Wireless Communications

ELEC 447
Lecture-1

Introduction
Ridha Hamila Electrical Engineering Department Qatar University
Email: hamila@qu.edu.qa Email: ridha.hamila@tut.fi
Qatar University Wireless Communications, ELEC 447
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Course Information (1/2)
• ELEC447 Wireless Communications
Introduction, basic wireless communications concepts, math review Propagation channel models; channel classifications Digital communications for wireless channels Coding: Source/channel coding, interleaving Spread spectrum communications, CDMA concepts Diversity systems: Receiver/transmitter diversity, MIMO concepts

• Prerequisite: ELEC 341

Qatar University

Wireless Communications, ELEC 447

Page : 2

1

Course Information (2/2)
• Textbook:
T. Rappaport, Wireless Communications, IEEE Press/ Prentice-Hall, 2nd edition, 2002.

• References:
S. Haykin and M. Moher, Modern Wireless Communications, Prentice-Hall, 2005. G.L. Stuber, Principle of Mobile Communications, Kluwer, 1996. W.C.Y. Lee, Mobile Cellular Telecommunications Systems, McGraw-Hill, 2nd edition, 1995.
Qatar University Wireless Communications, ELEC 447
Page : 3

Instructor
Ridha Hamila M.Sc., Licentiate Tech, and Dr. Tech. Department of Information Technology, Tampere University of Technology, Finland. Docent (Adjunct Professor) Institute of Communications Engineering, Tampere University of Technology, Finland. Industrial Experience: Nokia Research Center Nokia Networks Etisalat University College, Emirates Telecommunication Corporation, United Arab Emirates.

Qatar University

Wireless Communications, ELEC 447

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ELEC 447 Page : 5 Wireless Historical Overview Submarine Telegraphy: High-Tech of the late 19th Century • 1850: First submarine line: Dover (UK) to Calais (France) • 1858: First transatlantic cable – Breaks after 3 months! – US President J. University of Berkley Qatar University Wireless Communications. Buchanan & Queen Victoria UK exchange telegrams • 1866: Relayed with higher quality cable – Development of cable materials • Typical Telegraphy “Performance”: – 1870: London to Bombay in 4 minutes. Morse – Coded transmission via electronic means – Rapidly spread throughout US and Europe – International Telegraph Union (ITU) formed in 1865 * Major parts of this historical overview are due to R. 22 seconds – 1901: London to British Guiana.relay towers are 10 to 25 km apart Demos of Semaphore • 1840s. Claude Chappe – Semaphore System: “mechanical internet” – Extensive network throughout France .Wireless Communications Historical Overview * Early Telecommunications and Origins of Coded Transmission • 1793. Katz. Samuel F. B. 22 minutes – 1924: Telegram around the world in 80 seconds! Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 6 3 .

intercept technology. requiring very large. ELEC 447 Page : 7 Wireless Historical Overview • 1907: Commercial Trans-Atlantic Wireless Service – Huge ground stations: 30 x 100m antenna masts – Beginning of the end for cable-based telegraphy • WW I: Rapid development of communications intelligence. like light » Bounce off ionosphere » Higher frequencies made possible by vacuum tube (1906. high power transmitters ( > 200 kw) – First used by British Army and Navy in the Boer War High Voltage Transformer Qatar University Wireless Communications. spark transmitter technology. ELEC 447 Page : 8 4 . better quality transistors 1960s Qatar University Wireless Communications. used as power amplifier) » Cheaper. and absorb. cryptography • 1920: Marconi discovers short wave (<100 m) radio – Long wave follow contour of land » Very high transmit power. 200 KW+ – Short waves reflect. smaller.Wireless Historical Overview Radio Telegraphy (also known as “Wireless”) • Radio technology – Communicate with ships and other moving vehicles • 1896: Guglielmo Marconi – First demonstration of wireless telegraphy – Built on work of Maxwell and Hertz to send and receive Morse Code – Based on long wave (>> 1 km). refract.

Radio Wave Propagation Mobile Radio Range Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 9 Propagation Modes Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 10 5 .

ELEC 447 Page : 12 6 . ELEC 447 Page : 11 Wireless Historical Overview Other Important Dates • 1915: Wireless voice transmission NY to SF • 1920: First commercial radio broadcast (Pittsburgh) • 1921: Police car dispatch radios.Frequencies for Communications Qatar University Wireless Communications. Detroit • 1935: First telephone call around the world • WW II: Rapid development of radio technology • 1974: FCC allocates 40 MHz for cellular telephony • 1982: European GSM and Inmarsat established • 1984: Initial deployment of AMPS cellular system Qatar University Wireless Communications.

ELEC 447 Page : 14 7 .Frequencies & Regulations Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 13 Wireless Communications Frequency Spectrum MHz Qatar University Wireless Communications.

ELEC 447 Page : 16 8 .Transport SDH.Coding and Modulation .Signaling SS7 .Wireless and Fixed Telecommunication Networks PSTN: Public Switched Telephone Network Connection * * A B Voice/Message Voice/Message Line Network node (Switch) Qatar University Main operations: . ATM Wireless Communications.Switching . ELEC 447 Page : 15 Sample Public Switched Telephone Network in USA Mobile Network • LATA Local Access and Transport Area • LEC Local Exchange Carrier • IXC Interexchange Carrier • POP Point-of-Presence • CO Central Office • AT LEC Access Tandem Switch Qatar University Wireless Communications.Media Transmission .

ELEC 447 Page : 17 Wireless Local Loop Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 18 9 .Traditional Local Loop Local Exchange • MDF = Main Distribution Frame • PCCP = Primary Cross-connection point • SCCP = Secondary Cross-connection point Qatar University Wireless Communications.

Wireless Local Loop: WLL Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 19 Cellular Wireless Network Concept Cluster of cells Single sender (one cell) •High-power transmitter •Large coverage area Many senders (Cellular) •Low-power transmitter •Small coverage area •Frequency resuse •Increase call capacity Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 20 10 .

ELEC 447 Page : 22 11 .Public Switched Telephone Network And Mobile Network Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 21 Simple PSTN and Surrounding Networks Private Branch Exchange Qatar University Wireless Communications.

ELEC 447 Page : 24 12 . Internet. ELEC 447 Page : 23 Backbone Infrastructure: PSTN. and HFC Private Branch Exchange Public Data Network Local Area Network HFC: Hybrid Fiber Coax Qatar University Wireless Communications. Mobile.Simple Internet and Surrounding Data Networks Public Data Network Qatar University Wireless Communications.

Used in Scandinavian countries (Norway. TACS (Total Access Communications System): a derivative of AMPS developed in U. Bluetooth 2000: IEEE 802. ELEC 447 Page : 26 13 .Wireless systems: development over the last 25 years cellular phones 1981: NMT 450 1983: AMPS 1986: NMT 900 1988: Inmarsat-C satellites cordless phones 1980: CT0 wireless LAN NMT: Nordic Mobile Telephone AMPS: Advanced Mobile Phone System CT: Cordless Telephone UMTS: Universal Mobile Telecom.11b. Finland). Qatar University Wireless Communications. System LTE: Long Term Evolution DECT: Digital Enhanced Cordless Telecom DCS: Digital Cellular System PDC: Pacific Digital Cellular PAN: Personal Area Network UMA: Universal Mobile Access 1982: Inmarsat-A 1984: CT1 1987: CT1+ 1989: CT 2 1991: DECT 199x: proprietary 1997: IEEE 802. About 85% of AMPS subscribers are in the U.11a. TACS/NTT: Japanese digital transmission scheme. NMT (Nordic Mobile Telephone): one of the first analog cellular systems. operates in 800 MHz and 900 MHz bands. Sweden. GSM (Groupe Speciale Mobile): digital cellular standard in Europe.K. intended to support PCN applications in Europe.11 1992: GSM 1991: CDMA 1991: D-AMPS 1993: PDC 1992: Inmarsat-B Inmarsat-M 1998: Iridium 1994: DCS 1800 2005: VoIP-DECT 1999: 802. operates at 1800 MHz. 91% of TACS subscribers come from Europe. based on TDMA/FDD.11n analog digital 2000: GPRS 2001: UMTS/IMT-2000 CDMA-2000 (USA) 2010 LTE 2010 UMA Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 25 Mobile Systems: Terminology AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System): North American analog cellular phone standard. operates in 800 MHz and 1500 MHz bands. operates in 450 MHz and 900 MHz bands.S. DECT (Digital European Cordless Telecommunications): a cordless system supporting voice and data.g 2009: IEEE 802. PCN : Personal Communications Net. DCS 1800 (Digital Communication Service): an extension of GSM standard..

ELEC 447 Page : 27 Evolution of Modern Wireless Networks (2) 3rd Generation: Unification of differing technologies . HSCSD (76.IMT2000 (ITU).AMPS (US) – TACS (UK) – NMT (Europe) .D-AMPS.multimedia . CDMA2000 (US).2010 LTE standards mature.8Kbps). PDC (Japan) .2000 . GPRS. CDPD consists of a laptop computer with a cellular modem transmitting data over the existing cellular telephone network.UMW (ultra mobile wideband. UMTS/WCDMA (europe2002). uplink 50Mbps over 20MHz bandwidth .Mobile Voice Service 2nd Generation: Digital Transmission .CT2. FM modulation .Evolution of Modern Wireless Networks (1) 1st Generation: Analog Transmission . some low-speed data (circuit switched) . commonly referred to as AMPS (Advanced Mobile Phone System). HSCSD.2005 WIMAX (IEEE 802.1980 . evolution of CDMA2000) FPLMTS: Future Public Land Mobile Telecommunication Systems) Qatar University Wireless Communications.Primarily voice.CDPD.Data loss unimportant 2.5G systems (voice and low data rate) .digital technology. IS-136+ .1990 . ELEC 447 Page : 28 14 .2Kbps). CT3. IS-99 CDMA.16e-2005) DL128 Mbit/s and DL 56 Mbit/s over 20 MHz wide channels . Telepoint.analog transmission. GSM (Europe). HSCSD: High Speed Circuit Switched Data Qatar University Wireless Communications. GPRS (114Kbps) CDPD: Cellular Digital Packet Data. first trials downlink 100Mbps. IS95 CDMA (US). FPLMTS 4th Generation: Unification of differing technologies . digital modulation .Date rates: CDPD (19. DECT .

Asia Qatar University Wireless Communications.S. expected >1B subscriber by end of 2003 IS-95 • CDMA • 800/1900 MHz – Cellular/PCS • U. (1983).S.. 869-894 MHz (DL) • U.Evolution of Mobile Wireless (3) Advance Mobile Phone Service (AMPS) • FDMA • 824-849 MHz (UL). China European Total Access Communication System (E-TACS) • FDMA • 872-905 MHz (UL). 917-950 MHz (DL) • Deployed throughout Europe Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 30 15 . ELEC 447 Page : 29 Evolution of Mobile Wireless (4) Global System for Mobile communications (GSM) • TDMA • Different frequency bands for cellular and PCS • Developed in 1990. America. So. Europe. Australia.

2 kbps/slot) • Can achieve on the order of 475 kbps on the downlink. by combining multiple slots Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 31 Evolution of Mobile Wireless (6) Universal Mobile Telecommunication Systems (UMTS) • Wideband DS-CDMA • Bandwidth-on-demand. up to a few Mbps) • Supports handoff from/to IS-95 Qatar University Wireless Communications. up to 2 Mbps • Supports handoff from GSM/GPRS IS2000 • CDMA2000: Multicarrier DS-CDMA • Bandwidth on demand (different flavors.5 kbps/slot) • Packet-switched data (at up to 59. ELEC 447 Page : 32 16 .Evolution of Mobile Wireless (5) General Packet Radio Services (GPRS) • Introduces packet switched data services for GSM • Transmission rate up to 170 kbps • Some support for QoS Enhanced Data rates for GSM Evolution (EDGE) • Circuit-switched voice (at up to 43.

7 M 28 M 11 M 100M 50 M 1G 500 M 150 ms Rel 99/4 100 ms Rel 5 / 6 2005 / 6 HSDPA 2007 / 8 HSUPA CDMA 50ms (max) Rel 7 ~10 ms Rel 8 less than 5 ms Rel 10 2003 / 4 2008 / 9 2009 / 10 Access methodology CDMA CDMA OFDMA / SCFDMA OFDMA / SCFDMA Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 33 LTE Advanced Development WCDMA (UMTS) HSPA HSPDA/HSUPA HSPA+ LTE LTE Advanced (IMT Advanced) Max downlink speed bps Max uplink speed bps Latency round trip time approx 3GPP releases Approx years of initial roll out 384 k 128 k 14 M 5. ELEC 447 Page : 34 17 .4 Kbps Physical Medium RF in space (wireless) RF in space (wireless) Various RF in space (wireless) Twisted-pair RF in space (wireless) RF in space (wireless) RF in space (wireless) Application Mobile telephone for business and personal use Mobile telephone for business and personal use Business e-mail with fairly large file attachments Mobile telephone for business and personal use Faster home and small business access Mobile telephone for business and personal use Faster home and small enterprise access Mobile telephone for business and personal use (available in 2002 or later) Up to 56 Kbps 56 Kbps 56 to 114 Kbps 128 Kbps 384 Kbps 400 Kbps (DirecPC and others) Up to 2 Mbps Qatar University Wireless Communications.Data Rates for Transmission Technologies Technology GSM mobile telephone service High-Speed CircuitSwitched Data service (HSCSD) Dedicated 56Kbps on frame relay General Packet Radio System (GPRS) IDSL Enhanced Data GSM Environment (EDGE) satellite Universal Mobile Telecommunications Service (UMTS) Speed 9.6 to 14.

ELEC 447 Page : 35 Mobile and GSM Users Worldwide 2002 ≈ 400 Million subscribers All Mobile Subscribers GSM Subscribers Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 36 18 .Qatar University Wireless Communications.

ELEC 447 Page : 37 Top 3 nations: Wireless Data Service Revenues Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 38 19 .Mobile subscriber growth in top 3 markets Qatar University Wireless Communications.

ELEC 447 Page : 40 20 . ELEC 447 Page : 39 Top Telecom Groups by Revenue Qatar University Wireless Communications.Top Telecom Groups by Subscriptions Qatar University Wireless Communications.

ELEC 447 Page : 42 21 .Relative Coverage. Mobility and Data Rates of Contemporary Wireless Networks LTE WIMAX Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 41 Future Wireless Networks Ubiquitous Communication Among People and Devices Wireless Internet access Nth generation Cellular Wireless Ad Hoc Networks Sensor Networks Wireless Entertainment Smart Homes/Spaces Automated Highways All this and more… •Hard Delay Constraints •Hard Energy Constraints Qatar University Wireless Communications.

Electronic transmission: faster than transportation Coverage . news. secrets – Always an element of government oversight and control Qatar University Wireless Communications.Ability to transmit information in real-time . and network conditions are constantly changing • Applications are heterogeneous with hard constraints that must be met by the network • Energy and delay constraints change design principles across all layers of the protocol stack Qatar University Wireless Communications.Beyond regional: national and international in scale Reliability Cost – 1866: 20 word telegram cost $100 (4 months wages) Security – Transmitted information as knowledge. ELEC 447 Page : 44 22 . ELEC 447 Page : 43 Design Challenges • Wireless channels are a difficult and capacitylimited broadcast communications medium • Traffic patterns.Critical Attributes of Telecom Systems Speed . user locations.

11b WLAN 3G Other Tradeoffs: Rate vs. adaptivity. DSP. BW. • Technology Enhancements Hardware: Better batteries. coding. Network: Not much: more efficient algorithms and ACKs Application: Soft and adaptive QoS. Cost Rate vs. Better circuits/processors. Energy 2G 2G Cellular Mobility Fundamental Design Breakthroughs Needed Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 45 Future Generations Rate 4G 802.5G Cellular: ~200-300 Kbps 3G Cellular: ~ few Mbps 4G Cellular: ~100Mbps WLANs: ~450 Mbps (and growing). Qatar University Wireless Communications. Coverage Rate vs.Evolution of Current Systems • Wireless systems today 2. ELEC 447 Page : 46 23 . modulation. Link: Antennas. Delay Rate vs.

ELEC 447 Page : 47 Quality-of-Service (QoS) • QoS refers to the requirements associated with a given application. • Wired networks often use this approach with poor results. and they have much higher data rates and better reliability than wireless. with poor results Qatar University Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 48 24 .Multimedia Requirements Voice Delay Packet Loss BER Data Rate Traffic <100ms <1% 10-3 8-32 Kbps Continuous Data 0 10-6 1-100 Mbps Bursty Video <100ms <1% 10-6 1-20 Mbps Continuous Wired networks use this approach. • QoS for all applications requires a cross-layer design approach. Qatar University Wireless Communications. typically rate and delay requirements.

ELEC 447 Page : 49 Current Wireless Systems • • • • • • • • • Cellular Systems Wireless LANs WIMAX Satellite Systems Paging Systems Bluetooth Ultrawideband radios Zigbee radios And emerging … Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 50 Qatar University 25 .Crosslayer Design • • • • • Application Network Access Link Hardware Delay Constraints Rate Constraints Energy Constraints Adapt across design layers Reduce uncertainty through scheduling Provide robustness via diversity Qatar University Wireless Communications.

Wireless Communications and Networks William Stallings. Printice Hall. ISBN 0-13-124697-6 Wireless Communications. ELEC 447 Page : 51 4. Principles of Wireless Networks Kaveh Pahlavan. 2001. 2002. S. Qatar University 26 . ISBN: 0130930032 Modern Wireless Communications S.Recommended textbooks: Main Textbook: 1. Moher Printice Hall 2005. Haykin and M. ISBN 0-13-040864-6 3. 1st edition 2002. Prentice Hall. Prashant Krishnamurthy Prentice Hall. 600 pp. ISBN: 0130422320 other books of interest 2. Wireless Communications Principles and Practice 2nd Edition T. Rappaport. 2002.

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