ ."" ., 0, .... to MW,· .ut.. . Ai·

• _ i# _" _,.....' •

J'; ~ ~I;:; ~ ~~. ~t;;'; 0, 1M eN .... oj (}fMl

C tIItd oj olIlAe ,_",. ntl of 1M i- .. .,. SiJn"~ CU ~ .,A6cmt'; ~..;;.r ;:.. Ji .; O. lillie .. 1M g«J oj .... _men. In .... C&88I ~ ............ _IRe an. em,.. of the ~~ or pmIM tIGIW, .. ~,J,;; ~ tit .. hW .... Npl'd " tDeNl1 &8. _is J~

. .. ".

or,..,.,. 10 ...,. ....,._ ••

(J) dI ~ , (or ~\) require after tIaem • ~ ..... ,

dual • .a..J, de&aed ." tile uticIe. aad in ihative .. ; as

".#11 ..l. .:I. ... It'..If.. . • d t-,III u""""".

D ..,..un "" 0,.".; ~I "', .. 0 iUf,; ..,1 "". or _,.,t \,.Oiil.

" '-, -,

0....,,; ~ «t .. 0 _,; ';"'i ~ 0 Ctm#MH; .£,.,J.tr ~ ~

,", ,

I . ~

188] ... ,. ..... -8. 90.....,., 0/'" Ytr6.-(a) ""....... ..

.f~ . '.. . r{ J~It"""" .

",".0 ,..WiMj ,,~,.,t (lot",,] OW..... .d~ A

...... , iI_ ._We; .. #1 ti ".; _ja.,."il

~ .~ it!-QftJ;,'lI 0 i.."".. "''''''(or pj)

;, .~;d(·r b\.lJt&i ~ ·if tf _ .. III

(",rlJtI)lAif:· __ .....

··~.il .

.... ~ia~17 ~1IiIIIiII~"

J.,.,I).~ .", ..... ~.~f~I<.j~ ••••• · .... c .... ....,

(.,) , .. which i. WJedto expN1i18 .8OITOW or .pe.lll,. &lid iH lumee C called ~i J;';'. IM.patfiMtJ qf~". follows the 8ItIDe rulea

81 "i ~S. ;:.; ~. 'i uIM· N~ ! . j,r .;.;. .. ~ .. '.AW,,-'IIiiA!

0. ,.110 the __ i __ I:', .. ~ ........ :.:.. ,iI added, which

,,: ... _11 .:. .e._~1 ,.,.. . ",,,!" t'

~1~ ...... v"';" .~ . .,. or ~ 'b,- aid!

~~.·ti, ;';!Ia,~"~ Ita..m .. · · inA-

tioa • · ......... it.aDd D&t to .: the .~" ; u;...t.;

.~'j.:;;n- for dlflOM .. "" ., • fo,iI4I- I' , with'';;, D

-, .~ .:.J ~ l;f_JW c~h"'." ttl •• _ .. ! But';

W an· ~ve. ·thereia • doabl. eome .ittit:ta ~.:d ~ aItM

It)#' III HOlM .mw,aad others DOt. ..

ft....... tj ... ··be pretlxed 0011 to .. prope ...... or • de8nite

. ..J'~" • ,-. ,

word-; we canao& ., .~.) I, or .W~. No .. MIl it preoede

• "('.l'hU .. - haviaa .vap. aigtd&eation, to.. ,~ is de8nite ill $he ................. TIle nde nfen, of GOane, cmlJ toth ....

£539

A ~Ai; tboughit may be ,...,axed too .:..;.. _ :l~~ A ~ ~ .,

" , " ,', ',"" ' , t1'

__ /.,.1 •• arM tl." 1M well oj' 1Ji ...... ,

, " ' ,'~., , .,. , •• " ,,f.

R ••. 6. \j may &lao be ued ~,l!. as .~ »-" " '11 0 '~tIW,

'~tRf'

B

R ... c. Wurda _III in the alif mHtJira. (",:') u .... ., reject

• -tI' • II ." -, _,'.

t.bM .... ~ before 1ICItti .. - ...... as .~ .". fl'(MDU"''' JI--.

.". ,~-, " , " . '

....... ......,..,. adaaii1ible. See Vol .. i .• 388, 6.

a... fl. The '.~. pr.aoua ..,. theist pent. y eitller

•• " ,_, ',_ ',' ','<,' , .",-. ',' ,,,., ,',

be.~. or.~i" .~. '.t.or..,.. • ._" O . .,..".,.,!

[:u~.~ O.~.']U;' ';0 ....... 1 ":"i.';' ti;f ., " or ~'·tif~ ';'J~·;tj, q; • .;,.,...j..; '~~i" ~;t;. a. •• ~!-~ .... of t.he2adpen..IIi..,.f ..... aacl •• ~. 3n1

pens. si .... ~. ~.t~ vq..., in a ~"'form, t.o

preVeilt .0000uaion :~~.., .for" ..... iI ...... , the fern.

bei....:.~.;;,. Ii; W~t :t;.;i,l .j iafe..... the IIlUQ. being

:,;.;iJ. ~ • Com ..... ...t.in fqrn18 of ~ ".lInder ., rem. 0, 3.

~ ,

R ... ~~ .. In V"'_ the form .t- iI ~""Iy"', even out of

~,,,~ , # , , " ".-'" _'. _.#,." ,

.,.... j as.~. \10 .1IaOt. tMre; ~ .,~ ...... ~ \I 0 ~ ..

..... oJ'4fr#..

.~. (tf)m.eathe ~Y8tjit.i~tely (oI~by an in-

de&Jiit,e~, of I'lrictaita~teJt ~ ... ".ems

that~·tIle- ... li,,;.· •• t1te.~ t.,,~~

Calla. u~ .the .. raepti .. ~, tlle ..... ti".ia ~.NIl.·when poMle,by the. 0lIl_08 •• 0£" t6e,..lftheJehe 'pndi"ex-

J) preeaed •• 11 •• be liketriee illdellite, bat in ~ llOIIIipatiYe ...

'or ~: -lwi .~. J..;,.;.; IAIn'u ffO ..,. ;. eM "i

o

where I, aad1i are aeecl to wail for the 1_ 9f a perIOll. not to the

• ' ... _', '" . > - - - • :. - - ","" ,_" .... , _ "l!'" ...

ucl .... ~·."... ~. M.,~! (""'\1) li,;,~ or . ..,.., erA .,

< -', - - .- .•• ," - - - ''' - --, - - _,' - •• 1

I'jfIl ')1- tIltu· ........ <x.. .. u=--). eo.p.. however

rem. fl. D. G.]

§ 39] TA, Y""'.-3. GOM'JIfnflflt ojd. V""'.-(a) 2'11, .4 .. ,. 95 ~ 41 ~ oj ,lwn i. 110 god but God i ~ ~J. i ..;,~r ~ tAi' JA

/'0111:, tltel'e i. 110 tloul,t I""!JI"vlirig it: ~(j J,;.J '1 t if fl6 .an

llIttIUJ;ng; .Ii!.;:" .;..;.t oj t"'I"11 ;:t 1ItlfI"#I ~I' tiff,,, ,Iou; v:;l. oj

., - - - - - '" .

., I ."" , _ ,.1.,

tAn'~ ur« "ot tlt.'fl Gnd:t; Loa J\.tp.,J "oJ ,At'1oe nt'#'''o me" Aertl; ~ ~

, , ~

~~ ~ ,. tkl'IJ al'e flO Mltsli •• ill til, citl" Jli ~. oj tMre are flO AeI)WI/(If' ,_; ti~..;,~, o§ tluTe fir, NO Jlll$li". ff10men in

,,; --"

0"" ~~; 't. ;fy 9tJioj.tlt~rl! tII't' ",'pleasltlw /", fI"!/!fah" ;

;-#_~_ ,,-',..; ,_-~ J-r,' ,'.',_ _ ',. _ _ --. _ _ ' •

..., .';:dSJ '1..;!' n..,.,.ptfJe (If/Hatlc a,,~ w/u(A.iM:e 110 11I1IfI'~; B

r~ ~ ~ t§ ur 'u..-.:..'1 tllm' ;, nfl {ulliding it (Vol.i. § 364. II);

,.' '.,',., - ·,--:...,r-_# ',."'.', # .,~, ,,'#, ',,", ,

.~I, ~~".i"'4 ut~j, tlln"#' ill 110 wonderi"g tltat tlw

1fI#Rg nta~ IAoIlI4/tI/Itwt'u.,.r4nlpll/ ttf 4i • .{at,+,,.].But if the negative be.lleJ*'ated froJn ittiobject, it i.1I Pllt ill the nominative; &8

J;.;,J.':'1~ itJere ;,1110 ",an in tile Ml/~; jji ~ i in it (viz.

"", ',_" ~ ',,', , ",: ".

,III wi. 0/' Pt'rtuli#) IMoe ;, '10 iNjllrioll' /0>J't6.

,

lllM. G. Tho rule reprclins the retention of the ternUnatiolUl C

y alld ~ i .. thed.Land pI.rat .. f ..... to beOOQw.dicted by

~ .• examples .. ~I~.i&i ;":.; ··i ,.. •• ~ do .... ...., (lit. .. AM MOI_Iu"uJ. for tDrON,); O.:J~ 1- .. flO tJtJf'I,'

~. C.!. oj "".,'GMirl ~ i :.u '-'I'!U i~ AtJII flO

Wpw. .. ·lNt in theIIe caaea thegt'Hi 1l8 .y that theprepolit.ion

y is ~~i-! ,~.~;7 1;;1:'~1I if&lerUd """"~ 1M G~ ancl tW the precedins noun is reaDy in the construct D

", _. ~

.tate. In the _IDe _y too they explain the ph ..... ..., ';' ~,

~ iI'" "

IAot& It_ fIO~. aad ...... , j, Ae Iacu no brodi",. which are

.,""" ~.,.,

generally ued inateacl of..,.", .,and .w.t~. [BIlt compare

"

Vol. i.§ 315. footnote.] The form ..,,1 ia, however, .1ao.1ed before

.", ' ... '1,." • ',,", , .

.J. aa .~ u! ..,,1 ~ "'~1' ~I Il-'llla, •.. my /a41tw, I Mw flO

/fffMt hi i4,. and if aDy tranepoeition takea place, the U of the

A .ul aad plural muatof be..nored ... ~ .tJ6 ~ . .iii .,

dou·...,....., 10". tAU .......

It... 6. The pl.r. fem.ln ~ may. it is· MicI. take f~

#~.. , .' . ~ . .,

ina'" ~ kw ... ~ ..;, ........ ~.

.. ,

n ... c.'l'beia~" ; .. y be,...axed t.i.eitJHwto .................. 01' to coaveJ .... ro&ch ••. more lWeIy to

...... withr"u;l"l.1I'a~:'T if .w ....... ··,,__eel

B ;!;.,'.Sj ~.r"1 "it_ ..... _/~im •........ ~ i.

-1M~'~.iQ.;:;J;~il.~ ft6~t 1M .....

6/ ""i.I''''~ •. ·~·if Ad. ".... ', (.....u", • ~

-- .... ,... fJtIfI'Id..,. «JU14 ~1I ,....,." I)

(6) It apilitiyebeattaebeti .tA>the81l .... tive .~~. ?, .. r: accuaa$iYe mtJBtef ODlIJ'B8be U8fd in.its cooatntet ferm. &8 ~) .... ~ ~

•. , .... -; .. , - ..• >:'- - '-._,:' _," ,_' .1""-.',·_"",,,

~t...,., iI fIf ... of H, ... pr."t; ~,.. ~ ~ ... '1

o flO".. ~ •• eqR "'·/ound. But if the.8ubW.ntive·be followed by an explanatOty •• tenn of the nature ·of.an objective eomplement, " prepoaitiea with its oolllplement.CJl." determinative or limitintf tenn.

the thrtrita· ia ~ (com,... § 88,8, /1,1); &8;.u. i;.;.. wu. i

'_ •. ' : . ;-, ., c·· . _.' ',' ,'.. ", ,'.,'.,' #I'

... "JtO" u .• ,., 8 lill ttiIibII; JoWiuj t:.;.i .;..~ oj l/tMoe

- --- - - - ., .'--.'- - ,.I - - ,

, -, ,._....' -'';,,#

....... ritlittg. Hrw 0It tAl rotJtl; ~ ... ~ .... ~ .~ .. '1 lI.ere i.

'..' _.. ,.-.,,' ,". ...0 ". . . • .. _" '." '$ ,"

.. flO,.".. ( }"...z* ita otW opWm,; U~t-"1 ~u "J INre

D ... .,,. _ gqtitl trilA UI; ..:,;;;. ·~l~· ; ~. fll) m,~ __

.. __ good "'*.-ttJOrth; ~ .:JjilJ. tAi..;. -i tltm ,. no

,_" .." ,

.. tY.!ttJrIf ,. ....... 1Af¥or·a" ~ ,,",1.

aD.. . NGmbta....,tit.· howeyer. when the,· take their objective ~ by ...... 01 the prepoeitic;n .., (I 81). eonat;ptly reject

.. ' . ..., - ~

-,. ~..,;, ...,,~,', " ... (/ ".. ..f~- ,. ,.~ .

the _ .... ; .. 4J.~,.. ~1'" ~ •• 'P ~ .all l' •.. " ~I

~!4i!:G ~., .. !V 904·.·,.". .. ...,.~ • .,.. " .... Ie

S 39) f'M Vri.-., e . O~ V. Vm.--(a)n • .d.... 9'1 "lItO. " 6vt H~. lind;! II. __ .. '"" .good, ·1Itm " ... 10 '*'P.I- 1M .. He. 6out,; .in ..;,~ J~ ., tIOM .,. .,.,. tAe .,..

1/1 , ',., :-,

6/Cod.

(c) ., an adjective be immecliatel,allnexed to an accuaative after oj, it maY either take the aamefo1'Dl without the ~nwJ .. Of it may retam'" ~win. or,laatly,it.lJl8" b.,put iI. thenomjnAti~ with the

~"'ih; &It •• ~ ~ ~i. or ~';';'j i. or Jv4~; i .

'* . "'" ,'" .. , , . . . . *'

.re i'H_itty tlt411 i,,' it .($118 .1aGUlIe). .Butjf.the .ueetiv.~ B . S4JP&ratedin •. y way fro. the IJttbstatitive,the first ef theee three

. . '. .'_' _' .. , '_,.t ,til- . , : . _ . ,

construction .. ia no longer admiMible ; A$~ 'wi ~) 1.. Ilr ~,

.. '. . ". "'. ,

t/tm tiM";", m.,. iii iI, but not ~ •.

(d)1! al)C)th,r 8t1bs~ti~e be oonnected· witJl. the AIlCusative by theeonj~;. the~t1e.oj m.,.be . .,.tM or not. (.)lf1 be repeated. thefint .811bst,imtive may .~. }»It .• iutl18 aectl$81ive without the~DwiR. and the seeond either 1nt"e accusative. with or without

the ~nwin. CJl.in the.nOmhl.tive j as ~~ 41 (I), i,) ';I~; J~ -1 o tit .... iI flO pmow. ami H streNgt! /KIte in God: ()r the fil'8t substantive may be put in the nominative •. aM the HeCOncleither in the~llsative

without the ~nwiDor iathe noaninativej&8 41 (lp) ._;, ij J;';' oj J.,. (II) If oj be not repeated, the first substantive is put in the

, .

aoeusative without the t~DWlD., and ., second either in the Bomi-

. '. .~ , ",N, ,~, "

Dative CJl in theaeeuaative with the tftWln; as (~I.J) ,~, J4.) ~

",';"i ~. IMre i. JUliM." mafl fIOf· tDOIIUJN ;N lie Muse. Examples: D

;~ •.. oj;;;;tr _;':';ej. 'we .. flO Ii".ip totlall liNd flO ./rietldMip ; ..;,r i; .al'i·~ ":'1 u! , i 1Jt(J!J I Mt1e 'If) mollw, if tAu be 80, 8nd fit) /alit,,·; 41; ~,,;;; .j.t. % ..;,f oj e!we ;11110 1"'_ and

110 1Ml.,il, IIfJf~~" gd M$ ",,: •. i; ~ oj; ~~fi i;;li ojj

~ ~ ~. aad 1_"6 ;. flO i61fJU ill it (in Paradise). aNd flO a«,tsi"g (lint a~) qf ~'" aad H tlttJlR, 811d in it tluwe is "0118 to rtiJWOtIck;

w. n, 13

!

f,

A lati:. ;:; IU ;; ~ •. ~ i ,;;; •• , ira Jtjic:A tAere ~ ~ no ,..,....,. ,... ./tVr&tlMip. fI6r itat ........ ; (~ ii ~ ~ jj ~j.:.; 011 ,_ .w. 00tIt6 .. /MII', ,lei'_ 8ItaU I~ ~ gt·iftwl «({or'lIl ii. 86, wb., a Yal'. reading is J;;"). R. S.]

Ra. ... The pr.nicte i. when uaed ... abc>ve. is calledb,tbe ~ . .,. !.r~ -lot ~~~ i. _14 .&AM-_

B 1M .... ""':i&lld~ oj IA.' ,; ,..; f; .... 06tol1'~J. The

IlUbatantive.m .tiae· ~". is calkd.~"""'!t cAe • ....,. of 14, and tbe""'ioatei~iicAe .1rili-"~ .. Tb8 ••• ~ .... , be _iv.ea,1then i.'_ &1.,..), bee" IQlieien~7iftdle"'; as

wheJl.~/"' .• ~; .~ .Ji •. v ~tI"'!"''''''~'1

, ply J.;.j. i ..,... -.!'O CItN(acil.,",~);or';" ~.~

~1 -rotN....",.' and,... say ~ i (acil.

c ;SU).Tbe of the 1lO\lD, ~.·thtt aootnry. i, verJ rare; as

~$~.for·~· .);·.··1. 4w, u_llllA'for"* or _Aca,..., .".." lAM.

~~ .: 6 •.••••• T1le •.•• ~ .•• of>oj ouW,~. to ........

_ .... ~~i.te.J~). ~'~tothe ~ ...

~~r~~~~;t;:.;;t

D .......,. JlBl.l....,i .. 'i' '';tA' J!.: . ii._-~"'" .Dt1

R .... ;~~ • ..;~i~ .. fIO ll .. f ...... ~for.1M .

;.."_..;;.,,, .. ; ~~ ~., 'U..,. .... lGntL

An .............. to .. , of __ WGtlld be iDtWJlite, as

\;i U4;. 'i( ;4\ ";_tIO~ ~6tJ .,...,. 10'" "-

... Ht.tiItt>.,. tnUedof .tbeaccu.atift." the~ectiY8

_~"IlO"~ .• dto .... ofi' .. the . .....,.,. COID,.._ .... __ '~( .. I.t6). _.,...-

S .1] 2'.W Vtr6......a. (h,-I.". of- V"'---(.) 1II.A.... ..

.A~ OIl the of_' 01' ~I1 •• a(.) ." t.UA

...... t.iye ftI'b .s •. ot(J) by the ., ~

~thM orJ,ti.. Tbe i .. of _ ... cue

U.it;ld· aad ~ by *he aocu"'f'e.

e.. The verb J,". 16 bf, 16 .iII.wb8ll it ~. the pIaee of

the .~ .copqla, ..,. the ~ or

..... 91tbe .. ~ refeIe, .••. to "1m-.- .. Mo •• dhe; ..

a..;..:. ....•... ' .. !:' .•. ··.~.~,;.WJr$w. ~.·1.. if ...•. "' _. "' .• " • .",.. (or B

.... , :. ", ," .. : .. ~ "" ,:00' ,:'0' .. : '." :.. ." .. : ,', "

.' . . ': . . ·.JIft.lt ·'~1' 1.1 . l-t .. #'. .. ..

l""t!tIjII~M" W+t., • ..",; .~,.;..',.. ..... ,.". ~.

.- .••..•. ';~ .•.. ' ".. ~ ".,. tf ....•. I· .•••• .,tir ••• · ·,{: . .u;£ t~ .. •

.. ', ..',' , .. ., .. ,,':'0." " ', ',,' .,: .. .. .. ,:,~' ..,..,..,...... .. ', .. '

,~ •• ~~~r~; •. ., •.•• " . .., ..... ..,..' •• .,..".~,

."4~~--~"1". ""'i."~ tII,.;~~;

t'._<'· .. "" " ,. :.. ·"t'i:4 .. . . ....,.:..."' __ .. .. ~_ .'-,

V·u.·.~ ,,~.~.~~ .•. ~ ~."_'II~

• W~ioII" 1t4!":;'~ JA;. t';,:t~~ ,. jl.., ......... C ie-Pl"tMl/orl,-; ii· .~l; • ., ':'li·· ~ ~J ~ .•.• ~~ ~1 ~~.~ .&ll.~ if il ~ U, lAo. it1UI_b. "'* 16 ~ .. ; aM

.. t'.' '1

ili' · ,._., .. ftOfIOII4lo ...• · • __ MIIiag _; .~.... ~,..

.. ,.,' : ":,,.. ", .. ..',.. " .. " , ,

~;1~ ...... orirDII; ~ ~ •• i,.J ut ~.~ ~

J,;) ·~··.·~.·.,.~tlIUI"'.,._ -.....,

-~<- ."'~_u,... for .". "'~ ~. J6. ~ $1 ~. ~.fItId .•....•. .., ..,.,,. ....... a '*"',N.to- ",A, D'

.~ ., --.- . _" . -_,

lMIW·h~ if ~ baa only. an .. coonocted wi*h it. to which the id. ofeXiateace inlweDt in the v.., ia attributed, that aubject ia

". ~'" I, , _". e, • , , ,

put, like evety other, in the llOIIlinative; &8 .;w.I .. ~'.It" ~\6

W .,.. __ (or IifJltl) (I ~. _ ,., Awl (lit. 1-. tMV 16 Ai .. )

- , ,.,. - I, ",; .',

IA,.. lOftS (~U ~t6. would mean ,., WfJI a ..-daMt>; .. ~t6. u..I

~ J.; but M tt:1w luu (lit. 16 tI1Aom ,'''' is) mud pi'9pWI~;

100

A ~;,;.&;1i """;'1 __ .iU CItMU 19]H111. III the rOl'1lter C&fIe.

,

the lJUa.taative verb is.CtJlecl by the graualD&l'iaallA ~~r~ ... ,~. or. ~m. ~ ~. because it J8quirea. au at.tribuf.e

• .. .,1 ..... , ~

to COIDp!etethe 880118; ill the latter.~' .:)6. ,- cu.".. abIolul6

.... becaue it Cf)iltaiu the auribute in itllelf and does llOt require _, other.

a..... The aubject . ia CItoiled ::p. .:;.~ dutWU" .. qf. ~

:.:~..::!:~.:r~l;rrrt,

',' _ ,_ •. , •• _._ ."i- ,',' .e _ _,:.,(",-'~'..r- '''' --~s-"

btl,." .. may.. -,.~ .. \.:e.)U .:J.I- ••. ._. ~ ..<. ...... -:"''''

.. .. ." '

~ .• _" .,... Otw. tlta,.<11 ~ U,) eo ~· •• IM

• - - •. - ,""'" .I:I-L"·"->: - ',,'.-" ',-,' ,,',,' - -.; -

~ j .-.1.-1· .~. Jij .... ,_ ~ "·ftO'" 11"",,..,.11 •• ,,;

and POll .:(j ~.~".""""111. in ba ..... 'ive and aI~ve

- _'''. "_' ~4_i ,II' Ii. _. _. - - ,'-

aenteD-'II8~.,l~~ ~~IAorwur aYU«lt,wMdur

M N ricA or ptXIf' IIG, at TIlia iovet'llion is, however, in aome cues impoaaible; for 'xampe, •• , 6roI.\er .... m, cQlIlpanicm IQut

"_-f'. - '-, - ,,-- ,;,."..

be "'a .. adb1~ut' u •• tJecaulJe~t~v.would

~1.--" ~ ~"lwoCAer' [If .. bj~&Ild ~ ...... boIb .deihllt.e, it ill allowed, in ...., •. of.inte .... to

"' ~ •••• ....., . ill tile noIQiaative,the •. f9rmer in. tlle~uaative, oooveriinl........." ..... ,. au~~. into .t11e gramnaaijeal pred\oate, --loJi-l pnJCiioate into the ~matiaaJ subject, as

t.:d . ., f qi. for ~,iM.i.t "w.. Poeta· allow th ... lvea to

do in ot1l8l' ......... as .......... ~-Ui!i ;:,s.;.; for

~~~~ w,. (Tab. i. 7~,"1.' 2)." D~ 0.]

B

o

D

a ... b.,,'" .... , 8Ometi be OQlitted, .. peeially in alter-

I " •• ,_ •.... ~ .. ,.~ Ie,

__ . 'va 0QIldi. . ...• oJauaea. ••.•.. ; as !II-.~ .!It'-. ol.~"""..J,.. tMu

..... , " .' , .', ,... . . " ...", "", .

toUI N ...",.,.,..". wit4 gootl or willi - (i.e. .:)6. 01

!!i~,* w..~~); ~ b1i u~ ~l ~ ..•. ~ ~ .;J . ....,,, ..... . "~",, m.or/tMlt; . .;,pi ..,._ -"':~

. - ---,_ .. -'~-- .:_ " .. ~ --- ... :.- .. ,'.... .. -: ...... : .. - .. .. - :.- .. :_ -, ..

~ ... "~.. ·S.sl-·"·i,., Y.J •. -=a:·~~.;'-qf 1M "fI'6.-(;) $A~"~;~ _ .....

'" ~ .~ • .tl ~ " ~. iii......,.. " A

'''at4ifl(l,' 6e II .. " ..." ...... gtHtd or W; .;;:, ~ '!. ~1 Jt! lrom· 1M Ii .. ~ • .,.... JI"#~ ,. .... ~ ..,.; lullowiag tMM(i.e .. ~ ~.~ ~ •• ~) j ;t; ,,;~ .. I

"WI : " ' " ,~ .. -". ,,~ ..

!I~ briRfl_ a"_" (" rid4), jfie N ... -(I', rem. bJ.

..a.!'" .c;~~ ~ta~!~I.·ndPt; asi'ut' ~ ijj:, '!'~ ~,....' .:)6u-~,,_ .,.,.. •• qf' ... !A6i JUIw B

~t4.~~A_"ji~~i~~.'::";'; r)1·A:tj -1~I_,J+W ...... ~ .,.,. .•.•.• ~ .. ~ •• '.IM ..."..., of a ,,,''' 4IItlqft&06U~f'II qf~""..:;n.. . .:,g.,;,,;,,;;;; and

IluJir Ilk "'-f~*. .... ..

BE!. tl.. . The "el'b .~, .1I~iop .• l'f:. ~ .• doee·oo\ OOCQr in Jfe~ .. intbe~of" N. uit4 •. ~ thouIhlt ia 80 uaed in S,l'1&C <",",)ud FtlQInioian. The ~tionol"" AIthio· 0 verb ill the same ..that of tbeArabic; il1....Mber Semit~

l~ whichha.Ye 'Gllttbe fi~l tlexional vo the caae of

t.he.prtdieale~tb& ~_, .but.. doubtleel it- accu-

_¥e.-In Hebrew the "ieal p.).-e~P8itaorifinal"pi6eation of" --<COfDJ*N Fr • .., 0 ...... ~ .",..,antlSpu ....... from Lat ...... ), a.ndtbeplaoe of 6'1- ia .. ppJiedb,. M'M or 1m

f' ", .', ,', 1t"1" ... '

A . am 'l!- ,..

ram. .... .,t ~J "1" <",,a), ~ .(oom,....~,;, eo/till,

uptMIIt. • Lai. ~ .,.iI /.u...,), of wlticb the predicate mast D aIao be looked .poa aa in. the· &CCQII&tive.

... The ame co .... otjon a~ to eertAin ..... caHed br

the gr&1IUQariaIi8. • ~fJ. ';'1:.tI·1AI .:"-qf 1=__ L!_t. _.1.1

• •. ..,..... _. -. WIUWl IIlIU some

Cll'e1lIDItaDtial or 1Il4)di(yi.., idea to theBimpJe one or existenoe. Thie

ma1 be: eel) the idea or or COIIli"..,. as in;'; ItJ coni;,. ...

lOS

P.u:r TRI8D.-S""_

[141

~ .~ r+M __ eoaI,.,v· • ..,*P,"'~, .. linger

C ,., lie "..",., 0DtJr tlw; Jajl'~,: : an Jt~ oj"'(I' (hd N6Vt1T t4#t1ug IIta¢/Icf",U 1/0#{ 9;;.;r~tijp1~ CMUtJbetwitJg

..... ,..;-; ~~,!, .. >~ C;!J ~',l\itAq MJid, W.willJJOt __ lItJrulirltlflti, (~"i');'~ .~?~ ... M6 cl4,bam6

,,-.,; tC;.";~'~;.?li.:Lf/iI(Ji.; and U ''''''M

~",: " ,',' ".- '. ,_,,'.<-:._ ,<-:, ': ,-, .'_ ,,~:\1'

"."""''-'''' •• r, _.IM.~.~ tMter; ~~

Dil;r':..:;.:..w~JJ "....,. tOUlMJ"~ •

•• in ...... ;.~) ~t~41 ~ . ..;; ... ia iiI.

. '~, , , .-

,,, ~,";', -"II'

....,. "'" ",""'_ ill ligAt. _'kA ~ M1w;. ~ ,I,... wi'

_...;,; ,. ~ qfMl. __ ~; •. ~~ ~ t,; 1Ja;~

•• ..., ~ ...... (f /tWIj &;:;M-,J» Ail /fJC6I¥«J., bWi ~'t;:·,~~,:.~.~tImlt"'~1w ,..,.·tlBnigA,

.1''''_.'JfI,~~~~ __ ~~*!i., tflI. (iN praytJf') ;

A

o

, (

D

in Ally othercaae, thQ accusative iJ, preferable totlte ~inative, &.7 .A

-.,. ... ~."".,,-, .... "" .,. ':~ ..... c_ ,'_ -,_, _ ""I'

1.»\1 1, ..,,, .Ad t.. or .»\1 1,·-1'&'''' 8O,vern~" .' of t.. and ~

'" _,' _,i' _ _ '''''' __ - , ,',,'. ,", _ ", ,', ,' __

iallCCU1iar to t~ di"lect ofAI-(li8U. &0<1 hencetltey are ealled

~'~. t;; •• 1N1d a;J~ , .

.,' , _.,,,

R8JI. II. The above conatruction of t.: and oj PI all'lO extended to .s~ (VIII. i. § 182, rem. l)..nd to ~~j~ or • ..,.uiue 'i"

(flee [Vol. i. § 369, ~:I ~] .. ~ l~) i .. -: f: ~ ';';r:' ~ ;;. ';1 M rules (1fIfI' ~,. 4Jj"" ~, ~ .. ~ Ilia ,.no' ,~tA" B

~.';:-,,_; ;'. ~ ~~ ~j ~;~~~ yl

1J"t,; 4 mat! is no' (10 N to"nIfkI) fkml .'1 '*" lif. COtIMB til "fa cmtl,<1mt 1DA4n. M i& wrOnued~ .,ad /~,. <bll .. ,/NndI);

~~ ~ ':'i; In" it WIll 'W IIJIM of -JM.'~~" ~-1 it_ "'" .,. Mtw for f'l!J¥~. Tho . government of ':'i aeema

to be 1'elItrict.ed te nouns denoting ti .. , alid either it ... bject or

predieate is omitted, usually the formflr (..,.' ~ ~ .:.-; = 0

f - ,.

..,.~ ~ &aJi' ..;.:i).

. - -,. - - , ,'-', ,

~

,. , , ",fII'

RD., Instead oftlte aecut$Ative, .• the .~tS. ':"'~I.may take

.1' tlleUl It. l'OI'b', in tiro imperf~ fqHo.wi1\g the ,'~ of

~, 59, or§ 8, IJ; e.g. ~. J;~ ;,j;.it;ti &.; ~'U-Jtj; i ~

M fl"Kl ttet1tIt' '10 ceaBt! BlttfJlJing R8 101l(1; tIII,tM 61ar."~ .~

"... ".;a .. ; .. "" -: ' '

tIJ01'~.", ""11 tf1Ol'k;lWl '... ,~at", M ,conti __ loMttg al

tIt.an; ~ .:..,.,.;Jt' J.I..~ :~ ~ .=,;..; RItd I ., .... by D

.,.- - ._-,_ .. -. - _., - -.,.

A •• atad CDt,~ witla A.,. til"'" kug#a; JJEt i;~ At 6ecamct ~.' ali ut;ll~;~ 4alwgatl til 'lfIed uprm ..- "'.1UeA ca aubj~e;~;)jj ..:;1ir.i and ,. would N fIIIJfWlli"f!'·;~ yi..t U\;I J,H MJd tMy tom all tligltt. Iwping lor (or lohflillg lor) • ..,.,., qf - d, ~ 't~~ _' "!it . ':." .~'!!:

Bielr; ~ ~ c:----' tJ1Itl If begCll' wringing ,," ~,' ,:- ~

.,J.:,'; ;J..l5 61f (Jod, tAou ",ilt tWe rt!Rlle thi"kiufI (or ~) 0./

~~ J.f. :I.., .. .. , .., ... " .I"., tAou tfJil

JOBepA (ran. 14, ,~ L~ ~. ~ w, ~ ., ,.j,;J, '" I.

- w- "" -...,,, , c.----=-~

If

W. II.

lOG

A

B

o

D

5421. Th, Y.,-b.--3. .G0fIff',,1IW4' .• 9/. CA, y,.-6.-(a). n. Acc.".. 107 tnepinttg otMr , .. (for grief). (JI).a..:.;l. little UIledin ~ perfect, ._'

.,

gcmcl'I\llJ' takes vt1V.ith the .ubjullctive, more mft'ly ..... imperf.

iudie.; M I~;~; .I;tt;; ~1 '';~ .~ I}: I_'C,;~';'~ ~~~ ;J;

'JNtl if ~ werctlllketlJartAc (wrg) d, , .• /,. wMnit U1M<_1. 'Give

MIYJ,' tMtJfIJOI.I.1 _I nigA.66 ,l"~(l (,".lr.:j1' .• iUJ.1 ib_,.;.i

,_ .:" ,', ' . .< " .. ',c', ,',:'" ,_:' ',- ',:', .... ,

";;',"~! <':,..", ..... t/f ~ ,.1

lttn ~,...,"""';'1' ..J"!I.+~~tlJ,",o.u·la:lIflia """"""ing,

ff~ our frle:.i. (I epa,";,.., II duola4etaU-r_ i . ~ji. &; .. ~

'~:"":-"" . -,.' ',' ,..",... ."'. -', ., , .: ", _','

~1"~~.t .~~:e:. IuJ tI11w./kf,af~»J" • .ltII'tilli1tely to B

tll6ftl~.otl.,IfM OClCCIiIUm wMU A. .. i4r.off 4iagtfm'd •. 'J.'hillverb is

, .,'.'. _. ", ',' _" "', - "_",,., '~I

~itlH)r pe~AI or lfflpolWnal,fpr!em~y •• , ~~ ~"

(l\o'lin .: the~l.rd .of ... the aboveexam)teIJ),. or. .~ y . .:a. ~.ti

.' . :,'",;-: :~_, •• ',' . ,.J~, ... _~ . . ..

<~ ilt. tI.efi~t)t .9" ., ~. ~ •. ~t ~,,(whtn'8 the ..... ubject of

.,' "''',',_.:,_-',' .'_;\,- _" - ",' -,' .'.''.'.'''-- "I", -,

~Jt is tbefollowingelauJe). The form .. ~." isa wlprlam.

(,,)';';6. ( .... rely .;, .... > ia only u.,a in the pcdect, and is construed

~---- ,',' " "- .-,

with the iall~rf. indip., rarely with. ~I anddte.8ubjun4:tive; as

~~. :.;;'~.';'lilr ';;A- my~rl WM .. rig t";'e;", army C

Jf'f)fA' gri¥; >'';ii . $t ~t .~ ..:s; ,.,..~ (lit.

~) . .,.. ..... bftttg cui •• 10 piecu (1tIiIA tJrqug4t or "'ir.l). To

these.· -y be •• i'" .uoh verba .... ~ ~ At ....... r

'. .. n J~"'" ..

~ttg","; .... . ..... ' A. ........ ,., .. _ • i

','" ..... ,... ~ , #> ", ","

J!Jt, e.g ••. ~,.;,t.~ !1u,. ~ .• tJHIl "..,fov,nJ •• ...u wAic4

.. ..., 10 lall,' ~,;;, ~ ..;.qJ1l~f 1M. fIICItlll ..., 10

',a", ,-, • ., •• , , .. -. II,

dia,· ..... e.g. ~ vi t'~' ~ rAe lamp .., em ,... poi,., qf D

going . ., i and tIte 1ib.-(2) To . the 'aeeoH clua belona ~,

'" , - ,,.,, . "', I. '" '" - , '"

~, and JI,u,!. (a) u~ (lat p. sing. ~, rarell ~).

used, we maY-l. only in the perfect, [and baring always the meaning of the ittprfed, JIlOIItly in the sense of the indefinite or

definite preeent (18, a, 6)], was originally construed, like ;\6., with the acc .. sat.ive. as in the half vel'88 ~ .!;';' u!i ~ oj

108

P4llT TJlIIlP.-Spu.

A

B

o

D

S MJ 2'At Yri-3. ~ of ,. ... .,.".-(a} I'M .&.., .. 109 ~~~Jr 4ii .~ t;,~ y'i~" ,_IAq."_ 10 ...,""_ qf 4~ ~ _flU of PMtMliM(to coyer their JaakedQellB);j.ij ~ ~ ~. iUi ~ til !4 "*" I .. 0.1"." gutmllw· __ , 11M.,..,ltcingJu, dipp'''' i,. 1Mit" ~''''_Io .tlrWof ., cWm;.~; JAt ~ ;':Lf ;.JL;,i"'; _I .. ., _ ..

Ik .. .,_...., ~pcopIcofq..c~, .• ~~;.,;;l;'.;i -?~ ;~".. ptg«m ~ Ioftv ""i,. .. ~ ttf.,..;.1;.;lf ~.;\i

C.,J4 .. .,.. ,_,." 10 __ il aloH.;.,",~;.,1l .4 .. ,.... 10 B

~ .

•• . 'l'l$lEiverbW aeeus&tivedepeQd&--

JI' .. Oil ... r verWidea whicb .. det.erJlli~es or. limit. in any way the.~bject~verb. O1'predicawof asentell~. or thewhoj8 .sentenCQ. In·thil~ it .-ppliea.the pIaee . of.a~ition with. genitive, or of a cOnjunctive clause. and &n1pJy.makes up for the .. t of adverbs in Arabie.

....Dythe adverbial aecusativeis d .. gnated :- 0

(I.Theli~ in or during ~4Wall ;t takes place'; as :-'9 ;t;t~ ~;;.;iJ,4iit"lXIllpA .... lt .. PfN. __ __,. iill" ;

~;; .;.~.~ •• ~ i IN. M."_tmlau

, .' '1I;'_ .. ,',., ....... ftc· .', ."',' ",'tI" '" ".

dtJing -;J;.~,,}1 ~ ~, 01' """~./..w tM.""" .,.

or part q/ 'AI ., ;,;;;r ~ -. ~ tJl •• t;. ~-If ~1~ 14J4 ., ..".

toMIAer M caJrIf lwN ~ Dr ItI!Iay ;~" ,J;Ji ~:; ~ ~ D M ~. «(J 1_) ." it, (I f1iIlag,; 'Q; ~ 1l. ~ J.: ~, ifItplorf

,,, , #"

• ' ' • -,,, .~M .," '"

God ,n,le _ flag to proI6cI go. lrom U; ,,,,,. ..,...,.,' ......... ' M

~ ..

•• . ." ., .. ;,1. .,~ ,

tI1iU g'''' "", ,A8 book tomomno; :~ ..... Q' '''~J (1M 1M, ca_

10 tMir lat- in tM ewnift, " ~e~~~';:Jl'i J, ~ J!li ~, Iw fIIOftIlI ..,_ tM .iC8 oj' (I teCJcMr; ~;. ~~ uG .! Ji"';; ii:, Rs di(l·fUiI pCIU 'M "igle on a bed I()f" lortg !J6fJ'" i .;l. J.;\i

" ,

110

PART '1'uum.-8d,tlu.

[5 .....

A"'" , •• ",. . .. ' " , ,', ",' #.# I.' ~

U~, lJ"~1 .An IItuuJ "1' (It Iii""" ",~;u,/('etnrilHJi ..,. ~ ~,

;tut ~~r ('114 .. 1 CfIHti"nctl t"l'jlectinu fill" n t1JIIskr4:nJIJIstitllfJ; ~..;;r.i.:~Jr ail I kUWAit" hut !Jt'fll'; ~~ .. :..:.:. I jft1!/,'tl tllll"iag RiJtlfal}ti'.';;~ ~jJ.,\, I fllHltJ ,'" ,~ tt'iutl'l"·tim6 ;Jti

~, I II "

~ .~ ~flIitl"' 'u.,t...qf ~_;I1!!"i".(or trlltll "utIII" II;m)j

_.~_:. __ :.: ... ~,'<~': "" """:'" ,';' , .",,' ,""":f~'

~~~i~(tt''''''i'',,*11 .uIJ u!/(Ji'tll"fI".IIl!lltt~lr;~,..,..JltD

B tA'':' ;Ja:~;4J '~f.yj;; (i~flt.u_m)al if.,ite!l. (JIltlw • .., ~ .• ~ ••. iI,/kftlfltiltt.,.,.;td (i,.'~(r9JYfCeI) .ltlCfl.IIH l'n'Hi"!1 or. ill fII(W1tillg;J,;Jsr ~ .... ~~: ~,:',:"l"" ·witlt u .. lor. 1o"9tiflJe,i.e.~~J~.';:' .. ~(.;~ tAlm Ae ew·,.ic,11UJl loll!!. i.e.. ~~;:"'d;;.{To thoSlU11c clM,~ bclougtlac.,"lverbiaJ

, ' ., .,41 .. ':"',"~';' ,,-"_"" . , ","", ... t-~ , ."

.~".. ~J~JIU'-1~-::,t'~ ou tlf.!I •.• ~ ••• ~').oIl6H;fJ"l, and

.", _,- ,'.;-,- -··· .. ·.·.-.dl,##'::',··,,··'_ .. -

t;H~ (or ~ •• ).~ J,t .,.!' .( _, ~~ Jin'fll "II.] ,

Ru. ca. • tJIaf(lCJri8of~n put ill thtACcU8Iltivooi tbno h,IUi ~lipi8of ~ IUC~wOrd I~ ~;~IMRme (IIi o.i •• e~;t.;.

~ •. '" CCJme ... ,~ i.e.u, :'i .v1' .. .:.Ji;.J,." 4';; A';riJamUffl., •• .".ngqf W$CJr{-' PM~);.ilI; ~

~~~ ~.~ ...... .;-..r tM~.r~;""""

qf,,~or~i,L;. "'''''Ii_(~JOOt. P'YJP"

or .• ~t1r ~ ..•..•. ~ .••.•. "..CqHp4C.c. tf'·JtCJ·lIliIAr;~;~ ~ftf ... ",.....,. "1M~1Y;;';';'. ~ ~i,~Hf .,,~,.. ~ lor .tA!t, .......•• r m.eiR-ic4 ..• 0H6 ·mitJk4

"'~ftItOi~ B;umples . of more vioI_t elfBiona are:

~~. ~f-ll tftlI ..ot .~IO.Aima. .. tong ,.. 1M JIGO

,.11 ..... ttl •• ~·.· •• HrJiu·«()l' ".r care.,.., (i.e. I ",ill *"'" ,pd.1o 4im),fot~ltiJt ~;'i.t ) ~J.ip ~i 'i. I·toill t&Ol fill· io Aim ,.. ..., GI, .,., .. 'tDOPQi,.,.,.. ~ two atara.which poin~!,! thePoI~)'-l'O ,(i.e. It':'ill .... go 10 Ama)' for iti.; ,~

.~~ ...

o

D

R,!!. 6. PecuU"r is the use of i;i;.~.; 't, ~,; ti.;.!~j;.u. A

and ~. as a IIOl't of <JefiDi~ proper name&, wherl.-t refer to the • ~ morning of A partbular da, or to " ee"""in Iix(lllti~e; e.r.~~.:i

;. " I ,.., Ain. "'iI mM'ni Ilg ,.;.: " ~~:~ii _;~ ,t.;.~ .... ;,. I'riMII in .t4i! MOrningj ij.l.;u .••• ur;;_; .w.... I ,'f,,,,,, on

- '. .- . ."",~,~./-.; ,...~, .. .,,;~~~., .. ,.

'P""4'6I/fl1I lle tile fllM'limU" 4.:,i .. ...., .a.o,; ~".~ •. .MI ~

Ifi1d"ina timtJ4terti~i (~.: .-, ;~e,j"'l}u1<l~ j~~ Aitta OtIs

cti(tf.ln.· ~ .. i~]. '

Ij •. ·l"#IW'~t.rtt1l4i(J1I of ;\naei. And. if ~nert\l~'inde6nite. B tlte lmc~e. iNtrJirkiti$ lterr~~cd ;ng, ~t_;I."~MqtmwlW IOlIr"';tt'~i.9:~·Jit~:'; I.Wlfll:ptlt1ro jKlI"fISfl .... ijU ~

lui. '!'u. ft. J~MI!4 ,. (-j~;) ~~;f~ ~ 111I1f1t,jwl'~I. altdWt ; .~~, •••.. ~ •. i~·.Ji. )~!i!"(!(:mllJlt('r~ tMeHti.!I. byltt'" aNd It'a ; ~,;,:;.I, I".;"", ;~~.:t;;. Im/r.;'ul,·i.!.; itt lite •. ;Jile jJ';';'

'., . .~.,' , '." .".

t,mlllttl,. ':;';I(III;rl!: ~ lIudt',. ,. ~.. b!~i.'(·. b!l; etc. [Here wo

-r ,,1M the ,ul verbia.leX}ll"Ct;sio1l8 u" .~r ~'i and Jl; ,t ri'"":"i ill tlul 0

, .. "" > . .., , .. ,

"/r,d/"n q( tlie .r;!lht/t(tIlfl ml'l ,if tile Idt.] ~

lLsM.'J.",tltlll tho I>ll\t'euf theaetilt.<lofiDiteJy RpeCUied, tho 1.rol"~tiOil ~ Inust IMlll8("I; I~~ J,1.:,r~\!·~J.;I."(~li11 t4e

.hOI4~; ~r ~~. ; ~ ":;L; I pt'D1J'tl i" t4e ~~'4 0/ dte protJu~t " ~ - ~.ji . .J;£;..J, .;~Il ~tl cai ,I.e pffMll1~ ~t

/', t· ·1.1' I • ~ .. I ••• , •• ~.f· .. , •• ~ • J

.,(JH{'m·W(UI~t"'t1f i ll1J"J'"aIf ," ...... ....,......~. and J.iJ.e 4*.

)~:<~c~~ itI tho clUlCwlten lI.vngue 'lflUJ\ • .t place. IIttch A$ :"tt:. D

.~ or ..... lL. "ill construe.1 with 1\ ,·orb com"flying ~he idel\ IIf "topping

. . ... .. #',. • ......

Of· I'('III/mllllg, a.~ ~ ~tt.. ..::.-.a.... I IIId d01011 in Zt1id'1I ,J(WJ"

If l SUIJlct.hIWII. h,\wu\·.',', Ult~ ,J"'illite nltun' of place ill ~~;'-i~ l.he

, 'I I . ,t; .. ,0" •• ,t.

1W~~I,~a~~vo "glUtllit t If' ru I~. us 111 ..... \.:JI ~) I tOt',,, '(I S!J";'/" ~ ~

~ ~I flIp. 'II'" ."Itlll'" ",u·ill~1 lIIi"""11 i" tlV! '",11 .• It/ I'mllt .l/i,'f"I,f/ (1"'" fh.> fll .. s~, f .. TIlI~'I·i ill v. ~ :I,"II''''"p. ~ iO. n'lII. It). n. n.1

112

PART TIIJaD.--8p_.

A and also the .oaIe when a B01Ul of p1t.ce is OOQatruedwitb tbevel'b

,." ... s; ", .• '#1.'" " .. ~ , ! ."

from .hicb it isclerived, .. td.·.·· . .:".w, or ~ ~ --.,.,

I. ~ .. 8ii4. ... ; ~~;U Ae __ up .. AU~, or ftJPPlW .. ",...-The 1lO1Ul8 ~t.t., :.;.;. 1;". l~u, ricle, ~, e~~~.,~b. J;;.. .... l'eIlaire ~ as ~ to! ,;! P¢P-l ..,, __ ,lIN,...; bot in ~ Arable we o~

find tile accuaU". ~ . ..;... fl ..... ' and ~b. as &lao .;:) mar,

B for y;J.~I:;;' ~. ",-." .:,,;;. 011 • ..,. fe»r~;i -.l'

.:-- ,'" ,-,'; ,-," --- - -- - '" ',- - - ',', ,", - .:'_ - - ----,,~-~

~;. ....t • ...ul tbeliP·--Obeerve· alao such ph ..... as: ~ •• ,.

[:;In. ~.Aeif .. .for . .frtn-tIN ruC •• ~ •. tAW.) • P~ (Amtg .... -,) j~';;:;;~'" Ai ""I" ry .. "'(11 1M

::,',' _,if",< ,,_<':_' ',_,',' __ ,',',:,'". ,;,1

lart.ltm pl4t:f~ ·cme .,. cia" (or f1f?I. oW· eo) 1M . .,: ~,.

. .I~~r .a1;;Ae ..... _to ., .. 1M ,._ ': ""'.Y .wt-~

"t, --II:

if/~ ,

R.. 6.. Theaeeuative of time. and pl~ is caJ.led by th~

o ~J;1tl cAe tIUftl· (see .voL i. § 22l, rem. a), or ... J,jl;iitoWw. ta\icA 1M fJCI if~.

,*'

c. ·_·,.,or~, ·Jt.:.i~()f.e 8llbject • objeet of an

- - " _, ,.,.."

act, or of •• ~ whilat. theaeti8takingplaee;as.~~ "'IJ .~

~~....,; lj ••• ~* g:.~~y'~. ~;As~

tJI ~....,;~..oJ' 1M CdW, __ "11 .jMa (ud)"ftfJ to Iti".;

I~;:·' ~.~~_".".. 1As,-, ~ YOltr881~; ~~

D .,;,:.1,; ~. ~ .:.,~ teAo ,_,. (Iod itt miRll, BIt#Uling tip and

Ii""" -.;. ~i,a'~~;;Ai •• pN..d qf tI1f1Od canbs Itmigjt",ed VIi,. ,., tiMI(a kind of ~l), wAiIl iI " 6fj/t " '11 ~ ,:,W ~ • w..."", tI1P:4/. grtJtD tip. a ,.,., ... j 4'; /JaJi ';",LJ .!,f6.

~~;';.~ •.•.• ~.'"':.i~; (il i,) as if 1/18 _." oj' ~L~#Ift/.Ilrh.~ ".. fHIII' ..... ~.,.ttl /t'nil qf t!tll juj«1Je (If'

. tkcayi"g .tIs; ..;;:...: .;;,;Ji.z :.; I.'Ode lAs Itmw ~j ~ eli A

, . ,

- , ~... ,.'. • .it! • • I. •• ~

1.,4t'-i ..,..... "~l I M 1M s"II,;" '" Itls itO"", ttWpmg "

~ I';"~ ,~ ~ ;i~ ~;;i; ~,;,;; .tJT ~. ~; "",111'_

,.. . ,. ',' . ',' .; .

iW41 t't'bel "!Jt,ill-' GIIII 'lila Itill Apoxtk', alUl Mi,ll t''''''8!JI'f'M /till onJi"fltlCes, 116 RltaU tIH,A'r1 !Ii,,, ente,. into fitI', W abide inil JOI' et'fl1';

fl· " .", ~ .,.. " " " .. ',' ' " ••

t..oM.t- tAIJI .,:,,,,,._ 1 /lflM,,1 IJ!J ZWltl, (tCS lIeVtU) 1I'"IH9 f/(nt'tI;

.. "" ..

~uwT .... ;., ..,.:..;t;.; "UI/ ~!lt! 1#.,1110'" Itim fir"''' l,mg,li1lll1f!ti; .; !.,

,', "

~j 9'~';;r~ I Wt.,i"II'e r: wltilstil 1( .... i" bkto»l; B ~';"i; .j,'.; .;.~ ~ .• l:';'e~";;C't ~'; '"lfl 'IImJ 're,.~

ftl'n fIUINIilf!J IWfl lH".ti,·s. (1I1lp) (tAm fllfd fUlfll/l,." t"Hng (dxmt 1111',

(_~t IftY~) sit#ug at ;t-(i,t",,~i " [~.ti; • ~~r ~l:J J;; U1; ~;~ ,lie Ftde8 ,piU m't'l'takllffJf.tA(!!II~il#gdesliHPtl fill' tlB, till

. ; .'. . - ,.# " ~'~.' , -, ....,.. ',. _.

_t"'" tlmi"t!d 10" t.4eml ; ~b.·a:' I met him, (U'I"lsItl'tJ tl'l're)

buill ridi"g " ~;j.i.u-:..w, ~ ""WIII'"" tAollmel'if'/ft tnI', "ntlt. (nf C

, ;.6 , • ~ .6'''' ,

fC8 lJei"g) aIoile; ~ ''''''''_ ~ l111t·t /tim, (lV"il~t tlltl mill nf "s

~ , ,'''' ,

ttVlJI) !/fling ftp (and tlee otlte,.) comi"g dmclI.

RIt ... a.The J.;. is, in relation to the gmlllmat.ical structure of the phrase .to which it belon.., ... fUJ or ffllu_ncy, for .A;j •. ~. ZeiJ C(JIfI6, is a Ct)IUplew, in~Oigible, sentence, without

. ,. ,,- .. ,'. . ; .. ".

the addi~ of ~b riding. It Imswen the question ..... kow 1

iQ regard to the state or COQditionof the subject or object of the D

• iI,' • t;~ 'nd' '

n.et, [and may be ~ indicating a f"tore state, or "1_1 lcating

R sillluitane«)u state (§ 74), like the Imperf, (§ 8, d and 6)].

R.N. 6. The J~ depends upon a regent (~i ~'), which

.,," ", .. .

may be either· a vcr", as ~b "'I.J .~; or a verbal adjectlvO

-. -,: ,""". , .. ' .. ..

(Vol. i. §§ 230, 231), as ~ .. ~ """/l.i ..i-{J nuJ 18 ""'7IfI '"471,,.

,_", . I. ,." " . . ".", .. ", .. '

8t,mdi"'lI. leMJ· """"....... .lot) zei,l ;,~ b';IJlm sl,ent/illff, ~U ~ .lot)

,. '. II

W. J'I.

1&

A

'H ~ "':1'- •........ U '_~L..

Z~Ioolt "'~t ~"~.' .......•..••.. ~.~.._..-..

.".. ~ ...,"-·41 ... ...,;01' .. ~~t

baa a verbal fc)roe. ~ 'u'-';>. .. a prepoeiUon with it.s COIIlplement, . a d __ UMh:e pro~..... interroptive, 01' a ... word

, "",:' '. ~.~.'... ~." OJ",", •••.. u~ •.•• 1._1....:.. __

lik_ ." _.'j .,pI .. and.... U-. • t". \;.s ..••.... ~y J~. '~ .. ' "1J -. . - .. ' ~

. . ,,' " ,', . '. ,:' '..' '''., I~.: .. < •• "

........,. '.... ..· .. < 1. "eJ.ii .. ~ is ecpa.. • i ~ .• t9~'lii ~.J.!'i ••• ,. . .;t.fJ ~

, . • . ". I._~L 01, __ 1..1 .. 1._

~- it w • .,~.H'l~~~ --'-T \Ol'lf" •• -¥

. ~)Ur4 ....,,~itl~~~ WI. u .• A .. ".< )

.~ .. , (equi~ 'in..,..to '1"<: ~j4Jflooi ..

~. . ".' < . \I ..• 11:.-' dt. .•... ' .•.. < .•• 1 .•. 1 ,.. ·RI .. · (JIIt .•. ".' ,.

~(JtI.IIIIf,. or ...•. , ';;""'1 ~ .: . • • •••..• ·i ". A'.

~".~t£ '''';.It~~'(.)~'(When.~ •.. ~~ ~. ~ •.• ""G"'·~"·""J)4!tiJU.,~,..,,,"*''''' IIGrUlitat.(IMrf ..•. >.'. t".'.:L.u.·." ...••.•....•. W.";. and. lAu • s. m.' , .4 .. tad,Gtl..... old

',",'" ,,' ":,' ,',' '. ','. ., ",>:fif' ' .. ," ","'", ',' "' .. ,'." "',:"',',', .," "" ••• ','.' .• ~"

ma" (="...,.t4i#t .. 4.~~ •• "" old ); .~J:n •• ~.~.~

~;.. ...,,. mI..'" ".., 1M, t."".· from·tIae U1«Imi.."

~u. c. TheJ~is unaUy(l) an adjective ("';; ot.ie> exp~ng A tranaitoryatAte (Ji!:.!;J~); though i~ may ~180 be

.. ". t fat.:. i.!. L.·.A #'. .. ,.~!, ... # .•• ~.... _.:;;;.1 .. .zw.. ...• . .. ..."......... G 04. aI.

~\' p-' .. ' , (.... . .

; (~)~(.propr).-ItJn&Y like"" be}~) a~.~rt

.. batAn~1J1 equi~ in· .~J)~t.o.aparticipial~Ve [ooplp •. V.oLi.513Q, ..... c·]' ..... ~ ;.9.'.:" I ~ .• r.-.-ttd

.' , i" . f!.' '!t:.I ' .. ' 1..:_ -:.u...._ 1._...1

(in cold blood), i.e. ~; ~) ..,.1 ".,. ... _.'---. ~ .. ..,

'.· .. ·' ·.1 ;:.'.' .: '.·.· -:. ••.• _.:'.J.. '.""1. --~.~ •.. = 0.'1 ..•. :.r AuMoo.. "'I.~""-'. b _ n.· ....

i. •. ~.; ...•. ~..¥) ••.•..•. ~ .. "'''''._'''. ..",

(I .~. ittrom . .dm by bearing him_,. i'), i.e. ~L, i. i~ eli.

M -__ _ ...,,,.. i.e. . ~,,; i.t;J. !!.~i I ttNC Aim

..u.al : or · =. Le, u.."'-. !; u.;. !!.ii I fMI h'".ftIM toftIM,

.' .: .." •.......... ' ., .: " .' . .' .. '.~ . ". '.." .... '. . " .. , ~

• . '.' ' i.' •• :"r.' s : i :. t..<1..~1 _.J.., If) -.face If) fac, i.e. ""u...;

Le , ~ • •••.....• .,.,_. ..

I.l;. ";14 ...... : •. U 1 fMI 4.,. face to /tW (.",. 0/ tv hinrkring 1M

. ", .,_." ..... : .... ". '. .. .

B

c

D

§ 441 T4. Vcr6.-3. Oo~ 01".." .... -(&) .211.& .... 115 oIMr, for" SZ6.).-Itmay &lao be (3) a COJlCl'8t.e .1Ietaative,· i

tI', "

!'. ~ j.;iSi' iii, ~ •. MoIna ,.. fiJI; ,l:,f ~;. • ..,. ••• rr«l

• . . ...• .. ':,. " ._ I _ ..._ _-.

(liIe) • -; ~''-''~~ it (01 lAc ,..,. td') • f!fMIItl k •

tlir,.,· ~~r; .. ~~.:.~.(.,I4e .. qf) Cwo ~ (l'or'G d~itJM); ~iit£ -w ~.~I ~." .. Meep

,-- ',' --~,. .-~ ','.,*, ----~-

til • d'1'~ .piece;. ~ W~H 1rhall, or~ .• wtI4. lim,

.~ ,'- -,'. ---,.'" -~.:-',,---_ - .-,' -~,,, ~#._._ '.',_ II " .....

Aand.". <~ .•. ' (i.e. for 1'-'~h ~"- ••. ' "~4fott,_, ~

" - ',' - - ,',' , - - ,',' .,-.- ,','-, ' -',-"ol!-."":"if<·'-. "'1

11ZplJt,i_""'\if~"'·~""'.'~~{~"'1"''''''~ ~ B

",',- -'_,'-, - "-- ,'--,' - " -', -- ,'_ _-: ,_ .• -~ "', ',,',_', ..' - : - ,',' - :''''''.'- __ , ", 4.#

4f ... .,~ ruigh~(lit. ..... to~. for,~q. u'J ~

ot.':~~); ~ uI':~;~I""If.w.foc»lol--{li~lU moulk ~"'moulk) j ~j z.. :~1~~fA"(I'ntit).,ltuer ,.. • .fI1'IIPB~ae (lmw;Il;.~"~' ~~, ot';;~~ t4f peoplul"""'Hfl(liia) dt!J.~of s..(~r ~)'7Lutl,.,t:he J.;.

.' .' . .,

may be (4) "jlJ1)poeiti()n, Sc..;.(1J8e § U13).-Tbere •• y be more 0

•. , :_ " ( - - - " ,', "_ - - ,-<- -', - - ", .,

.QJan oneJ"refeaoring to the IJ"bjeet or. ()bject of an act, or to

bothje·g·~1-i~6 ~ .t;.~C4fIIjJriJitw <,.,.,},."",., i

d tit, ... " -:.:" .•• <If-,.' . __ -- ,',,' -', _ _ _ _ ... , ,

. -e.- •• '''!.'.'~. I~ t4i1 ...... ~#41J1li,., ~;~f. ~

~_,. ',' ,." J.,. , __ .:~~: :.,'.J: , _";_'~:!'"~',,

,~ .•. ~""'''.Ill~·~! .W",- ~""'" .".,. i •...... _ .r.w.Cwo

~ .. ~ tQ~"lp him, ;. ~ atOll. apoil; ~ ~ J.,.ii

~ = • .1:. I, (-y.,) going ., fMIllVt4(a woman) ~# ~ The only .... in whiCh a diftioultycan arlee UJ. when botIa the tails D

. "",' tI... ,tI'# -I ,

are of the -me gender and II"mber, .. !I .................. t..cJ -:...D

." , ", ,

• '.tI , •• , .. .", - " ." " •

or ..... !I le:rl.t I.A(J.~!I- Some of the grammanana say that, In

, , '~ , .

this caae, the fi* J.;. ""'era to the 8ub.;.ct and the II8OO8d to the ob.;.ct, 1, (al 1 --) going .p, II"; Zftd t:tnIIing doton; but othen

maintain that th. first J.:. refers to the object and the aecond to the 8UbJect, I, ( .. I*,,) riding, _, Ziid ~ •

.. .k~. t~'6 .'~'iU'

Bu. 4. . The'~ mAybe ~ .. ,.., .'""fItNnaittg, or .... ,.. _,."A.

~ , • f/I

A

As ~.;.; it. 1Da1 refer. either to the verbal ~t. or to a prececlbaf propoaitioD ... wbole. U . it. nfira totbe verhal regent, it. DUly be deriYOd rro.. the verb i.lf, tIlougb t.h~. ia a com-

~vel)' rate oue; as -i';'; ~~h and tH I.4w ..,n'

" ., .,

.. 10 ..... '"'CII .. A~; J,~i.n.;:,~; J!fi ~;.t 't; ~ . ~ ~,r.;~~II. ~_j~.J 10 p1U tl.e • .".. ~~+N' a~. "''' _ .~ .... ~"" ... nl~(l 1N.lJw~ .. t~it ...... ~. ~.'~Il$propoaiuon. thla. lDUIlt. he~~~ oo~.~ of.t"o.de&ni~ oone~wnoullll

..... b~ .. ..a .. ~~; ...... ~ .•. ~,;li.;;;~e.d .•• '- .• "'I.I('tMr. fIB ,*" ••.. ~; .""~ •. .;;; .... ' .. U'eid,CII . ..,"lk,UJlDtl " ~l';l'~ • .!iJ.i.J~f I4.1IO and ",.;"itJttt(4J1tl)ilJ'e'w i .. jA ~~" ... 1i4 '""'" ... _"q-e; ~;.;." .\1. ;~~;

, . ', ..... '''', " ',,' .,,-_ ;C,::'_' , ,., .. ,.,'--" :">'~:'_,;._:";' ',:~

and· i. "~'2"CII~ll o/.,wu"itJ. ~.(oftho

Seri,,wr.Wbieh • ." .• have JI.-ty ~\.6d); .~r#tr~ U't

;.1. J't. ';i.I GJlltIw .",.'" q/OQ(I. eatiny '4I~"1! ~I't!(''''ll (0; God) 641. ",(1 ~ .~~ ij,;';';t utI at" tM 1101' (1 Dam, mlll~·'_" . UMll k~&OIM "'rotJiIA lur •. · Tho .J~ is exptl\illcO

.• . . .•••••...•• c. .. ~ .• , .. l "'. ..:1

in ~ .~b111.1l.tli,. ·01"""" •... ~,~" I 1'1",", kipJ(or

",-:-:, ' ", ,,:,::_':-: ""','."-,,-, ,'- "','

iJ),~ ." CO ". 'tWt""""'" (0."") lor Ci!1'hciJt. and tim like; c,g,

t.i,.J.; ~t.:t.D,;t .;.s ... ~~1, .. ~ ~1.~i\. u'ttct.c •

. n ••.•.• TIle J";'is or4i~11~OJ'illdctinitc; hut it. is "lIowAblc. toclefine it by t.he at'tW1e hi ClllleJS where it 1II1\y It"

, ,~.',' ,',,'- '.'.:", ' ,_' .: :-'~f!f "tI." ,,',', ~ .. , to"

oxpi\Uned .~volvlftg 1\ condit.ion (!t~,~), n:i~!JJl .,w.j

~...;r~ .!,,·~':'fZi:td. u,Mn kit ill "itli''1I(~; 1)11. IOfll.:~ mUI"I~ A4~ tMn 1M (louwArll1oalkittg (~ 1)1), illl!tcatl (If the 1Il0l'U usu_l~t,; ~ .;, ~ ':1 ~b~. l~urt.ltct, it. mny J,tHI .. ,i,Wtl "y IL prunou,inal '"-ll~x. or utilUl'wiHc, in \'lu·itlUH CIUII~S, in which it l',lll

"fit, ,

be OXplailloo by, or is cquivl\leJlt. t!). 1\11 indelinite J~; e.g,

;~; ~.;,z.;1 ~ .. ", 4im ll~ MflllIt'.I/01· "lune (."'~~;) •. : [;j

c' _' "' __ ~_,,_-'-'- __ , " __ i!_,~, _:_ __ "-'---"~ " __ ,,,, _' __ " ,' ~c __ ,,', ,, __ ,, ,, ' " __ ,,_,,_,~_,,:,, ,,__' ,,'_ "JI!

B

o

D

118

fAaT TSJlU).-S,....

(§U

A

oj 6aI4N, ~ tIWA; .~ J:; ~ J;. r~' Q friend, .. G

IV' .d«Itw4. at ,.,..., '~,...h,howevel'" admitted the cor:rectn_ of ._ •• pJarue ... ~. J,.;.) ~,·and in,. tradition we fin.d

~~ J~;.l)J .).;., ~,,~. +"J~ J:. lIN A~oJ

(loll ",..,., . ......" -1Aer.t.~ ~ .. 'i'" (MmW) 'i'M1& .,.ading_

a..,. At- thepoliiicmof .·tIle. ~in ."t,eQce..t.he ft.}.

Iowlasl'8lDa&'p oe, in conD~.~Wha\ .ilI~.aaid

~ __ ~~) • .Aa le, ~e .~iaP~i"fter .tJao .. ~~, .~t

.. '.how~t~.Jt., if·tJle~~ • .,. •• afWl~in~~(~)

. verb •• or . verh!al~e, ''''.~i.t.;.! ; .. b'ridingca,,"zt1.d; J-:.t; Ii. ~"':';i"""" tAU .(~) ~,.,i,., ;bDtjocannot say ~ ~ , ., ~. ~\.iand. ~ .. ~ ~'~~Jii,inat.d of .~ .:;; ..:,";r.~ .... ~q,~J,.,~"H~.~16

'__,> .. ," '~.,: ._".',' ",., "_,C,,::,,,_,_: '_,-'",

, '.f' '. ,,~.; .. t!&·· • ,., ".. . • .a .... ,::.!t_

neither ~ as. .tt:tt~. nor v-e-'as ~ ~,lS

'1'. ,:--'. -.', - - ':',' - , - '," - _' - -,', _',- ",'1' ',' "

J;~::,An e.~tioDto the latter easels wh ... an obJect in a

~ .tate ia compared withitaelf, .. OI',wi.hanotherobjeqt. ina

- - - __ --.0 ,,"", _,:-,, __ -1'.' "

~t."" .. w. .hioh.eaae~OM~m- pl'eCede.)UI.and tlte other ..... it, as';'U •. .!J ' ;1 tts(f· JU ~~

tl'fI';-:: " - . til: " _ ,'- ',' ... ' _.. ,

• ,,,,,;#,., '~"'"

~ • .,... .. ~ ,..{~ w.m.,. OI'~.~I~ •. ~

U~'.~ ... ·~.''''' '' .tnOH..pl .. "- 't,.,.-JfI1I(",oCim)·

lf~;"'t .. ~.~ilj~; .~.(., ... 6).tJaoJ~.lJlaatJollo.

i~ .with rare .. ~. m~. "tlof,,:~~re~,AIl~~:

OOIDf"trItJlt.. w. eaonot .. ,.\~ .•.•..• ~ '.~ .",.,'...... .... '

.., ..... fG;j-= ;. ",r, . .;.;r ~ .,.~,;, fori;;~; ~~, ,,~ J,;f ,,,,,,,.11,..; .. ~ ";;j ·':t;;, .';;f~' ,~,.u{j.;

nor ill ~, .... _ -I ~ .~i· _:U'or ~~r 'J, ~{j .lii for ~J~ ';;,orl.t}J."JI ~ .lUI tIioqIl.lIOII1e .-din ~ {{orin ~:.-,.! ~ . .:".;: -'i; .. (A,e.~.foIJMl"'"

B

o

D

(,." 6t). AU t'(fAc ~ .• ~ of ~,,~..,-. __ A (.wI"');r.w.l ,.,.,... '" , .. rigItI ~-<') • ..w..taay ~ cede" ~~ .• bela theJatter ill tbe ....... (nomin.) or

dt~~ect < .... >. "'~ ~ ...... 1;..., ,.~tJ.;';';i; unl ..

~ •• ~ be reltricted bJ •• 4t., .. ~~.~r ~ ~ Qq~7!/:--J~ sz: .~.., .. ~ .tad

~ •••.• ~ .•••. ,...., ,~I .• '~. bepV~bl &~tion, the

J.:.~~it,"~~tff~t;';;.not~~$~- B Ottly • ~., •• ~ '~' ••• ~ •• ' .• ~ .... ,.' ...t.9~).j;;'J16 .~

~.!';;Ctif: .. f.~i'~·~..< ..f! __ /.e- ~--. :u

.~ . .,..~lofM""~~I4in"""""","d_(1o •• ),:for~~i;;.0J:'!;;orJl.i~; .'~'.;.,if .aU' .5tJ

~~ii"J!t~J.i-".···.&otw)~!il(."'" .: ~)~6!r~ rt"4 ';*raoIl4IlIN .. '*!oI {/i6dl,.. "t&G~ for .. ~~ ~'; The J.:.. mal betlependent upon C

&. preoeding ~!Ja~;(_57&),.hen theJ'.:" or govemin, word, ill. DAtur&llycap&bleof.bei.D, itAl~t(..,aar. DOJll$l apR" ece.' ....... 6), ... ;.; .~. t'~ ~p. .t.U;;~ ~;~!1

'~~;t;."~;;'~i0to ~"',.,I. JClW ..". ...,.., .. ~.# ~ l;t.J1~'J ~&JJ}li J,Ii

Q '" -1..., ~""'" ",",,"" .~ ...... ,. ....... OM dtIr._. ... ...., G~.·or ~_ the ~-'~ ill a,-. D

~! ort.rapicabl. of the ~.~ as ~";'...p •• ~ c,; ~ji)

U,,..! ~ .." r •. will ......... ..., r. i" IAtJir ""-* oj NtICOtW

cu ~ (U~l dependent OIl the au8lacl pronoa m~~)j

" .. .. ... "'f .... • ru ,.. .,

~ ~.If! ~ et" 'ii' , , • ..., lAM w •.... W ....

.. , PolltnD IM._ qf .4 cu .. ~ Le. __ .., to ,..,

rig'" .,. or --lid -folIA (~dependent on ~l' ~ .....

Ito

A

virtually a pan of';"';;I, _ thephl'llA8 quite clear and correct

without it, "-:; ~I e.;!).

B ... A. T_ ~r~ _, be 8apprelll8d, either n .... rily

., _'<- ,

oroptional1,. n Us· omi~ neo8II8ArilYt for - ..... m. in tile c;aIIO of

.,. " " ,.~ J·~I·" '" ~.. ·,/~:' ." ......

.. ~ '1~""""'" .;1- (. rem· cl). ,..-..,...., ~Jlt ~;lll.

fonM ot ..... wum or·~.Jation, .,. to (lt18 departi..,· ~~

~.- -',' -:."_'.'. ',- :".- ,.-.',/';:.".' -"

~ taiing • ft(IA4 .. _ tIitwI«I 6r. (1«1. .. _1. ~, "'; to

.;,.~.~ ~ ~~~ ...

~ sci'. ~ ~~ .,,~. Qf~"'!1 "['fit" ..... .--li

to one _tiJlg. ~ 11.: • ..., ,,~ _~8Cil. ~,

~,~.,u., .etc.~ .,·14=,..., " .,. ... .",..; ABel in

ncb ph ...... ~~) ,;,rj ~~, ·1.·~ i4/or •

,. -,_ -.- - - "" ',',# -,' :--<

dWktIa GtIIl.,.....aciI. ~J ..:,.;.!tT ;,.ii, or '~~_.eA.

pM ..., Oft ~tag. or ..,...,Mg'-; ~.Jt5.t~ .. fif.;, I'_' i" ", ... diRiJr,., t..,. seU .• ~t:.,. ~ ..• ~;:;:Jr; 'JJ GftJ • ._"., .. P-.i;u_....,,_._. ". But the9fllilaioa

Us op&ioIlN. ill such ph ~j ~t in_"., to -ibt .. ~;,;

AOoo •• ~ r: ~ . .;~,~h:.~.~!<~!~

.~"., .." ...,. ., ...... "'..,.. , .... Jj.;;f or

* .....,.. Qf....,.,-,..v ....... ,Qf.;.LiPf..,

ttiJ,: ,_:',:0 ',.',' .. "_"," _,' " _ :. :'_,'. . ,_' ,','_.c.

~"""' ....... qf-'. ~ .~;;j .!i6f.)t4jr; ;~.:~ Z\lf ~IJ ~ .. ~U .;:, .......... w • ..".

. ,',' .:- -. . _,' ,,- '. , ,,- .. ,' . -,-,_,,"

........"MI~.t r-. ( __ ...-,. • .., ~) "",,' G6l.

10,..,,.,... ...... -. .... qf .. ~-lt Jb&1.eIlhapPlll

• [If ~"~be OODlIWend .. epi" of the ..... ~;

~ ....... ,.,.. ....... to tbe -. __ ·· .. ti.ofteIl •• 31, 6, ...

ec.p.> LtIuwr~"l

B

o

,

I'

I, .i ;

D

w. u.

16

111

PART TSIRD.-apl44'.

ii'

• ti .,.'

a. 'ndI • ....u..., which ""alll be .. ur" ~,

a ..... '". 1 .. *'-1 DOIIIen Terbi. led bf ~be ~riane

~JJ;J;r.M(~!; 1~) ~~: ~ JJ-'''. lAM. on ~"'. If _itA .... _..."...... Itt. the.....-er to the ~ ~ tJ1It.g1

iI. V1!io1ll.other d~ and ~t.ationa oftM predicate i as. t-li Jl; .. ~. ~ .... ~ '."""iU;r;;r _;.it 'M f'tJNt

. '.1.'" .... ..,; .... ", '.' . . '.. • 1 •

iI _"'Mg ;,,~ .. ~.~ ~~ •.. ~ . .,.',. pet'8P, ..

B ,..,.; ,::j.~r J'i'~"", .,~. "'_<tuitA ,.".ritUM ;

illj; J.;,sr-iP.u#l-.,.., ,_,. tM~". .in

tI1flgAI. (or.6t"",I->. ~-£':;;f Iri. ~ •• qf~" ;

l_ ~l. ~ .• . '. . . , "" ... !t<! •• , ..

~.~f·.':~;I~.IIii ••.••• rAkt .u..·~r ~ .• ·'·""'J"l ':.' .~

l"'_'_. ',..'*"'4. "..;U':; "'i~.,~; -tfM.fIttICItI."" ""' __ .IfIrlI.,.lJWf.ttfyi;:Jl..;!n~. ""'i1I~;

•• ....• i '.f.l._'" ... ·..f!· ....

I;";'~;' M" ",."...,,;.,-tt ~~ uo.""'t~,

o -J(.., .• .,., Mg_ 1I4Ii. •. ad rWw .. wal#A; !l4G' ~

i;!J .!if;'_ "'{Jo ... ~) 'tf!ft's. __ ...... · .... (lit.

..... .,~~)r~fli. ,; j~~. ~ .. ?i~.~~ .. ~~

..... .»1 lfIItr •• ,~ J ""..I .~ ~ _c &(M' u~·

elf • ...,.~,.,; !.! u,'f.J,w;'!" .W iI BUr •• _,

lit_; ~.j;..;.r ~!i-'~,~,.~' .~.~'

", ...... , ••• ""Ui.' ~U _, ......... _ ~. iI .... IT_

D (11"'''_.,.,1., .I* .. ;';~.:i~.,.., . ..,. Alii •••

...,.."..1 (Ii$. ""thl - or....,.. from 1lODe

.. could bot ); ~ :.; ;; a ... M .. ! (~being

...... ~:;;.~.or~ qf'.")i [.:..,v ~ '4~;;':';A AI.""'" at .,.." .... "' a .......... 148. '. rem .• ].

a...... ..,.~. cal1edj •• :!n 01' j;;:J(, 1M ~

, ,

A

i' ~ ,

"

i ~. ,

~ i

• . "~ ..•• '." ,.-:"" .. ~ ._H- ~''''''''.'''''

twa. and abro ~or ~t,aad ~w~ "'.eiON..'

It .. an indelnite lSQbet.antive, ~..:; .. plaoed i , after

I!"" '"

t.hePropoaition of wbiebit limitll ,"del ... the ~In the

_tical atruckrec4 the eent.ence it iaaiW,"' •• J.;. (11M c. ..... a). The g ....... -.riau reprd it ... ro~ bJ the

Ye1'bintbe preceding olauae,of "biohitw ... the.~tt or J..";, before ita. tn._erenee to the place oIj .. :, to the aotaal~" '"

_'. ' . " . ,

.'-_',-.,~- , "", -,.

Jj~~; ,",if tbel,reotMiing cla'7- .. ~nOJniul, .7~:~.~ B

traW~rredf .. the pface. of tbel.,li, ••. TbUl .l!~.-u~ •• eqllivalent, tl .. ,yaa)',. to ,. ".~ ~.; ~¢.:tKt::"; tiO

e~Ji;';'; J"ji .i;li. ":.e; .••• ~ .: toi;.e;#;;;.ti and

, .. " ." -

!-. ~t.~!~~~::t:?:~t:~~

" " . .' ',' . . '. . ..': .. ', " ,'. . .... , .

~ ,.-' .... !._t-" ,I." '. "" '; ,", " " ,

"l.·'~ ..,4JrJf-=-_". instead,of!",,·. ;butnot ... ben it ia 0

J-Wf ~J,i!;,. for ~ .!,...~ . .;," ia ....,nae. [tnatead of

'" ,-~""". ,'- ,'.' ',,>'~~:' "J," "

\!.,U ~nd ... ~ •.. ~. the phraaea CJ~.· ~~" * ~ ... ~; ~;;

, ," , ",",. ,"" ",'''' "',':",8" .. ,' ,.,.' •• ,

we .. ,. ~Jj ~ and~J.~ s..-.".]-'l.)e~_y

~ly.1Je placed. by poetic licen.e,. before the ~'. wbich

i'~,..~",,~~ .:Jl ~ti. 4; ';;.1; "~~"'.":if .~ ..... ~#orta ,..,..",.,., ,,*,!un- 4-), ....... _. __ in..,..,,,, goiaq ._" ~; ~;rt,;; D

i;:;,r ~ afWl I did MI ~.,."" ., __ rl-- tNT. ~. $uob ph ........ ~ .. ~ ~ and;J., ":i£ .;,J.,

- ," " ~

,,_' , .

are no ~ to the ordinar1 rale, ... the, stand ... ,. ~

';;j &;......; or ~ ~i.i J.;..~i.;,J.,. The traJuIpoIition of tbe

"" ..

j*!:' can take plaoe onl,,,hen the preTious 01&1118 con .... a Terb

"hich is ~ . (eee 0, rem. ,), ... ~ aDd J;::,! in the

I' t!

A

B

R..... The "'ti .. after tbe ...... ~ .... berI.~ lIto 19 and~lOtQ.,,..Y' ... L.'~m}.~aIaool~ .....

wa, .. ~;ItJ:;or~"" lIf r" .. ~ .. ;:-.; .;.:;

.... ..,.~iM(·! ,,~; • .:.J.0fN

tItttI .. ....."."..,. it:. ~.~.~. ~ ·,......""'.(lit. .... 'II

..."."..,). ..

R Co·· To __ the~..,"'"

<.:.11-> ~.i~~;i,~}. in whieh ~j~:i

follows a "Ie •. inde6Akenoun,and .epeaifiea . ~ • article ·01·. which tW ~ expu.'n tbe q~t)'; .. ~Jl.;. ·~of. 01,,,"".

-. ~", . ". .. ..",' " ,._ , .'. ",' --,

~ ~~ - (fo.w~)of~~ (gMe).

JH.j.!i ·lIf \6.';' 9'~ - __ qf ...

•• , .• -, ,6"11#. _ "',,, ,'.,-,- "" ,_" ".,,'. ,

"., 9''-- ~! 1 ~ ,. ,.., ." . .,." .. 'j..W. ~ .."

I"... "IW'. qf ...... ; ;\; -:',J) .6_ qf ..... ,; ... ~ ..... .,,,_, -u.;,;.; .• ; .. ttl...,.,., ,;,. ~"'.poCqf Aoner·;

.',," , ... ,~ "',,,",, ",' .. ,_.:*., :.-,,,

' ........ ...,'-- " """. ttl ......• t,;,. ~".- fII ,. . .-1,

~"~ ••. ··..,.fI.; .. ~ .• at;.i. •.• JiI .• ",.J. .;J I .... - go4

" '" ," .; __ ,',' ,', c-' ,',III _ '

o

D

.('1'Iae traaepoIdWon of ~ in the YO. ~ ... ~~;f;Ii ' ••. :' .... 1.··ti4 ,., .. ...., ... ttl- _.w 1M .., ,_,.. .. (Do&y, s.,pu... L 6a.,., 1. &)_ aUCl_._,;,,;·,r is.u.., .,.....tive of ~ 1!tJ~,fiwIA.~t ......... ~. it here ... J,,;J.; for ,_., (I'IeiIoherlXl.8crM.il..fH). D.O.]

, .. ) Be. ,. .......... a. ...... oJ .V .... -(~) .. " ... It1 ......... " .•• "... q/ ""'''",.,I1''',.u. ~.;;.t,r.;:I..t ~.,

,~. ". (01' .;. ~~;;) tAeN" "' ..

oj • ...,;t.ii ;r~~l.~Jii.~,.,..,,- ....

oriwtI"''''''''''(''''') .. JWlq/ IMrfiJl';'

t.Z.i'; .. - .......... ,. .... ~ <*,..qfJiw'hIIer

"'.~li;I'''').-!1'b .. pi;(';~JI!:;.'' .~. to the .~.(f"') ... to ·.tIae ..... _ ~. With ......... -; 8.,. B

'" ...., t . .itl .. .." • ....1 .; ;.. ... ... ..•• •.••. .. • .•... • .. .

~·· •. ':5~r~-'~";""!'.IIl"'Q~· .. Jt.q~·"'''1 "~"'"~;·."'i,t;.·.~. "1I!"(l'.~ i~'! ..... · •

....... ~ t; .. ~ .. "..~~~:"""' .....

oj.....,;.~ ,..,.,/.,. ..,...(l ........

.... a....." fA) tWa ~ .• ~"""'nafter the

"n iv." of "lI..~f/4, ., ...... ' "*'

.-.,' "'" indefini. ,l" - ...." or .. ,[included 0 ;

ucIer$lMt ~il-(l);. (con for .; • ., I.

oj -.,,=.,; ~ or i;;J.i,- VoL i. J 361, .,.._.) is ei ......

J6 e . ~I. . . I~."':

~'~;"!III"""""Ye, =~"""':'~ __ r or.."... ..... rtory.

or~(or ex...........,),-., .. ! • ..-., , ,. (a).h

u..,.~ ..:;. ... ,...,. '" .. "'~Dlite ·0> .. _ in the

~ ~ .. ~ i....., -.wtAeN .....

,,_,., ~ • .id. ~il .:. •.•.. __ q/,... ,...,

...,f~:'f ..;:;..:.. __ h,ID

.iai ~~ _...., ,.111 ....

............. , ~ .. 4. .~_.:. NIIIr iI-..

"-, A pJa_lik.·.U~. Jd_':' .. ..., "-, U.

DO.....- to .... ra1e, .,.;.... .... j;;~ "'..;. omitt.ecl.

vb. "" ..... dt.;L Ur in .. -. ;. .. J.;. ( .. 0. 6 and

..

reID. 0. S). B ia the pai.b. bJ .. preoecJiac ......... tive

........... " iii: ..., be pat ..... pnit. .. well .. tb4t

116

PUT ·Tuuw.-B""_.

A

B

o

D

§ '"1 . !'AI "''''.-3. ~ .. o/tlJt v.,.".-(n.) B,A,*"" 1!'1 ulA, p,..,.,,' lOil. ~~; .t1J~;. _ m",.,.t ... 1M .. 1Aou' sci.. ~; ~;..;. _ Jar IuuI 4lovt~' sell,

I~ :;. or -J...; J...~ Jj( ~ ,;. .. MW ltnJg tnill 'AM. 'Iltil

, .. ,

dM."" soil. ~L, or ~; ~J ... ,iJ,t.;. ~ _ oj'tllt& ,_ Z&l COWl

io IAer taciL ~; r...;..... ~~;~; ~ .;, .. ..;. ~~ ~r Aoro ..., 1J«I'" oltl ..... ~f .. "'~ Ilu "1*Ik qf (/,,,/ "";wtl AI ·ZI·Jfcrl'1tUJ '1--<') ~.or~") ,A»mpoabCI('(t of .iJ B and. ~ve of. &; 'tIJIwt ~'lVolii;13Cn,., rom, r]

« ; •• " • ., ••

j ... reefy ever employed in~tiv~lY,.~· t!.J.I.uI' JU

. .

~e,;:; dYJ ..•. ..MI. y~~~,:.~~"~ •. ; ~~ 'I'bri 'il",

K4~·1tJicl if) 'I"" MtIII'iUJ, .... 'iOto ~. (t1IJ1WB) dOlit t/wt, W!,ul tilt! C~i('lM C .. ~ (g~.xxdil)' . ..Atttl h4 1fCuz, Sllt'l!/f1lr tAre,.. 1.~inal'l uae ia ~or~icative (or excI4J1U\f.lIl·Y),

i,,''''' , 'I, I ~ ••• #>

.followedby'the ac:cua. Ilingu-."~b·~J ~I6IMR' a mn"

. .

(or IwuJ """'6 " --> jaw I Men j m.t. more uaually by v-e with C

, .

the genitive, as ~ ~~ ~. Jili~~ ~f6; aM lwnIJ

--, " ~ (it Iiaw), vifi ........... ~ -. fouuA' I

~.¢..:; a;t; ~~.~;9r; -?'i •. ~" ~ ~i ~ ~1atj

(Jff.(l low ..., " lip u 11ft _ ...... ,,*' ... ~ " __ IAq

.. ,.... "·r·· .•• • .. fat ..

,.,., ........, ..,.frotra ,,' .~'" .. UfJ* uo-'~"" ~ ... y a

,..wI it -,.._ 10 H «WIIIIDltJ .. '6J G1t, ...... (of ~).

It is d .... whether it caa ,*. preceded by • pl'6p08itiotl, as in D

thepbrue ..;.,;&r tJ6 ,~ q~ for ., tn. _II IAou .u lItu piece of cloIl' (another exaJnl,1e oftb~ interrogative uae~-(3) ali. (aometimeI written t"S.i6)' lID aWID macA or """', (Vol. i. § 340, rem, fl], reqall'88 after i" an indefinite ucus. in the singular, as

•••• ,,'" ~k" I ••• ~~ •

'..-.... t.a- ~ 1 poafO 10 _ ID tIICI .. , ... " .... )l t.a- tJ.,J.l.$

.. . .

J law ID -.410 ,.,., _,.,.... 6r .... It is more usually doubled.

t,j6.i tl6 .• t-:; u.; ..u. ~:'%i·.>. JU Nt fIUJtbJ (lit. Mid) lID

.. .

I.

A ,., ., ....., .... ,,~; ~ ..... tJ'.; ..w. ~~.~ ..

. " , •. ,., .-·i · .. tV

' ...... ....,.., ..... ,. ..... "-firII; ~" tIIII ~ ~ ~

.::.;rr ~ ~. tAU .J4, ,;,.i" ..... ,., _, ........

1Av~"'" ,..~ _, .. ,,1..~ .. ~ ......

".... JAOf,.,,,,, ..• ~ ~ ~ ....

acne ., tat 'I."' ~J.~;.~-.I

..w. • ..w.; ..... "i! ~. ~ •• ;J ...... , ~ ... tct .....

B r ... 41"""" . .,,,,,,,~,,,, 11._ l' •• ~

":'~ .. t..., 11"', .

#. ':' . ,".-,. ',,' ':, :_ ..•.... ' ' . ,-'.,'

f.·4 act 'le • ..,. a~'f~· ~

~.b7 "- ia~; .. ,;;.~f~~;,J;J

_M,.",...',,, • 1M i -·~C'!..,.~ it-'.!.t~f

~,;f J.?l~I~~~:~.~~~~~~~,.~·li!

ZW'laIMf',W.,...,'_ • ....., •• !ttjln~~_. ~."""

o .;;£.;J,,:,:,. ~;i1~ .., if fhI~ ....... ,.;' • ."".. .... ,

III ,." .,.." .I ........ 1JIfId'...u, ,.,(tI.d) -.ld. N

~. p_~~·..,be t.tiI.;.~ .... itiYe

of ................. "'~lli ~ .. of .~;e.g.J .. the

W~ ~,~.or~Ja ~(ooap. '11.6].

.. ·l1 ~Clf.\~.·~

be .... ad tb ~to ..... OI'liait ~the s6ject

QI' oIpd' .• <i' ~ t.he.~ · of·. the .... i.t .pJ.ced

n. WoftIiti ~ .. aJld.put· ·tJae .~ ..• ~ left

in\be < .,.).Pot· pIe:G~.l~~

;~I;.,j;.t; asiiI ~(,...-),_,.,..,.,,_, qfIw

,:",W .... ~·..,.,... I filii",..; . UJI.~!i ;A

#u.·.' .. .~.'..." •. '- J.-' :,...... ' '.' .. ~. ~ ~. 'a •..• ,

..... ~ eiP'J ' ..••• 0 J t- ~J .• : .. !»M •.•.. : ••.. uti II u

... ~' ..... ' ... '" "..,.,for ....... ..,-- 1Mt,

-. .""""""""""'.''''1Nir ~ ..•. ~ ./nJiII.

(b) n-p, ..........

... TIle ~ all oriaiuUJ deaipate ~iatiou of pI«e. ('-'1 ... ~). _t ..,;; ............. _ ...... of,., <_. B

~~~ .. · __ :nriouaorwot . ..., ~

... • r- oftlte ""."tlOD. to .bfoh ., ~-

'PfieJ _eli· i .. to ..,.~ ...... ~- ..... ,~na

are '~'U~"We i.to '_.;d,.au. i~,~¥"lDotioa .,... .. 110m or away m. .• place. motion to or t.owaJda it, nod

Net ita it. .

670 TheprepoaitiOll8.which indicate motion ~ag from or away &om a place, are ~ (_) MIt of, from, and ~ (ob) atDag

.,

./rwt. 0

Ra In Hebrew ancl A.tamaic J~ Inppliel the plaCe both of

. . ..

~and~.

,

•. ....• . '. " a .. f! .".

... .~ (with prGflO ....... 81lfbea u; !. ~, ~, ~) desig-

aa.tee:-

(.). The10txM po;., qf "tW8. departarefrmn a place ~ as it; ~ i:;"'k ..., lri./rorlf Jnaaj ~ ~'i"l it foil

/twtMrIuM!llI' ",!~l *!'!. ;Ij.~ ojj !~;~~~r~#.:1~ D (1~) 141 ",_., qf OM _ Imuporled Oil 8er'fJtJ'" by niglct ../1wI lAs 1tMn4. ~ <at )Q}tb).Hence it is connected with verbs which COllY" the idea of 88pUaUon, departure, holdiDg oneself

or another aloof from any penon or thing, liberating, preserving,

#. . .. ,~

fleeing, fi'i8ltteningaway, forbidding, and the like j as ~, ,.

.... -" ,. ".' .~ ( )fi

~'..to!J1 ~ ~ ~ tkill i, 1M fortress wlt.iclt prest'l'V68 rtS rom

w. II, 17 .

130

i,

A all~; ,;J.tf ~ "'~ ~r 1,. .. q.,. fIIid' .God (pnq

.. .'.:tr' 6.... ...... .

God. ,.,_,W tIW).tr-a ~ ; .,....,. ~ rf,.l \eiJH I_ tIIOrltl

w.u (.) 6d ./rtnfa good ;~~,. ~ • .>: ~ ...,;".tDlo MtA cr«JUd ".(IwngAl JON ..,. ~) .tr-a tHN _. , Henee too

- .. ~, ",

ita _'.aipify,.011 theou'baud. 6.1-~, ""'~1.~~

_ 111 •• ',.,.. ; ~,QiJA ~~tHf iN

B ...,. trfMd··.·#Af ~; ~~;lt!J1;.p.&1

-.i..;~iI .. .f;S····~· .. · ·tN,_ •• -.·_,.·.~.IA~ ...

i'"g ... ".;.; oathe ~ .~ .• "pIa,. fIl~qf

.. ·rtf· .. · ... oa "". t..... .# .... . .... _ ... .3 "'~

(= ~), .. ~.,.f ~. ~t,....,'t~, tIN." ~-tDU.

1_"" 01'" ~i~ 01 1M ,,",1 .~ ;lr:,,~ ii41 ,; . ~,1Lt4..,..;;r\il!- if - ~.,. .. __ .(Or ~l'. ,,_. .. ;..,.,; ...... ~).,AI.,.tA; ~.~ JJ.;...;t;

o . 'i~' Bi",.,. N.rd '"" 1fIIIII4d. p;".w~' i""'_ qf(COIt")

, .. ·t """ ,., n ,.:;.;11 _I. ;__.J.3d_.& W .

.,. •• I H.~~ \.UfO. "" _._ _ . (I

lra.,.,·~ftI· qf ..... ll·

(6) TIut ,...,,,. pM4qf .,II!N, the poUa~ at which .. act . ....... GO ........ , U ~ .,;,.;Ar~· AI ,...,. QM~

'-',~ ,-,' ,'. "';# . -__'

,."tM; ,~6fJ&~.;rr .;,_Jaru; ,. ,..., qf''_''''

...... .a..... .......• ,. to. '" ".,..i ,~",;; LJ~ ~ •.. ~

,,~..,. , ill' -, T " _'~

D ,..·-u.~"...a.,..qf (Jit..)qflJ .....

-.[In 1.sr ~ ~." 6 .~ i; ~ ~

i. 119, ~ b,'~ i. .. ~;.;."" .. ~\I, J.;i. ric.W ·fIIilZ tIOI

~ .. ,'."IMP . .,.., . ....,_, if .fief;. i.e. I4f ~ ottd ..... ,,~ __ ,. .. fIN. .~ it • taW to _.,. beN the afpi-

...... of_. •• ~lADeia •• ~ D.G.]

:1

. .

.• -) 'nit V""'_" ~ of VtI6.-(It) PI " ,: ~.. WJ

...... fte A.Iab .... Iff =_, ... ~ A 1

...... if ... _. -...,. _p Y!"~.

..................... , tl~ ~ "*'~ or..,.,

J.i:I&, ,. ...... ,. ...

~ "ill'

.... 1. 0( ."~._IIJ,_weIl

.. ~; :..)A " .~'" ,,-.,.(~,., ... ;

i-i' ~ ~ ~ Ja~~ • .lit .. flow I'M

, '1( •.... It ............ ~ • ._' B

. . • ...., .,'iIi:_.. . .. ,.'

£*)1..0. ~ .,l;: ,fl. -. 4.]

" ' - ~ -,' : <. - .> '_ _' ,- ,-, - .

(f)"" .."., ,.,. qf qI~'"'' of •

..... ~/~ fJ ~ .i!1 " ;" .. 1#1 . ..,. ....

., ~ .. ; \;l...; :"ii~'" II..., .. ,'" II (or

... ...,., iI •• ,;..... P-oII., .., it); O.

~Jf~ ~.., ...., ., -(tlaeJUo

. .,

~ , ia ....,upletive &ad ............ witlt ..... ,. ...

.... of ~) j !! It,; ; ~ ~·Iij;.u~- " ...,.", til,

' ... ".- .., ....... " ...............

..... ""' • ..n to pe fa • ..,... -l" ';~.i'':;;

- ... H .... ~., ,1,1. a..!:' ,.' # •

"s· Q ~ t'" ." .. to MIl ..... ;."...,., yF-" ~.~

, ' , - " ....

Jt.,t;, ~ J'1III4 " ,.. .... ttl tMI .,.,. If •• _.; tJJ D

.. • • '. - II' lI!'r .-"" f· ..•• r_'1 _, u_

~1 ~ ~' ~I '!'. -?,:.,t vI!. tJ ...... ,.. -

.. ..,.,.. .. ...,.,..10 Ail ..... , .... ", .. qf __

...... '1'he~., daat ~ is 1l18li ia .....

..

~Io""'.""'"

• •• • 1-

a-. 6. Ia tpMW ... of penou .J.' ~ 011 ......., cu. _

al,,_,. uec1 iuteIMI of ~ aad oftea &00 ia o&h. __ ; ..

112

(cI) ...... ,. ... /rtM a .~penoD, or tbi •• ~1. 1fl1Ide wIdch efJoifJ proziJDUJ. such &I ~orb; 181M tuar.~

... ,etc. (~ La .. propt. abeo, ,.. d.lui • ....,prochcSde lui);

u. ,,~:';Jj'_"I .. · -.': . .. ."

B ............... ."""IAI .., "..; ~U"M"'fIOI

" ",'. -','.:>::>:'"."_:.': .... ':-0:" " -. . ... : .. " .,.::t,.tJi.'

j .. ftwt- {:JtU~··would· __ AI __ •• fo-l; ~ ••.. ~~

~t:!lfr ~ .:c;.: ~l i .!J.pt ""'" 1M II.' ""~ai' "_', or .. 18, ,.,.,.,.. EBeoee ita figurative _in tile .. phraaea

quoted •• ~,b,. rtID, .. oearthe .~.:.;;Lr~ ... ~.;..; awl io

the foUowiug QUlplea: . W!,;~ W ~ "*" relaIitm ;, .""' W

o 18 ,Of" ~ ~; .all.,. At " dole 10 10" aM 1"" are c/bIe 10 ..

.. " ..

(ill birth. ud ...u); ~ •• ,:; -,; ~.~ ..: -S ~a I am "fJI in __

.. ~",." ",. ",

tIIiI4,. nor JOIf.W4 f1M; ~.._." .':f.J.~ •. ~. lJl~ I Ita. flO

........ ........, ...... tlifJ6f'lioa. afiy CONeerR. wiIA 111& In the

Jut 11ro , __ V u!. may be npplied. in which ... ~ has the

l*'titive~ .. in.'~ ~.a ~ .. ..;,i At .. in_ pari 01

D .... ,i.e. _ . .....,lOdo.,.~.]

(,) The ".,_ two per8OD8 or things -which are con-

&raated or .. pared·With OD8a11Other; as ~jJi ~ .;.;;r J;t Ji

""'-'."'/wa,.WI ~i~ .; .. ;;"~j,T; hi (hi __ AM '_I'~ ImMl,.fro". lim lAal _""'Iairl,;

~.r::. vJ-;~"" .~ ... -:JI ~r tMaI tJ tl\l#r1fWl l1twe ;, Hhota ,_ Nod ,,. ""'" of ZV-I lit. ..... arl ,-}'rota N_ tJM Itil __ •. of 1V'I.1 u_ the _ of ~ after comparative adjectives; as

§.a] AfVer6.-3. Qo.,·'oIYer6.-(b)P~: ~ 183

,

.. ttl" # ~ ~ df#b'_ f'f #_ ..

~ ~t,.. AI iI .".,,_,,., ,_ 1; ~ ~"! """ ~ A

.,. ,.., .,., """"ng of (or . 14W tJ ~ ,.,f(J)"" _,_ 1Aa ...

R... Go If an objec;t be comparedwitb itIIelf iD .ctil8rent· reapect, the &ppropri"te pt'oaominal suffix .• Wlt be ... to the

,."poe;tioa ~I"'~~;;#!~~ ~,~~ em. tIION

,... 1M Ii,* .. w4~"",~ ~ cAcm., are 1fl6.1MW I"".;

y..;.,~~_;,:,.t'. ~jt)~ ~dtqtHtf ~..w._ lAo,

..I_a •• * ... ~ L.~ .. ' ...... . I.... . 21,," 4~",· ., .•. -",. ;4. A , , ....

..... ,'~ -"V;~ • .,,:.' .... ~.U ;' .... uJ1,w,,\lt~, t.r JW B

. .".. ,til - _ ,', .'''::.':-.<-,->-, ,,_ ..' __ ,-'::"-,,: ,"., _ ,', _ '_ ..»: -.

~. utI he Ai' IfNI: 0 fit, /rlIMr t I AtJ •. ~.Itmptg lor G

~,.,. tArwetAG". ii&A"'eo-.,7'l ..,:;,Jr., ~.u1 ~ .• -.:~~.~ J'".t:. IlGN ".... /:.,.. of.,., ,: 1M .4'" ~.~ ~ i.4.. qfiRJuryIO.pu6t!"., .. ,.,;;., U~;

.....,.~.~ .• fi •• .J':'~ .. r;~ .- wrilll I .. ~ ~

..., 11M ~. of 11M .4po11H of God tAaft I tolU ..., "., oum C

~; ~~;. ulJ ~~~r,~~ &;;;4J1J;;t uf

.I.. ""

~, •• U 9'.tl I cam "..,..··indiruti 10 tic·.., (tlwiwd) from. lAW· rOO4

.. I cam 10 .iI. ."",,(~.from (_ oJ) ... _ic4 ~

lAc .·leIUr ft " .. ~ ,.. ~ ~J~ar ::e; ';'16.; AIr po ..

....a, .., God'__ """'" on /We I fttiJNIJItOtIJl«/,. of ~.

of fIlM' (with lot e:xplet.).~e8, iD".lesa o.reful .tTle of

~. or. writing, the pNpGeition .;. ia Annexed to the Ir.tter .

, " ..... . . . ,

of . the twoobjeota, inate.d.of to the penon or tbibB which d D comparetl with him or itareJf in reapeet of th.. two objeo&a; ..

~~r ~ ,-,;If I;~ ~ ;t,;, ... 6ega 10 Jig" "- toiI.\ lAc

mci trIOf't ,'unlil, t.\(m MIA "., toIGpoHI (for re;";'r, ~ ,-,;If); - L..' - ':_:If -IoL ' 'l t-.u t:

~~ ~ cr·....-:...,AaI, ~, u- keG ... wrrmg ~ding

'- • .1._- • .L ., - #- ~}I'

J""" 1/OV " tc1Of'III - .from oIAm (for....-~ ~ ~ c7,).-

~ with it.s complement is aometimea omitted j e. g.,;;6.1 ~i God

1M

A

.. .....,."." lit. fW if "...., !i-' ~ ".,;

;l:f at .•• fIMI·.··",..", ...... Ii\. 9- iJ ~ _,

..... ..,; J;l,t;j;' ~"i~(4·.~ .r;~fr':.·~.~

_", Ih," .... .- iI~ .. ~ / _ •• ~ '!-

"....( ... .".,.).,~ en ...... "...... , eoiI. .. : ~

"- ("., tI) '" -...... or -.::; .Ji. ~ ( ttl) .-,

(.., ........

..... ~~ ~ .. iaw.ftaWe~f_; .. ~

~ ~i J.It IItt.4 ( > 8ftdU6.1• ""~

~~&:JJJf.1M ;W • ...,..,... ~ 4t-

,..- .... , .~;.Ji~ .J..iM .,r;s:.Jf •. "-. ~ a-

................ ; ~~ ~ JJJf '£~i .~)"' ......

. ' .' . ._ it" ',.,,', " ,

... hiler"'", ......,ie .. ~

Baa. Co . .>.. 'dla i. oomplemen' ia~1p1aoed .in

PQ8tr1.6ffon.#..,._ .. ~ .. ; .. ;;1-1 ~ ·~iii .~ JI

;.rJ~t:"$r.= :7~-=-4.. -,:;~

i£J. ~i.""r at!.~ '. '_' », ....w.. ~ ,.,

......... f.al .•••. " ~ hl~ oeJ1 - 1Oter-

"'_~"'."""hi. ~ ~ an bQer-

"'1"." .. ~ j" ;:.t.=Jf ~~ ., IAou -.,

J.i.1f. JJr.~'..J ~. ~ 1M /,... oj' -- o/.1lwtA .,., ....

,...,

BslLd.Ia .... other Semitic, which do no' pGIII8lI8

• peoatiar ~ .. fQl'Ql of the adjecUve, OOIDparUon is like-'

.... "'II~ Id by ....... of • same ~; Reb. f~ Aram.

. ~ ... ,.. ... : or ,..,..,:;

B

o

D

• ~~"""'-Uke?-1 an are elUptical, tMing ;;at ........... ~.; XL 1JcIw. t 68f, 789, ii. 1!1.]

BD... A"- aeptiYe partioIIe, .......... "teuapth. pat in •. IHIptiYe ...... ~ pre6xed to AD ~ .. DOaIl __ ....

• # .J.!" ... •

., all, .. OIN; .. .;t-.1 ~ u;- ........ 01' ~ ~ ...... __

,. ... ;..,._u 9, ~ ~ u,t;. ~"'MIi .... ,. __ .....

" .....,.. ,

13G

A

B

o

[RD ..• Co. y,.~ .. <often .•......... ~. Preced.ed ... by .... ·· inclefi. nite .JlOUD.. is

. ,',', ' ...........•..... '... " : ..•.........•.......... ,' .' ",

fol~ed by ~ deftnitl. plural of the WIle nOllJl. in order toaignify

that & peraonQt~it·wbolly~~Q",,1;» ~ •• J.L;··tI

'_' .',' ,- .; ',,','_- '" ..

o &.:__ a_!11'''· ... ' .

..... ......, " ?"'" .. ~. "'J (J ..,." fU"""'. But wh. an

- .

i~efinitl non ._~ & state or condition.is followed··by ~

with the __ Doun .ebed in tbeaingular,it lignifies & high dIpee Qf. ~ etatl orooaditiorl, .. ~~ .,. •.. ~ : ~ ;. CI tOOtIder

. ... .... , ~ . .. . _ ft.'" .h

qf~; ~, .~tb (J wrr ".. --; ~. ~ .:.p (J

o .. ..&.:.. •• ~ff" .... ]

...,..,.,.,...,""' ..... ; .yv.' .. ~ ~.,."..~. D.G.

'[BIlL 4. Tbe.verbialexpre .... (..m~)".j. ~ ~

_. '".' - - -_ -', ,', - _' -, - ",

. " . ,

~, ·~fII ..... 001I.,.pond to dae Latin •• __ ( .... ). de

" - " ,

...... _..."propeaV" (J F'.qflM I~-r. '" ,. pan

qf*Mgk Other examples are ,;l.~ i;,l. Ae..., QUI OR

'" ..... ., l ,,;J • .>: ~; Ae ~. ~r (comp. Lane

• - -,' _', - "" - _. - - • - - __ • I •• _ _ •

.... _ P1eiaober. Ill. &1w. 1. po tOT ",.); ........... J-I-b .:...

, , ill' ,

,., .

..... ... ........ . . Thia is ca1W .~ ~.~ """ witA lie ~ti .. qfl\ .tboaIb.tbere it ... ~ ~ W".. the .... of. tb4t .•• ~wo ~ona, .. 11M been point.ed oat by J'leiIcher. i.

p. 4U. D.P.] _.. .

D

14.8] 2ieVri.-a fWII p/ Vri.-(b) ~:. ~ ~8'I

...... ~ ~ iJt.cIP- & ... ~awbole, It II ... to, It.

be 11_ .,.:'-e't~ 10 ~ tM~ .,. fJIfIf'fIl i' .1adicateI

tbtl.part. of whtoh·. ""018 iteom ..... ".~Io ,.--

".._ ,' ..

(g) Thedebi~ or expJUltJioll· 01 & OJ' U1liYellAl by ..

..... orpmic-tt.\'Qa •• the ..... beiJIs •. · ~ •• v_· .. tJ.t

10. ~ ... " tbe~er; 18 .~.,.J.iIr~t;JJ ~ ••• ..J,;ii ... ~j !;I.~~ •.• ~4f.i~:Jti tJ81 .... ~ » ...., .. 't'! ... ..., .. ~'!ttl Ill,.. ~~<tII',.~**'iitl"",...,'~; __ "'"..,(ia 968). B fMMI :,...,. .... ~rHl.~(! B"');4ol~~lte., •... e_l,;'i

·~~.;i~ij .. ~ • .;Jt~,~· •. "JiG •••• 9~~·_'.··.".·.·""GIl.~ tI1.~t "t, ........ worItlt(~."'!fI ..• ",,_,. w ..... ,."u,._ .•••••. · •••• ".i~;~i~~~ •. (4f ..... ),

. . ......."--:- .. ,~,'~"~,.~,'~."",,'.'," '~" """- _._.-:,,'

A,W .. nil_Ct. .. ; )"t..J"J1 .~."J.~ ~1".~'" oJ.,."

'*'~.r(orHt~ofthePtophet);~t~,;A;J:';J~:i oj c "'tJbj«;I. ""'_ning, iI_f.JIIGi"M; iJ.. ";';j."':'I:';O

~JY1 ~GWiII""""- t(idtM; .:u ~:l~;;Jij

J~ JtI ~ .):IJi -. ,. A.- ., dU wrb· ,-..z..

U ... i~ ... to. __ thereWiollbetfteD the aDd the

... .-ofit, .. (.,;.) ~) ..,.al~';:~ II ..".,qf gtJld;

~.~) .. ~.~.,:,;1 II ,.....,., qt.; ~.;r; ~ D

.~ ;.; • .;~ Ji ~ .Jt. ~.J .;f1i 9-Nt - if .."

for "...,qt IM....,qf .... .", .. __ (tMici

M W) __ . .,,·41-- (Jill ,... In this ., ~ is eon-

_tt, after the indefinite pIOnO&ll , [and '';;';1 • .." ..,.,._.,

which cauot be couatned with a genitive; .. y.:Ji ~ ~.ij ..; 1M

..., tMW .. """ ..... ,;..:t:il J.t.. ~ ;,,;. ~ ~ ..; ..,._.

, . " ~

,,"'otd .• ~. Mall • .., _,. tip 10 p; .-6it:ii ~

..

~a U

188

P AlIT TBmD.-Syntu.

[§ 48

A l;J ~ iJ ~,; ~ U"\Zu eM mercy wAicA God muktA fortA for

", - ""

. ,

man, tum6 can kIt1p back. [In some cases this ~ after l. may be

considered as the partitive ~.]

,

RD. In the language of the grammarians, ~ is here used

,"t, .011 .... "

,;,~, or ~, to mMe cl«Jr or e:eplain, or ~I ~~ to

~mlMgm,".

B [(A> The specifying de!:M) of the general term, as ~ ~~ ~

'" - , .

U"JU w-'at a man eMu art as a Aorseman! (where U"JU u-- is the

"" f ' ,

• ' , ,6,,, ",

equIvalent of l,.,JU § 44, e); J.,.) u-- .!leAli whae a wonderful man

. ' , ,

he u / .;.:,£. t;f ~ j, i .J11),;. may God "epay tMe good, ezc6llenl

brat""" as lAou art,' ~ u-- ..ll:",.; migh' I 01"!! be rid of tMe, love

.. '

(t-'at mUm me mWrab18)! ;:j,;1 ~J..;.. u~ I~ ,ill.,1_,i,! J;.

c I';':''; ~; J~ .:.,.. j,i tAat tMy may say when passing by my tomb,

.. '

God tW«:1tJd Aim Mig"t, 'fDtJfTior as M was, and 'Verily M followed tM

rig'" t»fW-i ~ .. o.JJ u-- ~ ~::.; ,." ~;i .,.;; ~i I'u

,,, , , \..- -.oil ",

.. ~, ,.,

..,.,1 .J ..,.,) IAu u 1M .on qf 1M lord qf ¥urftt: M is nur88d among

w, OtpAan as M U, bing no fat""" j ~ ~lI l£..,U oJ..;..'; ,,~;

~i .J;'; .: ~~ ~f !=.: ~ uil ~ ,,~ ~ ~'M was a pious,

D tlimnguisMd, and l«Jmed man, namely a man inclinsd to tM love of 1M family qf 1M .4pqstl8 qf God. A special branch of this is the use

• .011

of ~, which is eaJled ~, to designate the person or thing, in

which & certain quality is prominent, as ,;.;jl ~ . .: ;ioj I lfICOf.mt8red

• J..! • ., f. ' .. rf.·

In lAm a Utm i ~ I.H~ ':l7>l ~ ~ I Aa'V8 in &-and-& an

~" /rVtul i I;':"; ~ .:....s I found jim to be a man qf tJte-

, ,

CMling~. In such phrases ~ has the same meaning as ..,.,and~.

, ,

§ 4.9] TM Verb.-3. Omit 0/ Vri.-(b) PNpOfttiou:~. 139

R OL_- elli • '1··..·..·,

D. G. ~rve the ptical phraaee t.!J-I-J1 q.tl ~ ~ v--. ~

tuAo will tHliwr me from Ibn 1l-.A.lnJf'.&Yl1 it!~ U1 I cam of IMe tmd nlatetl to 1Me, I belong to 1J0IW family. On the meaning of

"" .f! oliI~.'

.&.YlJ ~ ....,.ut, see Goldziher in ZeiJ.scAr. D. Jf. G. xlviii. p. 95

,eq. (comp. p. 425 NIl') D. G.]

• •

RB •• b. ~ is used in vulgar Arabic, like ~ in 8yriao and

11.901: in A!:thiopic, to indicate the agent in counection with the

.• ' "t'_ • • .1 ., ~ ." ~~ ,.

passive VOice of a verb; as C~ u~ ~1 :~ t/IAI c- -J B

;,,., ,. ,~, " ,

U"\..;.II u-- U"t~" ~.Jw.. u if good for nothing al call b,d to be

,. "''' . ~ a,. ~, ",

thrown 0'" cand lrodden under fool by film, Instead of U"\,;JI "'JJoU.

• '" . Ill' Ii, ,,1, ~.'

49. ~ (WIth pronominal suffixes.J:-. ~, ~, ~) designates

distance from, motion away from, departure from a place or from

• ' I, ",

beside a person; as ~ ~ u-l.-1l8 sat at (a certain distance from)

Ais rig'" !.and [co~;.' however, this §, f. rem. c]; ~..;!Ji ~,; 0

U";Ui 118 slwt t"8 (JfT01D from IIl8 bow; .JJi vS ~L:, taU 'Ay

'" .. , "

~., II .,., I, -" " ,."" iI ....

deparlur8 from tll8 town; ~ ~!J&.11" ~jI u-'1l::\;.;.J ~ u:-

tAat tlwu ma!Jf81 not be comptJlled to l8aw Aim and turn atI)(Jy f,.om Aim. Hence it is used :-

(a) .After verbs denoting flight, avoidance, caution, abstinence, self-defenee, guarding and setting free, forbidding and hindering, and,

in general, to express ~he doing of something (e.g. fighting or paying)

for or in behalf of another [compo § 69, g]. For example: ~ ~;;11 D &~;;A e ~i ;W iI u imp0aib/8 to jI88 from 1M dtJcrM qf God

• ".." a .. ,. • • ,I'

Alm'f/Atyi ~I ~ C"' awid wAat u ~ali ul ~

.. .I .. , ;" ",1,

~ ~ ~ ilu ~ lAat M dotdd awid wAat ifUurl8 Aim;

s » I, .... .. tI,,, I, •• ,.,

....a.; .~ l;.. ~ ~t ~ iI u fUJC6IIIKJf"!I l-'at M Mould patitmlll

ahstain/rom wAat ju MIl amrl8 (AU pa83ions desir8); ~9'; ~ .=,t;5 I d8clar8 mpV f,.. from all con7UlCtion wi,j 1_ (as clWnl); J_i.; :~

140

P A.RT TBIRD.-Syntu.

A ~gi ..... I~ ~ k6 iI savedfrom punilAm8nt in tk6 ,U?Zt world j ~f

" ,

l,.;Ji ~ k6fed Aim (to saf'8 Aim) from Aunger,. '1~ ~ :L:h k6

..... , ~~,

clotW kim (to save Aim) from naua1UJ88j ~I ~ ~I tk6 proAibi-

.. , ~ " ... , .. ..,

tum of wlaat iI wicked,. ~ ..... Y--l k6 ads as my deputy j 4i$ JJli.! k6

, ,

.~ , I.' .. .. ... ,.,. ~J I • .." ..

figAts for, or to protect, kim j ~I v_,J~ V=!~I ~ J~t.,.J "j

do not contend, or plead, for t"088 wko act wrongly. to tk6multJe8,.

_." I", • ,.... ., ..

B t.:e:. ~ ~ u-iJ I.S}4oJ "j (ons) soul ,,,all ,wt male satWaction for

~ ,

_,. "#Ii " ,., .... ,

(anotker) soul at all; l.A~ IJb" IJb 4i$ J..- k6 paid 80 and so

many dirlaama in Ail ,t8ad, lit .. u, bore, or took upon himBllif, for Aim.

(b) After verbs denoting uncovering, laying bare, opening, revealing, informing, asking and answering; for in these verbs there lies the idea of the removal of a covering, real or figurative. For example:

,. .... " ", ." '. .. ~ ...

t.JJJI .I':'" ~ ~ ,J if tk6 "dis of tkis fMT'1d were removed from

I' .... :i, ... .; .. , .... ,

C me (from before my 8!J88); ~.JeoI ~ ~I ~I ~I tk6 mounds

-" "" ." .

wkick were laid open 80 as to disclose claamber, j I~I.:. ~ ~ ~1

, _".,,,, ..

..,J~ ~ ~ if tMu tcanteat a witness wko can inform t!lee regarding

~ , ,

, " .. "",t

what is Aidden " ~,...... ~ ~ I will tell t"u about all of

them j ~ .;.,~u;S_ ~i J":'; ~ ~ JI;':' lolA this iI a qU88tion

about wAic", t"e Apostle of God was qU88tioned, and M gatJ8 an anawer to it j :,i1 ~.ijji Jl ~ ..:.,; kis fatker sent to Spain to look for

I" , .. , ", ..... ",., ..

D kim i 4i$ I,..,." JU" u"f....,.JW and k6 asked tMm about me and

.. .... ,,,,.,, ,... ., ~,

said, Se1ld to look for kim j ~'jl ~ ~!J-UI '?~ and tkey

... , .. ", ... "., ,_1 ..

made for tk6 arsenals to look for arms; .......... "" ~.-;; \,.i~

~ * '

" .. ..

~ ,,' ,"e amiles 80 (J8 to d'llplay (teet'" lits) ,trung pearls or "ailstones

(in wkit8rz888).

(c) Mter verbs denoting abandonment or neglect, and the ability to dispense with (~) one thing because of the possession of another

§ 49] Ph, Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) Prepositions:::;'. HI

(~ [§ 56, c]); because in them is implied the notion of ~rning away :~

"I' I':;.. ", .

(~~I). For example: [~I ~ ~J k6 did not wisk for tk6 tkiflg,

III I, ~ ." ~ ."

k6 avoided it j ~l ~ ~ or .:J,u. I forga't~ kim "is sin,·

~", , .

..:. ~J k6 was satisfied wit" him (and had nothing more to ask from

him) as in the words of the \{cr'an ~ I~J ~ ~i ~; God is

,

well pleased with tMm, and tMY are 'It'ell pleased with Him. D. G:] ;

" " ,.1"'; • " , , I,

~ ~ ~ '>J u' yW~ ~ a man must ,wt be neglectjid of

", .1 , ,., " ".. ..{ t_

himself; y.:. u1' ,." he does not require it j ~ ~I -t.~ ~ ~ B

, "A." "

,::~WI tLoJ: ~ I find in study suc" contentment tkat I ca1' dispense with

, . , ... """" , "

t"e singing of women,. ~ ~I" ~!J. ~ ~~ ~,

" , ,

.!J1..t';' ~ satiify me with wkat Thou allouiest, so that I may be able to

dispewse with wkat ThOle forbiddesi, and suffice me with Tky goodness. 80 that I may not have occasion for any other but T"ee. Similarly:

~ ~1 =~ ~ ~ ~i ~ ~~ ;(,-£ this circumstance occupied

. . , . , ,

him so that he could not think of allytking but it ; .F~ ~ ~ u! c

, ,'III ... .1 ~ ~ .I'" • ...

~lo.Jl J& I am lmable to mention all the virtues " ..,.... ~I u.il

, , , ,.

III, • .,. , ,.

t.,Si,J ~~ ~ ~I I hatJ8 loved tM good (of this world) 80 as to ,zeglect

., ., .I, "

all tkougkt of my Lord; ~ ~ ~ k6 is 80 stingy as to deny

kimsel/ ewrytking.

(d) After verbs signifying to lea.ve one behind or to surpass one; as ~ ~ j tkou dose not surpass me in anything. Hence the

., ~.,

expression ~ ~ not to mention, muc" more or muck less (according D

, ,. f. " ,.., , ~. , ... r'!"" ."" ~" :""

to the context); as ~I ~ ~ ~,)",,""I .~jl ~I ~ ..., ~

, "A ':;.I~' """A ,,,,,

~I J& ~ u-AJ L. ~I -:lUI ~ and tMre became manifest

to kim i1' tk6 ,mallest of Wisti1lg tkings, not to mentum (and muck mot'e in) tk6 largest of them, suck traces of wisdom as set kim in tke

,~~.,~."., 'iZ,. .1,.1,

greatest astoniskment,. ~ ~ ':)l..Ai lArl! ~WI ~ "'+~ "j it is not

PART THIRD.-8yntaM.

A found in eM wlw1s of Syria, not to """tion (muck less in) W«J.

Hence too the use of ~ in comparisons (like ~, § 48, ~) j as

ft.- .'''t'. I' , ... _- "... , " .. , "

~I 9~ ~1ItoJ1 J..,.;JI ~I ~ ..::...il ~I WMr~ arl elwu (wllere

ar~ tk!J V8f'868) in comparillOn wit" litis rare verse, which contains aU 1M lkings wMrewieA tM mout" can be compared 1 ~,b~ t!;. .).;.3 He is 6Zrr.lted abooe wkatt!V61' (gods) eMy join (witk Him),

" '" fa "

[RD. If tJ$ "W is followed by a clause with ~I, ~ is very

B often omitted, as is f.'equently the case with prepositions in general,

• • ••

before ~I and ~1. D. G.]

. ,

(e) tJ$ also indicates the source from which something proceeds j

" ." ... ,... " ..

as [~!J3 tJ$ ~I 1.11 seUitig or buying is olll!J (resteltant) from

" """,

mutual agr86ment j ~"j.J ~!J tJ$ J~ 118 acted o/ter tM counsel of

. ,

lUCk a one] j ~;,J ~ lolA J;ii oj w~ will not do tltis at !J0Ut' word (as it were, setting out from !JOUt' word, ~d b!J !lour autlwrit!J) j

C t-'~ ~ ~ ~~ ~~ ~ j ;,;Ji ~~ tM J~s did noe

dtD6ll in eM city of MarrikuA (Morocco) by eM order of its gowrnor. Hence it shows (4) the authority for any statement, tradition, or the

I., "t I ... ,. ." ",,,

like j as [~~I .::".,w.1 I acquired knowledge.from kim j tJ$ ~j)

,1 .. .. .. "" ..

.y"j.J 118 relaud (a tradition) from IUC" a one] j ~WI ~ v~

. .,' " ."".""

it is t'6lat6d on 1M autAor&ty of Ii-SiiJi'i i tJ$ ~ U)\':"'I ~l6tj

, ". ... ". .,

~\L.eJ1 ~ ~ and our UacMr fI86d to narrau on tke autkority

, -

~-.. ..".". ". ,

D of a C6rlain s.ui.tk j ~I ~"'J tJ$ ~ -:....r~ an autkBntic

"," .. ,." .

tradilion of 1M ApoIt16 of God j JlJ 4J1 ~I tJ$j and it is told of

" ,

1M prop'" Illal U ",id; and (fJ) the cause from which an e1fect

proceeds as its SOU1'('.8 j as ~ ";JiJi lkat wkic" ntJC6I8(Jrily follow

.from it; ~;:; ~ ~i .iJJ.A to: no one tnJer perisW tkroug" asking ~ (qfol ..... ).

§ .9] 'I'h, ym.-3. Gov't of V".b.-(b) PrepoNio,..:~. 14.3

. , . ,.,

(f) Lastly, tJ$ is used of time as eqUivalent to tIAI q/lw i ~ IrA

~ ~ li;i. ~;:r !Ie skaU tmCOUnter (or ~CfI) 1Iat, qft8r

-

~ II , ,.. " ." '" ." , til

1tat6; .~~ --!'-JI 1~ tJ$,...J .JJ l.& (JI 1M UrnpM' 0/ a (good)

, ~ J,' ..•. 1 .,

IWOrd betray, itself (tnvm) alter il kas b8COf1ll rusty j ~"., "T'r tJ$

~e ·4 in a Jwrt time it wiU be muck; Je.U ~ a/Ur a lila. u:"i~

, - '

(where , lS redundant, as in an example in § 48, 0).

-" , I"" ." , , B

RBlI. (J, Observe the phrases: a.w ~~ tJ$ .::,,1.. M cli«l

tJged eighty,. ~ .,J; .;;. ..::,~ M dud leamng (J young suu,

-, -

;.~ ~ l,.w they were .lain to 1M IMt man. [In expressions

" , ,

,11' ... " . .,

like ~ tJ$ ~ Ail forgave, tlwugh M htJd 1M power to punisA, tJ$

can be replaced by uf.$, ~ or ~-For marking the distance,

"" ',1" .", .

as u..._ V! ta-~ ~ tJ$ tit (J d"tane, of fifty ptJrCIIIMlg'

from 'Oman, it is synonymous with ~ (comp. the GI088,

" .... " "" .,.

Geogr. ).-On the elliptical phrases ~ .,w., .w. ...,...ttl!. etc. see 0

the GlOBII. to Tabari. D. G.]

RSM. b. Because of their being related in meaning, ~ and

::.,; are sometimes used indi1ferently; for example, after ~

, "." .

to Mndw, ~~ to avoid, :~ free from, cletJ,. of. and the like.

Compare § 48, e, with § 49, d. [After the verba to ~ to borrow,

• , ,,:1,. II ". , •

etc. u-e is used of transportable objects, as ~!JJ.n ...... .::".,w.,

, , ,

,,, ",.". " D

I got from him 1M dirlums j but we ought to say ~I ~ .,:,.,w.,

I acquired lmowledge from him. Others say that u-e is used for

,

, , .,. It ,." . •

what is near, as -:....r~1 ..... ~ I hsardfrom hIm til. naml41tJIJ,

, , ,

~ for what is remote, as .,,~ ~ iI~i ~ ~.Ai ,..; H, " i8

" , ,

who accepts repM&tanc, from Hi. .W1HJntB (~or'in xlii. 24:).]

RBM. Co ~ is sometimes used as an indeclinable noun,

. "..,.

signifying ride, which is its original meaning; e.g. ~ tJ$ ~

" , "

PART THIRD,-8y·n~,

[§ 50

A ~t;.:,; [or':"; C:] on hu nghe and hu Ie"'; . ," .:0 Ii ~ ~ 1)1

~<iI ., ~ V· ~ • •

"". "

~~ tJ$ ~ whim I place the sword on my left Bide (~~ in

rhyme for ~~, ~~), Compare~, ,\~, ,...~.

. , ."

RRM. d. According to the grammarians, tJ$ is used ~

,." , ~:J"",

~"t.,...JI" to exprus distance from anything and passing away

from it.

B ao. The prepositions which indicate motion to or towards a

I ' ;a,

p ace, are uJl to, ..r- up to, and J to.

. ,

&1. Jl (with pronominal suffixes':; jl. ~I. ~I) is opposed

u-. .,.

(1.J,J~) to ~ and ~ i as ~i Jl .;;;r ~ from tke cradk to

, "." , ". ,..." ~ .

tke grave; )I~ "';1 ~I ~ ~~ I went from ~l-Ba.rra to

~." "" ....

Bagdad " 4A$. ~! he S8V6red himself from him, abando1U?d his cause,

but ~I ir.;;, ks was Mooted Ito his cause; . ~ ~I stand off! (see

" . , ...,... .

C the end of the section), It signifies:-

(a) Motion [or direction] to or towards a place i as JI ;~

" ".. ",,"" ... *., " ,.& ;,,,.,',.~

~~I he came to tks city .. ."........." ~ ~ .~ U'J-'I IoSJJI ~I-.

, , "" ",,, ,

~~i ~r Jl ~~r (see § 49. a) to tks Temple which is

most remote (at Jerusalem) j [v;''!,;ij.: ~: "';1 -&~ i..,.l.!Ji at that time tkey used to pray turning towards Jerusakm .. ;:,Jl ;Ji.J he looked

" ",.

towards me, he regarded me , "ell Jl. ks or it inclined towards him

, .

or it. Hence, because the notion of being inclined is implied in it,

.~ ... , ,., .J~

D ~I "';1 ~!J..II ~ tks heart of woman is inclined to foolishness;

" "".1.1 ,;,"" ".1.1.,

C~ ull ~ Jb each sorrow leads to joy j ~I'_'I ~1 .u_,J its colour

- ,~ , ,4 ~ , ,~ "",. a

wrges on black,· ,. l. J,....,I . _jl ,. it is somewhat long; ~.,tJ1 ,',I

, u-. ""'.

, , "a.."

~ \.e '-"I.J.PI '-"1-, tke world is somewhat on its decline*. D. G.]

, " .,

* [For the explanation of this (~) ,. l. see Fleischer, Xl. ScAr.

i. 477 _q., Dozy, Supplem. sub \.e and infra § 136, a, rem. e.]

§ 51] TAe Verb.-3. Gov't of V 61'b.-(b) Prepositi0n8: u'l. 145 (b) Transferred to time, the point up to which something lasts A

• ., ... , , II • , ... ~J

or contmues; 8.R "!,,~I uJl ~ I fastl'4 till SlUI#t .. ~ ~

"!"i~ ~i j6. ~;.;. .;.J ~;Ji u'l ~ ~~ y(.ji (see § 48: b) d:wII

to Ike pt'ell8nt day (alld) /K,ve been tested with et'ery Burt qf test "

" .. ~ " , .. , .. "" , :.. . "'.", ", ,

~I ~.H uJl ~I ~ V:!~u. ~I ~ ~u. J!P ')) a pat·t

of my people ,~kall 'lOt Cea86 to hold fa.~t the trllth till the day of tile '·I'.'fftlTN-t;on. It occurs in a somewhat different sense in the phrases

,1'" " , .~;,'''.''

~I~.H ...;1 ........... .,' 1111 will rprtflilll!1 1Is.~embk YOIl to the day of B

. ,,, , ." ..

tlte "esu'Tectum (/01' it); I...... uJl JIll. ~I thou art divorced till

, .""

this day year].

REM. In these two cases . il it! used .~i.J to designate tl~

U-. _ "

limit of the act. [See § 52, rem. b.]

(c) JI also shows that one thing is added to another (~~

- . ' ,

or ~:~;t!), and hence we find it construed with ;6 to increase,

... I .. .. , ;" • u ... " , f L f... ,

(tugment; 1108 I";" u'1 I; .. .....,.;, (Ida thi.~ to that .. ....wtl1_,..1 l~lJ ')) C

., ..... ,

~,,..I . _II do not dnJolW their sltbstance ill addition to vour own'

... t..:J", ,J~ ,

~ uJl ~ IJ;~ they have added k/lowledge to tke lcnowledge tksy (already) posse.wd. [Hence also it signifies reaching up to

, , ,. . ,., "" . ""

(= ull '"'!U, uJl ...,.,,_....). belonging to (= uJl ~,.....). entrusted to

... . ~ .,. ,:,,.,..., ", ..

(~"';1 J,&,..) ete., 8.8 ~I ~ u'1 ,.." and ks belonged to the

, • • ~... .,.., iii , , ., , .,

Bmu Umnya;",,",,~ ~ -r",s u'1 I,_.,J they belong to none D

• ", ... :,. ,#,,,,

of our Arab enlN's, that we should know them; i.x;....J1 ~I IJP)"

, • iii ,. .,,, .,.

Vo'~ uJl ~~ and the!! said that· El-Jazira belonged formerly

, ,,.,... ....... 'IfO '" ,

to .({innasrin; u:.~1 u\,;..,J4ei "ell ~~ tke,hOtpital qf til, Berma-

... , ,,'" , .

/cides was entrusted to kim.]-It is also construed with adjectives

" ..

of the form Jail and others. derived from verbs signifying love or

hatred and used in a passive sense, to indicate the subject of the

. ." .~., ~,.

feehng (see § 34, rem. a); as ~, ...,.,~. dear ; ..,.-1 dearer;

. ,. .. ,.. . '

~ hated, hateful; ...,-.,1 more hateful.-It is used too with ~

w. II. 19

146

[§ 52

PART THIRD.-Syntall'.

A "ear and lIimilar words, in 80 far as they convey the idea. of appro~h

, • ,. ~ " .. .I ... ~

• , , JI .- 'I .;'"

or approximation, opposed to ~ JoeI!'t /a,' jrYJm, e.g. &.!.~.I"" •

~i jot· tkis come» nearer to reeereuoe : whereas in 80 far as they convey the idea of the measurement of the distance of one place from another, they are construed with ~ (§ 48, d). [The same idea of approach is indicated by ~Jl in the expressions ~t.;. Jl 011 hi.~ side ,~:;;.b ull ;~;;i Ids tent (stood) beside tke tellt I~l tlte othf'l·.]-"'il:all~, notice the phrases : .!u);J Jl, lit. 1m to "tke,. tlt(tII lids, and ~I uJ!

B (contracted 21), to the ~Ild (if it, i.c. rt :/~,era,- .!Y!. lit:, to ~~Y:Jl!~! and ..}f .iJ.;J!. lit. to thyself jr'01I' tile! = C~ lltfllld fill'! ~! I';". SCIL ..;t:..: or ~~. tkis is committm or ('"trusted to him.

[HEll. On the phraae WI tker« it ;s fil1' you! Nee § 35, b, B, rem. b.]

5:1. :;' differs from JI in indicnting motion towards and at the same ~e arrival at an ~bject. whether this object he actually

C touched and included or not; whereas JI merely implies the motion

. ., .',

towards an object, whether this be arrived at or not; at' u~ .... "'j.....

.. ,. " ' .. ~ .

~i ~ U;;' it is peac« tiU the "'·t!(I!.: 01 day; ...r- ~-!~I ~

'" " " ....... , .. , .. ,..1.,'

tl;.!Jj I slept ta..,t ,ligkt till it fms "101''';''[/; ~!.J ...r- ~I .:...l&1

, iii ,. .1".1.1."

I ate the fish to its (very) head; ~ ...r- .;'11 el tkty would

, ~.,

imp"iso7l him lor a (certai,,) time. However, when ~ and uJl are

D used in opposition to one another to designate the terminus a. quo and terminus ad quem, JI necessarily includes the idea of reaching the ohject (§ 51, a, b). Further, when the reaching of the .object is distinctly expressed by the governing verb or verbal noun Itself, the

. .' I'".

meaning of ul! is naturally mollified thereby; as ~! .H .. ~! I came

It... to kim; ~I [~~i the attai,lillg to it. '!'hat u. does not

T ...." ,

necessarily include the object reached or attained is evident from

its being occasionally used to indicate e.rcepti01lS, like the German bis au/.

§ 53J TIle Vel'b.-3. GUI,'t uj' Verb.-(b) Prepositio1'&11:~. 147

REM. a_ ~ is scarcely ever [i.e. only by poetio license] used,l A

, ... , , .. , ., .,l • f ~ , ~'''' .. ( ~

with pronominal suffixas , as Vil:! ..!II;.. ...? votUI u"!"'l ':J .wI" _~

lllj ~i Itn, by God, mel! will Itever find a lII.an (comi~g) up'to tileS,

""" ..... ~ J J ., ... ~, .... ,

o 'Ibn !lbi Ziyad,. e J.= ~ ..!II;.. ..::,.jl she IU&IJ come to tltlle,

RE~f. b. The grarnm:wians, when they wish to make a distinction, say t1.at _ jl is used ~t;ZSu, to "PlliYlUtte the limit (of tIle B

u-. , __

act), whilst ~ iii employed ~~ 01' ~wi !t;?~, to desigllate the attainment of thl! e.rtr"mil!l or utnu. .• t limit.

001 J' ,

H.lm. c. When ~ is a simple copulative particle (~~

., .... " 0.... . ..

~lu:., or i.i.Io~, 01' ~..u). in the sense of evelt. It exercises, hke

• , -, -, ;;l

the other copulatives (such as ~. ~. and ,), no independent

influence upon the follolVing noun, which remains under the same

~,,1'" .:;, ~ .:;~ .. " ...

government as the preceding one; e.g. oL.:...J1 u=- tl.,....JI .... ~ C

tlte Jlil!ll'illl,.~ luwe arrived, even those travelling on foot , ~wi ..:..~

.,., .J'A .:; , ,I ~. ... ,;;, ,I ,I, .. ,

l~~' u. mm lutne died, n'el! the prophets ..• ,..1 ...r- ."J;Y__,

., J , .:;.,. J" ,. ... " , • f.

awl they {.eft him, evm Iti.y brother ; ~"!- u=- .l:!~l.toJl ~I

"t ... ,.., , ......... ~ f~'

tlte !lid pleased I//,Il, even itf!l' conoersation .. l,.-!.J ...r- i4-J1 ...::.....u=tl

~ .. " ,I J,,I "J , , ,

I have eaten the jislt, even tIle ltl!acl 01 it , ~, J,..,; ;~~ ul:t__,

....... .., , .:;,. Ii...., , .J ,., ..

~I ,~I,.. u. l,..~' ~ ~ ~'-I t'- ~ alta t/~ Apostle '!l God used to coiuult his companions on all matters, e_VI1l1 D hOUlleltold affairs.

- -

REM. d. A dialectic variety of ..;;.:.. ill ~, through which it

ma.y perhaps be etymologically connected with the corresponding Hehrew word ,p.

53. ..; (with pronominal suffixos ~) .iJ.i. ~) is etymologically connected with . JI, and differs from it only in this, that . J, mostly

u-. _ ~.

expresses concrete relations, local or temporal, whilst ~ generally

148

PART THIRD.-Sgnta.v.

[§ 53

A indicates abstract or ideal relations. Hence..) IS rarely employed

.. , ... " I , • ., ~ .! (

.~~ (see § 51, b, rem.) i as u+- .;.."'!. ~ ~ each 0/ tMr.-)

tmve18 to all appointed goal-. Its principal use is to show the pas.~ing ou of the action to a more dista"t object, and hence it corresponds to the Latin or German da,tive_- but it may also express the relation of the action to a nearer object, and so stand in place of the accusatit'O (compare §§ 29, 31, 33, 34). Hence..) indicates :-

(a) The simple relation of an act to the more distant object i as

I I <11, "'., , • I... • • ,

B .;~; lee gave it to kim " ~ JU M said to ker _- .!llJJ ~ ~ ..,..A

2'.;" ~;) give me from Thyself good deseendante j ~ _;1J ~ j,i;

• ,.. '), ~!' . . I ( ,,'

l.t,.1"JI ~I and God hatlt made for yOlt Wl'lles II/ gourde veil OJ yOut·

own mce).

c

REM, a, After the middle forms of the verb, ..) often expresses the yielding oneself up to the 'action of another or to the effect of a

thing; as ~ ;.;Ji ~ ~i J I,,;';', pullitis (the camel's) leadingrein as long as it can be ~)ulled by you j ~ ~~'::'ii JJ4 ~.;..: ~

, ,

if anyone deceives us witl, God (i.e, witl, a pretence of devoutness), we let ourselves be deceived by l,im.

D

.,,, ... I ,

REM. b. Some granuuarians say that the ~I ~"j, or preposi-

tion J, is used in this case ~ ... !:l!, to expre8s the l)assing on of the

, ., '" '" . .;,

action' but others consider that it is here employed .~l..;.U and

, , " ",

~i ~, to /lignify tlU] giving p08sessirm (of something) 01' the

"" "" -

like and restrict the term ~~ to the cases laid down in §§ 29,

, , "" ,

31, 33, and 34.

- LAftel' verbs that signify to fall (as~, hC, ~j;) Y has the meaning of on (= ~), as yJ~ ~ he fell down prostrate with 'Iis cl,i1. on tl~ ground. Hence the expression ~j ~~, on which see the Gloss, to TaLri sub.,.f. D. G.]

§ 53] The Ven-b.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) P,·epositiOIl.II: ..}.

149

(h) 'fhe dative (<<) of possession i as ..;..,:~ :16 ~ ~ J.;.';il A tM mall is M who has a right opinion or a correct iltdgmellt j ~~, l~miJle helollgs to God ,- ..L UI we are God'«; ~jJ Ja. tIm propert!l

"" . ~ ...

• ., " ". J.;'" _ , J, J ......

IS Zeld s j ~~ t...-ll the saddle bd()Il(J.~ to Me hors«, [li:!-t" ..., ~~

I /J(t/I) that it h(1,d a glilltt'llillg]; whence it is used to indicate the author of a proverb, poem, etc.; as ~i ~ ~:; ~! Je~ l.;k

I I. •. • •• , " ••

(lS ua» oeen d(tld b!l .1/II~mlll1lltd 'ibn el-.(I'I.<IIIl: ~ ~I he recited B

• ... .. J 4t .. .. J • .1

(It poem) Ily IIIII! 1/1 them (the poets) : u.laJ 4.i1 ~j" .:J~I « /JlJI!IIt

:; .. , '" '"

"'Il_'i recited to IIII', and I «u» told it ioas ".'1 '_A Ii. ,- (f3) of l'crmissioll

,11,,,, .t,

[01' right]; as.!.ll) 4.U Ihl'll thill i« ((!!"u'l'd him (lit, i.< t» him); [01.J

"'" ,.,0,

1J.::t ~ hI' hlt,~ It right to dll .~1Ic11 ,t thillg];

oppose. I to ~, which ilulicates injurj-; as ~

(y) of advantage, as

'" ';'·,1"',1'0,

Lo~1 ii~ ~I

,. ... '" .. ,.

~ Lo" I""rllill!! i.~ the IlIJllr,~ CII!.Illi:"IIl(,(' ,!t' what i.< ,/;,1' it,~ !/(H,d IIlId C

for it» hurt .. r ~ U;,; hi' t.lI!,~,~('(1 him, ~ ~aJ.

Jh:~I. a, The graunuuriuns say that ..), when 'it indicate:;

. .

possession, is used ~ to indicatc tile I'iylie (!t' propert!/, 01'

, . ~

~I-::... ').U tu show tluti Ilometking ill aIJCJ'ibecl to OltrJ (c1l Iti,. oren. 01'

, ~ " ,

.... • tJtI

~~~ I" Illw/!) tk«! I,,, IIfIIl It ,'(yM t" it. CUlllillLl'C the Hchl'ew

usag«, '117 'br~ II 1'1l1t/1II "OIllJIO'''Jd II!I lracid , etc,

1t.:.\1, t.. .\s tlu- Amus han! 110 \'CI'1. l'OI'l'CSponding ttl our IlIln, D t hey art' oilliged to "XPI'('SS it I,y tln- I"'cpo>,itioll ..) with the

.,..... , ... , "0 ... ,,

gl'lIitin. of tlw p">;l:ies~ol'; as ~ ljLo ~j ~ 0t= kiug ZIt/t'lil'

~ , :. ...."

.,. ,. ".. J. "'" ... I,

Iu«! flcu 111t/U1,'ct! siar-:«; ~ ...... 1..:. jijLo.;:... ll~ ..., Iw lutd in

:r. '" ...... ...

'i 0.. .." • £ ,

/lu!id,!" six 't/w'/,'cd .• "'·I"'{ /III/i,·" ,- v~1 "j_, ..,..1 ul l.o / Iuu»: '1I';lhp-I'

.lilt/Ie" nor /iOU. '

III 01'.1"1' to

,,' is oft"JI IhO'd, illstl';ul of it 'illlpl,' I'l'ollolllillal su lli x ,

' . I • , ,

a\"11 r,·tld'·rill.~ a noun dl'lillit.·. ".g. e' ~ .:JI .. "

150

PART THIRD.-Syntaa:.

[§ 53

A

brothtrr of 11&in~ i8 rkad; whereas ~i ~c. would mean my (it may

, .

be, only) brothtrr i8 cb,ad [§ 92].

RBM. d. In pecuniary transactions J is used to indicate the

,. ." '"

creditor, whilst ~ expresses the debtor [§ 59, c] j as ~ ~

...... ~ -.Ai tltOU owe8t 1M (lit. tker« are to me upon tMAl) a thOUB6nd

- '

dirhamtl.

B

.,.1.. J.

REM. e. Observe the expressions of admiration: 'J') ~ what a

• .I • , .,1. "'.

man ke ie ! ~; v- .ilJl oJ, wltat a man thou art I JJ_,." ~ what a

, ,_ , , ,

., ~.. ., ... ",. fa

man thy father Wall! ":";1 oW wlwt a man thou art! ~LiJ' ~ how

beautiful i8 (tke 8aying of>'t/:e poet I (lit. to God belol'YI1 u, outflow or emanation, from none other could he emanate; compare Jonah

iii. 3 C~i"1;'NS nS;'l '~31 i"1M'n i"1t~~l1 and Ninevelt was a very

, • •• T : • T:IT .0: '0. ,... .. ,.,..,.

lccrge city). Remark also such phrases as: "'f~' ~ ..!lJ JA

wouldst thou like 80me wine 11;'. 1_,1;li ~~ ~ ~ jA have ye a un8h to do eM,sl ~ ~i .ilJ jJ d08t t/tOU wial, tken to give

, ,. . "'"

11~ some food 1 where we must supply the substantive YJ desire,

wiah j [~i ~ c. wlwt object or ,·eal1on have we tltat 1 ~; ...;_ ~ what have J to do wit/, him? IJ.& J.dJ .!II) ~ t.,; wlwt has

. ,

happen«l to me t!,at J (i.e. why do J) 866 tkee doing thm? ~ v-

woo will be for me as kelper1 Q u1 I am tI~ man/ol· it].

(c) 'rhe purpose for which, and the reason why, auy thing is

" ,." ",.

done (relation of the action to ita purpose and cause) j as ~j~ .... U

,;; , ,I'" ". . ",",,

IUJ at·088 to kelp Aim; ¥"'I!,)\;1.I 44.J-i1 I beat lum to correct Ittm j ~I l.

, , ,

~ ~l8Cienc8 (or tlUJury) is only for tke pUIJlOse 0/ being applied in

;,.act~; ~j~ r~ ;~i ~ ke I/OIIgkt the dignity (or oJ!ice) lor tM pllf7J088 of ordering good j ~ Ij.J; m,a lor this reaso» it is said; .& -. • , •• , b .1")

t- ~"'I becaUfJ8 'it doss karm; 41,&1 ~ I wmukred at ( 6CaUS8 OJ

~ ! ", "

c

D

§ 5:1] TA, Verb.-3. OOt/'t of Verb.-(b) Prspolitiou:.J. 151

._',. ~.~, .. " .,1

what /te said.. ~ JJ!J.S;tJJ ~j~ ~I j and twily "f.,ing of jJy A

"" ,,,,, ...

comes OtW· me at ,·emMnberil1g tlln'.

REII. In this case J is said to be used ~, or ~, 10

, ... , .. , '"

indicate the cause. [Compo § 44, d, § 48, c.]

(d) After the verb Jli. it often indicates the object in reference

• ,If. +.,. ... ".~ .... ~~, ... ,

to which something is said j A.R ":'1, .. 1 ~I ~ ~ J.;it ~ 1_,J,&:i ~j

say "ot in "egard to tlln,'4! who are slain ml God's patk, Tiley at·e tkaa. B (dn 1I0t call tkose who are killPJ fightillg for God'8 came, d-ead) j

... I •• • .' ..... ;., "'". til' .I .1 ... &

I;' .. ~I _..s:,.~ \.J ~ 0,J,.u1 do ye say of tke trueA, a/tm· it IuJs

".. "",... .I • ,.~ , • til' " , .. .1.1 ..

CMn8 to YOII, Is this magic? [.rjl ~l$ 0~1 ~..,.J ~ Jbj

Jil.~i '''~ J...U ~ J\i.! ~; J,:j ~~ J\i.! ;u. and a ma"

, • ~ ... ,II, ,

wlw lias committed a great Bin, bfte lUCk as the Muslim8 do not agt.·ee i" calling injidslity, is said to katVJ acted wickedly, but is not lerm8d a

" .I"',

wicked man witlwut restriction. Hence the very common 41 JU:! C

.~" ... "", ....

."..._ Ire is called Mft~ammed, from the active"""_ 41 J,Jt M says

'If kim Mft~amm8tl, i.e. ke calls him M.] Similarly:';'; 4.;.L:..; Jli

.I • .,.... ." "... ••• .I ... " .. r f ' • "",.. • , ~ "., ,fA, .,

~ JJ JU ~I v- J..t.,; UJU to: ... .,.:.1 ~ l..JII .&U.JI ~

" ,." . '" '" , ,

MWMna, tMlIOn of 'Abdu'l-rMlil, said 008 day to No,aib, »idst t/un,.

C01np088 a JHI8m in praise of I/O and I/O 1 meatling a man of Ais/amity ; M said, I did. [And so frequently after a demonstrative pronoun, as

Jli ~~, I~J I~ .!Yl ~;t i;~ ~1 888, 'Olba ""' IImt me to

you witk ~k and IJUCIt. a muBag8, according to wAat As kad said; D

~ ,. ~Ai ~ JJ;.;n 1.l4 Jli u;;' Ji; ~ J,i J~; ~f

'" '" '" '" , , "',

that tke Apost18 of God, when ke stood on 'Ara/a, had aaid: tAis is the station, meaning tAs mOf""tain on wAicAIu/()uM AifIWV: D. G.]

[(8) Finally,..) is used to mark the time from which, or at which,

':1 :Itt. ,.. .

any thing took place ~~~, as ~ u.... we fa8t«i from t"e time

" '" , "t ~. , "', "

of tke mist i ~ .;,l. M di8d on tAat llame day; ~ ~ -.::...&. ~

152

PART THIRD.-SYllta:c.

[§ 53

._.., ." iI'"

A wlun one yeal' o/IIi, reign !lad elapsed j ~I ~ ..:;....A.. lle1J wken

, , ,,.

one nigAt 0/ tke month "ad passed, i.e. the fl/'.~f; W to the completion

. '

of a year. See § 111, and an example § 70, rem. b. D. G.]

RBM. After the interjection t;;, the preposition y is frequently prefixed to the name of a person called to aid, as well !LS to the name of him against whom help is implored, ill which case it

, , ...

B is SAid to be used ~~~ to ask help. If there he only one

I "'". ~ J '''''.1 •.

.-,,~ 01' ~ .-,,\a;-, i.e, person called to aid, the preposition

takes the vowel fetl.11I. (jURt as with the pronominal suttixes, Vol. i.

", , " • - I ,

§ 356, rem. b); as ~ l.! 0/01' Zeid! i.e, help, su«: Jl.! '~llJ

, "

~ alas for the humiliation I Itelp, tribe of Taylib I Hut if there

be several, J is used with the first alone, and ._J with the rest, unless the interjection be repeated before each name, when J is

. "" ."" . " ,. , . .,.,,,

C retained throughout; fl.1I ,,_,.aJJ ~.jJ 4. 01' J"....-J 4J ~;J 4, }Ieip,

, , " , ,

Zeid and 'Amr I y~; y;,jJJ ~ /Ietp, old and YOlWg! u~;.iJ t;;

. , ..... ", .

~_,J ._JI!.."J l.!J I.elp, 0 my family and yll who al'e hkfl my

jamily! If the name of the pel'son against whom aid is required,

~, '1 " .... II... "'.1 "".,.,

~ .-,,\a;....JI or ~I ~ .!IlL:-.JI, be expressed, it takes J (with

"" ' ,

kesra) before it, as J~ _,.;jJ ~ Ilelp, Zeid, against 'Amr' V"lZU t;;

, "" ,

"",lltU I,elp, p«Jple, against thil liar I If an adjecti ve be annexed

D ~ 'th: ~ .! .... ::' ;, it may be put either in the genitive or in the

,t. ."., ",._

accusative; as ~I ~.jJ l.! or A"'~I. In the case of the

, ,,*' '

1 ". ~ ,

~ .-,,\i:o:-e, the vocative termination 1_ (see ~ 38, c) is sometimes

, ." "., ,

used instead of J with the genitive; as J"....-J I~...J 4 help, Zeid,

. -

agaimt 'Amrl-These expressions are also employed [(I) to call or

invite, as ;tJ, Jt.;.;.u t;; 0 ye men, come to the water! J,;,aJ t;;

~ 9' ~ j,~ c:me IIM'tJ, '!J01~ng and old, to wond;'j hence

.. ..... ~. . .. .,."

(2)] 'til' .-~. to e:x:pre .. aurpriBe, in which case the ~ "*" .... - .,

§ 55] The Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) Prepositions:~. 153

or object that caUses surprise, is treated in the same way as thg A ~ .!",::.;; e.g. ~ t;; 0 the wonder I ~I~ , 0 the

miajortune I ~~i ~ ~ ~ ~u. y~' ii' 1;1 but 0 the

dilgrace oj those who seek ·it (learning) ii, order to obtain benefit. jrom men.-Similar forms of expression are ~ t;;, .ill " etc., followed by the accua, or, more usually, by the preposition ~

with the genit. (see § 44, e, rem. a); as ~ ~ ~; J,.;.; u;.~

~". ",.,. ,

or~) ~ ~ l.!J, there came to me a man, and what a man he wasl B

.,.,. """ .. .

a.y ~ I,J l.! 0 what a happy nigld I J.e....1 ;.;,. ~ .il.i ~ 0 what

., - "*' ""

a soft c~k I ~ ~ .iU t;j afld 0 what a splendid night I Jli t;;

"., ,_, . '

~ :~ ~ 0 happy lark in a meadow I-In all these cases '"

seems to point out the person or thing, in reference to which

the exclamation ill uttered, as heing the origin and cause of it. [There can be no reasonable doubt that, as the gl'llmmarians of

~l-Kilja teach, this Jt;; with following genitive WM originally Jr t;; followed by the name of the kinsmen of the man who called for C '

aid. See Fleischer, Kl. 8chr. i. 393 seq., Lane sub Jr. R. S .

This war-cry oj the Time oj Ignorame (~t.;Ji loS';;;) was

forbidden by the Prophet, who substituted Jj ~ and ~ '.;lJ Ii.]

, "

s.... The prepositions which indicate rest in a place, are ~ ;'1, into, y at, in, by, ",it", ~ with, along 'UJi.tll, ~, or 1oSJ,j, at, u:itA,

in tke po88888iOIl oJ. and";; Oller, abotJe, "p(m. D

ss. The preposition ~ (with pronominal suffixes ~, .i.leI, "';), on the difference between which and"!,, see § 56, indicates ;_ '"

. (a) Rest in a place or during a time and motion into a place, ill which latter case it corresponds to the Greek cl~ or the Latin in with

the accusative ; as·: ::ii ~ il1 tile kous«; ~~ ji ~ ~ in tllis year;

"~,, ."

["?bJ ....... ~l.!1 ~ duril1g a certain number oj days] ; J,8i ~ itJi

~a ~

PART TRIlID.-8yntaz.

[§ 55

A tAs waUr " in tAs jug; y'~ ~ ~i tAs "acing is in tAs ,nftdiin; H ~ ~; M jeU into ,As W6ll j "r'~i _;.J. ~ ~; Iu Wt'oU on ,As back of tAs 18ttm·; JelC_;'i J. ;Li ~~ God will

, , , ,

,., ", .. ,

CIJ8t Aim into (make him dwell in) tlu villages; ~ ~ ,J)~ ~",

pili 'Ay lttmd into tleg' bo8om; [~1 ~ ;il.Ui ~;f by inversion for ....3&.Ui ~ u¥11 ;flsert8d mg jing"" into tAs sifIMt-ring]. This

, , ,

B signification is then transferred to the relation subsisting between any two things, the one of which is regarded as the place in which the

other is, or happens, or into which it goes or is put; as ~i yt..:. ~

. ,.,.,,, ...

in tAs stat8 of pupilage;..".....,' ~ ~ t.. wleatever good tleere 18 ,,. .t j

•• ,. 4,11, ", ."

~~, ~ J~' Mifetglia in speaking tAs trotle; ~~ u~~

skiVul in Ais trade; "r'~i ~,;JaJ Iu Iook8d into, or "ead in, tile book; ::.;~ ~ u~ As 6Z67'18d M",.y- about Ai.! bluiness; u~ J6.;

C ~i As commenced studging; .-;.:.; uj j,i..;;.c.~ God will let

, "" , ,

,_ """" into Ht. m8t'C!/; [f~ ~ ~i ~ ~ As IKu notleiflg to do tDitA ~].

, , , .,

(6) ~ is sometimes equivalent in meaning to ~ witA, or IJt.I

, • .... ;. ~ t : .", f ~ '1

among; as~ ~ ~ JJ ..... ' ~ ',_.", enw witA genBf'ations

, til _"

tc~ pa_ awag Wor, gou; ~.ji ~ ~ ~ ,! eft sAs eaml

, ... "..... ,a ... "

D jon«lf'd tDitlt (BOmI) tI10fIIen oj tAs tribI; w, ~ ~ .. " As lilt

out tDitA 50,000 fIlA [The proper meaning of ~ being in tAs midst of. the following noun ought to be a plural or a collective; but the signification of witA became so prevalent, that we find actually

.... " ~o§j ~ 41 :..~ oj ,,\6.; and Iu did not go out witA fIIOt'I

.". ' \i:

'/tan DIN Mlt'mnt. In a somewhat different sense ~ is used in the

phrase tJ';"./~' ~ ~.", tIJtJI'Ijour of., mm.-The signification

§ 55] TM V6I'b.-3. OmIt of V6I'b.-(b) Pr6poMoM:~. 155

of 1.O;tA comes to denote a combination of two qualities, as J. ;,;:" A

... I til

~ black1l886 blending witll ,,8d,IUII. D. G.]

(e) It indicates the subject of thought or conversation. that in

• ... • j •• ". ,. ..... "" , t1' ~

whIch these move; as ~I,;.,~' J,~' ~ ~ v--e 'lfl«;t two

mont1t8 upon tAs clwice of a teacher; ~,; ~~ :.,f ~~ As must m8ditat8 Up01l tkis; ~,; ~..;Il:i As spoke about tAis (whereas ~~ ~ would mean 116 spoke tlti.! out, lie gave utterance to tAis B t>pi1Jum) j [~i ~ w":'~i do !Je argue witA us conctJnling God!

II .... ... "". "'~ III ~ ~" .... '"

~ ~ ~ ~ .!l.! ~ WMeve,- mag doubt mgiooe jor BU~~ina] .

Hence it is used in stating the subject of a book or chapter; as ~~~i ~ ~~ ,i~'; As compiled a book OIl morala; ~ J.,;J

,t ... _... ,J,."

~I ~t.. a eleapter treatiflg of tAs 'UJtUf'e of sciellC6; ~,....." -.J~

~wi; ~ .;J~ ~ ~~i tAs book of tAs sAining stars. treating

qf tit, kings of M'lft' a1Jd 81-.((iiAira. Similarly: ~ ~ As got up C (to go a,ul look) jO'l' Aim " y ~';':'j tlte!) sent me to W j<»' tltem,

J,,.., • , • .1 ... ,., .....

or to jetele t_ .. ~, ~ U!' yU.J...J' ~ .!..a,i and As sent for tAs

Sullfin .tlbi 'AMi 'I«i". [It 1\180 denotes the assigning of a cause, as

........ , ';"",.J",

~, "r''':' ~ ~, ~~ As jIogged Itim witle tAs prescrib«l number-

0/ st"ip68jCtt' drinki1lg wi,16" ~l u~ ~ oj As blamed Aim b«:aUIII of it "

"...... ... t1 ". ~,. ... .,." '11,._ iii

t,.:..... ~ ~ )'-"1' ~" i!J..' \J! verily awomafl en.wed Hill D

hecaUIII of IJ catwleicll sAs em1rfin8d wilAout jood. ]

(d) J, is used after verbs signifying desire, like ~ and &J.. in connection with the object desired; as ~r;.;..}i iJj .;.;.; ~

.;,..... '" , ....... , ..

",,'-"I' ~ lJ ._,..$.J'I,.,.JJ ~ w"g sAould !te, wllo luu ~k1Id llu

, """ ", .. ,

IW68t1l886 of Imowl«lg, and of tAs applictdion oj it in pmcticl. tlm", angtlting t!eat men po8I688' lJ'!~i y,_;;f ~ ~ -J \Jf u~ lie must not covet peopU's propert!J. Compare § 53, b, rem. e.

156

PART THIRDo-Syntaa:o

[§ 56

A (e) It is employed in the comparison of two objects, governing

,. J .. ~ • ,... ,

the thing with which the other is compared j as ~ \e,iJJI i~1 l.

• ,,,.. "",l1li .

t.t;.. ~1 ~'jl tkis li/e is merely a temjJQr""oy lIsufruct, compared wltl,

tke lijB to come j [Jt.;;;;i ~ ~ ~ ..1& ui A ;~~ ~

, "" ' ",

tlly to» is "ut Mgh, ill proportion to tke number of halldicmfts 'II'

which tho« w·t 1t1l"~ter] j ~ oJl • ..:..; . _j ~ ~ tlty Inwwledge' is

.~ "u:. ,

B ollly l' drop compared with his ocea» j lit. whm pitt into it, the smaller object being, as it were, placed within the larger one for the purpose of comparing the two.

(f) Lastly, ~ is used to express proportion (e.g, length and breadth) and l1wltipticatuJ1lj as ~G~ ~ ~i ~ ~G~ ~~ ~,J. t.:;_;.; its lengtl' is .lifty cubit», by tweli)e cublt« in b1'ettdth (Germ. bel or auf, Vr. sllr) j ~ ~ b~ ~ lA;t';i~ its size is ten pamsallgs

C by tke same j ~ J l ill th1:ee into jiL'e or three times five, according

. .

" , .. , " ..

to the phrase ~~ ~ I.)~ ..,.,~ he mltltiplied one number by allother

(lit. strllck tke oneinto tke otker).

RBM. J, is said by the grammarians to be used ~~, to indicate timB and place.

&8. Y (with pronominal suffixes ~, ~, ~) differs from u; in this, that J., like the Latin and German in, shows that one thing

D is actually in the midst of another, surrounded by it on all sides; wherea.'l y merely indicates that the one is close by the other or in

contact with it, and corresponds therefore to the Latin prepositious p"ope, jlt,zta, (tpled, (~, and the (Ienuan WI or bei. For example:

",.. , .,t,

~WI y~ ~ a village ,It (close to or hard by) tke gate of

~l-¥iiki"a j y.;.~ ..:.,;_;'; I passed by a mall j ~ ~ Ire sat beside (or by) kim,· J~ j,i...;&;..;J God kelped you at B~dr,' ~~t; ~\6.

- .. .. .. "

• •

~CI tlre1'e Wad at (or in, Germ. zu, Fr. (t) 31-JIedin(, a merchant j

§ 56] Th6 Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) PrepositiOfl8: '-tj. 15'1

~ ~ a tuwn in Egypt j J;; .~; witk a sword in "iB hand; IIA

" ,

", ....... . ... .

:b 41 t!ret'e is ill kim a disece..;e; J"""'''' liJb ~I al)(nd OU1' house by

day"~=~Q) j ~; ~e. 0 ;~. ~ ~~ ~I, a1ui Hrily !J6

.... , .. '" .

"... . .

pass by them ill tke 11Wl'lIillg mul at night (= ')I.J}.-Hence It IS

construed with verbs signifying to attach, connect, or adhere to

(e.g. ~, ~, J..;" Ji), [go round, surround (e.g, ;1;, It'-i, JUt)],

...... ..... . d

seize, take, or begin (e.g ...... 1. I"",,), a.sk about. know, or be acquainte B

with (e.g, Jt..~, ~). flee for refuge to. believe in, and swear by

".. ",_ .... .. .. • ... , ... .. '11 I

(e.g. )~. ~I • ....-JI). For example: ~ ~~~ ~~ ....,...,J'.J

".. ".... .

...,J JI.:.I their lwelds adhere to tkew skouider« (cmd) tkey have no 1leeks;

J~~ JI~ ;".!Ji ~~ because tke worms stick to tke fl'uit j J..;;

.. .... ..

• .. .. ... ... ... ... " J""

~~ .~I 116 joined the one thing to the other " [=I~~ ":'.J.)" alld I

I til, .:,,...... ,

/wwred rOIUld enemies, ~ ~~ .\..1 he comprehended it, knewC,

, .. ,. ,.... .. ...... ~

it thorollgkly]; J,..J4 I""" lie began to study tke lesson : .... u..u'" ~

, .. .. , '"

t(,le hold oftke 1W8e-1·ein,· J;.:Ji J';;~ ~ ~U .W~ ~p ~U

.. " .. 'I ,... •

wui if ye adk me OOolltwomell, trilly I am ski(ji" i/~ the diseases qf

women j ~ ~ J,~ )~ we take refltge witk God fl'om His

.... .. ....

,.. :,__ J'''_ ! tr : J' '" ..

wrat" .. ."...,,,1 AU'" ..:...:,.1 I believe in tke one God,' (~) ..:--JI

.. .. , ..

.1,4 I IJwew' by God,' ;~ ~;"j'.j ~ by Thyself (I swear), I will

. . .

• ..J.. ,.. , "

visit TAy house; ~41 l. ~ "'JJ 00, by thysel/, I ear« fwt j ~!I-! D

by tAy head I-Hence, too, it is used after 1.\110 I Bee I introducing a

':.. .. ~.,. ,

person or thing that comes suddenly into view (~~\4I1 1)1 or

~i.;.Air ,il); as "...;, Iii ~ ,. ~ whilst lie was going along, !Ie

.. • 'y-""

BIuld6111g pe1'ceiwd a clolld of dllSt; .,:,~ u, IiI ~~.iJr ~J3 l!1i

. .

~ and qfte,. I kad got to tk6 middle of tIre lane, I aU at once kea1'd

. .

,... .... ", .. iii.. .... ..... ~ • .,,,

a great ,wise; y\.eJ1 ~ ~ ~ 1)1" ~~I ~ v-i.J

158

PART THIRD.-Syn~.

[§ 56

A and w/ailBt we .WW~ tailing, a gr«u clamou,. ,uddsnly aro88 ,.", tlte

door; J.1t .;.J u.,;; .;.;!Ji .:i JUi .;.;..;, Iii beIwId, a man caIW I~

, -- ' .

Myid BWaA:a came forward. Here we must supply the participle of

, " , ~"

the verb ..,.-1 to PWcMt16 [or ~ to .. ], which is construed with -r',

~. . h d"" "

as, lor Instance, 10 t e secon of the above exampl.,a, .......... 01 III

, .

, ." ia. , .

~ .::~. The 8&lDe remark applies to u"- in such phrases 88

~~l.U ~ ~"'tl:. il .".. to me Iflat l/tou art trying to tkceiVtJ me ,.

B ~i ull ~ ~ ~Ii:. it U (II if 1 IKJW tluJe being ut dmcn into tlte grafJ6 j [to! : fai ~ t; .:J ~ .iUt& it u, 0 -Pari~, aI if tlwu lawut me al,.ead!l dead]; 'l..:;i ~ u!t6. met"i,Ucs 1 /J66 lluJe Ilaill,·

• ' •• 04" '. ••• ..,~

i.e, ~ ~ ~UD, or ~ ~I ~UD.-From the idea of contact

there arises, "in the C&II8 of a superior and inferior or primary and secondary object, that of companionship and connection j as ~~ ;"

c A~ let oul witA Au 1w1lB8ltold,· ~i .,.,~ ~ ~i Ite came into lau pr~nc6 in Ai, trat16lling tltws; 4oe~ ;t;.Ji UO;:!I ~ bougkt t~

"iii.,.,,, ,

.,

au togetAer witA ita bridls,· ~ wIl, properly witla weU-b~ing in

- ,

. ". ,.. ,."

answer to the question ~I ~ !tow do gou do t!is momilIg 1]

Under this idea are figuratively represented the following relatious :

(a) The relation between subject and predicate, especially in negative propositions; as ;~ ~t4 j,i u:.;,1 i, not God ,lfIIicient

- ,

D lor Ru 8e",,oant , ..... " .! ., I do fIOt Inww; ~ .... ~ .IJ.t ..;

_" ",-"

Illy Lord will not dIKJl wrong" willa Ru servants,. ~~..;. ..;

tUg are not belWtw.; ~~ ~1;; ~JjJi Jl uo~:;i '?.;.: ~"

and if AaRdl Gr, 8IrWcW ouI to lood, I aM not t~ quicJ:est of t_

(to do il); .,.,~li"~ ~I;':' ~ j.,;} ~1=! ~tA:. ~ ~;;; l:,,~;, ~;;,J:j and hi an in~ lor me 011 llu day ",Am ~IO (olw) i~ Cdn atJtJU &toad 'ilnt ¥iirib .. 1_ l«ut. An example of the rare use of

§ 56] PM Vtrb.-3. OMlt 0/ Verb.-(b) PrqKJ8ition,:.,.,. 159

'" • # •• ,~ ",,~_ .. ~ •• " ",J

-r' in affirmative propositions is ~ .,:,1 uM ~u.." ..ul .,:,1 IJJ'i ..... JI. ~

,1""

..si,.J I do tktJ!! not aN tkat God kaI POWWl' to bring tke fkad to life 1

[Comp. in Hebrew "1MNl N\"1 Job xxiii, 13. D. G.]

T Y :

(b) The relation between the act and its object. (II) This is

. '" "'.,.

always the case after illtra,,,jliVtJ verbs, as ~u~ ~ lie WaI ,tillgy

of sometAing, opposed to ~ ~ IuJ W(II liberal 01 it; [~~I~;; he

, ".,. " ... ,

t"eated !tis latket· witA filii" piety j ~ u~.J4'-1 )1 ~ u-I ~ B

.....

~I Iw acted well towards me, wilen he brought me lorl" lrom tile

'" #, .......

prison; J.:U ~ ~I he gave an order respect;'lg Aim, and accordingly

he was slain; '?': i ,~ ~ ~; Iw pmyed (God) to grant me lIet.ifaat1l8U]; especially such as indicate motion, e.g. ;4-. ujf

to come, ~ to go away, C6.;t.:; to depart, set out, ';li, ~ to get "1', rise, ~ to be k;gll, etc. These verbs are construed with .,., and the genitive of the thing. accompanied by, or in connection with, C which one performs the act they denote j and they must be translated

into English by transitive verbs. For example: ~~ ~.,.; 1_,1~

tlum bring (lit. come witla) a siim (ckaple1') liK~ it; ~~~ :JJi ..;.Ai God took away (lit. went away wit") tAM,. ligkt; ~~";\I Ae uplwld

, ,

t~ trut"; ~a:.;r. :~~ ~ lie took "p(m kim tke burd8n of tM

goeernment; '!'! t;:, A; lifUd it tip 011 Mg",t ['!'! ;).$. bring IIwu Mm,

§ 59, rem. a]. (fJ) The 8&lDe eonetruetion is also employed with D transitiee verbs, not only when they signify motion but in other easea

too, and the verbs must then be used absolutely·; as~ :"1 .A ~

~ senl t_ to me (lit. 118 perlormed t~ act of ssnding to me ;11 oonnection witA, or by m«JnI of. t_, using them -as the object.'i

• [In many cases this construction is the consequence of the omission of the proper object, e.g. with Vel"lJS signifying "to se4d" without mention of the bearer of the message, etc., with those that signify "to throw" without mention of the thing aimed at, etc. D. G.]

160

PART THIRD.-8~.

[§ 56

• a .. "

A through which he realized that act;....,-JlI ~) he X/lOt the (If TOW

~ ,

(fiwn tlte bow); ~1 ~~ ujjj he gat'6 Aitn8elf "p, or IffIf"1'tmdered

.,. .&,. ""."'., , , ... ~ ~

himself, to Aim; l,_J~ ..:,,!J.1.! ~ /"tt....J1 ''_' dat·l;-eyed (women), who

do not read tlte sums (the 1,{or'lI.n). This happens particularly when the transitive verb is used in a figurative sense, and the preposition

, , .. "" , ,.,. , , .,

is then called JlWl III the figurative ""I; as l.aJ1 ~ Ite m'Ol;e tlte

sticle, but uA'~ he !las broken m!! h(!fert [along with u;li,,;..:k]; B ...;Ibri;;';' he det the bone, but uA,;..;. he Itas comforted my kea1't [along with u-tJ';';'. Likewise, .qi ;l£f he raised the building,

• ", I" ", ", •• ",

but ~~ ,I.:,I he mised his/ame as well &''1 ~~ ,1:.1; J.,-JI ...,~

., .", .

he drew or pulled the cord, but ~ ...,~ he "elldwed /us name

I.'" .,.,,, .

famous more generally used than ~ ...,~.] The relation of the

acts of breaking and setting to ~heir objects, in a tropical or spiritual sense, may be expressed by a prepositional exponent, &.'J being a less

o immediate relation than when they are used in their ordinary material sense.

(c) The relation between the act and the instrument with which,

, ., ,

the means by which, or the reason why, it is performed; 1\.'1 ~

,_.,.W~ I wrote witll the reed-peu ; ~~ ;.s h~ slew kim witk the

, ., , ,

sword; ~:~; ~~ ; ~ ,;.j ~j dj;' God will gnetlt him patiellCl'

, . "" ~ .. " .,

throrlgk tke sailltmy power qf prayer to Him; .-~'It 'It. ~I ~~

D by God's Itelp I hatYJ petformed the pilgrimlege (to Mekka); ~

. '

~ ~ ,;.~,; ~ ..:..i..f .:,y. ~ ~ l_';lA ~f,i ~

, .. ", "".... '" ..

~c :i... ~i (Uld because of Wt'ong done by those wko were Jews, we hlt'lJe /orbidd~1l tl~em good tkings, u,hick were ("lrowed them (be/m'e), and because 0/ their tU"ni"g awa!! man!! (men) from tke path 0/ God;

. ~ .. ,.. . ~".. . ." ,,'" .

...... l.:aJ ~~ ~ l.t whet'efiYl'e, because 0/ thew bt'eal:illg thei,'

cotenant, l1'e h(J,t'8 cursed them (' redundant, see § 49, /).-Connected

§ 56] The Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) Preposition':~. 161

herewith is the use of ""I with surnames, etc., after J; to 1Jf9 hwwt, j . ~ 88 also after ~ to be ellOllgk, to sllffic!!, with the person or thing

~ ~. ..... .. ." ". ~ ....

that suffices or is enough for one; e.g. ~-,.~ •• JI ~ VI ~

. ' .. ' ., ...

~~,J.J~ !JaMul 'ilm 'Alt, A'1I0U'1I by the Ilame (1/ U-J-Iargi1utni,.

:s~ .J,;;J ~ a villagfl kllo"," by the 'lame of Ba~uxt,· J,~ uib

, , ,

I~ God SltjJicfltlt as a witness·; ~~ ~~,; ~I;~i ~~ uii... tlte pleasure 0/ lcllowledgfl is a sufficiellt motive and imJ61ltive to a B . .ellsibie memo [Compo § 49, c.]-The price of any article is also expressed by the preposition ""I after verbs signifying to buy, pay, etc.,

as being the instrumental means with which the act is performed; e.g .

,. f" ". "' ... :' .. .I •

.... ).J.I l,..U ~I he bought a reed-pen for a dMtam; ~ ...,_,!II ~

, "" ""

)~.J.I 1 sold the piece 0/ clotlt (or the gat'mellt) to him (flee § 48, c) lor a

"" " "1",,

dil/(t1'; ~ ~ 'J~-' wul the!! sold him lor an insufficient (or

. .'

""... .,.,.,.ii.. I".

tl'ijlillg) price; ~",.,.,~ 4J')l.,.AJ1 I-,,,.::.~ the.1f hiu» pm'chased error at

.. .I .. "" .I .I" , ••• "" .,,,

tke price 0/ truth : U.»l~ I_,.;l::t t.t ~I ...,JI;' ~ theirs is a painfUl 0

.I , .. • ....

pllllishmellt,/ot· havillg deemed (tlte p1'ophet) (t liar (I_";~ ~ =~~);

.. , ,.1.. *' ... " ,,"... J... .I "" ~ • , ~ , ., ~

UlP)J Ul...~ i)~11 I"":' I~) III Lo_,i ~ u~ ~ would then

that I had, illste,<ed of them, a tribe who, U'Mn they ride (fot·tlt), pour down (on their enemies) from eve,y side, mounted on horses and camels

. .~, ,,,

(~ at the price (1/ them, ill exchange fi»: them, =~.J.I ).-[Hence its

use after verbs signifying to kill, slay, etc. in the sense of in retaliatiotl

• [In this and the following example the preposition ""I is said to D be redundant after u~ in order to emphasize the relation between subject and predicate, ~i being the agent (comp. Bei~iwi i. 211,

l. 21 seq., ii. 226, l. 2 seq., Abu Zeid, NaWildir, 204, I. 3 seq.). In like

", , .,

manner it is said to be redundant before the predicate in .AtJ ~

Zeid is a person su.lficing thee. It is better, however, to take uAi...

., ,

IIJI containing its subject in itself, viz. 4.:!~, and thus being used

impersonally (comp. Fleischer, Kl. Seh». i. 199, Anm. 2, 374,). D. G.]

\1'. II.

21

162

PART THIRD.-Syntcw.

[§ 56

A for, as an 8quivalent for, as ~} ~& ~ ~ ~ :;;r certai7l1y, a cki6f of

'tL ., • .~

you,. triJJe will b8 killed in ,.etaliatiM for kim; ~ ..}aJ ~ ;,

be tlwu slain as an equi"alentfor tM thong of Ko~ib'B sandal.]

... , ,.. .

RBM. tJ. In such phrases as ~Ij ":";1 u~~ thou, art as dear

~I'" ... ,

to me tU my fathM and mother, '::;l~j v.e u!~ cI~ar to me as my

fathM is one whenn I love, the preposition depends upon the word

a ., .. I

I.S~ ransomed, or I.SJ! may M be ransomed, which is understood,

B and the literal meaning is: thou art to be, or sl.alt be, ransomed with my father and mother, may one whom I love be ransomed with my

fatl~. This is called by the grammarians ~~~i~li .ii the"!' whicl.

e:x:presBes ransom,. but it is in reality the ~i '1I or "!' of price,

". ., ..

as used after I.S~!' t,4, etc, (see above, no. c, at the end). In

the same way are used ~ and u~j~,-Ob!!erve also the

....... ".. '" ., '" .....

phrase ~j l,.;i [or simply yJ good and well, as ~I u1

. ....... ... '" .... , . .,.

~j 't1 ..::..aJ.lj if thnu consentest and obeyest, good and well;

"., " .... , .. ;, ....... '

..:.....ai,., 't1 ~ \..0" v.e if one performs till! WI-ttf:a' for the

Friday, good and well. Thill is explained, by an ellipse, as equi-

valent to ;'4,(djj ~,; ~i j~ v..;..:Jj ji aidjj o~

, ., "" .......,.,., "

., I .... " ...

u~ u....u I by this act or practice is excellence attained, and good

is tM act or practice. Others regard ~ as equivalent to ~ ;~(;i,

, .... "

~ ~, etc., keep thou. to it, let him ke.ep to it, etc. (see § 09,

",;:;.1 .,.

rem. a); and other words, such as a.....J1 tM practice of tM Prophet,

.I A ...

or ,;1 tM ordinance of indulgence, may be supplied according

to circumstances.

, ".. ;,. ....... ...... ,

RSM. b. In phrases like (.)f:-1tI) J.e.U,. utll ~ ~I.o he died a

f" ''''','

:;. '" ...... .,. ,.. .,. ." ,.

little be/ore tM PropMt, .... l.!lj ~ .!lJ) .J.AI ~ M arriwd two

~ -, '" '" ,

mont1&. and some days after thi., "!' is the"!' of meaBUre, and quite

different in meaning from the accusative of time how long:)to:.

.,., ....

~joJ! ~ means M tra1Jelled for two days before mil, profectus est

c

D

56] The V erb.-3. Uuu't of V 61'6.-( L) Prepositions: '"fj'

163

biduum ante 111(', GCI'lI1, 61' reiste zwei I'(lye lany 1.'01' mil', but A

II.. ... ... I

~~ ~ )L:o, Ae .,tw,t,!d tioo days before lIIe, profectus est' I

hillull ante III!', Get'llI, er reist» ztre]. I'''ye "or mir abo Observe thai, '"fj with its gClliti\'e IIIU~t ill this case always he placed after

Itt:)I, I'. The preposition witlwltt i~ expressed ill Arabic by

.,. .... ." II ,

~ mlll~, 1110)'(' ml'e1y hy _r-i;. ~ ami UJ-"'/, us well I\!! the

.,. ..", ..".. '"

silllple ~J; (~ G!), f), ~ can l,e used only with nn indefinite

IJ ,; • .. 0 '" .I .I

suhstuutivv, ~ [alltl _r-i;. ~, as also 0 .. '" and UJ"""] with one B

.... .. '" .. ,

1'1 11< ... ~.:... J:: "'.' ".,,~ f'

w 1)(' 1 is .. it lu-r dPlillil .. III' ilHlt'lillitl';,.rr- _.J"{ .... 1.bA...

~L;, ~ It "ItlCI' 11:;//111111 )'18Ii';'J 'i" lik,: It l'i!'l~r n'it/t,:ltt to(lt;,,; ,.:: = ...

'" "'. ... .I... • ..

.)Ij ~ t/101£ urt "0111" Wit/Wilt (brillyill!! 1111.'1) 1'1'01'i8ioll';; oJJ;-O ~

'" • • oM .... """ ;).. , ~ .. ~::. .....

trithout. Itcce",,,ty: ~, ~ IIl1jU,'tl.'l; "';;1. .. _r-i;. ~ toithout

.. .." :. .... ..

... J , ,. , ~ .,.. ~

",,,tl,'Ol','I','Y: J~ ..... .), ~ _r-i;. ~ withou[ ,~ll)ol'll atu] bloodsloul..»:

C"lIIl'al1! ill ) ;P)II'C'\~ ~S~, i~N.~, .~~~

c

Ohst'r\'l~ the I'hrasl's'~ _j ~' icho will be '

_ u: "-"'" ., re-

"Jltllll,iUe 10 me for surl: It Iltiuy? (where we must supply ~W.);

.. ...E. ~ 0 +.AI ~ ...

Y. UI I II(lt"J done it (whore ~ lIIay he supplied}; ..u4 va-i

, " , ,

, :., .t" , ,

.!l,t _...j 1I't! Jlltt ow' i1'I1,'[ in (,'od, then. il~ 11,,'e (suppl, ),.,u til' ~);

- ,

.... "" .. ,0"

IJ,!:, Ul::» 1';1 ~ ~ 11(1/11 ,uilt tluns be, when illicIt tc thing is tlu:

.:, ., It

("',,,~? The ~ ill MJI .A-! Ilt'Hotes accordillg to some the nid 01'

. - - - l ,.~

iustrunu-nt ; IIthers say that we ought to supply ~~I I beyin D

.... £..... " , J ..

willI tlte nllme It/ (,''''/, I II the expresxiou» ,.,._,~, .J.t.~ ~ I'U1JI

~.. ,

in Z(~id lite [un«, etc, ~ is the equivnh-nt of ~, SI'I' § 4t1, It, 011

., .. ,I ...

tlu- expressions ~>.~ ,.. 01' ~ "1'0 ~ I :l!J, 011 the use of ~ ill

It, • ot

till! fOl'lllula.J.!.j.! ~I SI'Il \'oJ. i. ~ ll'l-t .uu] 1'1'111, n,]

:; , ..

Ht:~I, e. The gl'allllllilrians denote t.lu- vurious uses of ""f by

... 0 .. 0';;

sayinl{ tlmt it is lI""d ~l..oJ~ 10 I!,I'PI"!N'; «dheeion : ~~ time

164

PART THIRD.-Synteuc.

[§ 57

A

aud place / .....:.w BW6aring; ~~, or ~~, compallions/tip

.,,, .. "'" ,

and connection,- ~~;;~, or yi.~~. eo render an (intransitive) verb

" .,.

transitive/ ~~~ to indicate tke instmmellt 0/ w/tose aill we

.. ".. . ..

avail ourselves / ~, or ~, to express t/te 7'easOll or cause ;

and ~';:l! . .ti.ili.;U, or ~, to state tke recompense, equivalent;

"" , , ,

or price given/or anythiny.

B 87. ~ (rarely ~) with, rtlong witll, indicates association ant!

J~.,.t ... ,.,.~" ",

connection in time or place (.,;J" ,,1 ..,.,'-la..o~1 ulS:.o); as ~ JI....

he tmvelled witlt me; ~ ~ Ill! s:et "'lell ~illt; t,u, i-- - ;1!:,

• .; ,. ;,t ..... ,

~I I came to thee witlt the risillg oj'tlle sun ; [~l:!~1 ~ mlltillwttly

, ,

(prop. along with the days)] j ~i ~ ~i C. ~! ~ ~el'()tioll Cltll1Wt

be real along with (is incompatible u'ith) i!Jllorance;;.i..ti ~ ~I):i ~

C ~ with tke repetition. oj' thctt portlou 0/ it ?Chicll uent Lefor» (repeating at -the same time what had been done before) j ~I"'; ~ ~.} ~ alld my sltbstallce is from yolt ctlul my lore is with Ylilt. lienee it is used to show that a person possesses something or has got it with

him j ast:.:. ~ ;~ JA hast tho« got an illkbottle with thee 1 ~ ~ ;.~ ~; ;~~ lltafJe neither aell(tr nor di"hltm (neither gold 1101' .~ilver)

", .. "

by me. [Hence u..a... according to uur opinion, like W~].-

~.. 1>" ,,,

D Sometitnes it signifies in (,ddition to, besides ; ItS ~~ ~_,= ~ ill

addition to his being (besides his being) (t stmll!Jer.-More frequently it means notwithstanding, despite, Idthough,. as 4~ ~ t:. ~ despite

, t "".. J Mi".,. ",.,. '" J • J, 0 ..

his braV61'Y he was killed; ..!lJ) ~" y, ... ;J1 ~ uJail ot-I v':!.....,

-, - .... - I . L_ I .. (M h

'J"u..,J\I ~I no olle W(U mm'e clea"-szghted tna» the Apostle II. am-

- "

mad), and notwithsta1tding this, he was ordered to consul: (others) j

.,.,." ,I,ll '.,.,. ~, " .. ,.10';" ., .""""

.~I ~ J.,....I .... .".,.,I \oJ 1 ~ ~!"A~I~"'" ~;..,.s 11-13 It·(ts IlImbk to

destroy the pyramids, although it ill easier tu destroy th,m to build (compare in English with(J,I; in Heb., C~, e.g, Nehem. v. 18. ;,rC~1,

§ 58) Tlte Vtwb.-3. GU/J't of Verb.-(b) Prepositums : ~.

165

and ~, e.g .• Tuh i. ~2, nNT-S~~, DCllt. i. sa, i"I!;:t '?~~~, NUI1~.,1 A xiv, 11, ninNn ~:,~; awl ill Pel's., II awl ~,.;.; ll).-Lastly, t';

is used in comparisons, and must then be translated into English hy

.,J"J ",

CUI1l})(tl'l'd to, ill rfllll)llll'l.WIl with,. as ~" .uw ~I compared witlt

him tl-Il(ujll'. til' tl-llirJr (Elias, the wandering Jew of the Muhnuuuadaus), i.~ ct tellt-)lI'!J, i.e. fixed awl motionless, an expression used of one who leads all unsettled vagabond life.

1{»)J. ~ is, as Ilw .\mb gmllllllarialls I'CIlHU'k, properly tim uccusnti ve of It noun, signifying association, conue.cion ; see Vol. i. B

,.. J ",

~ :I:)\>. The nxp r essiun ~ ~ ~,), I went away fron» beside

lcun, is rccnrded by :-iibawi·ih.--To it corresponds in Hebrew Cl'

. ,

ill Syl'iac ::.cu..

58. ~.;J (with xulhxe-, u~Jj, d~, ilJ.;J) or ~JJ, also written I~ (with suffixes ~~ . .iJ.;~. ~.JJ). is a cmuparntively rare word, sigllifying '1I'.~i,f". /"·,1/', lit "I' ",If. ill (1/1' l'fJ.~.~I'.~.~i(l1l If (Lat. «pud,

Fr. 1'111':;); as ..,..,t;ji ,,:J l"J.;..:, ~i_; II 1/11 tl,e/I fo« lid her lord at the C

door ; ~Wi ~.Jj ..;.,_,.wi ~1 11'111'11 (thl'i/') heart» shall be in (their)

0 .. , ~~ ... "'O~O,. I,o£",;;,.;it "'''',.

throats __ 4:!JJ ,._,;} 1 ~~~I ~I i.J1 u' ~I h,' hl'lier:ed th(tt fire

- - -

'!VIIS tk« JIIost ercelleut III' the tllillg.~ whie-h were' -i1Tl hi.~ possession.

• .I", •

RK~I. c~. uJJ chictly occurs ill composition with ~ (see § 70),

.. ,.. "', , ",'111 ... , .""

and, like that preposition, is used ylS:.o ,I yl.oj ~ ~laJ 1 51~~

to denote l/te commencement 0/ tlte limit in place or time. It may be

I , ",.J. • I", J "J .. I ."

connected with a proposition, as el:! ..::...il 0JJ .l.a,i fo,j.:;" and D

tko« art mindful 0/ lIis benefits since tho« a1·t grown up " [Ill';

",f , , 0' • J, ,.,. , ;; , , J

Ul..!.; ul uJJ I.S~-;::':" ul o.i~ u~!J3 (mel to/tat, tMnlce8t thou, did

it luirin me thcd tko« hc,t(',dst me since we grew up 1]- When con-

.,. I

uected with the word '''~ mOl'lting, it usually ta.ke~ it in tho

.II ." WI' $",'.1, J,

necus., as ,!",,~ ..::...i.) u-:- '''~ uJJf/'on~ 11lO1'ning till it (the sun)

- ..

WIt.'I TWW 8I?ftiu,[J, though ~,,~ is admissible. The fonner construe-

------------------------------~-

}(jl)

PART THlUD.-Syntax.

l§ 59

", '.J ." .... "... ..1,

A tion is explained by an ellipse, viz. 'JJS ~WI ~l!:» ~."J since

the hOU1', or time, was IllO'I'ning. If another word be connected with i;~, it may be put either in the accus, or the genit., M l:.:.;' i'.;J. ,~,.;J from. m01'ning and evening. Some grammarians

. J, ~

, , ..... .1 • .1, • ' ,.

admit the nominative likewise, 'JJS ~."J, by an ellipse of ~l!:»,

., • .I .,. '" .~,

vis, 'J~ ":;"";l!:» ~."J.

REM. h. ~."J differs from ~ (§ 66) in being restricted to

B material objects which are actually with, or 011 the pers~m of, the

• , '" '.J 0 .... '" t

speaker [or the personspoken of]. You say ",""1-",,, ~~ J_,.iJII~ ..

." "'.J".

tl,iII assertio» is right in my opinion; ~ ~ yW ~ So-and-so

know8 abont it; not ~.;.r and ~jJ~.i.I. And again you say

j~ ~~, I have moll,'y, whether it be about your pcr!lOll 01' not,

whereas j~ ~.;J means that you actually have it about you.

• " d' . f . 1 t Onc

[ . ."J can never form the pre icate 0 a nonuna SCII ence.

~ -

C may say;;j ~JJ ss« ill with UB, but not';';j Ir~.J

.. " ". ., ... 0, ...

59. uJ.$ (with pronominal suffixes ._;., ~, ~) UDtJl", ItOUVIJ,

upon, is used :-

(a) In its originalloc(,lsense (~!: ',~, to denote higlwl' ele!xttion);

.... fill' .. '" .. .J .J '" ., .... t. ..

IL8 ~i ~ ~J Z~id is on the 1"00/; ~\- u~...-,,_:; ~;\j

D and -it (the pigeon) beqan to hO'vel' 01,'61" It walt; ~,iJi ~ UWl .:;..;..;

.J '" '" ",.J .. ,. •• "'... '" '" '"

he /o-und a person upon the road , ~J iJ~ ~l.J1 '_;';Ji..i he sau:

, -

01' tlte wall the figu"e 0/ (' mall i ~ ~~ :.;;. I had 011 cotton

clotltes; .!illjj J.S. ~ ~; ..:.,jf ':"';';;:'i 'i~ and when thou, and tlU3!J wlw ~re with tkee, are safe on board the ship, 'I'he same sense is further exemplified in: .~~j u~ ~ Ite sat at tlte tl,b[e (because

,. ,. .,;;". " ",

a person sitting at table rises above the level of it) ; ~I ._;. I..iiJ

§ 59] Tlte Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) Prepositions:~. 167

he stood by the rioer ; oJI; "'""~ J.S. ;I.d Ite sat at the door' of ,;~ A

,,# I... .:" ",.,."

house ; ~"j.J V"~ u~ I..ii_, Ite stood b.1J the head 0/ So-and-so ;

. '

",fl •.. ,IE .. ,.. " ~J'" ,1, ....

yl~1 t~1 ~l.A.i.. ._;. ~,;_,JI u~ ~".:. ~J ~ at the time

when he w"s 1'ery eager to investigate the peeulieritie« 0/ tlte limbs 0/ animals; (~u...:.iii ~ ~ ~ ~i ~ .i;_;iji tire village is

.",;;, "",

situated ftt a distance of 12 miles from ~l-F)s~ftf]; ~)'A, or ~ il.t-,

, ,

"... ,,::; , J ... ~.. ,. ,

M jJlM,qed by him , ~~ 1 ._;. ~I ~ ~ 1 ~l!:» ~l-Qaggag was B

l!mtl' (or gOl'frllOI') of ;[-'Ir{i~; ~~ u~ ~h1 lUI contemplated or eramiued somethinq , ~:.;. ._;. tl1! Ite became acquainted with, or

.,." , ... "

acquired a lellOlf·ledge oJ. .~omethillg,. ~ !Jj, either he (the pupil)

read (It book) before him (the teacher), studied under him, or Ite (the

. ....... .., ... ",.. ,.,.

teacher) read (a boole) to him (the pupil) ; ~ all....t'l ~ he read tlte

;; ... J " 1';;..:- ... I, ...

lette-r to them; ~ ._;. ~_,..l..AJ1 "!"~ I~ he began the boole 0/ C

(cfUwnical) praYf!1' before jlulfammad, began to read it under him as

.... ,,, .... .,.... J

his instructor. Similarly in the phrases: (~) ~ ~ Ite (ske)

, '" ,.,

fainted (lit. there tcae a cO'De1'illg 0/ darknes« over kim or her); ~I

~ do.; (t;.J.;) ~i& ~: it; in a /aint,. ~ ..!j.:, peace be "poll !JOlt! ~:i& ~j a;;; God's mercy be upon kim (mrty God have mercy 011 kim).

(b) In a hostile sense, in which case it can generally be rendered by D against or upon; IL8 ~ ~~ he went out against him (with an army),

0,1' " .', "

Ite rebelled against kim; [~ ~.) he cursed kim, § 23 j ~ ~ /l8

, ,

pronounced a (legal 01' otlw1') decisi011 against kim, as opposed to ~ u-iJJ j

~ ~ Ite "usked upon kim; ~ ~U there/ore give aid agai1l8t

, - ,

kim " y:.....Ji uh ;~~! 0i u~::; he must bea» kis troubla patiently

.I"t., .II!' ." I, ,.,

(lit. mltSt exercise patience against tltem); ~J ~ ~~ 'j..p

~ .3;~ thftt his illtelligellce and his knowledge may not become an

168

PART TIIIRIl.-SYllta[/:.

[§ .ill

"'." '" '" '" "" ... ".,.....,..,

A ((I'YUIIU'lIt (f{lftill.~t him j ~ L.J l,J L. ...,..a..;J1 .u~ .u.aJ1 I(,((/'llillg

, , ,

i.~ the .~(llIr.~ rnglliZ(UlCe (If what is for its good and for its IIII/·t (see

• • WI ,'" • .. •• '"

~ 53, b, y). Similarly in the phrases : .._,h (~) ~ dllliclIlt

);1/' 11U', opposed to :.;; (~4) J:.:. ('(tsy for 11/1'; ~ii. ~-i- dijlit'ftlt

;, "''' " .....

for me, hut also demo to me, opposed in both senses to u.ls V;A;

;" .. !, ;".,! ..

.._,h u~ hiddell /1'(1111, me, obecure to me, opposed to .._,h ~ dear

B to 1116. It is therefore construed with verbs siguifying to hi' allfl"!} 11'itll and to incite or ill#igttt('; as ~ ~;~ he 11·11.~ UII[I/'!} lI'ith hlut :

", f .... ~ .... " "

~ u.a..... ~...J he did 1I0t spea]: to kim (lilt 11' aI/1ft'/' witll him

t" '" ... "..... '"

[1\1111 ~ ~) he If'{tlf Mlltellt 1dtll kim, as opposed to ~ ~];

t" .. "'. ,.. ... ."

~ ..,...u;:J1 ~~I he 1t1'1/1'(/ 011 fltt! do[/ Itgltill.~t him, .~I'l th« dll(1 at or

IIjlfIII khu (~ would mean III' made th« dO[1 1It1I1t'h it.~I,(r to hi1ll).

" ,

Frequently, however, when construed with these latter verbs, it does C not imply 0. hostile moveuieut against all object, hut merely motion

.... "''' J, .....

towards it to get possession of it or do it "; e.g. ~ 1 .._,h ..:-.JI

, . , .. '" ,;, '" ... .. , ".. '"

urgillg or ilu'itillg to actlon : ..,...l:::t ~ u.ls ol.!! ~;--o o~la.

~ ... ,;" ..."

J 0". ,. ." 0l1li ~ ,

they t(tlked to him, IIl'gil/[/ him to compose It bonk i ~ ~~~I""

• , o. ,,, , .......

~I .._,h \JW~I concern fUI' the life to COllie induce» 1111tn to till 1f'I.fI

, I

, ., ,.. , • Mi ." I .. ,... ... .." ...

(lit. cm'l'il's Mm totJxmls good); ~~I ~~.tJ1 ~~ .._,h .!U.e- l.o

D v.hat induced JIOII to SPt up this t'1llpty ('[(,,'m? Hence too ~~,

.0 ~ ,

to be (11'(,pay or cooetou», and its derivatives ~~, (1/'('('(1, and I.JA!~,

gI'P('d!}, are construed with ~ and the genitive of the thing coveted.-The phrase \J-JJ ..;s. Ji..;, to go ill to one, is used when

... " J ,. ...

* [Hence we can decide only by the context whether ~ I~!

and similar expressions are to be translated by tIll'll eollected thcmsclre«

,;; .. ", .. ,t

agai1lRt him or to Ilim. Similarly tu.!J1 UU <Li~1 lIlay signify III'

ludpl!d '~im to rIt'(wt II~e tldnfl or to accomplis" it. J

§ 59] The Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) Preposition8:~. 169

the person sought is in his house or room, so that we actually finei A

" , ,.,,,

him; y'j.J ul!~" merely means to go into onls Aouse or room.

(c) Of a debt which one owes, and a duty which is incumbent

.. , .... " ..... ~,

flpan one; as V:!) ~ Ire owes a debt, opposed to ~ 4tJ a debt is

due to kim j y~~~ .~ ~ thou owest me two dinars (see § 53, b,

• I .. J " .. "., ••• J ,,,

rem. d) ; ~ ~ .._,h ~! ~I ..,...u. tire search q/'te1. /moUlled-ge

i.~ an ordinance for efJery flluslim (every J-f,tslim ;s bormd by divine

"I "" ." ., "." ".

C()11ITllaoo to seek afte« kllowledge); IJ.A J.W ~I ~ it is i"cllmbent B

upon thee to do this, thou must M this; ~ ~c~ii ~ j;':, ~f ;";f.i thou must refrain from slander or backbiting. [Hence it is employed with verbs signifying to decree, to make incumbe11t or flnavoidable, as

"". ".".". ,,,... """

~,,,,,,, ~JI,~, etc.]

(d) Of the advantage, superiority, or distinction, which one

, """." ... "" ,,,"" "."

person or thing enjoys Ot'el' another; as ~')I..JI .._,h ..-,,1 ~

J' "..£ .. ".." ... ".1 "." , Wi ...

Adam s SUperi01'ity over till' anqel«; \e.i.tJ1 i~ 1 ~~ V:!JJI

, ,

... ""... ".".

~~I uh who loee tM prp~~f!1lt life more tll(tll the life to come,' C

.... ".".~....... ~ ... ,,,,,

~~ u.ls (.)l::a.) '.1"'1 he pre/el'red it to the rest, selected it in preference

to tire others.

(e) Of the condition in which anyone is in respect to religion, trade or profession, health, fortune, mental or bodily gifts, etc. (properly, the ground or basis (111 which he stands in these respects).

. " ~ ".". ~;,,,.

For example : ~_,1.. ~~ .._,h \J"loJl people follow, or wiform to,

tire religiotl of their kings; :~ ~ ~;~i .: ' ~i ;~i ~li D tire Jews Bay, Tire OAristia"s are 1I0t (gf'O'ltnded) upon anytAing. have

. ...,.".... ". ...

1I0thtng to stand flP01l; ,~I ~~ uh ~16t he /ollotl'8d tire religion

of tire Messiah; ~,j!-:.:.t ::,~ ~ -!~ ~ ~ ~..:s he fOl/1I<1 nothing contrary to what he believed j ~W! ~~ ~ ..:.Jl~ :1';":'

~ J..9 ., ..

~ ...J..-I no matter wlretlrer tire,!! be endoued with human form or not;

~;lJi; ;~~ ~~i; ~Wi ~ .s~ ~ ;;i ~ ~ ~

W. U.

22

170

PART THIRD.-SYfitaz.

[§ 59

A he loved a slave-girl, endowed witk the !lighest degree botk 01 beauty

.... ~.

and 01 k110wledge 01 sillging and inst"lIment(,1 music; [~I ....... !

#., ~.,., .... I,A "" r'

u ............ 1" vr ....... 1 V«.J-iI u~ the comm011 1101171 is dieisible into

# '

two classes j (it is) a IlOlm denoting a concrete object, 01' a norm

"" " ,

denotillg an abstmct idea]; ~ UI l.. tlte state or condition in whick

"A,. "... I.... ,.... ~~.J

I am; ~~I u';,., ~I ~I uM- ~ I was goillg to complyll'itk

;" ",. "" , , ,

(tlte orders 0/) tke ~mir's messenger; oJ.! u~ ~;:. vol::t" mfnly

. ..

, . ... "... ... ... ,.. ".,." ,.

B a cup hat'e I quaffed with delight; .uat ~ u~ .jj~~ 1 J.i...,,,

,... ",,,

~I ~ and ke entered the cit!1 fIt a time when it., inhabitants vere

.a,. II" ", ... "

off tkeir guard; ~JJI ~,,~ u~, or -?~l..J1 uM-' amid tke ckmrges,

,;,,,. ""

or vicissitudes, qf time or fortune ; ~l;J1 u~ always, conti7lltOlcsly.

(f) Of the ground on which, the cause or reason why, one does

'..A," • , ."(: ",.

a thing; as ~ ~ l.. ~ .";"1 ke was .~eized witk a poseio» 101'

her whick he could fwt restrain (lit. there BPized him OJl ker account C sometking wkich he could 1IOt master); E'; ~ ~ ~ ~i praise

",1'" II ",1"

beloogs to God for wkat He Itas done ; ~I.,lt+' 1 -:'ji uM- ~la:! ke

"eproaclted kim 101' kaving neglected to send him a present in retu,.,,; ~.:... ~ u~ j,j I~; and tkat ye glorify God lor Itaving gllided

" .1. ." .... , ,

yotl; ~l.. ~ 1 :~ ':S' uM- wky am I to give you my' motl6!l1

"" • I,... ".." .I .I ... " "", .,. , ,. , ,. ,,.,.,,. ,. ... , .. I,.

L~I"I~~~I ~~-' uM- ~I..;.o~ ~ ... ~lai.JI" 4t~~1 ~U

a slave, wketker lemale or male, /etcltes, witkollt taking aCCOUlIt of any D accompliskments tk6!J may possess, mlly lor tlteir laces, a thousand

• ,.,:;1. ,.,.~,.

tUlIars and more]; ~ 4Li1 u~ .l.p. ke came, on tke grolmd 01 Ais

.. , .".,. ,.,. ",. " ,& • ,

being a king,. .... , 4Li1 uM- ~I "",,4 ul' ke came to tke king s gate,

.,., ", • ,11.,. ,

pretending to be his sister; ~l.. ~ ~\"'I ~ I do 1I0t ask you lor

.1'1' .. , ", .,. ,.,

money on tkat account (scil, ~ :~ builriillg upon it, or ~ I~

• l " .. ,

relying 011 it); particularly in the common phrase ~I uM- =I.o.i

bllilding tlpotl, "eckollillg or relying "pot" suck and suck a tkiug.

§ 50] rhe Verb.-3. Gov't of J'61·b.-(b) Prepositi0n8:~. 171

(g) Of the terms or conditions, 88 the ground or basis, on which. ~

• :i.. , I " , "" J

anything is done; as ~_,.:JI I";'" uM- on tkis condititm; ull A't'I~1

, .. ,.,J,,& ",.1

C~~ .~ ~I uM- ~j ke con&mted to tkis proposal of tkeirs,

,

011 conditio" tkat tkey skould aid kim (by providing kim) witk weapons,'

, •• , "J",

~~ ~I uM- "_'W he made peace witk kim on (tke condition tkat ke

slwuld pay him) a thousaU4 dirkams.

(k) In saying that one thing happens in spite of or notwith- B standing another thing, which might have prevented it; 88 .il;~1

;':; ~ ~ I will pUllish thee, lwtwitkstmuiillg tky great age

.. .. ,,_,f, ",

(lit. in tkystate 01 great age, see I); ~ ~ uM- 1 ..... 1 J:i lte slew

, "" ., ,., .....

a lion, 1wtloitkstaluiing kis extreme youtk; ~~l- uM- ~~ ~I

• • •• • ~.... , .. , :i

horses "U1l, ,wtwttkstaJuimg tke,r vu;e.s, or dtseases; "JJ ~) ~,

.., " .. ". , .

~ uM- u;'~ ~ tll'rily thy Lord is merciful unto me", despite

tluir wr01tg-doillg (compare S~, Job x. 7, xvi. 17); [~~j ~ ~ o

,

4 "

JU)l site can gallop ill spite 01 her latigue. R. S.]

(t) Of the rule or standard according to which something is done; 8.H ~i ...... ~ after tkis mauner ; 4li,i..:...; ~ i~

,,. """" , ., "" ~

~~.. ~.f" "" "

according to a duly observed proportio,,; ~I ~ ~!J l.. .._;.s;.

according to wkat I kave seen (statecl) in books; ;~ ~ ..;;.. according to wkat M related. [Hence its construction with the verbs D

that signify to laskitm, to mould (h, ~,;J..i, ~~) as ..::: r;

01 ;~i ~ ~i;; 01 ~f ~.:;._.;. j~ ~,illi Marts ar8

• ,. • loS"

created witk a tendetwy to love kim who does good to tkem alui to kate

, "J.J"~,.~

Aim who does evil to tkern; ~ ~.~; ~~ Ji.UJ1 J..-l a word is made to

fJCCfJrd inlorm witk its contraryi" mBalli,rg. D. G.]

(j) Of the thing of which we speak, which forms, as it were, the basis of our conversation (compare super, Germ. Uber); 88 ~~ JIi

172

PART THIRD.-Synta:c.

[§ 59

A ~,; he said C01U'Mning tltis. on tltis matter; ~ ~i .)$ ~,l,ii.;f

'" ", " ,

v,...La:l "'J or do 1/e say concerning (or of) God w!uJ,t !Ie know Mt ?

[(k) Of a person who is excluded or thrust back (comp. ~",;.

,..... ". • ", .-1, ...

§ 69. f). as ~jl I;'" ~ I"" mau yo-urselves masters of this

busineu over their head.s. ezcluding lhem (Tab. i. 1841. l. 13. 1842. I. 10. 13); ~ ~ ~ .;;ttJi !~';'i ~~ ~~ ~;f M tnlUk the

wlwle land of3r-RablJ!Ja public pasture ground. without taking notice

.. ii~, , .... ,,, .I'

B of the claims of tke mnf" l'a'/aba (Tab. i. 1879. I. 6) i UJ~ ~ ~I

dost thou grant protection to our ell611l1/ in 'Pite (defiance) of us? D. G.] REM. a. Observe the following phrases: ~ ~ fetch him to

t?" , .... t :

1Il1!, soil. 1,.-.,,1 or some similar word (see b, at the end); V"!lJ1 u'"

....... ,

~IJ (it is) upon the Mad and f11Ie, i.e. it ,hall be clone mos;

willingly and promptly,. ~;'i ~ on an empty ,tam.lIck, faating (lit. on the aaliva); 9jJ'( ~IC:. ~) ~ ~ in tll.e time, or

C reign, of &-and-,o,. (~~) ~..i.i ~, or simply ~, byl,is means, through I,im, as .iU.:. ~ uk ~Z; ~ ~G and give UB what Tho"

. .

I~,t promised ", by TI,y apo,tle" ~r; y~ ~ ~U He said it

, ..... " ,." ... " .,.

by tll.e mouth (lit. tongue) of HiB apo,tle·; [~ "'J for ~ V"lt ~

. "., .t '." ,

there v nofear for tMe (§ 39, d, rem. a), J.aJ3 vi ~ j do w/~t

tlH)tJ, likut]; and the adjurations .l.;~ J,c,. ~ ~~.l implore

, , ""

thee by God, by my life (to do so and so), which are usually followed

.. ,;;,

D by the particle jl [or t.J], lit., this oath with all ita consequences

be upon you, if you do not do so and so.-The phrase I':;; .Cli. ,eize Zeicl, has already been mentioned in § 35, b, 8, rem. h. In this

sense ~ is also construed with the preposition ..... [§ 56, b]; as

J~;'~ ~ attack tlwse fnen, ~!_;;j~ ~ invade ~l-Yltmdma .. [~t~' ~ kup t~ to gentle:u.]. ,

.. , ". ,,.

• [v'jJ uW . _i.e. often signifies u,uk1',omebody's name, i.e.ialael.}

, ,. '" ~ J

aacribed to l,im. D. G.]

§ 61] The V8Tb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) Prepositions:~. 173

REM. b. As being originally a substantive, uf.i. may take the' .1\

• r; •

preposition V! before it, ..s- V! from off (lit. from upon, Heb.

SS1~); as 4001~ ~ ~ Jjj he dismounted fron. his horse "

-.. ".... ,

. ... ", ", " ... ,,"'. " ..

~ u~ ~)AI M 'prang from off its back ; ~ ~ ~ .:J,JJ:.

"" , • .ii, '" . .

lA~ __.J l.. she (the bird called ~atA) left d (Itel' you1I.g or her nest)

in the moruiuq, after her time of abstinence from water waa Bt an

". ".,

end (when sIte could no longer abstain/rom drinking); ~ ~ ~I

J~i ~ ~ ui; ~i thou: on the right hand and I on the B left.

, ..

80. '1'0 these three classes of prepositions may be added ~

. ~ ... , ""

or .;... since,,,, and .:J by (in swearing). and .u like. as.

81. ~ is derived. by assimilation of the first vowel. from ~ and"l (see Vol. i. § 340. with rem. c. and § 347. with the rem. b C

If, ." ",

and e, and compare the phrase J.,i I.S~ ~ .),aei tltat he -may return

.,

to his ffWmer condition). It is contracted into .;.... which usually

"

becomes in the w8J;!1 .;... (see Vol. i. § 20, d and § 358, i). These

words signify from which time, and may be construed with the lIomi1lative as well as the ge1Jitive. the latter being more particularly used when 110 yet unexpired period of time is spoken of·. For

,,1, .,

• [Theoretically J.,:.. or .;... is construed with a definite noun of D

",... • J

time in the nominative to designate the eerminua a quo, as .... ~ .;...

. . ,

~I since it toaB Friday, i.e. Bince laRt Frulay,' with an undefined

noun of time in the nominative, when the expired period is spoken of,

. " .,

as .;... it ill a year since; with a defined noun of time in the geni-

1 ... '" , II

tive to mark a yet unexpired period, as ~~ I J.,:.. ,ince the beginning

of thi, day. i.e. to-day. But in course of time THE CONSTRUCfION WITH THE GENITIVE PREVAILED IN ALL CASES. Compo Fleischer, Kl. Schr. i. 408-411, ii. 100,eq.]

174

PA.RT THIRD.-Syntlu.

[§ 61

,.~ .. ~., ~.~ ~~." "

A example: ~I ~j<t .M.. o&.:.!!J l. I Itave not 8een him since last

It, '.1

Friday (lit. tM termimu a quo ia Friday), or ~l.~ J,. for tM last

.1'-': • , • ~ .1. "ii'. .I;'" .I

two days, or Jjl ~~ .s... sinc« la.~t year, or ~I ~ Jjl ~ Jjl .s...

t.f.... .I,,'" .1.1

.inC8 tM day Wore tM day bifore yesterday,. ~I ~l.a? I J, ..

,.,.. ... '"

JI.JJl1 ..::..ij td' from midnigkt till tM time wMn tM Sllll ha« passed

, , .

tM merUit",,· .+ ;~r~ . j, ~i J;i j.,; from the first of tM montk

" U"'. ,

B to 1M middle of it j "?~ ~ ~ li~ ~~i y~~ j.,;;5 _)i

.I ... " ',t.-" . .

~"'" ~Ij hast tltou not seen, for tM last two years, tM hngs oj

• """ .I;" .I" •• ...,

our time summoned by fate to deatlt and slaugkter? E~ .;, ......... , lil

.,. .... " ",.1 •

~l.!1 4-.e. .M.. I I",~w tkat M !tas been starvmg fm' the last fit'S days j

. '

I~ U~ ~ ~~ ~ I kaoo not spoke» to kim SinC8 (tM begilllling

". ." '.1 • " ... .1'.1

uf) tltis month, or ~j<t J..o, or ;~ I .M.., Si,lC8 tltis morning, to-day.

•• •

C RBM. a. The lexicographers give the rare forms ~ and ~.

'.1 .I ... '.1

-J,. may be pronounced in the wa!i'l as J,., and the forms .M..

....... . .......... ,

~,JI and ~,JI J,. are also mentioned.

, ,

"'.1'" ".;; ... , ........ " ....

RBII. b • .M.. and.s... are used yL.;J1 ~ ~WI .I~"j to denote

tll.6 commencefll.6Rt of tM limit in time, or, as it Olay be otherwise

; .I "" ;, .I,,,, ";,,

expressed, to tknou .M~I tM ,tarting-point, or ~~I Jjl the com-

;'''' .. .1 ,

D 71l.6ncemmt "f eM period, and ~~ I ~ ell.6 wlwle of tM period.

.I • .I '.1 .

RBM. c. .;...... and J,. never take a pronominal suffix, and

cannot be joined with any substantives but those which denote ti1lUJ. They may, however, be directly connected with propositions;

, .I .1'.1 .1.1", ,

8.!1 ~ .M.. o&.:.! ~ L. I II4~ not ,een Itim sinee M was born, or

.I"'" ", .1'.1 '., ., ,. J ,.1' .,

.... ,&11 J-) .M.. since tll.6 trib~ depaf·ted j .M.. ~e .• Ie o. ~ JJ

~~ I ;!~4 ye two II4~ lived as companio:' ,i:We ye were little,.

, .

• • ' .I J ,1 .' '.1 • J , • • , .,

..;.r ~~I ..., J,. .... _,.) ~ ..., no lif~ (however com.fortable)

, , "

§ 62] The Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) Prepositions: j,':'. 175

has made me forget you, since the time el,at I haw not met you (Rince A I no longer meet you); ~ ~;~l ~I';'; ~~ ~ Jti ~ lie has not· ,I ceased to be hondsome from. th« day hill l,ancU j"ast8'rled his robe j

.I , ,e: '.1 " ,,. .a.l • ,

~l.! lil .> .. Jl.l I ~I .;;.J ~ L. I Ila~ not ceased to seek after

wealth from the time I gt·ew up.

, .I"'" "J

REM. d. The Bedawln use v.o instead of .M.., as 4.w v.o =.> ...

. . ,

~. Compare the l,{or'ii.n, ix. 109, ~~ J~i .;,.. ~;.itJi J$ ~f

" f " ,

which was founded upon the fear of God from tlie first day. B

62. 'l'he particle j, which is frequently used in swearing, IS

:. -,

construed with the genitive of the object sworn by; as ~Ij by God !

9ai ~~J by the Lord of the Ka'ba (the mosque of Mllkka)! This

J is employed, however, only when a substantive follows, and the verb of swearing is omitted; before a pronominal suffix, as well as when the verb is expressed, the preposition ~ must be used (see § 56). C

Sometimes the particle ~ is prefixed to;, as ~i~ by God then!'l'he particle':" (the origin of which is very obscure [comp, Vol. i.

§ 356, b, footnote]) is construed like j, but is seldom used except in

the oath JjU by God! Other examples mentioned by the gram-

. .

,., ...... " .. "

marians are: ~I ~_,J by the Lord of the Ka'ba, vi"" by my Lord,

, • Iii"., , ",

~_,J13 by the Compassionate, and .!U1e-J by thy life.

, ,

.I"., , ,

REM. a. The oath (...-iJI), whether expressed by,!" j, or':", D

, ,... .I "

requires a complement ~I .,.,1,.,.), of which the following are

the principal conditions. If the complement be an affirmative

·"1' .iii .,. ., • .I ,

nominal proposition (a.;;.. ~I ~), it is introduced by J, as

~,.:~ ;.:.;..::, ~j b!J God, verily Mu?tammad is His apostle,. or by ~I, as ~~; I~ ~I Jjjj, in which case j may be prefixed

• .I • ,

to the predicate, as :J~ ,';';':'; ~I J,r;. If the complement

,., ..

176

PART THIRD.-Syntaa:.

[§ 63

A

.... ,., • .1' t.~"

be an affirmative verbal proposition (1:"': .. aefa..i Ll •• ), with the

, ... , ....,1 .:'if~ , ... , J._ ....

verb in the perfect, it requires JoiJ, as ~"I .!MA .MJ ~IJ by

God, ~bt'l GaM iN dead indeed , but if the verb be in the imperfect, it takes the energetic form, with J prefixed, as ~~ ~ij by God, I will do it I [see § 19, a]. If the complement be negative, no

... ... ...L .....

particle is prefixed to the ordinary negatives I.e and ~; as I.e ~ I,

~~~ ~ by God, Mu?tammad is not a lior , ':"'j.& ~ ~G

• :i ... ,I , " ... I ... ... ... """

.".._. by God, Mu?wmmad ItaB not lied j ~,.J 1 ~ -j ~IJ by

God, tlte believer BI,all not perisl' I [On the oath preceding conditional sentences, see § 17, c, rem. a, (1).]

B

c

tii ... ,.' ... ",~"",I.I

REM. b. In such phrases 0.11 vW~ ,"!",yl v-e by the Lord, I

wi' • ,I .. , • .!. ... .1.1 ~.".

will do it! I..S!J v-e, or I..S!J ~, by my Lord! ~I y.., ~I ~,

Jjj ~, and .Li';, by God! the words v-e and ~ are abbreviations

.. . ,., .... ,

of v.,tl oaths (see Vol. i. § 19, rem. b), which is contracted in

various other way". Some grammarians, however, regard ~ and

• , .". .I •

v-e in I..S!J ~ as being really the preposition ~ (§ 48).

83. Among the prepositions is usually reckoned .,!) as, lilre.

This is, however, not a preposition, but a substantive, synonymous

with ~ lilr61I688. It is formally undeveloped (like J), but may

stand in any case lUI J~, or governing word, to a following noun

.. .1., ..... , ,.. " ..

D ill the genitive (see § 73); as ~,_.;.W~ ~!J ~J and 011 the top

, .I'" ,.... .I'

of it (the pillar) is (something) like a pointed cap, = ~,_.;.WI ~;

v:.wi6, W loS,,) ~ .;s 1Iothing M,uk1"s oppressor» (or wr011f18rs)

, - '

like a la,ace-thrulft " ~ ~~ ;&';C;;i. li...J 'wI 110 one Cf'OWS

-, -" .

over thee HA-e a feeble boaster (one who has little reason to boast);

, .... , , .... 1

J-i1),.J~ with (a h01'se) like a falcon (ill speed) = J-il),_J1 J!.I;

" ,. " , .. ,

~i !;JT6, ~ ~ ~; they laugh, 80 as to show (teeth) like

§ 63] PM Verb.-3. Got/'t oj Verb.-(b) Prepo8iticn18:,I), 1'1'1

1IUlting kaiUlon88 (as white as hailstones) i ~~\iji !~~ iIi ~ J'!': 5, t

., " " .. "

~! 1oS~13 ~~ it makes in (at thefoot 0/) an aged tru (BOm8tAing)

.".~,. .",.,., ~.~

like a C6ll, to which it resorts, = ..::...e.,J 1 J!.; VeJ~ ~ »iJ it pills

" ".,. ,

forth (sometking) lilce two hmm. The name of p"eposititm can be

applied to it, at the most, only when it virtually stands in the

.'

accu.'lative, as a ~, (tdjective or relative adjectiml clause, to an

" .. ".

infinitive which is understood; as JwI_;S:. ~ tlrou camest like nid,

. '

" .,.... " ". , "" "' .

i.e, ~J (.~ ~) .~ ~ ~ thou camest a c.oming B

li1re the coming of Z~d. Or we might regard it as being a j~,

or conditional expression, dependent upon the pronominal suffix of

... . , ,

the second pers, sing. masc. in .w • .,. as ~li or age7lt;

. .,. ". , ... ,," "".,.

(~J J.!.) JwI_;S:. W~ tho" camest being lik« Did.

, ", ,

i.e,

, .

~

RJUI. a, .iJ is [frequently joined to the personal pronouns of the 3d person, as ~, ~, ~, etc., sometimes also to those of C

, II... ... ....

the 2d and 1st person, as ~~, U~, but] very rarely to a

.:i .;;~, ,,~.,. .,. ... ,,, " 'I" " .. ,

pronominal suffix, as ~l ~ ~J ~ ~~ ~J ~ I.S.iJ ~J

~~ and thou dost not Bee a IluBband or wives like him and like them, save one who is jealmu j and equally rare is the use of the

, ~" .".~ .... .ii ... "~~.~ .... ,,

redundant I.e after it, as ~J~J ~ ~J~ ~L;JI \.,s:. .; 1 .....,\aiJ

" ,

and tIM .baoto that he is, like (otller) men, sinned against and sinning

~ ... . ..

(~~~ in rhyme for ~J,~). In Hebrew c~~ and cry?, or c,'j?, D

are used; but with the other pronominal suffixes '~f = ~ is always employed, as also occasionally before substantives.

RBII. 6, .£J is sometimes used redundantly along with the synonymous J!..; as ::;' ~ ~ there is nought Ii," Him.-

.. " ,

.... . ......

[On the oompounds.,..s:, and ~~ see Vol. i. §§ 351, rem., 363,

, • J "

rem. e. On the elliptical phrase ~I \.,s:. keep where thou art, see

'23

W. II.

178

PART THIRD.-Syntaa:.

[§ 64

A

the GlOBII. to 'fabari. Sometimes ~ means as SOOft as, e.g.

••• , " '1' 't t

.,).a...u ~ ~ salute as soon as ttun« en erelJ .

D.O.]

B

'-

RBM. c. .it is said by the grammarians to be used ~e / -~ to

compare (one object with anot/£er).

[RBM. d. t.;.& may be prefixed adverbially to a verbal clause, like ~; (§, 84, rem. b) and with just the same meaning, as .il;; if ~ . ~'i; ~i ~ ~~!.;::.tl wait for me, per/,aps J

~) , , , ,

may come to t!,ee, and look out for me, perhaps J may overtake thee ;

,,~ ,,, -,,- "" ... ...." .J 1:!. I .[

~i't . ';~ill. L'j.;u ~ ~W v-e ~I v~.:...u sa,(

!.t-' ~ 'r"' ~, "" ,

;; jeiba~, try to draw near to him (tl,e ~stl'ic.h), perhaps thou mayest procure a morning meal for the men toith. hu roasted flea!,.]

84. Many words, which are obviously substantives in the ace,,-

sative of place (see § 44, b), may be conveniently regarded in a. certain

, ."" ,,, "., , ." ", , I

sense as prepositions j e.g. ~,\~, ~, Vtr/, ~, J";, and Vj.).

8&. ;.:..; (the accusative of ;.:.;, the nomen verbi of ta,;.j to ~o

, ." "I ""i

towards; comp. § 82, g) means (a) towards a place, as ,_; Vj~..r

..,...~4ii ~ then tMy willjottt'lIey towards Jerusalem; il.;';":'; i,;i. ,,; set Oll; towards, or in the dit'ection oj, ltfllcka; and (b) ltCCQ1'diflg to, as ~,;J ;.:..; according to his saying, as he SllyS (compare the use of ..) in § 53, d).

c

D

88. ~ (the accusative of ~ a side or quarter) signifies beside,

, , ... ,. - ~ II] - -U' • -~ ':': ~ .

flear, by; as [JtJl..JI ~ at, 1I(?<U' tlte wa ;~.).~ ~ '"' :J

, , ,

, ".... ...., .., '."

and he used to lay notebooks beside him; ~~(JI l.S~:t.! "'j ul u~j

· .:I.,. t: befi t.: t: ·tl.

4J)!,. "'jl .~ and he must not commence to speatJ; ore Ittm tt1lr-eSS Wt "

"..... .,.

his permission. Used of time, it shows that something is closely

connected with what took place at a particular time, by happening

.'" ",

either simultaneously or immediately after j as ~,.. ~ JW and he

,.

§ 661 Th, Vsrb.-3. Gov't of Vsrb.-(b) Prepositw",.:~. U9

'i" it'· -!: I

said as he was dyi1lg; ~ 1 t".. ~ ~ I cams to ,/W aI'~

sunrise, ~) ~ whilst this took plac6 or immediately a./tM' tM3 took place, kereupou : t..,; ~ whilst, during, or immediately qfter.Further, ~,like r:; (J 57), implies [a]poss8ssUm and (b] comparisOn;

as (a) ~I; ;~~ ~1l.S~ ~~ ~ I had only a sillgle dinar by me;

'-.. • • .~, ~.I1 ""

~t.'ZJI ~ ~ what the people have or possess; l.S~..,.JJ J,JI ':J

JJi ~~ I do not say to you, With me (known to me) are tlt8 kidde" B

- -

things 11/ God': (L;.~ v'iJ ~ ~ I want a thing oj SttCh a one;

. ,-

Jl.j;;:.i. :~ he possesses goodness and excellence. Hence you say

of a woman v'iJ ~ ..:..Jl& she was married to such a one, in which

, .. ". . '" .." . .. ." ,

signification it is a. synonym of ~ (§ 68) j (b) .:r: ~ ~ ~ uM-

)~ notwithstanding his youth as cmnpal'ed with the age of Mo'ii4] ;

~!;3 ~i ~ ~;~i lJ,J.; tlte kings of the earth are dust cmnpared 0

. . .

with (lit. at the sid6 of) God.-Lastly ~ (like the batm apud,

Fr. chez, and Persian ~~) implies in one's mind, in his opinibn; as I;": ~li.,; ~id ~ l.S~ ~1;.!Ji the right tking in my opinion is what o~r s~ilchs have a:n;; j_,1.;:.; ~~i ~f ;~ ~\& his opinion was that the J{or'an was created; ~ ~, Joe; ::.~~~ according to you it is impossible that He should do it.

RElit. a. (.iI~ means keep ",!,ere thou art, take care, and also D

", ".,. "".1

advance. ]-On the phrase I~J JJ~ = I .... .,) .u.., see § 35, b, 8,

, • • .I, "

rem. b.-On the difference between ~ and uJJ or l.SJJ, see § 58,

rem. b.

REM. b. ~ is sometimes (in modern Arabic generally) pronounced Z, r:rely~. It corresponds in form to the Beb. [']'~U, but in signification also to Cp.

T'

180

PART '1'HIRD.-8yntaa:.

[§ 6'1

A REM. c. Nearly synonymous with ~, in its local sense, ill ~

. ~". ,.

(the accusative of ~/ront), Lat. coram, apud, pene,; as ~ ~\-

I, .. (/" . S-~

present be/ore M,m; J. ~.~ ~ ~, I llave a cla~m UPO" o-an ....

'0,. ~ 'li) 1",,;Jb ~.Ji J" and what (ha, come) to (for

,. "" ,. ,

~.JJ ~) tlUJ unbeliever, that tMY run IKlBtily around tlUJe1 It

, ,. • ,... "" • J,. .#.# .1,..#... A,.. '" ....

also signifies towards, all ~~I ~ ~~J I"" ~I ~I v-eJ

-r-! + ;ii; piety doe« not consi,t in your turning youl'/ace, towards

B tM ealJt and tl,e we,t.

87. .:.,.;;, between, among, is the accusative of the substantive ~, signifying illt61'Vening space, which may be regarded either as

, .,

lmiting or as separating two or more objects, whence Ve-I may be

" ,... ,. ... "

construed with verbs of either meaning; as ~ ~ Iw united Its, I

I ~~~ j~ he parted us, li~. he ~mited our separation and parted ollr

• .I t, ,. II "r .. " ,wI. •

C cOIwection;~'_ Ve-I .wI ~I God has muted your hearts.-If two

genitives follow ~, and either or each of them is a pronominal suffix, the preposition must be repeated before the second, and the

,. ",.,.,..... . . ).~.~

conjuaction J inserted; as ~J ~ between me and h,m,. ~

~f ~; betw68n yo" and your brother. But if both are sub-

,

... ,,., .. .,. .. III .... .,.

stantivea, this is not usually done; as ~)~IJ .l.-ll Ve-I between

,.1,., ,. .. .,. ,..... J

heaven. and eat·tl,; lA_,JIJ ~!J- Ve-I between /fa7'1'Ctll and ar-Ruhii

i> (Edessa); ~i ~; yU."l.Ji ~ between the Plood and the

,. I, "" ..

Higra.-Instead of the simple Ve-I, we often meet with ~ L.

".... , ... t, , J J ,.,

what is between, and Ve-I ~ in what is between; as ~ L. •• , •• ,lll",

. . ."""" ,,"' ....

~~ and tke kernel between its tu» sltells; ~ ~ I_,l:;i~ tltey

..... "., .... Mli ... , ......

/Ollght with each other i [~l:!~ I ~ or ~l:!~ I ~ ~ill or durillg the

, " .. .... ,

8pac8 of setJeral days]. Both VttI and Ve-I L. are often used in the

sense of botk-and, and of pat·tly-partly (tam-quam, partim-

§ 67] The Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) P,·ep08itim18:~. 181

• , • ,... .I'" '" • '" ,

partim}; as J"......", ~~ tJ-rf L. partly known and partl~ A

• •

..,"" "''' I,... .". ,

fln!mown; ~'" ~ Ve-I l. vl!'-t- there came to fII8 bot" ric" and

" " ....... "",

poor; ~I", ~ Vt:I .... ,&1 I the tribe was partly slain, and partly

• .... I... " .... ,

taken pnsoners; [~'" ~ Ve-I sometimss in a bord (a garment

made of a certain kind of cloth) and sometimes dressed in a saffron robe. R. S.]. In such cases s: or s: ~ holds the place of a substantive expressing that which unites both objects as parts of one whole.-If we wish to indicate the entire interval between two B

places or points of time, J! is used before the second substantive;

... .;; '" , ". "". ....... ".,. .......

as .u:.. ~! ~I ~ betuieen ~1-Baf!1'a and M~lcIr:a; .... ~I Ve-I Y

... ." • .;;... ". ... ".1, - ,. ...

)1.\1 ~ ~l!J1 ~~I ull ~l,.:. ~ ~\.!JI between the second day 0/

S"bii! and the eighth day of itdiir.-Observe the phrases [;"~f ~

• ....... ... I... • ........... ..." • •

or ....-y:!~ ~ ami ~~ Ve-I in the midst of them]; U'~ ~

~jj before any oue, ill his presence, lit. between his hands; as

., ... ,. "'.. "'. '" .... I... ....:;,

~I '-!J.l ~ ~)~I ww. he kissed the ground before the caliph; C

"" , .... .It,.& ", " .... ' '''''.1 •

~J.l Vt:I .,;,Ut..i..1 I kaoe sinned before thee; ~.Io:! Ve-I ......,JJI .... !h;1

... ......" ,

tlW .fleeing of tlte wolf before him (the dog); of time, ~ " lj~

..;~ confirmi1~g what was be/ore it (or preceded it);~.;J 41 ;i .~.I

, , . ........

". .". ,,'" "., '.1,

~~ 'TI~ U'.Io:! ~ ~ he is nought but a warner to you befor«

a severe pu"isltment i in the plural, ~ ~~.i.':; ';'~';"i ;.~~ ~;

, .J \;. ,

l.o..!~ I and ke began to bt'eale up tke fowls and to set them bf/ore us. D

- .,

REM. From ~ are formed the conjunctive adverbs of time

.... , , ... "

~ and ~ whilst, which naturally exercise no influence upon the

-- ,,' J J J' .. ~ ., '" .,

following clause; all U lj I ~;i v--i ~, whilst we were watcl,ing

• ,. Mi.. J J" ",

lor 1m", he came to ue ; V"1.ol1 V"""; ~ wltilst we govern tM

, •• J ... "", •

IJeopk i ..!...!,.,._jl . _j v--i ~ whilst we were conversing' I '~:

"" ...,--.. , ~

• ... " J :. ..

~I,...I ~ V"loJl wldlst tlUJ people are in their markets. [Comp.

Vol. i. § 362, h.]

182

[§ 68

PART THIHD.-Syntcuc.

68. ..:....=..s (the accusative of ,! ; , the lower or Wlder part) signifies below, beneath, under, as ..;_jJi .,;, ":'j ~ what is beneath the soil i ~ jl.b ?.: i ~Ib'; wld nuder it (the wall) was (J, treasure of theirs,' metaphorically, ~i ,:..:.., ;~ he tracelled under (the

• • •• II • •• , tho 't

shade 0/) 1ligkt" ~~ ..::.-.J, or ~I ...::.-J, under h,s pouier or (I" IWI'l y.

It is said of a married woman, ~jj .:....:..s ';";Ib she l(!as unde« (the

alttMl'ity 0/) So-and-so, as ~I"'" U~~ ~ ~~ ,:. :'1 8~

B tkey were under two rigkteol~ seroant« O/OIlI'S (viz. Noah awl Lot).

REM. a. .:....:..s has a diminutive ,: :.: 1 a little below or under,

. ..~

H.EM, b. Opposed to ,:: ';'1 is j_,j (the accusative of J,; tlte

upper pa,·t), with its diminutive J,;;J, signifying above, over, upon,

,..~ , of. i, ,.,

as .. ~;; J~ j~ upon a well-beaten road i ~ .)1 ~!J"" J,;

., ~ ,,;,... ...." ",. ..

upon tlte back of a bridled black (horse); [v:'!JJ1 J,; a..~1 the

, ,..... J "..-" ~ ,.

turban is upon tke Itead]; metaphorically, ~~~ J,; ~WI jA"

a~ He i8 tlte All-power/ul over Hi8 servants / .iJ~i ~~i ~~;

A

c

D

I~ ~.Ji j~ and (I) will place those who Itave followed thee

.. ,. .... ,.,. .... ,. -" ,. . ~ ,..

above tho8e wlw ltave not believed; ~ .,.,1J.a,l1 J,; 1,1J$ ..... U.)~

~,,~ 1';\& we will add to tl,mn a puni8hment'in additi~n to tlte

, .' ... 1,.' ....... ' -"'tj

punishment for their corrupt doing8" ~ I J,; ~~ ~ u,

" '" , ", '" ",

and if they be /emaleB more than two,' ~ J.a.i l.. J,; ~ J.a.i

"" ".,.~,

/,e treated it wor8e titan he had treated Aleppo; [y,; l.._, _i-iI,aI

."'" "',,.

a gnat and what exueds it (in 8maUne88 or in largene88); ';"'1,) ,."

; ~ .. Ii J,;.Jj and it is an animal a little above the 8ize 0/ a cat J.

~ .

69. ~~ (the accusative of ~,,; wlutt is beneath, under, less, or iliferior, related to U; to C01n6 near, and _;;; to be low or ~le), with

••• ~ ~', hi h bi ti h

its diminutive ~, and yjl ~, In W ie com ma Ion ~ as a

partitive force, signify under, below, beneatk. They indicate ;-

§ 69] The Verb.-3. Gov't of Verb.-(b) Prepoaitiotu: .;,,,;. 183

(a) That a person or thing dwells or is situated, or that an actioJi A

, .. s » .I, , "" "

takes place, below some place, or near it i as .&I~~ ~ ~ ujl

may tile cheek 0/ tlly enemy be under tky loot i ~_,,; ~~i ~~ ~l

- " . ."

~ t!- in tke raVi'l8 that is below S~la,' (there lies) a murdered

,.,.",.", , .... , "~,,,.

man i .ta.o.. ~p I,&:J! th~ met nPar $(UI'ii i ~"j.f I ~ l,Jjl I,.i ~

Egypt and the adjacent countries .

(b) That one person or thing comes near or approximates to B another, especially a higher one (properly, stands under it, does not

".I "., I" I" ",. ,.~ """ II,

reach it) i as ~I,.. ~"), -?l:!~l,.J~ \.o.i.Jij aod M (the horse)

ma.d8 U8 overtake tile foremost (of the herd), u,kilst 1I6tlr kim were

... " '" ...

tllose 0/ tkem tkat lagged bekind " .&Ill ~_,) I.M this ;s nearer tllan

.... I ,"

tkat; .w"., ~I com8 nearer (to me)! lit. approach not far /rrnn

"., .... .I

yourself (towarcls me); IJotj .wjl seize Z~id (wko stancls not far from

you, see § 35, b, 8, rem, b); _;;~~i .!.U_,; talee tM dirllam,- ~~.".; C takeye kim.

.... .I .,, .I

REM. .w"., and ...-'i",), as interjections, are equivalent to

.a.;~f, ~~i (see § 35, b, p) [and .iJ~, § 66, rem. a], loole out I

.. ..".I

~ carel [sometimes adm,,"/] as ~~ .w"., belDant ofwreBtlirag

with me; ;.~ ~~,,; ~ care [or admnce] (and) uiue tllMTa

.a", "" ~

no quartw,. [u! ,,_,..,:i .w"., ta/u care (or adm,,") and kHp to me].

(c) That one space, distance, or number, does not equal or D

'" ", ,,~ ., ~ ,.-"

complete another; as; .J+- ~J ~jl ~ _, and between tltem

. ,

.,,,,, ,J .,,, ~" ".'

tltM'e U1a8 leu than a stons's tI,t'ow; U.Aoo JI_,I .._... uJ" ~ ..,..,)

.. .

tkere is no poor-rate (to be tJfMCtetl) on wkat is under (or less than)

five ounc88 i ":"ll" ~ ~,,; ,)~ J;iJ .:.; U18 wiU not accept /qr

. "''' ."

Mas'jd r- tAan ten fines for komicide.

(d) That one thing i8 8maller or worse than another; as ~di

, J,. , ~ ~ _" , ... , _ ~ A ~" ~

",,!~I ~jl ~~I_' ~I U_,,) copper ;s of leu mlue t.tan~,

184

PART THIRD.-Syntax.

[§ 69

A wid inm of /eBB 'L'alue than COjJpe1' j .i.U';,i)~"';~ ~~ he who shall

. ,,~ •• .I ~.

"rise (as king) aftw thee, will be inferior to thee i ulaJl)$; ~J.) ~J

~I;_;ji ~ a1Jd magnificent splendo'ur in the retinue of princes is le88 (glorious) than it (learning).

(e) That a quality which belongs to one person or thing ill not possessed by another, and that the latter is therefore in this respect

, I , ~ .", '" , .I .. "" II'

B opposed to the other: as J.U} ~.P ~J u~1..oJ1 ~ some of

them m'e good and some of them not so (lit. and some of them remain under that, ~ not attah~ to that quality); .!J~ ~~ ~ j j,j ~! r~ ~ .i.u~ 0"; ~ _;'i!; 41 verily God will not forgive the joining of other ~od; with Hims;lj, blt~' HI' l~ill.f(yl'git·p, mhat is other than that

to whom He pleaset"- j ~ ~~; ~ ~,..;~ ~ ~~i ~; .i.u~ .:_,.,; and of the evil !Ip;"its some who shoilld dive for /tim (into the

, I

C .~ea) and do work other than that.· In this sense 0"; is equivalent to

~ (see § 82, tl). [Hence it can also signify beY07,d, of higher quality, as in the last quoted sentence, where it may be rendered by and still

. , '" , " ..

gt'eater works. Likewise when a mall has said ~...r I~j ul 'I"et'ily,

Z~id is a noble man, another replies ~~ ~.,;; "nd above that; ~ ~ ~~ l. yJ~ ~;lJ thou art tnore power/ttl than ~li, D. G.]

(f) That a person or thing is excluded or excepted, neglected or

D postponed (properly that the action affects him or i~ to a less degree

than it does another) j as ~;, ~i j ~; :;;,.; ~ t,; ~j y"; ~ ~;.; Ite invoices, to the ezcluaion or neglect of God, what cal~ neither injure him nor ben8fit Aim, he invokes what can neither etc., but not God j

J, .. I. , II •• , ., .. I f~' ,_,~ I' •

..ul uJ.) ~ ... l.:..o~1 uJ~ ~~I ~~ wl"'1 the peop"" oJ t162S caty

.. ,

., , '" ~ .~. '"

• [Many interpreters render the words ~) uJ.) ~J by and

otw. (1Aat are) below tMm, and ~} 0; ~ by and what is less ella" ,laae. Compare Fleischer, KI. Scllr. i. 417.]

§ 69] The Vel'h.-S. G01·'t of Vel'''.-(h) Preposit"onl:~";' 185 W()rskip idols alld not God j ~ ~; ~) ~ ~i y~ ~ ~ t,;,1 A !Ie have 110 patro» and no helpe,. ezcept God j ~~i ~J; t.;..,.:,L ~

, ." '" ,

ye act according to O1Ie of these two ("'~)' bllt not tke other; ~ IJ.A

. ,.

~,., ~ tltis belongs to me ezclusiWJl!l of thee, thou hast no part or

'" .... ~.". '" , '" ...... .,,,. '" .. ,,,

share in it; "?U.,,.....JI V-,.) ~I J~ ul ~ h8 ougM to dOOle

the old i1l preference to the llew j CJ. ~u~i ~.,; .;ef~ and Ite sougkt yott out in prif61'ence to all other men.-Here must also be mentioned B

, .I #. '" • ., •• " .I

uJ.), and the rarer uJ,).,I, in the sense of witlwut j as ~ ~ 1 uJ.)

., ., , ,

• ,.. .::i .,., "''' ,....1...,., ."

J,aJ 1 witlwut speaking loudly j u.:... uJ.) Jl.J 1 _"'~I u-eJ wealth

., ~ '" ,

... ., '" .I ;"...... '" ., ". ... ~

cannot be acquired without trouble i Vei"'" uJ,).,I . .,jl;;t ~ .)u..."\I1 ul

, "',~ 'I.

.... "", ",1

..,1 ~-' ~ the 'isniid, or relation of attribution, cannot be

., • 'I ,

effected withollt two eetremes, an attribute, or predicate, alld a subject;

's I ,., ... , ,." ,.1,',

~ UJ,).,I ~I .)"'j.1 Jl.,.J l4,J.a.lt the merchants of the country C

, "" "

of Malabar take tltem witholtt (paying any) price(/or the"!) j .:,..;..; ojj

• ... ,... , '"'' ." " ., .,... " ., tl

J",.AJI uJ,).,I ~ ",.,.,. OjJ .)~I uJ,).,I u-4t! for no glory is built up

""... ""'''

without a hard struggle, and no eJOrt is of avail without tlte decru

.,...... "._

(of fate in thy favour, J..MJI in rhyme for ;..MJI).

(g) That one object is placed before another, either (II) as a hindrance or obstacle to prevent a person from getting at it, or (/3) as

. '" ,.". " ." ", ., ~

a protection to defend It from some one; e.g. LAiJI ~ ~) UJ.) D

~t:iji ~~; before this there are tlte coals of the ga¢a and tke 8tripping

of tlte Ifatad, that is to say, before you can obtain this, you have many serious obstacles to surmount (the wood of the ga9A being noted for

its long retention of fire, and the ~atAd for the number and size of its

~" •• ,t". III'. """.;

thorns) j JI,... ~) uJ.) ~-' ~ l4J!J.e ul the time or place fQ1'

vUiting Iter is near, but there are many terrors in the way;...;;s.,; ~

., "', ",

_,.,~ tAer, is no curtain or barrier in front of t"em j ~ ulD,

w. n. 24

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