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High Voltage / Instrumentation / Metering

Capacitive Voltage Transformers

(CVT) For HV Measurements
By Edvard | December, 26th 2015 | 6 comments | Save to PDF Share! ! " +
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66 kV and upwards
Capacitive voltage transformers (CVTs) are used on
higher voltage levels, starting from 66 kV and
upwards. The type of the CVT is always a single-
pole one, thus the connection is between phase and
earth. The higher the voltage level is, the more
price-competitive the capacitive type becomes.

HV Capacitive Voltage Transformers (photo credit:

One of the advantages the

capacitive type has, in
comparison to the inductive
type, is the possibility to use
capacitive voltage
transformers as high-
frequency coupling units
towards the primary system
(over headlines).

A typical application would be to utilize the CVTs for

power line carrier (PLC) high-frequency signal
interface units. For the voltage measurement
purposes, the behavior and the data specification of
CVTs follow the same guide lines as the inductive

In addition, the possibility for high-

frequency signal coupling calls for a
specified value for rated capacitance

This value is chosen considering the following

issues //

Voltage magnitude to be measured

Demands from PLC system (frequency,
bandwidth, connections)
Capacitive voltage transformer manufacturing

The construction of capacitive

voltage transformers
The figure above shows the principle of a
capacitive voltage divider on which the capacitive
voltage transformer is based. The trimming windings
are used for fine tuning the output signal to
correspond with the required accuracy class
requirements. The compensating reactor
compensates the phase angle shift caused by the
capacitive voltage divider.

Figure 1 – Capacitive voltage transformer’s principal


All capacitive voltage transformers require some sort

of ferroresonance damping circuit.

The capacitance in the voltage divider, in series with

the inductance of the compensating reactor and the
wound transformer (inside the electromagnetic unit
EMU), constitutes a tuned resonance circuit.
Unlike with the inductive type of voltage
transformers, the CVTs usually have the
ferroresonance damping circuit inbuilt in the CVT
itself, as shown in the previous figure.
Capacitor voltage transformer (CVT) nameplate (photo credit:

At higher system voltages, the resonance

phenomenon usually takes place on fundamental or
on sub-harmonic frequencies, resulting in voltage
transformer heating (finally damages) and non-
selective operations of protective relaying possible
protective relaying non-selective operations.

The modern CVTs are utilizing the so-

called “adaptive” damping circuits.

The circuit consists of a saturable series reactor

and a loading resistor. This circuit is connected in
parallel to one of the secondary cores. During
ferroresonance conditions, high voltages appear,
saturating the reactor and turning the damping
resistor on to effectively mitigate the parasitic
voltage. During normal system conditions, the
reactor presents high reactance, effectively
“switching off” the damping resistor.

Possible triggering factors for the

ferroresonance phenomena could be //

Planned primary switchings in the system

Circuit breaker trippings caused by primary
High-speed autoreclosing

Capacitive Voltage Transformers (photo credit:

Reference // ABB’s Distribution Automation

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Edvard Csanyi
Electrical engineer,
programmer and founder of
EEP. Highly specialized for
design of LV/MV switchgears
and LV high power busbar
trunking (<6300A) in power substations, commercial
buildings and industry fascilities. Professional in
AutoCAD programming. Present on Google+


Dear Sir,
I have a question about CVT. In a
400kv high voltage substation with
one & half breaker system, there
Bakhshizadeh are 4 CVTs for BB1,BB2,Node1,
C 1100,, 22001177
Node2 and 3 circuit breaker
Q01,Q02,Q03. For closing of CBs
there is one protection relay
6MD664 for synchronization that
has one 3 phase analogue voltage
input(V1,V2,V3,VN) and one
single(V4) phase. Question: can
apply 3 independent CVTs to 3
phase analogue voltage
input(V1,V2,V3,VN)?if so , the 4th
cvt will be applied to V4 input of


This is Dhinesh, just telme how to
DineshKumar calculate the magnetizing reactance
C 0044,, 22001177 value of EMU Unit? And then
primary and secondary impedance
of EMU Unit?? There’s any formula
for that means telme as soon as


Very educative article on Capacitive

Voltage Transformers otherwise
JOHN what could be the life time of these
MULINDI transformers?
OCCTT 2222,, 22001177

If a name plate value of a capacitor
is C1=9800, and C2= 78000, what
Scott is the effect of larger capacitances
C 0099,, 22001166 for either one of these capacitors?
Is it solely an effect on the divider,
or will an error happen on the step
relaying function?


Now we design out High voltage

Screw Ceramic Capacitor,
Steven Xu
UNN 0022,, 22001166 500PF 24KVAC, ø25x44mm
Withstand Voltage 50KVAC
Lightning impulse up to 120KVAC

This capacitor is important

components of capacitive coupler.

Datasheet can be send on request.


Dear Sir,

Ajay Now, Coupling capacitor of CVT in

Vikrant EHV system are not of any use as
C 2277,, 22001155
State Power Utilities are preferring
OPGW cable for communication
and lightning protection of
transmission line, therefore, now we
should go for VT instead of CVT or
not as function of Voltage
Transformers now end with
protection and metering. What are
the demerits if we prefer VT instead
of CVT at line terminating point.
Also clarify whether CVTs are costly
than Vts or not.

Requesting for an early reply.


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