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Evidence of New Testament Political Figures

Sample of
When Where in
Who was he or evidence in Evidence in
Name did they the New
she? historical inscriptions
rule? Testament?
writings

Roman Emperors

1 Augustus Roman Emperor 31 B.C.E.– Luke 2:1 Numerous Numerous


14 C.E.

2 Tiberius Roman Emperor 14–37 C.E. Luke 3:1 Numerous Numerous

3 Claudius Roman Emperor 41–54 C.E. Acts 11:28; 18:2 Numerous Numerous

4 Nero Roman Emperor 54–68 C.E. Acts 25–26; Numerous Numerous


28:19

Herodian Family

5 Herod I, the Rome’s King of the 37–4 Matthew 2:1; Josephus, Coins
Great Jews over all of B.C.E. Luke 1:5 Antiquities
Palestine. and Wars

6 Herod Oldest son of Herod 4 B.C.E.–6 Matthew 2:22 Josephus, Coins


Archelaus the Great. Ethnarch of C.E. Antiquities
Judea, Samaria and and Wars
Idumea.

7 Herod Antipas Son of Herod the 4 B.C.E.– Luke 3:1; 13:31– Josephus, Coins
Great; second husband 39 C.E. 32; 23:7–12; Antiquities
of Herodias. Tetrarch Mark 6:14; and Wars
of Galilee and Perea 6:16–28; 8:15
(Transjordan). He
ordered the execution
of John the Baptist.

8 Herod Philip Son of Herod the Great Matthew 14:3– Josephus, (No coins
but not a ruler; 4; Mark 6:17– Antiquities because he was
Herodias’s uncle and 18; Luke 3:19 and Wars not a ruler)
first husband; father of
their daughter Salome.

9 Herodias Granddaughter of Mathew 14:2– Josephus, (No coins


Herod the Great; niece 11; Mark 6:17– Antiquities because she was
and wife of Herod 28; Luke 3:19– and Wars not a ruler)
Philip, mother of his 20
daughter Salome; then
Herod Antipas’s wife.
She brought about the
order to execute John
the Baptist.

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10 Salome Herodias’s daughter. Matthew 14:3– Josephus, Coins of her
Her dance led to the 12; Mark 6:17– Antiquities second
execution of John the 29 husband,
Baptist. Grandniece Aristobulus,
and later wife of Philip king of Chalcis
the Tetrarch.

11 Philip the Son of Herod the 4 B.C.E.– Luke 3:1 Josephus, Coins
Tetrarch Great. Tetrarch of 34 C.E. Antiquities
Trachonitis, Iturea and and Wars
other northern
portions of Palestine.
Eventually husband of
his grandniece Salome.

12 Herod Agrippa I Grandson of Herod the 37–44 C.E. Acts 12:1–6, 18– Josephus, Coins
Great; brother of 23 Antiquities
Herodias. King of and Wars
Trachonitis, Batanea,
gradually all of
Palestine. Executed
James the son of
Zebedee and
imprisoned Peter.

13 Herod Agrippa Son of Herod Agrippa 50–c. 93 Acts 25:13– Josephus, Coins
II I. Initially Tetrarch of C.E. 26:32 Antiquities
Iturea and Trachonitis, and Wars
then also over parts of
Galilee and Perea,
Chalcis and northern
territories. Festus
appointed him to hear
Paul’s defense.

14 Berenice/Bernic Sister and companion Acts 25:13, 23; Josephus, Inscription of


e of Herod Agrippa II, 26:30 Antiquities King Herod
rumored lovers. and Wars Agrippa II in
Attended Paul’s trial Beirut
before Festus.

15 Drusilla Sister of Herodias and Acts 24:24 Josephus, (No coins; not
Herod Agrippa I; Antiquities a ruler)
Jewish wife of Roman
governor Felix.

Roman Legate and Governors

16 Publius Roman imperial legate 6–9 C.E. Luke 2:2 Josephus, The Lapis
Sulpicius brought in to govern and Antiquities Venetus
Quirinius Syria-Cilicia after possibly and Wars inscription
( = Cyrenius) Herod Archelaus’s rule earlier discovered in
led to rebellion. Beirut

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17 Pontius Pilate Roman prefect of 26–36 C.E. Matthew 27:11– Josephus, Pilate Stone
Judea who conducted 26; Mark 15:1– Antiquities discovered at
Jesus’ trial and ordered 15; Luke 3:1; and Wars; Caesarea
his crucifixion. 23:1–24; John Tacitus, Maritima; coins
18:28–19:22 Annals; Philo,
De Legatione
ad Gaium

18 Lucius Junius Roman proconsul of c. 51–55 Acts 18:12–17 Seneca, Stone


Gallio Achaia who convened C.E. Letters; inscription
and dismissed the trial Tacitus, discovered in
of Paul in Corinth. Annals Delphi, Greece

19 Marcus Roman procurator of 52–c. 59 Acts 23; 24 Josephus, Coins


Antonius Felix Judea who held initial C.E. Antiquities
hearings in the trial of and Wars
the apostle Paul.

20 Porcius Festus Roman procurator of 59–62 C.E. Acts 24:27– Josephus, Coins
Judea who conducted a 25:27; 26:24–32 Antiquities
hearing in the trial of
Paul, during which
Paul appealed to
Caesar and was sent to
Rome.

Independent Political Figures

21 Aretas IV Arabian king of 9 B.C.E.– 2 Corinthians Josephus, Inscriptions at


Nabatea. Father of 40 C.E. 11:32 Antiquities Petra, etc.; coins
Herod Antipas’s first and Wars
wife, before Herodias.

22 The unnamed His Jerusalem-area Acts 21:38 Josephus, (No coins


Egyptian leader insurrection was Antiquities because he was
suppressed by Roman and Wars not a ruler)
procurator Felix.

23 Judas of Galilee Led a rebellion against Acts 5:37 Josephus, (No coins
the census of Roman Antiquities because he was
imperial legate and Wars not a ruler)
Quirinius.

Acknowledgement
This information has been sourced from the Biblical Archaeology Society.

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