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Pore scale numerical simulation of heat transfer and flow in porous volumetric solar

receivers Zhu, Q., Xuan, Y. 2017 Applied Thermal Engineering

120, pp. 150-159

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Volumetric receivers used in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants consist of
porous media and transfer energy to the working fluid passing through after being heated by
concentrated solar flux. Pore scale models based on structured packed bed volumetric solar
receivers with three packed types are investigated in this work. The Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT)
method is employed to analyze the radiation propagation in the volumetric receiver. Then the
absorbed flux is used as the boundary heat source in pore scale models, and the heat transfer and
flow in pore scale models are analyzed. The influences of porosity, incident angle and receiver
absorptivity on the reflection loss and radiation propagation are analyzed. It is demonstrated that
the sphere surface absorptivity has a great influence on the absorption process. Smaller incident
angle and higher porosity can promote the radiation propagation. The pore diameter and packed
type have strong impacts on the pressure drop, while the inlet velocity greatly affects the
temperature distribution. Finally, a hybrid packed bed volumetric solar receiver is introduced to
optimize the heat transfer and flow in the receiver.

Heat transfer analysis of a volumetric solar receiver with composite porous structure Chen, X.,
Xia, X.-L., Yan, X.-W., Sun, C. 2017 Energy Conversion and Management

136, pp. 262-269

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd A volumetric solar receiver with composite porous structure is proposed, where
a porous foam with different pore parameters from that in the other region of receiver is placed in
the inlet near-wall region. Thermal performance of the solar receiver is numerically investigated. The
local thermal non-equilibrium model is utilized to represent the energy transport within the porous
foam. Radiative transfer in the porous foam due to high temperature combined with the transport
of concentrated solar radiation inside the receiver is solved using the P1 approximation. Thermal
behavior comparison is made between the receiver with composite porous structure and that with
single porous layer. The effects of different pore parameter designs are discussed. The results
indicate that there exists a large temperature gradient in the solid phase for a solar receiver with
single porous layer. Using low porosity and small mean cell size in the inlet near-wall region for the
receiver with composite porous structure can reduce the solid temperature gradient and increase
the mean fluid outlet temperature.

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A general method to analyze the thermal performance of multi-cavity concentrating solar power
receivers

Open Access

Fleming, A., Folsom, C., Ban, H., Ma, Z. 2017 Solar Energy

150, pp. 608-618

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Concentrating solar power (CSP) with thermal energy storage has potential to
provide grid-scale, on-demand, dispatchable renewable energy. As higher solar receiver output
temperatures are necessary for higher thermal cycle efficiency, current CSP research is focused on
high outlet temperature and high efficiency receivers. The objective of this study is to provide a
simplified model to analyze the thermal efficiency of multi-cavity concentrating solar power
receivers. The model calculates an optimal aperture flux that maximizes the local efficiency,
constrained by a maximum receiver working temperature. Using this flux, the thermal efficiency,
receiver temperature, and heat transfer fluid (HTF) temperature are calculated based upon an
optimized flux distribution. The model also provides receiver design and HTF heat transfer
requirements to achieve the necessary overall thermal efficiency. From the results, possible HTFs
can be investigated to determine which ones are feasible. A case study was performed on a multi-
cavity tube receiver design to demonstrate the use of the model. The case study receiver design had
an effective absorptivity of 99.8%, and was modeled with conservative values for thermal
constraints. It was found that a HTF with a minimum convection coefficient between 250 and 500 W
m−2 K−1, depending on the convective heat transfer to the environment, is necessary to achieve a
thermal efficiency greater than 90% for the receiver. The general model can provide a design
guideline for attainable thermal efficiencies of multi-cavity concentrating solar power receivers given
thermal constraints and heat transfer conditions.

Effect of the optical properties of the coating of a concentrated solar power central receiver on its
thermal efficiency López-Herraiz, M., Fernández, A.B., Martinez, N., Gallas, M. 2017
Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

159, pp. 66-72

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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Solar receivers are one of the critical components of tower central receiver
concentrated solar power plants (CSP), as this is where the light-heat conversion occurs. Better
receiver designs provide higher plant efficiencies, better coupling with thermal energy storage and
cost reductions. Current solar receivers are usually coated with a high sunlight absorptivity layer
applied over the bare surface of the absorber receiver's tubes, in order to enhance their absorptivity
and light-to-heat conversion. Here, we study the effect of the optical properties (viz. absorptivity
and emissivity) of these coatings on the thermal performance of the receiver. The thermal
performance of different coating candidates, solar selective and non-selective, were numerically
simulated and compared against the current standard coating Pyromark 2500. Variation tendencies
and the variation of the common accepted Figure of Merit (FOM) curve with temperature in
different optical scenarios were also studied. Our results show that the thermal efficiency increases
with the absorptivity of the coating (up to 4%). On the other hand, we observed that the emissivity
has a very minor effect on the thermal performance of Molten Salt external receiver at its nominal
working temperature, as the efficiency increases only by 0.6% when the emissivity of the coating
decreases from 0.9 to 0.5 in a molten salts external receiver. Variation tendencies are also carefully
analyzed, as well as the variation of the FOM curve with temperature in different optical scenarios
for the design conditions of each receiver. At current molten salts working temperatures, improving
the absorptivity of a non-selective coating leads to higher thermal efficiency than when using a
selective coating. Nevertheless, for superheated steam cavity receivers, the effect of using a
selective coating can be noticed at temperatures greater than 500 °C. These results can be used for
selecting the optimum coating type for each type of receiver, incident flux and working temperature.

Numerical investigation of pitch value on thermal performance of solar receiver for solar powered
Brayton cycle application Daabo, A.M., Mahmoud, S., Al-Dadah, R.K., Ahmad, A. 2017
Energy

119, pp. 523-539

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Small scale open solar thermal Brayton cycle with Concentrated Solar Power
(CSP) system can provide an efficient, clean, sustainable and low cost energy conversion system to
produce different forms of energy such as electricity. The current paper investigates various
configurations of open cavity solar receivers including cylindrical, conical and spherical with an
aperture of 0.02835 m2and average irradiance values of 2.5 kW/m2. Advanced ray tracing
(OptisWorks®12), as this is the latest available version) and computational fluid dynamic (CFD,
ANSYS®15) simulations are used to reduce optical and thermal losses and maximize the exit
temperature of the working fluid. The received irradiance on the external surface of the helical coils
inside these receiver geometries was used to predict the heat transfer fluid temperature through
CFD analysis. Investigations were carried out to discover the effects of coil pitch and tube diameter
on the working fluid's exit temperature. The results showed that for a pitch value of 3 mm and a
tube diameter of 10 mm, the exit temperature is 401.3 K, 405.7 K and 409.4 K for each of the
spherical, cylindrical and conical geometries respectively; indicating that the conical shaped receiver
is more efficient than the other geometries. Moreover, the best pitch value, when the higher outlet
temperature was achieved, depends on both the tube diameter and the cavity configuration. The
effect of some other factors such as the ambient temperature and the pressure losses on the
receiver's performance have also been investigated in this study.
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A model of a solar cavity receiver with coiled tubes Kanatani, K., Yamamoto, T., Tamaura, Y.,
Kikura, H. 2017 Solar Energy

153, pp. 249-261

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd A model of a solar cavity receiver using helically coiled tubes as heat absorber is
developed. The receiver geometry of the model mimics that of an experiment for a Cross Linear
concentrating system, although the model has a potential for application to the same type of
receivers. From solar flux distribution incident on the inner walls of the receiver, which is obtained
from optical simulation, absorbed flux distribution is derived. Ignoring the convective heat loss from
the cavity, temperature distribution of the heat transfer fluid and the coiled tubes in the steady state
is calculated. The outlet temperature, the maximum temperature of the coiled tubes, the pressure
drop, the heat losses, the receiver efficiency and the pumping power required for compressing the
heat transfer fluid (air in this work) are assessed. The efficiency decreases when the receiver
temperature is high or when the total incident energy is small for the receiver temperature. The
conductive heat loss through insulators around the coiled tubes is negligible among the total
incident energy for the present receiver configuration. The pumping power demand is sufficiently
small compared with the expected electric power output. Finally, the absorptivity of the ceiling of
the receiver could scarcely influence the outlet temperature as long as the difference of the
absorptivity between visible and infrared light of the coiled tubes and the conductive heat loss are
negligible.

An investigation into the effect of aspect ratio on the heat loss from a solar cavity receiver Lee,
K.L., Jafarian, M., Ghanadi, F., Arjomandi, M., Nathan, G.J. 2017 Solar Energy

149, pp. 20-31

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The effect of aspect ratio and head-on wind speed on the force and natural
(combined) convective heat loss and area-averaged convective heat flux from a cylindrical solar
cavity receiver has been assessed using three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD)
simulations. The cavity assessment was performed with one end of the cavity open and the other
end closed, assuming an uniform internal wall temperature (i.e. the cavity walls were heated). The
numerical analysis shows that there are ranges of wind speeds for which the combined convective
heat losses are lower than the natural convective heat loss from the cavity and that this range
depends on the aspect ratio of the cavity. In addition, the effect of wind speed on the area-averaged
flux of convective heat loss from a heated cavity is smaller for long aspect ratios than for short ones,
which indicates that the overall efficiency of the solar cavity receiver increases with the aspect ratio
for all conditions tested in this study.

Experimental performance of an advanced metal volumetric air receiver for Solar Towers
Pabst, C., Feckler, G., Schmitz, S., (...), Hirth, P., Fend, T. 2017 Renewable Energy

106, pp. 91-98

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Solar Tower Technology is a promising way to generate sustainable electricity
from concentrated solar radiation. In one of the most effective variants of this technology, a so
called volumetric air receiver is used to convert concentrated radiation into heat. This component
consists of a high temperature resistant cellular material which absorbs radiation and transfers the
heat to an air flow which is fed from the ambient and from recirculated air. It is called volumetric,
because the radiation may penetrate into the “volume” of the receiver through the open, permeable
cells of the material. In this way a larger amount of heat transfer surface supports the solid to
gaseous heat transfer in comparison to a tubular closed receiver. Finally the heated air is directed to
the steam generator of a conventional steam turbine system. In this study an advanced cellular
metal honeycomb structure has been designed, manufactured and tested for use as an open
volumetric receiver. It consists of winded pairs of flat and corrugated metal foils. The technology is
based on a one which has been primarily developed for the treatment of combustion engine exhaust
gases. A number of variations of the pure linear honeycomb structure have been introduced to
increase local turbulence and radial flow. Firstly, a set of samples has been tested in laboratory scale
experiments to determine effective properties and the solar-to-thermal efficiency. After that, results
have been compared with theoretical predictions. Finally, the three most promising materials have
been used for a 500 kW test on the research platform of the Solar Tower Jülich. Air outlet
temperatures of more than 800 °C have been achieved with efficiencies of about 80%, which is
about 5% more than the state-of-the-art technology, which is currently used at the main receiver of
the Solar Tower. Next to this, lifetime models will be developed to increase the overall reliability of
the technology.

Numerical evaluation of the extinction coefficient of honeycomb solar receivers Elnoumeir, R.,
Capuano, R., Fend, T. 2017 International Journal of Renewable Energy Research

7(1), pp. 411-421

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Open volumetric receivers are porous media used in absorbing concentrated solar radiation
reflected from a heliostat field with the objective to gain heat for an electricity generating thermal
engine. Air is sucked through the hot, open porous material and heats up to high temperatures
before it enters the steam generator of a turbine. In order to optimize these components in terms of
pore geometry, a numerical prediction of the heat transfer and flow properties is useful. Due to the
high complexity of the porous media's microstructure, effective parameters are used to describe the
physical phenomena occurring in such structures on a macro-scale level. This study evaluates
numerically one of the necessary parameters: the effective extinction coefficient. It describes how
the concentrated radiation is absorbed in the volume of the receiver. For this purpose, a self-
developed numerical tool in ANSYS environment has been used. The developed tool calculates the
effective extinction coefficient of the solar radiation striking the receiver's inlet at any angle of
incidence. Afterwards the tool can be applied for various honeycomb geometries and the generated
coefficients may be used to predict the complete thermal behaviour of the receiver with the purpose
to find a new geometry with a higher solar-to-thermal efficiency.

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Numerical optimization and convective thermal loss analysis of improved solar parabolic trough
collector receiver system with one sided thermal insulation Chandra, Y.P., Singh, A., Mohapatra,
S.K., Kesari, J.P., Rana, L. 2017 Solar Energy

148, pp. 36-48

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Two type of receiver systems currently employed in solar parabolic trough
collector technology are evacuated annuli receivers and air filled annuli receivers. While former
receiver finds its way into high-temperature grid-acquaintance solar parabolic trough collectors,
latter are more inclined towards non-grid solar thermal applications like low-temperature process
heat. Evacuated receivers utilize vacuum filled annuli to reduce down the convection losses; this
makes them substantially expensive – while prizing them as benchmark among receivers. Contrary,
air filled annuli based receivers are relatively less expensive but are sub-par in thermal performance
relative to evacuated receivers. This work deals with the air filled receiver system and would try to
abridge the economy and efficiency between both types of systems using computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) based numerical simulation approach. A heat blocking thermal insulation was
tailored and fitted in the sun facing receiver annulus which does not receive concentrated radiation
of the Sun, and was simulated for the reduction in convective losses and for favourable
circumferential temperature distribution (CTD) around the absorber. Consequently, its convective
heat losses were investigated for varying wind speeds and mass flow rates of heat transfer fluid
(HTF) and were compared with mainstream air filled annuli receivers. Simulation results are
compared with experimentation in which wind velocity was in a range of 0.43–4.99 m/s. It has been
found that glass envelope temperature decreases with increase in wind velocity which directly
insinuates the decrease in convection losses around glass envelope. These comparative implications
could be served as a point of reference to develop solar parabolic trough collector for small scale
process heat applications in India.

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THERMAL SHOCKS IN SOLAR BOILER TUBES AND MECHANICAL TOLERANCE TO HEATING VELOCITY.
Gamby, D., Pietri, P. 2017 Transactions of the International Conference on Structural
Mechanics in Reactor Technology

M.

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In solar central receiver electric power plants the concentrated heat flux is received by circular cross
section tubes in which some cooling fluid flows. The operation involves transient working conditions
due to start up, cloud passage. It is worthy to assess the value of stresses obtained during these
critical stages. The first step consists of a thermoelastic analysis. The problem is set in terms of
displacement Fourier components.

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Optimized volumetric solar receiver: Thermal performance prediction and experimental validation
Capuano, R., Fend, T., Stadler, H., Hoffschmidt, B., Pitz-Paal, R. 2017 Renewable Energy

114, pp. 556-566

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In the last decade, different absorber geometries, such as foams and
honeycombs, have been tested at laboratory or industrial scale in order to achieve high performance
in the conversion of the solar radiation into usable heat, with the current state-of-the-art, the
HiTRec-II monolithic honeycomb, characterized by a square-channel section and made out of
siliconized silicon carbide (SiSiC). Such geometry has been so far the best compromise for large-scale
application thanks to the low production costs, easy manufacturability through extrusion procedure
and overall acceptable performance. However, it does present some drawbacks, since the geometry
is not able to contain the radiative heat losses, especially from the front surface. An optimized
absorber geometry, capable to reduce overall thermal losses, is presented in this work, being able to
increase the final thermal efficiency of more than 12% compared to the current state-of-the-art and
showing the presence of the so-called volumetric effect, since the outlet fluid temperature is higher
than the solid inlet temperature. A test sample has been produced for laboratory-scale experiments,
in the form of a 3:1 scaled prototype through additive manufacturing procedure, using a titanium-
aluminium alloy (Ti6Al4V) and the experimental results were in good agreement with the numerical
calculation, with a deviation of 3%, computed considering a 3:1 Ti6Al4V scaled-up sample. As the
manufacturing technology will progress and become cheaper in the near future, it will be possible to
improve the overall Solar Power Tower (SPT) plants performance using advanced micro-geometry
for open volumetric receivers.

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Development of performance analysis model for central receiver system and its application to
pattern-free heliostat layout optimization Kim, S., Lee, I., Lee, B.J. 2017 Solar Energy

153, pp. 499-507

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In the present work, a new pattern-free heliostat layout optimization
methodology based on the genetic algorithm is introduced. This method is developed to speed up
the optimization process attempting to find the global optimum. The novel part of the proposed
method is that multiple neighboring heliostats are optimized simultaneously with nearly no
restrictions. The proposed methodology is tested with a standard performance analysis model that
calculates the annual insolation weighted optical efficiency of the heliostat layout. In order to
improve the flexibility of the shadowing and blocking for more complex cases, in which the reflecting
polygon is divided into multiple polygons, we adopt the polygon clipping algorithm. With the
proposed pattern-free optimization methodology, the insolation weighted optical efficiency of the
PS10 heliostat layout has been improved by 0.6% point with 3.7% reduction in the heliostat field
area.

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A comprehensive review of Scheffler solar collector Kumar, A., Prakash, O., Kaviti, A.K.
2017 Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

77, pp. 890-898

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd A Scheffler collector is a fixed focus solar radiation concentrator. It has capacity
to increase the temperature of the receiver up to 200 °C. It is being widely used in the various
applications such cooking food, generation of power in the solar thermal power plant and etc. This
communication presents a complete review of the Scheffler collector. The first part reviews a
complete designing of a Scheffler collector with respect to the equinox by selecting a specific lateral
part of a paraboloid. The next part compares the energy and exergy analysis of the Scheffler
collector followed by the various applications of Scheffler collector and its recent developments.

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Parametric analysis of small scale cavity receiver with optimum shape for solar powered closed
Brayton cycle applications Daabo, A.M., Ahmad, A., Mahmoud, S., Al-Dadah, R.K. 2017
Applied Thermal Engineering

122, pp. 626-641

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© 2017 Day after day the interest in the renewable clean energy is increasing because of the
enormous advantages that it has. One of the main forms for the renewable energy is the solar which
has been used through power systems such as the Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), which shows a
remarkable enhancement recently. The current study examines different arrangements of an open
cavity receivers with an aperture area of 0.02835 m2 and an average flux values ranged from 2.5 to
15 kW/m2. By employing an advanced ray tracing OptisWorks software, which uses the Monte-Carlo
ray-tracing technique for predicting the flux distributions, to decrease the optical losses and
computational fluid dynamic CFD analysis to minimize the thermal losses, the fluid exit temperature
can be maximised. The exact values and distribution of the received irradiance by the surface area of
each helical coil, inside the receiver shape, was subsequently transferred and used as an input
parameter using the User Defined Function, UDF, in order to numerically simulate the fluid flow and
calculate the amount of heat transfer to the working fluid through the CFD analysis. Different
scenarios including each, the shape configuration, the reflector diameter, and the helical coil pitch
has been intensively carried out in the study. Results showed that compared to 0.5D pitch value, the
zero pitch showed better performance in both optically and thermally. Moreover, an enhancement
up to around 7% in the overall thermal performance was achieved when the receiver aperture area
was covered by glass. Finally, some analysis for closed Brayton cycle was considered and the results
showed the 80% overall system efficiency is applicable if there is more than one application is
integrated in the system.

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Experimental study of exfoliated graphite solar thermal coating on a receiver with a Scheffler dish
and latent heat storage for desalination Chandrashekara, M., Yadav, A. 2017 Solar Energy

151, pp. 129-145

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In this paper, a low-cost and efficient method based on Scheffler reflector,
exfoliated graphite (EG) coating and paraffin wax are developed for desalination system. The solar
coating plays a key role in increasing the absorptivity of concentrated solar energy to raise the
temperature of the receiver. So, A new type of coating such as exfoliated graphite is adopted on the
receiver for desalination. In this work, the coating is experimentally investigated for thermal stability
and performance with a Scheffler dish. The brief fabrication procedure with Jigs has been discussed
for easy fabrication of unskilled labour to promote entrepreneurship. Extensive tests have been
carried out under the sun to find out the effect of exfoliated graphite coating on the absorber
assisted with latent heat energy storage unit. It has been observed that the Scheffler reflector with
EG coating on absorber plate gives the enhanced thermal performance up to 42% and thermal
stability even up to 420 °C with absorptivity more than 97% of the solar incident.

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Wavy-tape insert designed for managing highly concentrated solar energy on absorber tube of
parabolic trough receiver Zhu, X., Zhu, L., Zhao, J. 2017 Energy

141, pp. 1146-1155

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In this paper, a swirl flow generator, namely wavy-tape insert, is tailored for the
parabolic trough receiver (PTR) to improve its performances by mean of enhancing the heat transfer
inside the absorber tube. A comprehensive computational fluid dynamics model is established to
study the flow and heat transfer inside the full-size PTR equipped with wavy-tape insert. It is found
that wavy-tape provokes highly-localized heat transfer enhancement effects, which exactly aim at
the highly-concentrated solar heat load. Consequently, both the tube temperature and the heat loss
are reduced effectively. A static mechanical analysis is performed to evaluate the thermal stress and
deformation of absorber tube, both of which decrease in the presence of wavy-tape. However, the
wavy-tape improves the PTR thermal-mechanical performances at the expense of increased pressure
loss penalty. The overall effects of wavy-tape insert on PTR are evaluated based on different
criterions. For a same flow rate, the total entropy generation rate can be reduced significantly by
using wavy-tape insert. For an identical pumping power consumption, the insert not only reduces
the thermal stress and the heat loss, but also gives raises to the specific enthalpy gain of the working
fluid.

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Progress in concentrated solar power technology with parabolic trough collector system: A
comprehensive review Fuqiang, W., Ziming, C., Jianyu, T., (...), Yong, S., Linhua, L. 2017
Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews

79, pp. 1314-1328

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Advanced solar energy utilization technology requires high-grade energy to
achieve the most efficient application with compact size and least capital investment recovery
period. Concentrated solar power (CSP) technology has the capability to meet thermal energy and
electrical demands. Benefits of using CSP technology with parabolic trough collector (PTC) system
include promising cost-effective investment, mature technology, and ease of combining with fossil
fuels or other renewable energy sources. This review first covered the theoretical framework of CSP
technology with PTC system. Next, the detailed derivation process of the maximum theoretical
concentration ratio of the PTC was initially given. Multiple types of heat transfer fluids in tube
receivers were reviewed to present the capability of application. Moreover, recent developments on
heat transfer enhancement methods for CSP technology with PTC system were highlighted. As the
rupture of glass covers was frequently observed during application, methods of thermal deformation
restrain for tube receivers were reviewed as well. Commercial CSP plants worldwide with PTC
system were presented, including those that are in operation, under construction, and announced.
Finally, possible further developments of CSP plants with PTC system were outlined. Besides,
suggestions for future research and application guidance were also illustrated.

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Numerical and experimental investigation of scheffler concentrator receivers for steam generation
rate under different operating conditions Nene, A.A., Ramachandran, S. 2017
International Journal of Renewable Energy Research

7(4), pp. 2048-2056

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© Renewable Energy Research, 2017. Concentrated Solar Technology (CST) is a device which can
concentrate solar radiation using mirrors or lenses to produce temperatures in the range of 100 0 C
to 450 0 C or more. Scheffler solar concentrator with fixed focus is one such important CST system.
Receiver which contains a working fluid like water is placed at the fixed focus of Scheffler
concentrator to receive solar radiations. Significant efforts are being made to analyse, characterise
and improve performance of receivers since they have significant impact on overall efficiency of the
system. In the subject work Scheffler solar concentrator of 2.7m 2 area with receivers of Cylindrical
and Conical shape having 8 litres capacity were chosen. The scope of study was to map performance
of both the receivers under General operating condition, with pre heated water to reduce thermal
inertia and introducing a tilt or inclination to the receiver. The special emphasis was on studying
influence of these conditions on temperature distribution in the focus region and steam generation
rate which finally influence efficiency. Numerical analysis using Fluent-15 CFD package and
experimental investigation were performed. Numerical analysis using CFD has helped to map
changing temperature regions on the receiver under different conditions and thus provide rationale
for influence on efficiency. Cylindrical receiver performed better in General operating condition and
Pre heated water, While Tilt improved steam generation rate in conical. Preheating of water gave
maximum impact on steam generation rate. The result shows good agreement between numerical
and experimental values of mass flow rate of steam with maximum deviation 9 % and 10.21 % for
cylindrical and conical receiver respectively and thus validating Numerical method. While CFD
FLUENT package has been utilised by other researchers for computing Convective losses, the subject
work is directed to mapping temperature distribution and Steam generation rate and hence directly
the overall output parameter of solar system and thus easy link to efficiency. For any design of end
application of solar system such as process heating its important to know steam generation rate
rather than losses and hence the subject work has more practical utility. Besides it creates basis for
further efficiency improvements by more changes and estimating their implication.

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A comparison between transient CFD and FEM simulations of solar central receiver tubes using
molten salt and liquid metals Fritsch, A., Uhlig, R., Marocco, L., (...), Flesch, R., Hoffschmidt, B.
2017 Solar Energy
155, pp. 259-266

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The design of central receivers in solar thermal power plants is crucial for
efficiency and operating behavior of the plant. The local heat flux distribution on the absorber tubes
varies, depending on time, weather conditions and aim point strategy. A proper receiver design
needs accurate thermodynamic models to detect local temperature distribution, especially hot spots
on the absorber tubes. Moreover, due to highly transient boundary conditions, the dynamic
behavior of the model is important. Starting with a detailed CFD model of a single receiver tube
several simplified FEM models were investigated. The influence of an inhomogeneous heat flux
distribution on the absorber and the dynamic behavior after a sudden change of heat flux (e.g. due
to passage of clouds) were analyzed. In order to consider radiation exchange between surfaces,
simulations with a whole receiver panel were also conducted. The FEM model with one-dimensional
fluid elements and constant heat transfer coefficients shows a very good agreement with the
detailed CFD model. Further simplifications like the presented model, where the tubes are
discretized as projected surfaces are computationally very efficient and can be used for relative
comparison between receiver configurations. However, this simplification has deviations in the
prediction of tube temperatures and radiation losses. Finally, the receiver simulation of the Solar
Two power plant validates the FEM model with the measured data for solar salt. The investigation of
liquid metals considers a single tube with an inhomogeneous heat flux on its surface. The detailed
analysis shows, that the Nusselt number correlation plays an important role for the tube wall
temperature. If the Nusselt number is overestimated in the region of the peak heat flux, the
simplified model results in a lower tube wall temperature.

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Atmospheric extinction in solar tower plants – A review Hanrieder, N., Wilbert, S., Mancera-
Guevara, D., (...), Giuliano, S., Pitz-Paal, R. 2017 Solar Energy

152, pp. 193-207

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In solar tower plants, radiation losses between the heliostat field and the
receiver occur due to atmospheric extinction which varies with site and time. Currently, atmospheric
extinction is usually approximated using a few constant standard atmospheric conditions in ray-
tracing and plant optimization tools. Some tools allow the input of time dependent extinction data,
but such site specific data sets are generally not available for prospective concentrated solar power
(CSP) sites. In this paper, the most applied model equations which are implemented in different ray-
tracing tools are summarized and compared. Several developed approaches to determine
atmospheric extinction are presented. Furthermore, different studies about the effect of
atmospheric extinction on the tower plant yield are summarized. It can be concluded that project
developers should consider atmospheric extinction and its temporal variation as site specific data
sets in power plant optimization, plant yield forecast and plant operation. The effect of atmospheric
extinction can account for a reduction of the annual plant yield of up to several percent points and is
dependent on the heliostat field size, the operation strategy and the on-site atmospheric conditions.
Different approaches to determine atmospheric extinction for solar tower plants at a future CSP site
have been developed and validated in the past and can be applied dependent on the prevailing
atmospheric conditions. The costs of a power plant can be lowered by reducing the simulation
uncertainty since it implies in turn a reduction of risk margins in plant yield forecasts.

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Multicycle activity of natural CaCO3 minerals for thermochemical energy storage in Concentrated
Solar Power plants Benitez-Guerrero, M., Valverde, J.M., Sanchez-Jimenez, P.E., Perejon, A.,
Perez-Maqueda, L.A. 2017 Solar Energy

153, pp. 188-199

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Thermochemical energy storage in Concentrated Solar Power plants by means of
the Calcium-Looping process is a promising novel technology that would allow for a higher share of
renewables. A main benefit of this technology is the use of widely available, non-toxic and
environmentally friendly calcium carbonate minerals as raw materials to store energy. Efficient
integration of the Calcium-Looping process into Concentrated Solar Power plants involves the
endothermic calcination of CaCO3 in the solar receiver while the exothermic carbonation of CaO is
carried out at high temperature under high CO2 partial pressure. The heat released by this reaction
is carried out by the excess CO2 and employed for power generation by means of a closed CO2 cycle.
This work explores the multicycle Calcium-Looping performance of naturally occurring CaCO3
minerals such as limestone, chalk and marble for thermochemical energy storage in Concentrated
Solar Power plants. Despite their similar composition (almost pure CaCO3), these minerals exhibit a
significant difference in their Calcium-Looping multicycle activity, which may be attributed to
differences in particle size and microstructure. Pore plugging at the Calcium-Looping conditions for
thermochemical energy storage tested in our work is a main limiting mechanism on the multicycle
CaO carbonation activity.

23

Proposal and analysis of different methodologies for the shading and blocking efficiency in central
receivers systems Ortega, G., Rovira, A. 2017 Solar Energy

144, pp. 475-488

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Nowadays, there are many simulation codes aimed at the simulation of the solar
field performance and the optimization of the layout of central receivers systems. These codes
should obtain fast and accurately the different efficiency factors of the solar field at different sun
positions (representative of the yearly operation). Among these factors, the shading and blocking
efficiency is maybe the most demanding one regarding the computational effort. In this paper four
non-conventional methodologies are presented for the calculation of the shading and blocking
efficiency. The codes have been developed with the ambition of decreasing the computational time
without a significant accuracy drop. For that reason, they are suitable for optimization tools.
Additionally, a new methodology for the determination of the subset of heliostats with potential for
shading or blocking is presented. The performance of the methodologies is evaluated by means of a
study of the errors and computational times, which are compared to those reached by a
conventional Monte-Carlo ray tracing reference simulation. Results indicate that the proposed
methodologies, particularly two of them, present good accuracy and a significant decrease of the
computational time. The causes of the main errors of each methodology are also discussed.

24

Advances in the linear Fresnel single-tube receivers: Hybrid loops with non-evacuated and evacuated
receivers Montes, M.J., Abbas, R., Muñoz, M., Muñoz-Antón, J., Martínez-Val, J.M.2017
Energy Conversion and Management

149, pp. 318-333

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© 2017 The work presented in this paper is focused on the single-tube configuration for linear
Fresnel receiver. Specifically, this article analyses the feasibility of a new configuration: a hybrid loop
in which the first modules, at lower working temperature, use non-evacuated receivers with
medium thermal performance, and the remaining, at greater temperature, use evacuated receivers
with high thermal performance. The non-evacuated receiver considered in this work consists of a
pyromark tube inside a cavity provided with a secondary reflector opened to the ambient. The
second one is based on an evacuated tube, similar to those of parabolic trough, and it is also inside
an opened cavity with a secondary reflector. In the first place, this work performs a comparative
analysis of the heat loss associated to the three single-tube receiver designs proposed: evacuated,
non-evacuated and non-evacuated with a glass plate at the aperture. The heat loss is quantified in
each case as a function of three parameters: the temperature difference between the tube wall and
the environment, the incident concentrated flux on the tube and the wind velocity. Although the
evacuated design has the lowest heat loss, the differences with the other two designs decrease as
the working temperature is lower. Thus, a hybrid loop is proposed, which consists of non-evacuated
modules at the beginning and evacuated modules at the end. The lower investment of the non-
evacuated tubes, as well as their robustness and simplicity, can compensate for the lower energy
absorbed by these type of receivers. Next, a study of the annual electricity cost produced by Fresnel
plants with hybrid loop is performed. The work concludes that there are specific configurations of
hybrid loops that minimize the electricity cost, when the different investment, operation and
maintenance costs of the receivers are quantified. The maximum percentage of non-evacuated
tubes in the loop will depend on the technology and the working temperature range.
25

Optical properties of high temperature molten salt mixtures for volumetrically absorbing solar
thermal receiver applications Tetreault-Friend, M., Gray, L.A., Berdibek, S., McKrell, T., Slocum,
A.H. 2017 Solar Energy

153, pp. 238-248

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Molten salts are promising candidates for liquid volumetric absorbers in
concentrated solar power systems. To characterize absorption and heat transfer performance in
high temperature applications, their optical properties are required. Thus a method for
experimentally determining the absorption coefficient of non-scattering high temperature semi-
transparent liquids for large (∼1 m-deep) direct absorption solar receiver applications was
developed. It was used to measure the absorption coefficient in liquids over a broad spectral range
and temperatures up to 800 °C in a 40 wt.% KNO3:60 wt.% NaNO3binary nitrate molten salt mixture
(solar salt) and a 50 wt.% KCl:50 wt.% NaCl binary chloride molten salt mixture. The binary nitrate
and binary chloride both demonstrated well distributed solar absorption (>95% absorption through
1 m and 2 m, respectively). At 400 °C, the binary nitrate is optically thick in its re-emission spectrum
and behaves as a blackbody radiator. The effects of thermal decomposition were also shown to have
significant consequences on the overall performance of the binary nitrate mixture, transforming it
into an opaque surface absorber following thermal degradation (>95% in <0.25 m). The implications
of these results for solar receiver design are discussed in terms of volumetric absorption, total
effective emissivity, and capture efficiency. The measurement technique developed and results are
relevant in a variety of high temperature applications including heat transfer systems, materials
processing, pharmaceuticals, and food processing facilities.

26

Review of commercial thermal energy storage in concentrated solar power plants: Steam vs. molten
salts González-Roubaud, E., Pérez-Osorio, D., Prieto, C. 2017 Renewable and Sustainable
Energy Reviews

80, pp. 133-148

31

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Thermal energy storage systems are key components of concentrating solar
power plants in order to offer energy dispatchability to adapt the electricity power production to the
curve demand. This paper presents a review of the current commercial thermal energy storage
systems used in solar thermal power plants: steam accumulators and molten salts. It describes the
mentioned storage concepts and the results of their economic evaluation. The economic value of the
TES system is assessed by the Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) calculation, an economic
performance metric commonly used in power generation in order to compare cost of electricity
among different power generation sources. Lots of studies have been done in the past to compare
the LCOE of a complete solar thermal power plant using thermal energy storage systems. However,
no specific studies related to the thermal energy storage levelized cost of electricity itself were done.
The objective of this study is focused in the comparison of the TES LCOE where calculations are done
for a 100 MW Rankine cycle with different plant configuration and for different storage sizes ranging
from 1 to 9 h of equivalent full capacity operation.

27

Dealing with dust – Some challenges and solutions for enabling solar energy in desert regions
Boddupalli, N., Singh, G., Chandra, L., Bandyopadhyay, B. 2017 Solar Energy

150, pp. 166-176

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© 2017 In India, the desert regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat are preferred for installation of solar
photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar thermal (CST) systems because of a high level of both DNI
and GHI components of solar radiation. However, such regions pose substantial challenges in terms
of dust, a high ambient temperature and scarcity of water. This paper is an attempt to address issues
related to the deposition of dust (a) on a mirror with stand depicting PV panel or heliostat in the
wake of a similar geometry and (b) in the porous absorber of an open volumetric air receiver
(OVAR). A detailed insight to the wake-region behind an inclined flat-plate or heliostat is provided
based on analysis and experiment. These indicate possible measures such as modification of the
geometry of collectors to mitigate the problem of dust deposition. Also, the use of a cyclone
separator with defined parameters based on a decision variable has been suggested for reliable
operation of an OVAR. These problems being generic in nature, similar strategies are expected to be
applicable in other desert regions subject to their specific conditions.

28

Prospective fully-coupled multi-level analytical methodology for concentrated solar power plants:
General modelling Li, L., Sun, J., Li, Y. 2017 Applied Thermal Engineering

118, pp. 171-187

22

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The complexity of the cascading solar-thermal-mechanical-electrical energy


conversion in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants urges to develop an accurate and fast analytical
methodology for on-site use. Herein, we propose a novel fully-coupled multi-level analytical
methodology, where multi-dimensional model (0-1-2-3 Model) is developed to address the optical-
hydraulic-thermal-elastic synergistic issue in CSP plants: (i) At system-level, the 0 Sub-Model reveals
the heat-work transformation in power block in the view of thermodynamics; (ii) At loop-level, the 1
Sub-Model uncovers the collection, concentration and transformation of solar energy into the
working fluid in the loop on account of 1D thermo-hydraulics; (iii) The 2 Sub-Model, employing 2D
finite volume method (FVM), figures out the detailed circumferential temperature profile of receiver
tubes in terms of composite heat transfer; (iv) At component-level, the 3 Sub-Model, using 3D finite
element method (FEM), brings insight into the nonuniform-temperature-induced deformation of
receiver tubes focusing on the thermo-elastics. The 0-1-2-3 Model enables both system-level
performance prediction and component-level targeting insight in a remarkably high-efficient way
with guaranteed accuracy. In comparison, the computational time of a full 3D model is 15 times
longer than that of the proposed 0-1-2-3 Model for a typical 4-m heat collection element (HCE) and
it goes up to 23 times longer for a 24-m loop section. To make the proposed model easily
understood, a CSP plant with parabolic trough collector (PTC) and direct steam generation (DSG)
technologies is applied. It was found that under the rated conditions, the energy and exergy
efficiencies of the plant are 18.89% and 20.26%, respectively.

29

Thermodynamic analysis of a gas turbine cycle combined with fuel reforming for solar thermal
power generation Ni, M., Yang, T., Xiao, G., (...), Luo, Z., Cen, K. 2017 Energy

137, pp. 20-30

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd There is insufficient literature about solarized gas turbines that achieved high
efficiency and solar share simultaneously. It is because the outlet temperature of a solar receiver is
always much lower than a combustor and it is difficult to design a high-efficiency exhaust-heat
recovery system except for a complicated Rankine cycle. A solar-assisted chemically recuperated gas
turbine system is proposed and expected to achieve a good performance by combining with two-
stage fuel-steam reforming. The first stage is a low-temperature reformer, recovering exhaust gas
heat, and the second stage is a high-temperature one, absorbing concentrated solar radiation.
Thermodynamic analyses and comparisons are conducted. This system is expected to have a
competitive thermal efficiency of 47.7%, which is 10.6 percentage points higher than that of a
solarized gas turbine system without reformers. Meanwhile, it has a solar share of 75.0%, which is
12.8 percentage points higher than that of a solarized gas turbine system with a low-temperature
reformer. In the viewpoint of energy level, the two-stage fuel reforming upgrades low-level thermal
energy of the turbine exhaust and solar receiver into high-level chemical energy, reducing exergy
destruction. The relative upgrade of energy level is 38.2% for turbine exhaust and 17.4% for solar
thermal energy.

30

Reprint of: Dealing with dust - Some challenges and solutions for enabling solar energy in desert
regions Boddupalli, N., Singh, G., Chandra, L., Bandyopadhyay, B. 2017 Solar Energy

Article in Press 0
Hide abstract View at Publisher

© 2017 Elsevier Ltd. In India, the desert regions of Rajasthan and Gujarat are preferred for
installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) and concentrated solar thermal (CST) systems because of a
high level of both DNI and GHI components of solar radiation. However, such regions pose
substantial challenges in terms of dust, a high ambient temperature and scarcity of water. This paper
is an attempt to address issues related to the deposition of dust (a) on a mirror with stand depicting
PV panel or heliostat in the wake of a similar geometry and (b) in the porous absorber of an open
volumetric air receiver (OVAR). A detailed insight to the wake-region behind an inclined flat-plate or
heliostat is provided based on analysis and experiment. These indicate possible measures such as
modification of the geometry of collectors to mitigate the problem of dust deposition. Also, the use
of a cyclone separator with defined parameters based on a decision variable has been suggested for
reliable operation of an OVAR. These problems being generic in nature, similar strategies are
expected to be applicable in other desert regions subject to their specific conditions.

31

Prospective fully-coupled multi-level analytical methodology for concentrated solar power plants:
Applications Li, L., Li, Y., Sun, J. 2017 Applied Thermal Engineering

118, pp. 159-170

23

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Reliability is of primary significance for running a concentrated solar power (CSP)
plant. The fully-coupled multi-level analytical methodology, covering system-level performance
prediction and component-level targeting insight, is regarded as the most effective solution against
unreliability. Herein, we address these issues in a direct steam generation (DSG) system with
parabolic trough collectors (PTCs) by applying the previously-proposed hybrid multi-dimensional
model (0-1-2-3 Model) to automatically on-line monitor the loop sections suffering from riskily
excessive thermal-stress, including the evaporation stage with two-phase stratified flow and
superheating stage with the highest thermal load, and the thermo-hydraulic characteristics along the
loop under cloud-shading condition. Due to the fact that the radial thermal deformation of receiver
tube can reach up to 1.78 cm, the energy and exergy efficiencies could therefore be reduced by
0.84% and 0.42% for solar field, and 0.24% and 0.25% for the whole plant, respectively. In addition,
the overall performance of a 50-MWe DSG-PTC-CSP plant in North China is predicted on two typical
days. On summer solstice, the daily average energy efficiency and exergy efficiency are 18.37% and
19.78%, respectively. They, however, decrease to 10.81% and 11.53%, respectively on winter
solstice. The overall performance prediction guarantees the real-time evaluation of the CSP plant.

32

Ball lens as secondary optical element for CPV system Huang, Q., Xu, L. 2017 Solar
Energy

148, pp. 57-62


3

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© 2017 Various measures should be taken to optimize the performance, minimize the cost and
improve the reliability of CPV concentrator. This paper presents theoretical analysis and
experimental verification on a concentrator optical system with geometrical concentration ratio of
625× consisting of a Fresnel lens as primary optical element, a ball lens as secondary optical element
and a solar receiver. The solar cell and the ball lens are separated by a small air gap in this proposed
CPV system and the ball lens is mounted mechanically on the receiver to enhance the reliability of
the CPV system. Test results show that a power generation efficiency of 30.3% and acceptance angle
of 0.72° can be obtained for a CPV device with Fresnel lens, ball lens with AR coatings and solar cell
with efficiency of 40%.

33

Entropy generation of supercritical water in a vertical tube with concentrated incident solar heat flux
on one side Zhang, G., Li, Y., Ma, J.C., Wang, R.Z. 2017 International Journal of Heat and
Mass Transfer

108, pp. 172-180

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© 2016 This paper presents the results of a numerical investigation of entropy generation of
supercritical water in a vertical tube with concentrated incident solar heat flux on one side. The
characteristics of heat transfer and pressure drop in the tube are analyzed first. The decrease in
shear stresses near the pseudo-critical region results in the decrease in turbulence production and
the increase in friction factor. It is the common cause of heat transfer deterioration and an abrupt
increase in pressure drop near the pseudo-critical region. Entropy generation mainly depends on the
temperature gradient along the vertical tube's radial direction which is due to the thickness of the
thermal boundary layer and the intensity of secondary flow. The results further show that entropy
generation of supercritical water in a vertical tube with concentrated incident solar heat flux on one
side decreases with increasing mass flux and decreasing incident heat flux. In addition, to balance
the minimum irreversible losses and hydraulic resistance in the tube in a central receiver, the
relationship between incident flux and mass flux is determined.

34

Advanced modeling of CSP plants with sensible heat storage: Instantaneous effects of solar
irradiance Goortani, B.M., Heidari, H. 2017 International Journal of Renewable Energy
Research

7(3), pp. 1419-1425

2
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A flexible model for concentrated solar thermal power plants with two tank active direct storage
system is developed on gPROMS platform. Eutectic mixture of potassium and sodium nitrates salt
melt is used as heat transfer fluid and storage medium. The solar radiation data obtained from a
weather station, during 10 years in the city of Isfahan are used. It is showed that the Bird's clear sky
model well represents the normalized weather data. The storage system is designed to feed the
boiler for 15 hours in the absence of sun. The model predicts the instantaneous effects of solar
irradiance change and calculates variable with time parameters of the CSP plant; namely, the salt
melt flow rates through receiver and boiler, and tank levels during 24 hr. The results indicate that a
collector surface area of 35 m2and 250Kg mixture of nitrate salts, per 1 KW electricity generation, is
necessary. Respecting the "variable with time" nature of solar irradiance, the role of storage tanks to
damp fluctuations in process parameters of a CSP plant is further quantified. A 2500 Kg of heat
storage material eliminates the need to variable collector surface area 100 m2to 1500 m2or
equivalently, eliminated too high boiler temperatures (1000 °C).

35

A review of high temperature solar driven reactor technology: 25 years of experience in research
and development at the Paul Scherrer Institute Koepf, E., Alxneit, I., Wieckert, C., Meier, A.
2017 Applied Energy

188, pp. 620-651

16

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd High temperature fuel production and thermal material processing driven by
concentrated solar energy has the potential to significantly reduce the fossil fuel dependence of our
current energy economy. Critically important to the utilization of solar power to drive a high
temperature thermal or thermochemical process is the solar receiver and reactor. In this review
article, the full scope of the development process for a solar receiver and reactor is considered,
beginning with fundamental materials science and ending with large scale demonstration projects.
As representative examples, and spanning over 25 years of solar reactor research and development
by the Solar Technology Laboratory at the Paul Scherrer Institute, five projects have been selected
and are presented in detail: H2O and CO2splitting via the Zn/ZnO thermochemical cycle brought to
the 100 kW level, carbothermal reduction of ZnO demonstrated at the 300 kW level, gasification of
carbonaceous waste materials proven at the 150 kW level, H2O and CO2splitting utilizing non-
stoichiometric ceria, and the production of industrial grade lime. These projects represent significant
efforts which bridged the gaps between science, technology, engineering, and demonstration for
solar-driven high-temperature receivers and reactors. Additional relevant solar reactor development
projects from around the world are summarized and compared. Given the simultaneous demand for
carbon-neutral energy vectors and liquid hydrocarbon fuels, combined with the significant
technological progress achieved with solar reactors, industrial-scale implementation of solar-driven
fuel production and high temperature materials processing is likely to expand significantly within the
next decade.
36

Radiant absorption characteristics of corrugated curved tubes

Open Access

Djordjević, M.L., Stefanović, V.P., Kalaba, D.V., Mančić, M.V., Katinić, M.D. 2017 Thermal
Science

21(6), pp. 2897-2906

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© 2017 Society of Thermal Engineers of Serbia. The utilization of modern paraboloidal concentrators
for conversion of solar radiation into heat energy requires the development and implementation of
compact and efficient heat absorbers. Accurate estimation of geometry influence on absorption
characteristics of receiver tubes is an important step in this process. This paper deals with
absorption characteristics of heat absorber made of spirally coiled tubes with transverse circular
corrugations. Detailed 3-D surface-to-surface Hemicube method was applied to compare radiation
performances of corrugated and smooth curved tubes. The numerical results were obtained by
varying the tube curvature ratio and incident radiant heat flux intensity. The details of absorption
efficiency of corrugated tubes and the effect of curvature on absorption properties for both
corrugated and smooth tubes were presented. The results may have significance to further analysis
of highly efficient heat absorbers exposed to concentrated radiant heating.

37

Research challenges in combustion and gasification arising from emerging technologies employing
directly irradiated concentrating solar thermal radiation Nathan, G.J., Dally, B.B., Alwahabi, Z.T., (...),
Jafarian, M., Ashman, P.J. 2017 Proceedings of the Combustion Institute

36(2), pp. 2055-2074

11

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A review covers the types of solar receiver/reactor that incorporate combustion-related processes
(combustion gasification and pyrolysis); combustion-related challenges associated with the use of
concentrated solar radiation in practical devices; solar-specific operation notably with the high
heating rates and the use of broad-band visible radiation particularly those processes in which the
heat and mass transfer processes are complex non-linear and coupled with chemical reactions;
similarities and differences between conditions in combustion/gasification and their solar-driven
counterparts; and new challenges and opportunities for the use of optical diagnostics in combustion-
related research.

38
A Monte Carlo method and finite volume method coupled optical simulation method for parabolic
trough solar collectors Liang, H., Fan, M., You, S., (...), Ye, T., Zheng, X. 2017 Applied Energy

201, pp. 60-68

11

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The PTC (parabolic trough solar collector) is widely used for space heating, heat-
driven refrigeration, solar power, etc. The concentrated solar radiation is the only energy source for
a PTC, thus its optical performance significantly affects the collector efficiency. In this study, four
different optical models were constructed, validated and compared in detail. On this basis, a novel
coupled method was presented by combining advantages of these models, which was suited to carry
out a mass of optical simulations of collectors with different geometrical parameters rapidly and
accurately. Based on these simulation results, the optimal configuration of a collector with highest
efficiency can be determined. Thus, this method was useful for collector optimization and design. In
the four models, MCM (Monte Carlo Method) and FVM (Finite Volume Method) were used to
initialize photons distribution, as well as CPEM (Change Photon Energy Method) and MCM were
adopted to describe the process of reflecting, transmitting and absorbing. For simulating reflection,
transmission and absorption, CPEM was more efficient than MCM, so it was utilized in the coupled
method. For photons distribution initialization, FVM saved running time and computation effort,
whereas it needed suitable grid configuration. MCM only required a total number of rays for
simulation, whereas it needed higher computing cost and its results fluctuated in multiple runs. In
the novel coupled method, the grid configuration for FVM was optimized according to the “true
values” from MCM of collectors with the maximum geometry difference. Following this, the
initialization of photons distribution of collectors with different geometries were conducted with
FVM. To demonstrate this coupled model in real practice, performance analysis of a kind of cavity
receiver for PTCs was carried out. The judgment of collectors with maximum geometry difference
were worth investigating further in the future work.

39

Off-design performance of concentrated solar heat and coal double-source boiler power generation
with thermocline energy storage Zhang, M., Xu, C., Du, X., Amjad, M., Wen, D. 2017
Applied Energy

189, pp. 697-710

12

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Integration of solar thermal energy into a coal-fired power station is a promising
technology for many coal-dependent countries. This work investigated the off-design performance
of such a dual heat source boiler power generation from a system-level modelling approach. As an
example study, heat from a solar power tower (SPT) was integrated into a 660 MW supercritical
coal-fired power unit, and two integration schemes were considered. A system level analytical model
was established that coupled the transient process of heliostat field with one-tank thermocline
thermal energy storage. The off-design performance of such a hybrid system in one typical year was
analyzed accordingly. The results revealed the importance of the seasonal variation of direct normal
insolation (DNI), thermal energy storage scheme and integration methodology. Both the quality of
sunshine and the amount of sun flux could influence the solar power efficiency; while an increase in
the storage volume could decrease the discharging efficiency. Under the maximum capacity of DNI,
increasing the storage capacity by 1 h could improve the efficiency by 0.5–0.8%. For either
integration scheme, the coal consumption could be economized at least 9 × 103 ton per year. The
maximum of solar efficiency for Scheme I, where solar energy was used to heat the superheat
steam, could reach 20.42%, which also came with a penalty of reduced efficiency of thermal
receiver. Under the minimum storage capacity, the solar efficiency for Scheme I was changed from
16.7% to 19.6%, while for Scheme II the change was from 14.7% to 17.3%.

40

A heliostat based on a three degree-of-freedom parallel manipulator Ashith Shyam, R.B.,


Acharya, M., Ghosal, A. 2017 Solar Energy

157, pp. 672-686

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In this paper, we propose a three-degree-of-freedom spatial parallel


manipulator to track the sun in central receiver tower based concentrated solar power systems. The
proposed parallel manipulator consists of three ‘legs’ each containing a passive rotary(R) joint, an
actuated sliding or prismatic (P) joint and a passive spherical (S) joint and is known in literature as
the 3-RPS manipulator. In contrast to existing serial mechanisms with two degrees-of-freedom,
firstly it is shown that the extra actuator and enhanced mobility helps in reducing spillage losses and
astigmatic aberration. Secondly, due to the three points of support, the beam pointing errors are
less for wind and gravity loading or, alternately, the weight of the supporting structure to maintain
desired deflections of the mirrors are significantly lower. Finally, the linear actuators used in the
parallel manipulator do not require the use of large, accurate and expensive speed reducers. In this
paper, we model the 3-RPS manipulator and derive the kinematics equations which give the motion
of the linear actuators required to track the sun and reflect the incident solar energy at a stationary
target at any time of the day, at any day of the year and at any location on the surface of the Earth.
Finite element analysis is used to determine an optimized design which can reduce the weight of the
supporting structure by as much as 60% as compared to the existing tracking mechanisms. A
proportional, integral plus derivative (PID) control strategy using a low-cost processor is devised and
a detailed simulation study is carried out to show that the proposed parallel manipulator performs
better compared to the current tracking algorithms. Finally, a prototype of the parallel manipulator
is manufactured and it is demonstrated that it is capable of performing autonomous sun tracking
with the above mentioned advantages.

41
Optimizing an advanced hybrid of solar-assisted supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle: A vital transition for
low-carbon power generation industry Milani, D., Luu, M.T., McNaughton, R., Abbas, A. 2017
Energy Conversion and Management

148, pp. 1317-1331

17

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Current worldwide infrastructure of electrical power generation would mostly
continue to rely on fossil-fuel but require a modest transition for the ultimate goal of decarbonizing
power generation industry. By relying on those already established and carefully managed
centrepiece power plants (PPs), we aim at filling the deficits of the current electrical networks with
smaller, cleaner, and also more efficient PPs. In this context, we present a unique model for a small-
scale decentralized solar-assisted supercritical CO2closed Brayton cycle (sCO2-CBC). Our model is
based on the optimized values of three key performance indicators (KPIs); thermal efficiency,
concentrated solar power (CSP) compatibility, and water demand for cooling. For a case-study of 10
MWeCSP-assisted sCO2-CBC power plant, our dynamic model shows a 52.7% thermal efficiency and
25.9% solar penetration and up to 80% of water saving in heat-rejection units. These KPIs show
significant promise of the solar-assisted supercritical CO2power cycle for an imperative
transformation in the power industry towards future sustainable electricity generation.

42

High-efficiency solar power towers using particle suspensions as heat carrier in the receiver and in
the thermal energy storage Zhang, H., Benoit, H., Perez-Lopèz, I., (...), Tan, T., Baeyens, J.
2017 Renewable Energy

111, pp. 438-446

12

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Solar thermal electricity generated by concentrated solar power (CSP) plants is
increasingly implemented. CSP plants can supply electricity on a fully matched supply-demand basis
if equipped with a thermal energy storage. To increase the efficiency and reduce both capital and
operating costs, a next generation of CSP concepts is required. Particle suspensions can be applied to
meet these targets and can be used throughout the CSP conversion process, as high temperature
heat transfer medium in the receiver, for heat storage, and in the power block of the plant. This
work presents the novel concept of using particle suspensions as heat carriers, mostly further to
initial testing at the CNRS 1 MW solar furnace of Odeillo Font-Romeu (F). Values of the heat transfer
coefficient up to 1100 W/m2K (bare tubes) and 2200 W/m2K (finned tubes) were obtained for
operation at low superficial gas velocities of 0.04–0.19 m/s, thus limiting heat losses by the exhaust
air. Despite additional costs for particle handling and for an appropriate boiler, the required overall
investment and operating costs are expected to be significantly lower than for common equivalent
molten salt CSPs, leading to a reduction in Levelized Cost of Electricity (LCOE) from approximately
125 €/MWh to below 100 €/MWh.

43

Design and experimental test of refractive secondary optics on the electrical performance of a 3-
junction cell used in CPV systems Renzi, M., Cioccolanti, L., Barazza, G., Egidi, L., Comodi, G.
2017 Applied Energy

185, pp. 233-243

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd This work analyzes and compares the effects of the secondary optics on the
performance of a triple junction solar cell used in a compact HCPV prototype unit. The HCPV system
is composed of triple junction III-V (Ga0.5In0.5P, Ga0.99In0.01As and Ge) solar cells that have a
circular shape with an active area of 4.15 mm2. The optics consists of a primary PMMA square
Fresnel lens (75 mm – side) with constant pitch and a refractive secondary optic (RTP) made of
dielectric material. The overall geometrical concentration ratio is 1300×. The tracking system is a tip-
tilt type two-axis mechanism driven by stepper motors. The HCPV secondary optics were firstly
designed at Polo Tecnologico Andrea Galvani and then tested on the prototype unit at the
Engineering Faculty of Università Politecnica delle Marche in Ancona, Central Italy. The aim of the
paper is to present the numerical and experimental performance results of two different secondary
optics and to assess the effects of the main construction parameters (i.e.: the geometry of the
secondary optics and the distance between the two optics) on the concentration efficiency.
Moreover, two different 3 J cell receiver types were tested, the Insulated Metal Substrate
technology (IMS) and the Direct Bonded Copper (DBC) technologies. The experimental tests were
performed under real outdoor operating conditions, therefore also the Direct Normal Irradiance
(DNI) was measured. In general, the free-form optics showed significant improvements in terms of
overall irradiance and homogeneity. In the best configuration the electric efficiency achieved
39.55%, neglecting the primary optics losses, thus confirming that the presented system setup is
able to reach the highest standards of CPV technology performance.

44

Simulation studies of thermal and electrical performance of solar linear parabolic trough
concentrating photovoltaic system Srivastava, S., Reddy, K.S. 2017 Solar Energy

149, pp. 195-213

10

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This paper presents thermal and electrical analyses of solar linear parabolic
trough concentrating photovoltaic (CPV) collector system under different design and operating
conditions. The receiver tube receives concentrated non-uniform solar flux over its outer surface,
leading to high local temperature and large circumferential temperature difference. A Compound
Parabolic Collector (CPC) has been incorporated as a secondary reflector to homogenize the flux. The
co-generation system consists of a Parabolic Trough Collector (PTC) with 5.1 m2aperture area (AAP)
and a highly reflective mirror with dual axis tracking. The study envisages maximizing electrical
output using CPV with non-uniform thermal energy over receiver tube. Various configurations are
analyzed which include 2-cell and 3-cell strings without CPC and 3-cell and 4-cell strings with CPC.
The detailed thermal and electrical analysis carried out for all the cases using Al2O3/Water nanofluid
with 0%, 1% and 6% vol. and various synthetic fluids with constant velocity of 0.1 m/s. The flux
values for the thermal analysis have been imported from the non-sequential ray tracing optical
simulation software ASAP. Maximum thermal and electrical output is computed to be 2592.42 W
with 78.2% thermal efficiency by 2-cell without CPC configuration using Syltherm-800 and 692.2 W
with 20.88% electrical efficiency by 3-cell without CPC with Al2O3/Water (φ = 1%) respectively.
Reduction in electrical output by ∼7.2–9.8% and enhancement in thermal output by ∼0.91–1.16%
has been observed on replacing nanofluids with synthetic fluids. Long lasting synthetic fluids leads to
higher cell temperatures hence higher cell degradation but nanofluids give optimized electrical and
thermal output with lower cell temperatures. Numerical results are compared with reference data
which shows the reasonable agreement.

45

Line-focusing concentrating solar collector-based power plants: a reviewDesai, N.B.,


Bandyopadhyay, S. 2017 Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy

19(1), pp. 9-35

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© 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Concentrated solar power (CSP) plant is an emerging
technology among different renewable energy sources. Parabolic trough collector (PTC)-based CSP
plant, using synthetic or organic oil as a heat-transfer fluid, is the most advanced technology. About
87 % of the operational capacities of CSP plants worldwide are based on PTC technology. Direct
steam-generating linear Fresnel reflector (LFR) systems have been developed as a cost-effective
alternative to PTC systems. Line-focusing concentrating solar collectors (PTC and LFR), with single-
axis tracking, are simple in design and easy to operate. Prior to the detailed design of a CSP plant, it
is necessary to finalize type of the solar field, type of the power-generating cycle, overall plant
configuration, sizing of the solar field and the power block, etc. The optimal design of a CSP plant
minimizes the levelized cost of energy for a given site. In this paper, a detailed review of important
design parameters which affect the design of line-focusing concentrating solar collector-based
power plants is presented. This includes parameters for solar collector field design, receiver, heat-
transfer fluid, thermal energy storage, power-generating cycle, sizing and configuration of the plant,
etc. This review may provide a reference for designing CSP plants. Future research directions are also
identified.

46
Theoretical and experimental analysis of an innovative dual-axis tracking linear Fresnel lenses
concentrated solar thermal collector Perini, S., Tonnellier, X., King, P., Sansom, C. 2017
Solar Energy

153, pp. 679-690

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Linear concentrating solar thermal systems offer a promising method for
harvesting solar energy. In this paper, a model for a novel linear Fresnel lens collector with dual-axis
tracking capability is presented. The main objective is to determine the performance curve of this
technology by means of both experiment and theoretical analysis. A mathematical model including
the optical model of the concentrator and the heat transfer model of the receiver pipe was
developed. This tool was validated with experimental data collected using a proof of concept
prototype installed in Bourne, UK. The performance curve of the collector was derived for
temperatures between 40 °C and 90 °C. The results show that the global efficiency of the collector is
limited to less than 20%. The energy losses have been analysed. The optical losses in the lens system
accounts for 47% of the total energy dissipated. These are due to absorption, reflection and
diffraction in the Fresnel lenses. Furthermore manufacturing error in the lens fabrication has to be
considered. One third of the solar radiation collected is lost due to the low solar absorptance of the
receiver pipe. Thermal radiation and convection accounts for 6% of the total as relatively low
temperatures (up to 90 °C) are involved. In order to increase the performance of the system, it is
recommended to install an evacuated receiver and to insulate the recirculation system. Considering
data from manufacturers, these improvements could increase the global efficiency up to 55%.
Utilising the results from this work, there is the intention of building an improved version of this
prototype and to conduct further tests.

47

Solar photo-thermochemical reactor design for carbon dioxide processing Bhatta, S.,
Nagassou, D., Trelles, J.P. 2017 Solar Energy

142, pp. 253-266

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd The direct use of solar energy for chemical processing, such as the synthesis of
solar fuels, is an appealing alternative to mitigate environmental emissions while fulfilling the global
demand for fuels. The design and evaluation of a direct solar receiver-reactor designed for gas-phase
chemical synthesis is presented. The design rationale aims to promote concurrent gas-phase
thermochemical and photochemical reactions below 1000 °C. The stainless-steel reactor chamber is
designed to act as a light trapping cavity to increase photon absorption and to induce long gas
residence times through a porous catalytic monolith. The experimentally determined radiative flux
distribution map from a high-flux solar simulator is used for the dimensioning of the reactor's optical
aperture. Metal (Cu) catalytic monoliths, designed to have relatively large specific surface and
adequate light transmission, are evaluated to determine their light attenuation characteristics and
resistance to fluid flow. The designed reactor is evaluated with the direct decomposition of carbon
dioxide (CO2). A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model is used to analyze the reactor design and
complement experimental evaluations. The model describes the gas flow throughout the chamber
together with radiation transport and heterogeneous chemistry across the porous catalytic
monolith. Experimental results are used for validation of the CFD model and to calibrate kinetic
parameters of the heterogeneous chemical kinetics model. The findings indicate sub-optimal light
transmission through the catalytic monolith given the rapid conversion of incident radiation into
heat, and prompts to the need for co-optimization of the catalytic monolith's porous structure for
light transmission and heterogeneous reactivity. The experimental results show a marked increase in
CO2reduction efficiency with increasing radiation flux but the CO2decomposition with Cu catalyst is
negligible at the tested temperatures. The reactor design methodology and evaluation can assist the
devising of equipment and processes for the synergistic use of high-temperature photo- and thermo-
catalysts to potentially allow CO2conversion at lower temperatures than exclusively solar
thermochemical processes.

48

Parametric analysis of a hybrid solar concentrating photovoltaic/concentrating solar power


(CPV/CSP) system Han, X., Zhao, G., Xu, C., (...), Du, X., Yang, Y. 2017 Applied Energy

189, pp. 520-533

14

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd This paper presents a parametric study of a recently proposed concentrating
photovoltaic/concentrating solar power (CPV/CSP) hybrid system based on the energy and exergy
analyses. A steady-state physical model is established for the hybrid system to carry out the energy
and exergy analyses, in which a more general trapezoidal-shaped distribution of concentrated solar
energy flux density is employed. Effects of various parameters are investigated including the average
optical concentration ratio, the outlet temperature of R134a from the solar thermal receiver, and
the coolant saturation vapor temperature. The results show that the generating efficiency and the
power output of the hybrid system can increase by about 20% compared with the CPV-alone system,
which indicates that the proposed hybrid system has a great potential to increase the utilization
ratio of solar energy. Increasing the average optical concentration ratio or decreasing the outlet
temperature of R134a from the solar thermal receiver can result in evident increases of both the
energy efficiency and the exergy efficiency of the hybrid system. It is also shown that the energy and
exergy efficiencies of the organic Rankine cycle (ORC) subsystem are nearly independent of the
Direct Normal Irradiance (DNI), and the hybrid system can be always operated with a high efficiency
despite of the DNI change at different moments or days.

49
Experimental investigation of a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification desalination system
heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens solar concentrator Wu, G., Zheng, H., Ma, X., Kutlu, C.,
Su, Y. 2017 Energy Conversion and Management

143, pp. 241-251

13

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© 2017 This study demonstrates a multi-stage humidification-dehumidification (HDH) solar


desalination system heated directly by a cylindrical Fresnel lens concentrator. In this novel system,
the solar radiation is sent directly into desalination unit. That is to say, the solar receiver and the
evaporator of the system are a whole in which the black fillers in seawater directly absorb the
concentrated solar lights to heat the seawater film to produce the evaporation. The configuration
and working processes of the proposed design are described in detail. In order to analyze its
performance, a small solar desalination prototype unit incorporated with a cylindrical Fresnel lens
concentrator was designed and built in our laboratory. Using three-stage isothermal tandem heating
mode, the variation of the fresh water yield rate and the absorber temperature with time were
measured experimentally and were compared with theoretical calculations. The experimental results
show that the maximum yield of the unit is about 3.4 kg/h, the maximum gained output ratio (GOR)
is about 2.1, when the average intensity of solar radiation is about 867 W/m2. This study indicates
that the proposed system has the characteristics of compact structure and GOR high. It still can be
improved when the design and operation are optimized further.

50

Concentrated solar thermal power in Saudi Arabia: Definition and simulation of alternative scenarios
Kassem, A., Al-Haddad, K., Komljenovic, D. 2017 Renewable and Sustainable Energy
Reviews

80, pp. 75-91

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia has launched ambitious plans to integrate
alternative energy sources into the national grid, including 25 GW of concentrated solar thermal
power (CSP). There are several options available for the design of a CSP plant, including collection
technologies, solar thermal receivers, heat transfer fluids, and energy storage capacities. In this
study, a techno-economic analysis has been conducted, considering the strengths, weaknesses,
opportunities, and threats (SWOT) for each technology in order to build a common understanding
and vision. The analysis outcomes were incorporated with the Saudi energy sector requirements and
local weather conditions to define alternative scenarios. Six power plant scenarios were defined for
performance and financial evaluation. This includes parabolic trough, solar tower, and linear Fresnel
collection technologies. A simulation was subsequently carried out through the System Advisor
Model (SAM). The alternative scenarios were assessed through defining weather, technical, and
financial parameters. Satellite observations and field measured data were combined to obtain a
typical meteorological year weather data for the capital city Riyadh. The SWOT analysis revealed
that the parabolic trough collectors are the most mature and that they are adopted in a majority of
operational CSP projects, which is a key factor at the early stages of CSP integration in Saudi Arabia.
Solar towers are gaining popularity owing to their ability to incorporate high levels of energy
storage. The simulation results depicted significant capacity factors per initial cost as well as annual
energy for solar tower scenarios. The linear Fresnel technique is in its infancy for large-scale
operations, yet the results showed a high potential, including the lowest levelized cost of energy
compared to other scenarios. The findings of this research will help assess alternatives for CSP
projects with consideration of all relevant criteria.

51

Annual performance evaluation (energy and exergy) of fully covered concentrated photovoltaic
thermal (PVT) water collector: An experimental validation Tripathi, R., Tiwari, G.N. 2017
Solar Energy

146, pp. 180-190

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In the present communication, an experimental set up of single unit of fully
covered concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT) collector is designed and fabricated to achieve
thermal as well as electrical gain. This system is installed at the rooftop of the building of Centre for
energy studies, IIT Delhi, India. Here, semitransparent PV module is used to cover the collector. The
monthly observations are taken in clear sky day condition for (September 2015 to August 2016). Two
cases are considered on the basis of receiver rotation according to sun movement, to study the
annual behaviour of present system, case (i): fixed position and case (ii): manual maximum power
point tracking technique (M-MPPT). The manual tracking is adopted for 3 times/day in a 3 h interval
(09.00–12.00–15.00 h). Consecutive days are selected for taking observation for both cases (i-ii) in
each month throughout the year. The validation has been found to be fair agreement between
theoretical and experimental results by calculating correlation coefficient (r) and error (e). It was
found that case (ii) is dominating for overall thermal energy as well as exergy gain. The annual net
thermal energy and exergy, obtained by case (ii), were 1.25 and 1.19 times higher than for case (i).

52

Rectifying structural deflection effect of large solar concentrator via correction of sun-tracking angle
in the concentrator photovoltaic system Tan, M.-H., Chong, K.-K. 2017 Solar Energy

148, pp. 140-148

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The influence of self-weight structural deflection of large solar concentrator has
caused significant impact to the quality of concentrated solar flux. The resulted negative outcomes
from structural deflection, including image distortion and pointing error, can deteriorate the
electrical power generated by dense-array concentrator photovoltaic (CPV) module located at the
target of large solar concentrator. In this article, a novel corrective measure for sun-tracking angle is
proposed to rectify the structural deflection effect on the large solar concentrator and hence to
optimize the electrical output power of dense-array CPV module. The methodology of the proposed
corrective measure has been formulated and discussed in details using numerical simulation via ray-
tracing technique. The simulated result has shown that the proposed method is proficient to recover
the deviated and distorted solar flux distribution in the receiver without affecting the maximum
solar concentration ratio and hence to reduce the electrical power loss. For the overall gain, the
maximum output power has been increased from 3562 W to 4030 W and the electrical power loss
has been reduced from 12.4% to 0.8% at elevation angle of 60° in the dense-array CPV system.

53

Techno-economic modeling and optimization of solar-driven high-temperature electrolysis systems


Lin, M., Haussener, S. 2017 Solar Energy

155, pp. 1389-1402

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd We present a techno-economic analysis of solar-driven high-temperature


electrolysis systems used for the production of hydrogen and synthesis gas. We consider different
strategies for the incorporation of solar energy, distinguished by the use of differing technologies to
provide solar power and heat: (i) thermal approaches (system 1) using concentrated solar
technologies to provide heat and to generate electricity through thermodynamic cycles, (ii) electrical
approaches (system 2) using photovoltaic technologies to provide electricity and to generate heat
through electrical heaters, and (iii) hybrid approaches (system 3) utilizing concentrated solar
technologies and photovoltaics to provide heat and electricity, respectively. We find that system 3
generates hydrogen at a high efficiency (ηSTF = 9.9%, slightly lower than the best performing system
1 with 10.6%) and at a low cost (Cfuel = $4.9/kg, lowest cost of all three systems) at reference
conditions, providing evidence for the competitiveness of this hybrid approach for scaled solar
hydrogen generation. Sensitivity analysis indicates an optimal working temperature for system 3 of
1350 K, which balances the increased thermal receiver losses with the reduced electrolysis cell
potential when increasing the temperature. Lower working pressure always favors high system
efficiency and low cost. The working current densities for thermoneutral voltage were determined
for various temperature and pressure combinations, and trends for efficient and cost-effective
thermoneutral operation were identified. The water conversion extent was optimized to avoid mass
transport limitations in the electrodes while ensuring large fuel generation rates. For synthesis gas
production, a H2/CO molar ratio of 2 can be achieved by tuning the inlet feeding molar ratio of
CO2/H2O, temperature, and pressure. This study introduces a flexible simulation framework of
solar-driven high-temperature electrolysis systems allowing for the assessment of competing solar
integration approaches and for the guidance of the operational conditions maximizing efficiency and
minimizing cost, providing pathways for scalable solar fuel processing.

54

Techno-economic analysis of a concentrating solar collector with built-in shell and tube latent heat
thermal energy storage Li, Q., Tehrani, S.S.M., Taylor, R.A. 2017 Energy

121, pp. 220-237

10

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd In this paper, the feasibility of a medium temperature, low profile concentrated
solar thermal collector integrated with latent heat thermal energy storage (LHTES) is investigated.
The proposed modular integrated collector storage (ICS) system consists of six solar receiver units
and seven cylindrical shell and tube LHTES tanks. By implementing an innovative optical
concentration assembly and an internal linear tracking mechanism, the collector can concentrate
beam radiation to the tube receivers during the highest flux hours of a day without any external or
rotational motion. The collector's efficiency correlations were obtained experimentally and its
integrated performance – with the LHTES units – was evaluated numerically. To demonstrate the
potential of this proposed ICS system, an annual analysis was carried out for a characteristic
industrial application – a dairy dehydration process that requires a constant 50 kWthof heat in the
120–150 °C temperature range. It was found that adding the storage units will increase the capital
costs by ∼10%, but it can increase the annual thermal output of the system by up to ∼20%. A solar
fraction of 65% was achievable with some design alternatives, but the optimum techno-economic
design had a solar fraction of ∼35% and an annual charging efficiency of nearly 100%. It was also
found that if the capital cost of the ICS (collector and LHTES tank) system could be reduced by 50%
from an estimated ∼1000 US$/m2to ∼500 US$/m2through mass production and/or further design
optimizations, this system could provide industrial process heat with a levelized cost of heating
(LCOH) of ∼0.065 US$/kWhth.

55

A vector based freeform approach for reflecting concentrator of solar energy Meng, X.-L., Xia, X.-
L., Dai, G.-L., Guene Lougou, B., Wu, S.-L. 2017 Solar Energy

153, pp. 691-699

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd A vector based freeform approach is proposed for the geometrical reverse
design of reflecting solar concentrators. The effect of solar cone angle of incident vectors is taken
into consideration in the method based on three-dimensional freeform optics. The method
developed is a closed-loop program and did not need any other commercial software. According to
the transmission pattern of solar concentrators, the source-target mapping should be initially
established prior to constructing an initial geometry formed by discrete points using the Geometric
Construction Method. The freeform surface is generated by connecting several triangular flat
elements defined by these points and then the Monte-Carlo ray tracing was conducted. The
freeform surface can then be further optimized through feedback modifications. Finally, the optimal
shape is obtained when the design examples are the off-axis freeform reflectors with target
circular/rectangular receivers for the use of Concentrated Photovoltaic. This method provides a
practical approach for improving the optical performance of solar concentrators.

56

Life cycle assessment of a future central receiver solar power plant and autonomous operated
heliostat concepts Telsnig, T., Weinrebe, G., Finkbeiner, J., Eltrop, L. 2017 Solar
Energy

157, pp. 187-200

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Up-scaling in power plant size and new innovative concepts in the solar field
design are among the most promising ways to reduce the costs of future concentrated solar tower
power plants. Besides the economic benefits, the knowledge about the ecological impacts of new
concepts is of increased interest in view of the climate targets set. This paper aims to assess the
ecological impacts of two autonomous operated heliostat concepts within a future solar tower
power plant. Both concepts include a photovoltaic (PV) energy supply for the heliostats, combined
with either an LiFPO4 or an LiNMC battery system. Both are compared with a conventional energy
supply system. The analysis for comparing the different heliostat concepts is embedded in a life-
cycle assessment (LCA) of a 440 MW solar tower plant with a 12,166 MWhth molten salt thermal
storage. For the solar tower power plant and the autonomous operated heliostat concepts new LCA
inventories were developed. The environmental impacts assessed include the Global Warming
Potential (GWP), which is found between 15 and 105 gCO2eq/kWhel, for the entire solar plant
depending on the share of fossil fuel co-firing. Indirect life cycle emissions excluding fossil fuel co-
firing and thus associated with the life-cycle of the power plant components show, that the
conventional solar field is the main contributor to GWP with 9.5 gCO2eq/kWhel. Results for both
autonomous concepts demonstrate, that reductions in the impact on climate change are at about
10% compared to the solar field with conventional heliostats. Thus it is demonstrated, that heliostat
concepts with an autonomous renewable energy supply lead to considerable reductions in life cycle
emissions.

57

Prototype fabrication and experimental investigation of a conjugate refractive reflective


homogeniser in a cassegrain concentrator

Open Access

Shanks, K., Baig, H., Singh, N.P., (...), Reddy, K.S., Mallick, T.K. 2017 Solar Energy
142, pp. 97-108

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© 2016 The Author(s) The conjugate refractive reflective homogeniser (CRRH) is experimentally
tested within a cassegrain concentrator of geometrical concentration ratio 500× and its power
output compared to the theoretical predictions of a 7.76% increase. I–V traces are taken at various
angles of incidence and experimental results showed a maximum of 4.5% increase in power output
using the CRRH instead of its purely refractive counterpart. The CRRH utilises both total internal
reflection (TIR) within its core refractive medium (sylguard) and an outer reflective film (with an air
gap between) to direct more rays towards the receiver. The reflective film captures scattered
refracted light which is caused by non-ideal surface finishes of the refractive medium. The CRRH
prototype utilises a 3D printed support which is thermally tested, withstanding temperatures of up
to 60 °C but deforming at >100 °C. A maximum temperature of 226.3 °C was reached within the
closed system at the focal spot of the concentrated light. The material properties are presented, in
particular the transmittance of sylguard 184 is shown to be dependent on thickness but not
significantly on temperature. Utilising both TIR and standard reflection can be applied to other
geometries other than the homogeniser presented here. This could be a simple but effective method
to increase the power of many concentrator photovoltaics.

58

Development of a hybrid solar thermal system with TEG and PEM electrolyzer for hydrogen and
power production Demir, M.E., Dincer, I. 2017 International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

42(51), pp. 30044-30056

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© 2017 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC In this study, a hybrid system for electricity and hydrogen
(H2) production is proposed and analyzed thermodynamically. The proposed system consists of a
concentrated solar powered gas turbine subsystem, a latent heat storage subsystem, a multi-stage
flash distillation (MFD) subsystem, a proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolyzer and a
thermoelectric generator (TEG). In the present system, the pressurized hot air by the solar receiver
runs the gas turbine, and hence the electricity is generated. The exhaust heat of the gas turbine
charges the latent heat storage system which uses NaOH and 60Mg–25Cu–15Zn as the phase change
material (PCM). The MFD produces fresh water from seawater. The seawater utilized in the MFD is
heated by the PCM. The PEM electrolyzer produces the H2and O2from the distilled water. The TEG
unit is used for recovering the waste heat of the gas turbine. Bi2Te3and Bi2Te2Se1are selected as
the thermoelectric material for the TEG. The COMSOL Multiphysics software package is used for
numerical modeling the TEG, and the rest of the components of the integrated system is analyzed in
the Engineering Equation Solver (EES). The overall energy and exergy efficiencies of each system
component are determined, and H2, fresh-water, electric power generation capacity of the system
are then calculated. Furthermore, the effects of direct normal irradiance (DNI) level, the wind speed
and the operating temperature of the PEM electrolyzer on the system performance are investigated.

59

Performance study of water-cooled multiple-channel heat sinks in the application of ultra-high


concentrator photovoltaic system Tan, W.-C., Chong, K.-K., Tan, M.-H. 2017 Solar
Energy

147, pp. 314-327

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd For achieving cost effectiveness in solar power generation, ultra-high
concentrator photovoltaic (UHCPV) system operating at 1800 suns is highly recommended in order
to minimize the usage of semiconductor material. Although sunlight focusing can be accomplished
via two-stage concentrator consisted of non-imaging dish concentrator and an array of crossed
compound parabolic concentrator lenses, the thermal management of concentrator photovoltaic
(CPV) cells remains as a crucial problem. The objective of this study is to optimize the configuration
of multiple-channel heat sink with the best design in thermal performance so that the temperatures
of CPV cells are below 100 °C even operating under ultra-high concentrated sunlight. Comprehensive
analysis has been carried out via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation to study thermal
performance of heat sinks for different configurations with various fin thicknesses and fin heights. To
emulate the real case, optical analysis has been carried out via ray-tracing method to simulate the
solar flux distribution and input solar power illuminated on receiver so that the results can be fed
into the CFD modeling. The heat sink with configuration of 1 mm fin thickness × 20 mm fin height (1
× 20) was found to be the most optimized design in which the CFD simulation has shown the lowest
values for both average temperature of CPV cells and maximum temperature difference between
CPV cells. By optimizing the average water velocity at 0.6 m/s, the heat sink with the configuration of
1 × 20 can maintain the CPV cells operating at 91.4 °C under solar concentrator ratio of 1800 suns
and direct normal irradiance of 1000 W/m2. Through the optimization of the thermal performance,
the UHCPV system can produce the net electrical output power of 4064 W at power conversion
efficiency of 31.8%.

60

Investigations on thermochemical energy storage based on technical grade manganese-iron oxide in


a lab-scale packed bed reactor Wokon, M., Kohzer, A., Linder, M. 2017 Solar Energy

153, pp. 200-214

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Thermochemical energy storage (TCS) based on gas–solid reactions constitutes a
promising concept to develop efficient storage solutions with higher energy densities compared to
widely investigated sensible and latent thermal energy storage systems. Specifically for high
temperature applications multivalent metal oxides represent an interesting storage material,
undergoing a reversible redox reaction with oxygen. Due to the inherently high working
temperatures such a TCS system could potentially be implemented in future generation
concentrated solar power (CSP) plants with central receiver technology, in order to increase the total
plant efficiency and ensure the dispatchability of power generation. In this work an experimental
test rig with a lab-scale tube reactor has been developed to analyze a packed bed of granular
manganese-iron oxide storage material regarding heat and mass transport effects coupled with the
chemical reaction. For this purpose manganese-iron oxide with a Fe/Mn molar ratio of 1:3 has been
selected as a suitable reference material, which can be prepared from abundant, economical and
nonhazardous raw materials. Consequently, in the context of this work the TCS technology is
systematically approached based on the reference metal oxide in the temperature range between
800 °C and 1040 °C in order to derive the main influencing aspects of this storage concept.
Experimental results showed the development of characteristic temperature profiles along the bed
height, which proved to be dependent on the thermodynamic properties as well as kinetic behavior
of the redox reaction. It was demonstrated that bed temperatures could be stabilized due to the
proceeding redox reaction in dynamic charging and discharging operation modes. Parametric studies
have been carried out to examine the influence of different operating parameters on thermal
charging and discharging and to analyze the main limitations affecting the reaction progress. Finally,
cycling experiments of the material in the lab-scale reactor exhibited no reactivity degradation over
17 cycles, verifying the comparability of the experimental results obtained from the conducted
parametric studies. Analysis and comparison of the raw and cycled material, however, indicated
signs of material alterations due to sintering processes.

61

Thermodynamic and kinetic investigation of a technical grade manganese-iron binary oxide for
thermochemical energy storage Wokon, M., Block, T., Nicolai, S., Linder, M., Schmücker, M.
2017 Solar Energy

153, pp. 471-485

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Thermochemical energy storage (TCS) based on gas-solid reactions constitutes a
promising concept to exploit reaction enthalpies for thermal energy storage. This concept facilitates
the development of efficient storage solutions with higher energy densities compared to widely
investigated sensible and latent thermal energy storage systems. Multivalent metal oxides are
capable of undergoing a reversible redox reaction at high temperatures, which is why those storage
materials are considered particularly suitable for the operating temperature range of concentrated
solar power plants with central receiver systems to increase the total plant efficiency and ensure
dispatchability of electricity. In the scope of this work a granular manganese-iron oxide with a Fe/Mn
molar ratio of 1:3 has been selected as a potentially suitable storage material, which is non-toxic,
abundant and economical. For this reason a preparation route from technical grade raw materials
has been chosen. The reversible redox reaction is investigated with respect to the thermodynamic
and kinetic characteristics by means of simultaneous thermal analysis in dynamic and isothermal
series of measurements. Those revealed that the observed presence of a strong divergence of the
reactive temperature range from the actual thermodynamic equilibrium can mainly be attributed to
kinetic limitations. Expressions for the effective reaction rates are deduced from experimental data
for the reduction and oxidation step, describing the dependence of the reaction rate on temperature
and oxygen partial pressure, respectively. The expressions are valid for the temperature ranges in
proximity to the equilibrium, which are relevant for the targeted operating conditions of the storage
reactor in air. The storage material provides good cycling stability in terms of reversibility and widely
maintained reactivity throughout 100 redox cycles in air. Future work comprises material
modifications, which are expected to further enhance the mechanical stability of the particles.
Overall, the manganese-iron oxide of the chosen composition exhibits a redox reactivity practical for
regenerator-type storage systems combining a high temperature TCS zone and a lower temperature
non-reactive zone merely used for sensible thermal energy storage.

62

High efficiency concentrated solar power plant receivers using periodic microstructured absorbing
layers Bichotte, M., Kämpfe, T., Iff, W., (...), Dubost, L., Jourlin, Y. 2017 Solar Energy
Materials and Solar Cells

160, pp. 328-334

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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. This study presents a rigorous modeling approach for 1D microstructured
absorbing multi-layers for Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) receivers, taking into account both the
absorption of the incident solar energy as well as the emissivity for the desired receiver
temperature. Based on an optimized multilayer structure achieving high absorption, the authors
demonstrate that 1D sub-wavelength period gratings can further increase the absorption and thus
the efficiency of the CSP system. The C-method (Chandezon Method) is used to theoretically
optimize the 1D grating profiles. An experimental demonstration of the combination of lithographic
grating fabrication and absorptive layer deposition using standard silicon wafers as substrates is also
presented. Experimental results show 96.5% absorption in the visible and UV range, representing an
enhancement of almost 2% in comparison to non-structured coatings. Those results are promising
for the design of future and competitive solar absorbers for CSP, especially since the microstructure
fabrication approach can be applied to non-planar substrates such as tubes typically used as
receivers in CSP plants.

63

A new solar receiver/reactor structure for hydrogen production Wang, Y., Liu, Q., Sun, J., (...), Ju, Y.,
Jin, H. 2017 Energy Conversion and Management

133, pp. 118-126

4
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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Energy level matching of provided solar thermal energy with the involved
reaction is important in determining the performances of a receiver/reactor. According to the main
idea, i.e., minimizing irreversibility between the collected solar energy and the required reaction
heat can increase the Solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency, in this study a new mid- and low-
temperature solar receiver/reactor structure is proposed to match the concentrated solar energy
level with the chemical reaction in a catalytic bed by changing the aperture width, diameter and
length of the receiver/reactor tube along the flow direction. A multi-field coupling mathematical
model that incorporates mass, fluid flow, energy conservation governing equations, and the kinetic
model of the methanol steam reforming (MSR) is developed to investigate the performances of the
new structure and the traditional structure. Results showed that the MCR increases by reducing the
aperture width, meanwhile the maximum catalyst bed temperature (MCBT) can be reduced by 17.9
°C. The performance of the solar receiver/reactor can be further improved when the diameter and
the aperture changes harmonious along the flow direction. The new structure exhibits 8.35–15.85%
higher MCR than the traditional structure. As a result, a new insight is introduced for the design of
the receiver/reactor structure.

64

Preliminary design of heliostat field and performance analysis of solar tower plants with thermal
storage and hybridisation Srilakshmi, G., Suresh, N.S., Thirumalai, N.C., Ramaswamy, M.A.
2017 Sustainable Energy Technologies and Assessments

19, pp. 102-113

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Solar tower technology has gained considerable momentum over the past
decade. In a solar tower plant, a single receiver is used and the power collected by the heliostat field
is strongly coupled to the tower height and its location with respect to the field. The literature
available focuses largely on the component-level details of the heliostat field, ray-tracing
mechanisms, receiver heat transfer analyses, etc. However, there is no systematic method to
determine the preliminary optimum tower height and solar field together with an estimation of a
solar tower plant's technical performance. The present paper provides a methodology to estimate
the design performance of a tower plant (with storage and hybridisation) using an external
cylindrical receiver. The methodology is validated with the Gemasolar plant in Spain and the
Crescent Dunes plant in the United States of America. The optimum efficiency is 16% for the
Gemasolar plant (20 MW and 15 h of storage) and 18.3% for the Crescent Dunes plant (110 MW and
10 h of storage). Further, the methodology is applied to hypothetical plants in Jodhpur as a case
study and the results are analysed. The trends seen are similar to that observed for parabolic trough
plants.

65
Full analytical formulation for Dielectric Totally Internally Reflecting Concentrators designs and solar
applications Cruz-Silva, O.H., Jaramillo, O.A., Borunda, M. 2017 Renewable Energy

101, pp. 804-815

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© 2016 Elsevier Ltd Over the last years many efforts have been focused to develop concentrated
solar energy technologies. On the other hand, nonimaging optical devices such as Dielectric Totally
Internally Reflecting Concentrators (DTIRCs) stand out for their high concentration and
homogeneous radiant flux on the spot of the receiver of the concentrator. In this work we
reformulate the original formulation of DTIRCs to obtain an analytical framework for feasible designs
which are easily implemented for computer numerical control (CNC) manufacturing. Additionally we
extend the formulation to aspherical front surfaces, such as Parabolic Dielectric Totally Internally
Reflecting Concentrators (PDTIRC) and Elliptic Dielectric Totally Internally Reflecting Concentrators
(EDTIRCs), and discuss their most relevant features for concentrated solar applications. It turns out
that DTIRC devices are attractive candidates for solar concentration technology since they provide
high concentration without solar tracking. In particular, we present two case studies of two stage
concentrator devices. We analyse the solar flux distribution in a linear Fresnel reflector and a
parabolic trough collector with a DTIRC as secondary concentrator.

66

Dense gas-particle suspension upward flow used as heat transfer fluid in solar receiver: PEPT
experiments and 3D numerical simulations Ansart, R., García-Triñanes, P., Boissière, B., (...), P.K.
Seville, J., Simonin, O. 2017 Powder Technology

307, pp. 25-36

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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. A dense particle suspension, also called an upflow bubbling fluidized bed, is an
innovative alternative to the heat transfer fluids commonly used in concentrated solar power plants.
An additional advantage of this technology is that it allows for direct thermal storage due to the
large heat capacity and maximum temperature of the particle suspension. The key to the proposed
process is the effective heat transfer from the solar heated surfaces to the heat transfer fluid, i.e. the
circulating solid suspension. In order to better understand the process and to optimise the design of
the solar receiver, it is of paramount importance to know how particles behave inside the bundle of
small tubes. To access to the particle motion in the solar receiver, two different techniques are
carried out: experimental using positron emission particle tracking (PEPT) and 3D numerical
simulation via an Eulerian n-fluid approach with NEPTUNE_CFD code. Both numerical predictions
and PEPT measurements describe an upward flow at the centre of the transport tube with a back-
mixing flow near the wall which influences the heat transfer mechanism. Comparisons between
experiment and computation were carried out for the radial profiles of the solid volume fraction,
and vertical and radial time-averaged and variance velocities of solid, and demonstrating the
capability of NEPTUNE_CFD code to simulate this peculiar upflow bubbling fluidized bed.

67

Effect of cavity surface material on the concentrated solar flux distribution for an impinging receiver
Wang, W., Laumert, B. 2017 Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

161, pp. 177-182

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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. In this paper, the effects of cavity surface materials on the radiative flux
distribution of solar cavity receivers have been studied with the help of a ray-tracing methodology.
Three metallic substrate materials (Inconel 600, austenitic stainless steel 253 MA and Kanthal APM)
and two coating materials (Pyromark® 2500 coating and YSZ TBC coating) were selected as the
candidate cavity surface materials. The results show that the flux distribution and the total optical
efficiency are much more sensitive to the absorptivity on the cylindrical surface than on the bottom.
By using high absorptivity coating on the cylindrical surface and low absorptivity coating on the
bottom, the radiative flux on the bottom can be controlled at a low level, and it can help to reduce
the cavity length for an impinging receiver with jets on the cylindrical surface. Furthermore, the
radiative flux distribution on the cylindrical surface can also be tailored to meet various design
requirements by applying different coating designs on the cylindrical surface.

68

Design concepts for spillage recovery in a molten salt central receiver Das, A.K., Iñigo, P.,
McGrane, J.D., Terdalkar, R.J., Clark, M.M. 2017 Journal of Renewable and Sustainable
Energy

9(2),023701

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© 2017 EURATOM. This work evaluates concepts of hybridizing the molten salt central receiver
design to recover spilled energy in an effort to reduce the electricity cost. The hybridization is done
using existing technologies requiring marginal improvements. A simplified assessment is done to
arrive at a target cost of two spillage recovery system without changing the prevailing levelized cost
of electricity (LCoE) from the reference solar power plant. The target cost of the spillage recovery
system using feedwater heater panels is $49M, whereas for concentrated photovoltaic modules, it is
$40M. Integrating such systems with the tower type receiver below the target price is expected to
reduce the LCoE of the plant. However, project specific conditions and requirements may also play
an important role and should be taken into consideration with a more detailed overall plant level
study to determine the feasibility of the hybridization concepts in a specific project.
69

Design and additive manufacturing of periodic ceramic architectures Bianchi, G., Gianella, S.,
Ortona, A. 2017 Journal of Ceramic Science and Technology

8(1), pp. 59-66

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© 2017 Göller Verlag. Cellular ceramics are attractive material solutions for high-temperature
applications thanks to their outstanding properties. Although ceramic foams are already widely
employed in industry, they exhibit scattered properties because of their randomness and fragility.
Moreover, there are only few parameters that can be varied in order to engineer their properties.
We begin with finite element simulations to show how periodic cellular ceramics can be designed to
meet user requirements. Then, thanks to additive manufacturing (AM), the numerical domains can
be readily transformed into physical objects. Complementing the many AM techniques available
today, we developed an original method in which polymeric lattices templates are produced by
means of 3D printing, further coated by replica with ceramic slurries and finally heat treated. The
advantage of this technique is its flexibility. Practically any ceramic material already produced in bulk
form can be realized. We then present some case studies in which we were able to design and
produce components for concentrated volumetric solar receivers, thermal protection for aerospace
entry vehicles, and heat exchangers.

70

Multi-aiming strategy design for quadruple prism shaped central receiver in solar power tower
system

Open Access

Huang, W., Qi, Y., Yi, F., Li, D., Wang, H. 2017 IEEE/CAA Journal of Automatica Sinica

4(2),7894132, pp. 223-230

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© 2017 Chinese Association of Automation. For solar power tower technology, the improvement of
interception efficiency of heliostat field and the extension of central receiver U+02BC s life time are
two technical difficulties. To the receiver, higher interception efficiency means more thermal shocks
and stronger stresses of high temperatures mainly contribute to the reduction of receiver's life time.
To address these problems, a semi-random distribution strategy is proposed to select the best
aiming point of the heliostat, and the distribution of onedimensional array arranged on the
centerline of the receiver is carried out for further optimization. It is shown by simulation that
through our optimization the temperature distribution on the receiver surface becomes much more
uniform while maintaining acceptable interception efficiency.
71

Design and optimization of a high-temperature cavity receiver for a solar energy cascade utilization
system Zou, C., Zhang, Y., Falcoz, Q., (...), Shu, W., Huang, S. 2017 Renewable Energy

103, pp. 478-489

14

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© 2016 A solar energy cascade utilization system using concentrated solar power is being developed
in response to the growing demand for renewable energy and distributed power generation.
However, no investigations into the geometric parameters of a cavity receiver have been performed
for the dish Stirling system in the present research field. This study proposes a design and an
optimization method for a solar cavity receiver with the capability of achieving high operating
temperatures. By developing a thermal model for the cavity geometry, results of this study provide a
prediction of the real situation and a sensitivity analysis of the cavity receiver design. The designed
cylindrical receiver with insulation consists of an enclosed bottom on the back, an aperture in the
front, and a helical pipe inside. The aperture diameter, inner diameter, and length of the cavity are
the three critical geometric parameters of the cavity receiver. The influence of these three
parameters on heat losses and thermal efficiency is analyzed in this paper.

72

Nonimaging polygonal mirrors achieving uniform irradiance distributions on concentrating


photovoltaic cells Schmitz, M., Dähler, F., Elvinger, F., Pedretti, A., Steinfeld, A. 2017
Applied Optics

56(11), pp. 3035-3052

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© 2017 Optical Society of America. We introduce a design methodology for nonimaging, single-
reflection mirrors with polygonal inlet apertures that generate a uniform irradiance distribution on a
polygonal outlet aperture, enabling a multitude of applications within the domain of concentrated
photovoltaics. Notably, we present single-mirror concentrators of square and hexagonal perimeter
that achieve very high irradiance uniformity on a square receiver at concentrations ranging from 100
to 1000 suns. These optical designs can be assembled in compound concentrators with maximized
active area fraction by leveraging tessellation. More advanced multi-mirror concentrators, where
each mirror individually illuminates the whole area of the receiver, allow for improved performance
while permitting greater flexibility for the concentrator shape and robustness against partial shading
of the inlet aperture.

73
High temperature annealing for structural optimization of silica aerogels in solar thermal
applications Strobach, E., Bhatia, B., Yang, S., Zhao, L., Wang, E.N. 2017 Journal of Non-
Crystalline Solids

462, pp. 72-77

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Optically transparent, thermally insulating monolithic silica aerogel, with its
high solar transmittance and low thermal conductivity, is well-suited for solar thermal applications,
particularly concentrated solar power systems. The properties of silica aerogel are directly
determined by the structure of the highly porous, interconnected silica network. By using high
temperature annealing to control this structure post-synthesis, we were able to optimize the
material to increase solar transmittance with minimal effect on the effective thermal conductivity
using an easy and scalable method. Samples made from two silica aerogel chemistries and two
annealing temperatures (400 °C and 600 °C) were investigated as a function of annealing time. The
annealed samples showed a maximum increase in solar spectral transmittance of over 3% while the
effective thermal conductivity (including radiative and conductive contributions) was shown to
increase by as much as 40%, indicating a need to optimize the annealing time for maximum
performance. The properties of the characterized aerogels were used to demonstrate aerogel
annealing optimization using a concentrated solar power receiver model operating at 400 °C. The
model predicted a maximum receiver efficiency gain of 1% by annealing for 24 h at 400 °C,
representing a significant gain in overall system efficiency.

74

Flux concentration on tubular receiver of compound parabolic collector by surface areal irradiance
method of ray tracing Waghmare, S.A., Gulhane, N.P. 2017 Optik

136, pp. 470-479

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© 2017 Elsevier GmbH Ray tracing for solar collectors finds wide application for designing the
components. In this research, a solar flux concentration on the tubular receiver of compound
parabolic collector (CPC) is determined by a novel approach of surface areal irradiance (SAI). The
objective of this method is to determine the solar reflected irradiance at the receiver by
incorporating effective areas of reflector and receiver. These areas are determined by 2D graphical
ray tracing technique. Multiple ray tracing iterations are performed on various geometric
possibilities of receiver–collector combinations by varying receiver diameter and height. The
collector dimensions are fixed as per authors previously designed CPC to reduce the number of
possibilities of receiver – collector combinations. The results of these iterations are presented in
terms of utilization ratio (U), projection ratio (P) etc. based on which concentrated solar flux and
heat equations are determined. It is observed that there is saturation point for all receiver diameters
at which a receiver – collector combination gives highest utilization ratio and the corresponding
height gives the best location for that receiver. SAI method gives a strong methodology for designing
solar collectors on the basis of utilization ratios and heat equations.

75

Soltrace based alignment Target Design Method for Concentrative Dish Xu, J., Li, S., Huang, Z., (...),
Hou, X., Liu, H. 2017 Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica

38(5), pp. 1193-1199

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© 2017, Editorial Board of Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica. All right reserved. By utilizing the Global-
Stage-Element coordinate systems provided by Soltrace, dishes composed of mirror facets that form
parabola shape can be modeled and adjusted. Combining the integrated light tracing method of the
software, this paper provides a way to design target positions of reflected light from mirror facets,
which is used to guide dish alignment in order to get required heat source. Theoretical analysis
shows that the presented method can easily integrate dish structure and give highly concentrated
evenly distributed heat source on the receiver plane without any lose of energy at the entrance of
the receiver. Practical dish alignment done with the target positions validates our method.

76

VISdish: A new tool for canting and shape-measuring solar-dish facets Montecchi, M., Cara, G.,
Benedetti, A. 2017 Review of Scientific Instruments

88(6),065107

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© 2017 Author(s). Solar dishes allow us to obtain highly concentrated solar fluxes used to produce
electricity or feed thermal processes/storage. For practical reasons, the reflecting surface is
composed by a number of facets. After the dish assembly, facet-canting is an important task for
improving the concentration of solar radiation around the focus-point, as well as the capture ratio at
the receiver placed there. Finally, flux profile should be measured or evaluated to verify the
concentration quality. All these tasks can be achieved by the new tool we developed at ENEA,
named VISdish. The instrument is based on the visual inspection system (VIS) approach and can work
in two functionalities: canting and shape-measurement. The shape data are entered in a simulation
software for evaluating the flux profile and concentration quality. With respect to prior methods,
VISdish offers several advantages: (i) simpler data processing, because light point-source and its
reflections are univocally related, (ii) higher accuracy. The instrument functionality is illustrated
through the preliminary experimental results obtained on the dish recently installed in ENEA-
Casaccia in the framework of the E.U. project OMSoP.
77

Induced Infrared Thermography: Flow visualizations under the extreme conditions of an open
volumetric receiver of a solar tower Tiddens, A., Risthaus, K., Röger, M., Stadler, H., Hoffschmidt,
B. 2017 International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow

65, pp. 105-113

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© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Current measurement techniques do not allow the visualization of the return air
flow of open volumetric receivers in solar tower power plants. The reason is that the region of
interest is irradiated by concentrated solar radiation and is located on top of a tower. Therefore, a
novel method of measurement, the Induced Infrared Thermography (IIT) is introduced within this
paper. With this method the return air can easily be observed with an infrared camera. As air has a
very low emissivity in the infrared region the activity has to be induced by the addition of an
infrared-active component, here carbon dioxide. The temperature of the infrared-active component
has the greatest influence on the signal strength but the mole fraction of the component and the
distance to the infrared camera are also important. Due to temperature restrictions, the measured
signal to noise ratio is low and therefore several post-processing steps have to be conducted to
visualize the return air. The most important step for the visualization is subtracting a background
image. Furthermore, a video filter is employed in order to remove noise. A time series of ITT images
can be used to obtain information on the velocity fields of the flow. The process, called Infrared
Image Velocimetry (IRIV) here, is similar to Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and is applied in this
paper to external fluid flows of the open volumetric receiver. As IRIV is in an early stage of
development the depicted results are treated as qualitative vector fields.

78

Volume of fluid approach of boiling flows in concentrated solar plants Dinsenmeyer, R.,
Fourmigué, J.F., Caney, N., Marty, P. 2017 International Journal of Heat and Fluid Flow

65, pp. 177-191

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© 2017 Elsevier Inc. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model proposed in this paper allows
the flow patterns that evolve during progressive boiling inside large scale horizontal tubes to be
simulated from the initial vapor generation stage to large vapor slugs. The volume of fluid (VOF)
model was employed in combination with relatively simple hypothesis. The aim of the present work
is to improve the design of receiver tubes at concentrated solar power plants with direct steam
generation by simulating the evolution of flow regimes within these tubes. Despite numerous
studies conducted in the past years on convective boiling, only a few made use of the VOF model to
simulate large flow regime transitions. This work presents a preliminary and relatively qualitative
approach to address this problem. Heat and mass transfer at the tube inner wall and at the liquid-
gas interface were solved with the additional transport of two scalars. One accounts for the enthalpy
field and the other represents the dispersed vapor phase of the liquid. This new phase was created
at the wall surface of the liquid phase and rises up to the liquid-vapor interface. Different
phenomena linked to the boiling process were taken into account: vapor creation at the wall, its
transport, recondensation and the creation of large structures. This model was validated with boiling
flow in a bent tube at different mass flow rates and heat fluxes, which allowed us to observe the
evolution of two-phase flow patterns. Finally, numerical simulation of direct steam generation inside
a concentrated solar plant receiver clearly showed the apparition and evolution of various two-
phase flow patterns.

79

Optimum multilayer-graphene-montmorillonite composites from sugar for thermosolar coatings


formulations Mico-Vicent, B., Lopez, M., Bello, A., Martinez, N., Francisco, M.V. 2017
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME

139(3),031005

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Copyright © 2017 by ASME. Solar thermal coatings are designed to achieve the highest incident solar
flux into the receiver of a tower solar plant. These materials are subjected to extreme working
conditions of temperature and solar concentrated radiation. Much effort is being made to develop a
durable and high absorptive coating that can provide an excellent solar to heat conversion efficiency.
Complex deposition techniques (PVD, CVD, electrodeposition, etc.) are developed and tested to
achieve solar selectivity. High solar absorptance paints are an alternative technique, that is, easy to
apply and implement in the field. In paint, pigments are the compound that provides high
absorptance values, whose stability impacts the durability of optical properties. The search for new
selective solar pigments for solar receivers is a promising route to improve the efficiency of this
technology. In this work, novel nanocomposites were synthesized from low-cost organic materials
such as table sugar. Promising results were obtained when intercalated and calcined in the laminar
structure of montmorillonite, a type of smectite clay. The pigments were tested in a paint format on
metallic coupons at different temperatures to obtain absorptivities above 96% of absorptance after
24 h at 700 °C. Further experiments are still needed to obtain optimum conditions to maximize the
coating's absorptivity and durability at high temperature.

80

Testing and analysis of low pressure, transparent tube solar receiver for the sunspot cycle

Open Access

Hoffmann, J., van der Merwe, C.2017 Journal of Thermal Engineering

3(3), pp. 1294-1307

0
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This paper proposes a low pressure tubular solar receiver for a solarized gas turbine. The receiver
comprises of concentric tubes with a transparent outer tube, and the annular space is filled with a
porous medium. Air is heated by concentrated solar radiation as it flows through the porous
medium. To proof our concept, a single 1.5 m long tube was tested on an existing eight mirror linear
Fresnel collector, and test data is documented. A temperature increase of about 40 °C was recorder
for a concentration ratio of 7:1 and superficial velocity of 1 m/s. Volumetric absorption was a
disappointingly low 28 %, mainly due to the low packing factor and reflection of sunlight from the
tube's outer surface. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model of the test set-up was used to
extract the extinction and absorption coefficients of the porous medium, by fitting a quadratic
response surface through the mean square errors between experimental and CFD data. Our analysis
indicates that we can increase receiver efficiency significantly through raising the packing factor and
applying and anti-reflection coating to the tube surface.

81

Hydrodynamics of compartmented fluidized beds under uneven fluidization conditions Migliozzi, S.,
Paulillo, A., Chirone, R., Salatino, P., Solimene, R. 2017 Powder Technology

316, pp. 476-491

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© 2016 Elsevier B.V. Fluidized beds may be conveniently applied to demanding thermal and
thermochemical processes thanks to their inherently good thermal performances: bed-to-surface
heat transfer coefficients, effective thermal diffusivities. Collection and thermal storage of solar
radiation in Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) systems is one challenging example of this application.
Thermal properties may be further enhanced by non-conventional design and operation of fluidized
beds based on uneven or unsteady (pulsed) fluidization. A novel concept of solar receiver for CHP
(combined heat and power) generation consisting of a compartmented dense gas fluidized bed has
been proposed to effectively accomplish collection of incident solar radiation, heat transfer to the
working fluid of the thermodynamic cycle and thermal energy storage. This application, like others
of the same kind, poses the objective of achieving controlled compartmentation of a large scale
fluidized bed by selectively promoting fluidization in some regions while keeping others in a fixed
state. This task may be accomplished by means of a compartmented windbox, without physical
partitioning or internals immersed in the bed. This study addresses this problem by investigating the
hydrodynamics of a near-2D dense gas-fluidized bed operated at ambient conditions and equipped
with a compartmented fluidizing gas distributor. The hydrodynamics was characterized by pressure
measurement at different locations in the bed to mark the onset of local fluidization and to map the
extension and location of fluidized and de-fluidized regions in the bed for different choices of
operating conditions. An important follow-up of the study is the analysis of the dynamics of the
bubble and emulsion phase in an unevenly fluidized bed. Dynamical patterns of bubble and emulsion
phases have been scrutinized by analysis of space- and time-resolved void fraction profiles obtained
by electrical capacitance measurements. Altogether results indicate that a perfectly compartmented
fluidized bed cannot be obtained simply using a compartmented windbox. However a proper choice
of fluidizing gas partitioning between the compartments enables good control of the local
fluidization conditions, of gas cross-flow between the compartments, of large-scale solids
circulation.

82

Thermal Performance and Operation of a Solar Tubular Receiver with CO2 as the Heat Transfer Fluid
Too, Y.C.S., Lopez, M.D., Cassard, H., (...), Benito, R., Navio, R. 2017 Journal of Solar
Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME

139(4),041004

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© 2017 ASME. A higherature, high-pressure solar receiver was designed as part of the advanced
thermal energy storage project carried out in collaboration with Abengoa Solar NT at CSIRO Energy
Centre in Newcastle, Australia, with support through the Australian Renewable Energy Agency
(ARENA). The cavity-type receiver with tubular absorbers was successfully installed and
commissioned, using concentrated solar energy to raise the temperature of CO2 gas to 750 °C at 700
kPa in a pressurized, closed loop system. Stand-alone solar receiver tests were carried out to
investigate the thermal characteristics of the 250 kWt solar receiver. The on-sun full-load test
successfully achieved an outlet gas temperature of 750 °C while operating below the maximum
allowable tube temperature limit (1050 °C) and with a maximum pressure drop of 22 kPa. The
corresponding estimated receiver thermal efficiency values at full flow rate were 75% estimated
based on measured receiver temperatures and heat losses calculations for both single aim-point and
multiple aim-point heliostat control strategies. The use of a quartz glass window affixed to the
receiver cavity aperture was tried as a means for improving the receiver efficiency by reducing
convective heat losses from the receiver aperture. However, while it did appear to significantly
reduce convective losses, a more effective metal support frame design is necessary to avoid damage
to the window caused by stresses introduced as a result of distortion of the supports due to heating
by the spillage of rays from the heliostat field.

83

Parametric Trough Solar Collector with Commercial Evacuated Receiver: Performance Comparison at
Plant Level Bootello, J.P.N., Schramm, M., Pérez, M.S., Castellano, M.D. 2017 Journal of
Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME

139(4),041014

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Copyright © 2017 by ASME. A new anidolic parametric trough solar collector (PmTC) having 8.12m
net width aperture has been recently proposed for a commercial evacuated receiver tube with an
absorber diameter of 70 mm. Since the collector was designed ignoring transmission, absorption,
and reflection optical losses, calculations of the optical efficiency and the incidence angle modifier
(IAM) by means of Monte Carlo spectral raytracing simulations using real slope errors distributions
and taking into account Fresnel reflection losses were done. Comparison with an Eurotrough
parabolic trough collector (PTC) shows an optical penalization of 5.1% due to the reflectivity and
additional soiling of the secondary mirror, to an increase in the end losses and to the Fresnel
reflection losses. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) system advisor model (SAM)
was used to perform annual simulations of two commercial 50 MWe oil power plants without
thermal energy storage located in Seville. A PTC solar field consisting of 90 loops, each one having
four Eurotrough solar collector assemblies (SCA) with 150m length was first modeled resulting in a
gross production of 386 kWh/(m2yr). A PmTC solar field with the same module length and similar
SCA net aperture area was also simulated. A final configuration of 94 loops and four SCAs with 100m
length per loop yields a gross production of 379 kWh/ (m2yr) showing no improvement compared to
the reference PTC plant. The present study allows to advance in the understanding of the potential
of the anidolic optic to produce optical geometries able to effectively improve the PTC technology in
the short-term projecting results at a commercial plant level.

84

Optical modeling and analysis of the first moroccan linear fresnel solar collector prototype El
Alj, S., Al Mers, A., Merroun, O., (...), Benyakhlef, S., Filali Baba, Y. 2017 Journal of Solar
Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME

139(4),041009

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© Copyright 2017 by ASME. Recently, linear Fresnel reflectors (LFR) arouse an increasing interest by
the scientific and industrial community and have had a really fast development in the domain of
concentrated solar power (CSP). LFR is considered as a promising technology which could produce
an optical performance lower than those of parabolic trough collector, but its component simplicity
would allow high cost reductions in its manufacturing compared to high investment costs of
parabolic troughs. The purpose of this paper is to analyze the optical performances of an LFR
prototype developed in the framework of CHAMS project, Morocco. The development of this
prototype comes to supply industrial applications needing heat at small to medium temperature
levels. To achieve this objective, an optical code based on the Monte Carlo (MC) ray tracing
technique was developed for optical optimization purposes. The developed code identifies
geometrical parameters that have a greater influence on optical efficiency of the LFR system as the
mirror spacing arrangement, the receiver height, the receiver geometrical configuration taking into
account the secondary reflector shape, and the absorber tube diameter. An analysis is conducted to
identify the contribution of each mode of optical losses (blocking, shading, cosine...) in the optical
efficiency of the system. Then, an optimization procedure is applied to enhance the optical
performances of the prototype.

85
Large-scale high-temperature solar energy storage using natural minerals Benitez-Guerrero,
M., Sarrion, B., Perejon, A., (...), Perez-Maqueda, L.A., Manuel Valverde, J. 2017 Solar
Energy Materials and Solar Cells

168, pp. 14-21

13

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© 2017 The present work is focused on thermochemical energy storage (TCES) in Concentrated Solar
Power (CSP) plants by means of the Calcium-Looping (CaL) process using cheap, abundant and non-
toxic natural carbonate minerals. CaL conditions for CSP storage involve calcination of CaCO3 in the
solar receiver at relatively low temperature whereas carbonation of CaO is carried out at high
temperature and high CO2 concentration to use the heat of reaction for power production by means
of a CO2 closed power cycle. Under these conditions, large CaO particles derived from limestone to
be used in industrial processes are rapidly deactivated due to pore-plugging, which limits the extent
of the reaction. This is favored by the relatively small pores of the CaO skeleton generated by low
temperature calcination, the large thickness of the CaCO3 layer built upon the CaO surface and the
very fast carbonation kinetics. On the other hand, at CaL conditions for CSP storage does not limit
carbonation of CaO derived from dolomite (dolime). Dolime is shown to exhibit a high multicycle
conversion regardless of particle size, which is explained by the presence of inert MgO grains that
allow the reacting gas to percolate inside the porous particles.

86

Development of the hybrid sulfur cycle for use with concentrated solar heat. I. Conceptual design
Gorensek, M.B., Corgnale, C., Summers, W.A. 2017 International Journal of Hydrogen
Energy

42(33), pp. 20939-20954

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© 2017 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC A detailed conceptual design of a solar hybrid sulfur (HyS)
cycle is proposed. Numerous design tradeoffs, including process operating conditions and strategies,
methods of integration with solar energy sources, and solar design options were considered. A
baseline design was selected, and process flowsheets were developed. Pinch analyses were
performed to establish the limiting energy efficiency. Detailed material and energy balances were
completed, and a full stream table prepared. Design assumptions include use of: location in the
southwest US desert, falling particle concentrated solar receiver, indirect heat transfer via
pressurized helium, continuous operation with thermal energy storage, liquid-fed electrolyzer with
PBI membrane, and bayonet-type acid decomposer. Thermochemical cycle efficiency for the HyS
process was estimated to be 35.0%, LHV basis. The solar-to-hydrogen (STH) energy conversion ratio
was 16.9%. This exceeds the Year 2015 DOE STCH target of STH >10%, and shows promise for
meeting the Year 2020 target of 20%.
87

Feasibility analysis of a solar field for a closed unfired Joule-Brayton cycle

Open Access

Rovense, F., Perez, M.S., Amelio, M., Ferraro, V., Scornaienchi, N.M. 2017 International
Journal of Heat and Technology

35(Special Issue 1), pp. S166-S171

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A solar tower for a closed unfired Joule-Brayton cycle is considered. An analysis for four different
plants rated power levels is performed. The system here analyzed comprises an intercooled and
regenerated gas turbine engine, a concentrating solar tower with pressurized volumetric receiver
and a heat exchanger to perform cooling of the working fluid, allowing its recirculation. The plant
scheme enables an output adjustment, using an auxiliary compressor. A constant value of the solar
receiver outlet temperature approximately of 800 °C, without use of fuel, in a large range of power,
is obtained, guaranteeing a net thermal-to-electric efficiency around 40%. Thermoflex© has been
used for the thermodynamics analysis and WinDelsol for solar field design and simulation (heliostat
field and receiver). For the purposes of this work, it is assumed that the plant is located in Seville,
Spain, with an annual direct normal irradiation (DNI) of 2,068 kWh /m2.

88

Effect of high temperature oxidation on the radiative properties of HfC-based ceramics


Charpentier, L., Balat-Pichelin, M., Sans, J.-L., Sciti, D., Silvestroni, L. 2017 Corrosion
Science

126, pp. 255-264

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Hafnium carbide (HfC) is a promising material for high-temperature heat
exchangers due to its high melting point (4170 K). Nevertheless, its fast oxidation into fragile hafnia
prevents it from being used for open-air solar receivers. The incorporation of silicon-based
compounds would reduce its oxidation kinetics and extend the lifetime of HfC-based elements. The
oxidation behavior of HfC sintered with the addition of 10 vol% TaSi2or ZrSi2is here investigated. The
optical properties on the as-received surfaces and on the oxidized ones were measured, especially
the ratio of the 0.6–2.8 μm emissivity (close to the solar absorptivity α) to the total hemispherical
emissivity ε. These optical properties are important parameters for applications using concentrated
solar radiation.

89
Combined Ceria Reduction and Methane Reforming in a Solar-Driven Particle-Transport Reactor

Open Access

Welte, M., Warren, K., Scheffe, J.R., Steinfeld, A. 2017 Industrial and Engineering Chemistry
Research

56(37), pp. 10300-10308

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© 2017 American Chemical Society. We report on the experimental performance of a solar aerosol
reactor for carrying out the combined thermochemical reduction of CeO2and reforming of CH4using
concentrated radiation as the source of process heat. The 2 kWthsolar reactor prototype utilizes a
cavity receiver enclosing a vertical Al2O3tube which contains a downward gravity-driven particle
flow of ceria particles, either co-current or counter-current to a CH4flow. Experimentation under a
peak radiative flux of 2264 suns yielded methane conversions up to 89% at 1300 °C for residence
times under 1 s. The maximum extent of ceria reduction, given by the nonstoichiometry δ (CeO2-δ),
was 0.25. The solar-to-fuel energy conversion efficiency reached 12%. The syngas produced had a
H2:CO molar ratio of 2, and its calorific value was solar-upgraded by 24% over that of the
CH4reformed. (Chemical Equation Presented).

90

Thermal Performance Characteristics of Porous Media Receiver Exposed to Concentrated Solar


Radiation Ren, Y., Qi, H., Shi, J., (...), Wang, Y., Ruan, L. 2017 Journal of Energy
Engineering

143(5),04017013

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© 2017 American Society of Civil Engineers. Solar thermal power plants with central receiver
systems are promising candidates for the harvest of solar energy. However, the development and
application of volumetric receivers are restricted owing to the nonuniformity of incident heat flux
distribution, which may reduce thermal efficiency and even lead to structural damage. In the present
work, the influence of thermal conductivity and radiation distribution on the thermal response of
porous receivers is studied. On this basis, a transient thermal model was developed. It was found
that porous media receivers with larger thickness will ensure that the thermal energy of the
receivers will be fully taken advantage of by flowing air and improve the efficiency of the whole
system. For porous receivers exposed to concentrated solar radiation with a Gaussian distribution,
the temperature distribution along the radial direction also distributes in a Gaussian shape, with a
mean temperature the same as that of uniform distribution heat flux. In working conditions where
the intensity of concentrated solar radiation changes rapidly, the rate of temperature
increase/decrease may be too high, which may cause damage to receivers.
91

Experimentation of surface areal irradiance method for solar flux measurement in compound
parabolic collector Waghmare, S.A., Chavan, K.V., Muntode, P.B., Gulhane, N.P. 2017
Optik

147, pp. 373-384

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© 2017 Elsevier GmbH Flux measurement is one of the major considerations in the optical analysis
of solar collector to improve its performance. An uneven distribution of concentrated solar rays at
the receiver creates the need of finding a region of high concentration flux and its measurement.
This paper describes the experimentation of the author's recent study of surface areal irradiance
(SAI) method performed on compound parabolic collector (CPC) with low acceptance angle. This
method uses a 2D graphical ray tracing techniques to determine the region of high concentration of
solar flux and its intensity in that region. Also the present study refines the concept of SAI method
with geometric cosine factors for incident and reflected rays. The result of flux curves by SAI method
and experimentation show the identical characteristics and it is plotted along with solar direct
irradiation and variable collector area. SAI method uses the reflector area instead of aperture area
to determine concentrated flux which is helpful in designing solar collectors as per the requirements.

92

Curvature Variability Study for Small- and Large-Scale Linear Fresnel Solar Fields: A Step Toward
Optimization Benyakhlef, S., Al Mers, A., Merroun, O., (...), Boutammachte, N., El Alj, S.
2017 Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME

139(5),051009

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Copyright © 2017 by ASME. Reducing levelized electricity costs of concentrated solar power (CSP)
plants can be of great potential in accelerating the market penetration of these sustainable
technologies. Linear Fresnel reflectors (LFRs) are one of these CSP technologies that may potentially
contribute to such cost reduction. However, due to very little previous research, LFRs are considered
as a low efficiency technology. In this type of solar collectors, there is a variety of design approaches
when it comes to optimizing such systems. The present paper aims to tackle a new research axis
based on variability study of heliostat curvature as an approach for optimizing small and large-scale
LFRs. Numerical investigations based on a ray tracing model have demonstrated that LFR
constructors should adopt a uniform curvature for small-scale LFRs and a variable curvature per row
for large-scale LFRs. Better optical performances were obtained for LFRs regarding these adopted
curvature types. An optimization approach based on the use of uniform heliostat curvature for
small-scale LFRs has led to a system cost reduction by means of reducing its receiver surface and
height.
93

Design of high-temperature solar-selective coatings for application in solar collectors Bellas, D.V.,
Lidorikis, E. 2017 Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

170, pp. 102-113

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. We present a comprehensive theoretical design and evaluation study for the
performance of nano-composite metal-dielectric absorbers combined with selective filters for high
temperature applications in high concentration solar energy harvesting, e.g. in parabolic trough
collectors. Improving the spectrally selective coating of the receiver and optimizing the operating
temperature above the current standard of 400 °C represent a good opportunity for improving the
efficiency of solar collectors and thus reducing the cost of solar electricity. The objective of our effort
is to get the design rules for efficient selective coatings in higher temperatures exhibiting maximum
absorption in the solar spectrum and minimum emissivity in the infrared spectrum. While these
optical characteristics are the required ones for maximum energy conversion efficiency, they
become increasingly difficult to satisfy for increasing temperatures because of the overlapping of the
two spectral regions. Using finite-difference time-domain simulations we model different nano-
composite metal-dielectric coatings, composed of materials that are stable at high temperatures,
combined with spectrally selective filters and calculate the solar absorption and thermal emission
coefficients. Taking also into account the optical parameters of the collector structure (sunlight
concentration factor and optical losses) and the theoretically predicted Carnot efficiency, we get the
total conversion efficiency of a solar collector. We evaluate the performance of the designed
coatings for a wide temperature range from 400 °C up to 1000 °C and obtain maximum efficiencies
at ~850 °C operating temperature. For our best coating candidate (Cu nanoparticles in a low index
dielectric matrix, e.g. SiO2) this results into a total conversion efficiency of 52%, or about a 30%
performance increase compared to operation at 400 °C.

94

Investigation of a single wall carbon nanohorn-based nanofluid in a full-scale direct absorption


parabolic trough solar collector Bortolato, M., Dugaria, S., Agresti, F., (...), Sani, E., Del Col, D.
2017 Energy Conversion and Management

150, pp. 693-703

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd An experimental investigation on the use of nanofluids as working fluids and
direct absorbers in a full-scale concentrating collector is presented. The nanofluid consists of a
suspension of single wall carbon nanohorns in distilled water with a concentration of 0.02 g L−1. The
thermo-physical properties are the same as those of the base fluid, but the presence of carbon
nanoparticles greatly enhances the optical characteristics. A direct absorption receiver has been
designed and set up to investigate the capability of the nanofluid to absorb the concentrated
sunlight. The receiver exhibits a flat geometry and has been designed for installation on an
asymmetric parabolic trough, where the concentrated solar flux locally reaches 100 kW m−2 under
clear-sky conditions. Results show that the application of a carbon nanohorn-based nanofluid in a
concentrating collector displays an efficiency comparable to that obtained with a surface receiver
tested in the same system. However, such performance is not maintained for a long time because of
lack of stability of the absorbing fluid.

95

Optical evaluation of compound parabolic collector with low acceptance angle Waghmare, S.A.,
Gulhane, N.P. 2017 Optik

149, pp. 359-371

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© 2017 Elsevier GmbH An optical evaluation improves overall performance of solar collectors by
minimizing the optical losses. It includes study and analysis of solar rays and its behavior when falling
and reflecting over collectors. As per collector design criteria, the maximum collection of solar rays
must concentrate at the receiver. In this research, the optical analyses are performed on compound
parabolic collector with low acceptance angle (6°) to optimize the receiver position. In parabolic
trough collector (PTC), all the reflected solar rays gather at the focal line, but in CPC the reflected
solar rays concentrates in a region on the central plane. This region of concentrated solar rays is
determined by 2D graphical ray tracing analysis and it is experimentally verified by camera target
method (CTM). The manufacturing error in collector shape is elaborated and error curve is outlined
with the help of data points. The ray tracing analysis is performed on the actual and error curve with
the incidence angle 0°, +3° and −3°. and it is compared with CTM observations. The results obtained
from these methods showed the identical behavior of reflected solar rays and it is concentrated
below the limiting diameter at the focus.

96

The impact of the oxidation on the optical properties of TaC Charpentier, L., Caliot, C.
2017 Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

171, pp. 16-23

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. A major challenge in the development of high-efficiency high-temperature solar
receivers for concentrated solar power plants is the development of high-temperature materials
with an ideal spectral selectivity (high solar absorptivity and low hemispherical total emissivity). TaC
could be an interesting candidate due to its very good spectral selectivity, which could be increased
by surface treatments and microstructuring. However, Ta2O5presents the opposite selectivity.
Therefore, we investigated the oxidation of TaC in air and in helium at 1100 K and determined the
impact of this oxidation on the optical and thermal properties using reflectivity and bidirectional
reflectance distribution function (BRDF) measurements and laser flash analysis (LFA), respectively.
We observed that the oxidation in air was too severe. Additionally, the samples treated in helium
were sufficiently oxidized by the residual oxygen to lose their spectral selectivity. Therefore, despite
its promising optical properties, TaC cannot be used for high-temperature applications in air or even
in helium.

97

The development of intelligent systems for solar panels station and methods for determining the
precision of the software tracking systems, the use of wireless communication device
Satybaldiyeva, F.A., Beysembekova, R.N., Sarybaev, A.S., Esenbekova, G.J. 2017
Journal of Theoretical and Applied Information Technology

95(21), pp. 5848-5858

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© 2005 – ongoing JATIT & LLS. Use of wireless communication between detectors, transducers and
industrial logical controllers in modern optical SPS heliostat control systems is more advantageous
than laying hundreds meters of cable. To provide power supply, it is proposed to equip each
heliostat with a self-contained power supply, since heliostat operates when concentrated solar
radiation in the receiver is sufficient for steam generation, while the rest of the time it is in the
standby mode. That is why use of a solar battery-powered self-contained power supply is more
advantageous than use of centralized power supply from the industrial network. As distinct from
other measuring informational systems, the described heliostat control system operates only when
tracking parameters deviate towards the maximum permitted values. Presented in article the model
of system of automatic control of the heliostats constitutes one of the varieties of measurement and
information and control systems. Unlike other measurement systems described control system of
the heliostats works only when the deviation of the tracking parameters in the direction of the
maximum. The use of modern control systems, heliostats optical system SES wireless connections
between sensors, transducers and industrial logic controllers is advantageous compared to laying
hundreds of meters of cables.

98

Charge and discharge analyses of a PCM storage system integrated in a high-temperature solar
receiver

Open Access

Giovannelli, A., Bashir, M.A. 2017 Energies

10(12),1943

5
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© 2017 by the authors. Solar Dish Micro Gas Turbine (MGT) systems have the potential to become
interesting small-scale power plants in off-grid or mini-grid contexts for electricity or poly-generation
production. The main challenging component of such systems is the solar receiver which should
operate at high temperatures with concentrated solar radiations, which strongly vary with time. This
paper deals with the design and the analysis of a novel solar receiver integrated with a short-term
storage system based on Phase Change Materials to prevent sudden variations in the maximum
temperature of the MGT working fluid. Particularly, the charge and discharge behavior of the
storage system was analyzed by means of Computational Fluid Dynamic methods to evaluate the
potentiality of the concept and the component capabilities. Achieved results were highly
satisfactory: the novel solar receiver has a good thermal inertia and can prevent relevant
fluctuations in the working fluid temperature for 20-30 min.

99

IMPACT: A novel device for in-situ thermo-mechanical investigation of materials under concentrated
sunlight Lalau, Y., Faugeroux, O., Guillot, E., (...), Chotard, T., Claudet, B. 2017 Solar Energy
Materials and Solar Cells

172, pp. 59-65

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. A promising route toward affordable and efficient solar energy conversion lies
in the development of the high temperature Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) tower. The extreme
thermal stress conditions to which the tower receivers may be submitted raise the question of the
ability of these components to efficiently perform over extended periods of time. Conventional
methods commonly used to assess the mechanical stability and lifetime of these components
involve laboratory testing, which suffers from the fundamental inability of these methods to
effectively reproduce the real operating conditions. In this work, we suggest an original set-up based
upon the use of acoustic emission for in-situ thermo-mechanical investigation of receiver materials
exposed to concentrated solar irradiation, named IMPACT (In-situ thermo-Mechanical Probe by
ACoustic Tracking). The ability of this set-up to precisely track the nature, the location and the
dynamics of mechanical defects in the receiver material is assessed. Implications for future
characterization tools aimed at obtaining an in-depth understanding of the thermo-mechanical
behaviour of a wide range of materials in real-working operation is also discussed.

100

Optical and radiative properties analysis and optimization study of the gradually-varied volumetric
solar receiver Du, S., Ren, Q., He, Y.-L. 2017 Applied Energy

207, pp. 27-35

7
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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The volumetric solar receiver is an important component of Concentrated Solar
Power (CSP) system. In recent years, some studies concerned with the novel structures of the
volumetric solar receiver have been conducted. In this paper, a gradually-varied volumetric solar
receiver is proposed. The major feature of this structure is its porosity which decreases gradually
from the front surface to the rear surface. Based on the modified random spherical bubbles method,
a 3D computational model of this porosity-changed solar receiver is reconstructed. In addition, by
combining with the Monte Carlo Ray Tracing (MCRT) method, the optical and radiative properties of
this receiver are investigated. The results show that the reflection loss could be reduced owing to
the lower reflectivity of this structure. It also outperforms in solar energy absorption compared with
the uniform structures that are examined in this paper and exhibits a uniform solar radiative flux
distribution inside the receiver. Finally, with the use of genetic algorithm, the porosity distribution of
the gradually-varied volumetric solar receiver is further optimized, which leads to a much larger
penetration depth of solar radiation. These results suggest that the gradually-varied porous
structure provides a novel design method to enhance the solar radiation absorption and the
volumetric absorption of a volumetric solar receiver.

101

Experiment study of a quartz tube falling particle receiver Wang, T., Bai, F., Chu, S., Zhang, X.,
Wang, Z. 2017 Frontiers in Energy

11(4), pp. 472-479

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© 2017, Higher Education Press and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany. This paper presents an
experimental evaluation of a specially designed falling particle receiver. A quartz tube was used in
the design, with which the particles would not be blown away by wind. Concentrated solar radiation
was absorbed and converted into thermal energy by the solid particles flowed inside the quartz
tube. Several experiments were conducted to test the dynamic thermal performance of the receiver
on solar furnace system. During the experiments, the maximum particle temperature rise is 212°C,
with an efficiency of 61.2%, which shows a good thermal performance with a falling distance of 0.2
m in a small scale particle receiver. The average outlet particle temperature is affected by direct
normal irradiance (DNI) and other factors such as wind speed. The solid particles obtain a larger
viscosity with a higher temperature while smaller solid particles are easier to get stuck in the helix
quartz tube. The heat capacity of the silicon carbide gets larger with the rise of particle temperature,
because as the temperature of solid particles increases, the temperature rise of the silicon carbide
decreases.

102

Comparison-Based Optical Assessment of Hyperboloid and Ellipsoid Reflectors in a Beam-Down Solar


Tower System with Linear Fresnel Heliostats Li, X., Lin, M., Dai, Y., Wang, C.-H. 2017
Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the ASME
139(6),061003

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© 2017 by ASME. Beam-down concentrating solar tower (BCST) is known for its merits in easy
installation and maintenance as well as lower convection heat loss of the central receiver (CR) when
comparing to a traditional concentrated solar tower system. A point-line-coupling-focus (PLCF) BCST
system using linear Fresnel heliostat (LFH) as the first stage concentrator (heliostat) and
hyperboloid/ellipsoid reflector as the tower reflector (TR) is proposed and theoretically analyzed and
compared in this paper. Theoretical investigation on the ray concentrating mechanism with two
commonly used reflector structures, namely, hyperboloid and ellipsoid, is conducted utilizing Monte
Carlo ray-tracing (MCRT) method. The objective of this study is to reveal the achievable optical
performance of these types of TRs in the PLCF system considering the effect of LFH tracking errors
on TR astigmatism as well as the differences of optical efficiency factors and power transmission in a
large-scale biomimetic layout. Results indicate that the ellipsoid system is superior in terms of
interception efficiency over the hyperboloid system due to smaller astigmatism at the CR aperture,
especially at larger facet tracking error. However, the ellipsoid reflector shows significantly lower TR
shading efficiency resulting from the larger TR surface area compared to that of the hyperboloid
reflector. The total optical efficiency of the hyperboloid system is always better than that of the
ellipsoid system, and this efficiency gap decreases as the ratio increases. The hyperboloid TR is
proved to be more promising and practical for the PLCF system.

103

Fabrication and characterization of multiscale, fractal textured solar selective coatings Jain, R.,
Pitchumani, R. 2017 Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

172, pp. 213-219

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Photothermal conversion efficiency depends significantly on the selectivity of
the thermal receiver surface through which a heat transfer fluid flows in a concentrated solar power
system. This paper presents studies on novel multiscale, fractal textured solar selective coatings for
solar thermal applications. The fractal surfaces are fabricated integrally on the substrate material
using electrodeposition. The coatings are described in terms of fractal parameters that are uniquely
determined from surface measurements, and the optical properties of the coatings are
experimentally characterized in detail in terms of the fractal parameters. The effects of heat
treatment on the optical properties of coatings over a range of fractal parameters are also
described. The study is presented considering coatings on copper to demonstrate that fractal
texturing of the surface provides a nearly three-fold performance improvement compared to
coatings with no texturing or heat treatment. The findings equally apply to other materials used in
higher temperature solar thermal applications.
104

Coupled thermal and optical analysis of a planar waveguide concentrator-receiver


Nithyanandam, K., Deshpande, J., Pitchumani, R. 2017 Applied Energy

208, pp. 1576-1589

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Harvesting solar energy using optical concentrators such as parabolic troughs or
heliostats involve active tracking that requires costly drives and sizable support structures. This study
explores the use of optical waveguides based on total internal reflection for concentrating sunlight
onto thermal receivers, with the goal of minimizing or eliminating moving parts, tracking structures
and cost. To this end, the paper presents an analytical closed-form solution for the coupled optical
and thermal transport of solar irradiation through an ideal planar waveguide concentrator
integrated with linear receiver at both ends. The effects of various design and operating parameters
are systematically investigated on the system performance, which is quantified in terms of net
thermal power delivered, aperture area required and collection efficiency. Design envelopes that
identify feasible waveguide configurations based on thermal stress, maximum continuous operation
temperature and structural constraints are illustrated. The study provides an upper bound for the
maximum performance achievable with planar waveguide concentrator-receiver configuration that
can be used as a benchmark to compare different practical designs. Further, a cost analysis is
presented to determine the preferred design configurations that minimize the cost per unit area of
the planar waveguide concentrator coupled to the receiver. Considering applications to thermal
desalination and concentrated solar thermal power generation, optimal design configuration of
waveguide concentrator-receiver system is identified that results in the least levelized cost of power
(LCOP). Sensitivity analysis of the total cost per unit area and LCOP to waveguide material
parameters and cost is used to derive improvements needed to meet the U.S. Department of Energy
(DOE) SunShot's solar field cost target of $75/m2.

105

CPV/T system design and opticalanalysis with beamsplitting film coated on solar cells'surface
Yang, A., Hu, P., Zhang, G., Pan, J., Chen, Z. 2017 Taiyangneng Xuebao/Acta Energiae
Solaris Sinica

38(12), pp. 3259-3264

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© 2017, Editorial Board of Acta Energiae Solaris Sinica. All right reserved. A concentrating
photovoltaic/thermal(CPV/T)hybrid utilization system with Linear Fresnel Reflector(LFR) was
proposed. The surface of solar cells was coated with beam-splitting film which could reflect the
undesired light for PV to thermal receiver. The construction parameters and optical performance of
the proposed system were theoretical analyzed by using ray tracing method. The results show that
the radiation intensity distribution on solar cells is uniform, and the thermal receiver has high
interception ratio. The designed beam-splitting film can split the concentrated solar beams for solar
cells and thermal receivers and simplify the hybrid system. The proposed system can provide the
possibility of further improving the utility efficiency of solar energy.

106

Feasibility study of a new concept of solar external receiver: Variable velocity receiver Rodríguez-
Sánchez, M.R., Sánchez-González, A., Santana, D. 2018 Applied Thermal Engineering

128, pp. 335-344

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The deployment of new solar power tower plants mainly depends on becoming
cost-competitive with traditional forms of electricity generation. The solar field represents around
40% of the solar power tower investment cost, thus the cost reduction of such subsystems is
mandatory to achieve that goal. This reduction could be done by increasing the solar flux intercepted
by the receiver, which would increase the peak flux. Therefore, new concepts of solar receivers are
required to accommodate such high peak flux. The proposed receiver, which withstands high peak
flux, consists on a Traditional External Tubular Receiver (TETR) equipped with valves that allow the
division of each panel of the receiver in two independent panels, increasing the velocity of the heat
transfer fluid in specific zones of the receiver. This receiver configuration, named Variable Velocity
Receiver (VVR), avoids tube overheating. Moreover, this novel receiver allows more concentrated
aiming strategies, which increases the optical efficiency of the solar field and permits to reduce the
number of heliostats in the field. Given a specific generation capacity, the size of the solar field
required by a VVR is 12.5% smaller in comparison to a TETR. Such efficiency improvement has a
negligible effect in tube mechanical stresses; even though pressure drop and parasitic consumption
of the power plant increase. This new receiver configuration also gains hours of operation, even in
winter: in hours with low solar irradiance all the panels can be split in two, increasing the number of
passes and the velocity of the heat transfer fluid and accomplishing the transition from laminar to
turbulent regime. Therefore, this receiver is able to reduce the levelized cost of energy.

107

Experimental evaluation of the solar flux distribution on the flat receiver of a model heliostat system
Gadhe, P.M., Sapali, S.N., Kulkarni, G.N. 2018 International Journal of Renewable Energy
Research

8(2), pp. 878-887

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© 2018, International Journal of Renewable Energy Research. For the efficient utilization of solar
energy, its concentration is required. Central Receiver systems have higher concentration ratio as
compared to other concentrated solar power techniques. The solar flux density distribution and the
temperature on the receiver plate are important parameters in assessing the net thermal energy, in
predicting the performance of solar concentrator and in the design of the solar receiver. Here the
flux distribution on the flat receiver of the ganged type model heliostat system consisting of nine
heliostats has been evaluated by using the thermocouple method which is the indirect method of
flux measurement. The variation of the solar flux density distribution on the receiver plate has been
estimated for the different numbers of heliostat by using the energy balance equation. For this
model heliostat system, the peak flux and average flux values are estimated to be 3950.57 (± 3%)
W/m2and 1798.77 (± 3%) W/m2respectively. This analysis will be useful for sizing of the receiver of
solar concentrator. For the average flux value on the receiver plate, the receiver size for the nine
heliostats system will be 0.3m × 0.3m with the intercept factor of 64%. The average optical
concentration ratio was 5.6 with the optical efficiency of the system 0.50 ± 3 % during the test
period.

108

Novel receiver-enhanced solar vapor generation: Review and perspectives

Open Access

Raza, A., Lu, J.-Y., Alzaim, S., Li, H., Zhang, T. 2018 Energies

11(1),en11010253

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© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. Efficient solar vapor/steam generation is
important for various applications ranging from power generation, cooling, desalination systems to
compact and portable devices like drinking water purification and sterilization units. However,
conventional solar steam generation techniques usually rely on costly and cumbersome optical
concentration systems and have relatively low efficiency due to bulk heating of the entire liquid
volume. Recently, by incorporating novel light harvesting receivers, a new class of solar steam
generation systems has emerged with high vapor generation efficiency. They are categorized in two
research streams: volumetric and floating solar receivers. In this paper, we review the basic
principles of these solar receivers, the mechanism involving from light absorption to the vapor
generation, and the associated challenges. We also highlight the two routes to produce high
temperature steam using optical and thermal concentration. Finally, we propose a scalable approach
to efficiently harvest solar energy using a semi-spectrally selective absorber with near-perfect visible
light absorption and low thermal emittance. Our proposed approach represents a new development
in thermally concentrated solar distillation systems, which is also cost-effective and easy to fabricate
for rapid industrial deployment.

109
Optical performance study of different shapes of solar cavity receivers used in central receiver
system plant Arrif, T., Benchabane, A., Guermoui, M., Gama, A., Merarda, H. 2018
International Journal of Ambient Energy

Article in Press 0

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© 2018, © 2018 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. In the current study, we
present the optical efficiency of six different shapes of cavity receivers that are mostly used in solar
power tower systems. This study was conducted in applied research unit for renewable energies
(URAER) at Ghardaïa province, Algeria. Each heliostat reflects the sunray into the centre point of the
cavity aperture situated at 7.4 m on the top tower. In order to find the orientation of each heliostat,
several parameters relating the position of the sun and heliostat tower system are estimated.
Optical simulation was performed by means of TracePro® 2013 ray tracing software using the MCRT
(Monte Carlo ray trace) method. The results show that conical and trapezoidal shapes perform
better than other studied cavities. They mostly exhibit the highest optical efficiency reaching
92.65%, 91.81% at absorptivity 85% and an optical efficiency of 90.88% and 89.30% at absorptivity
75%.

110

An experimental study of the stability and performance characteristics of a Hybrid Solar Receiver
Combustor operated in the MILD combustion regime Chinnici, A., Nathan, G.J., Dally, B.B.
2018 Proceedings of the Combustion Institute

Article in Press 2

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© 2018. This study describes the performance and stability characteristics of a Hybrid Solar Receiver
Combustor operated in the Moderate or Intense Low oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion regime, in
which the functions of a solar receiver and a combustor are integrated into a single device. The
device was built and tested at a nominal capacity of 20 kWth for both the combustion-only (MILD
and conventional combustion) and mixed-mode (a combination of both solar and combustion).
Here, a 5 kWel xenon-arc solar simulator and natural gas were used as the energy sources, while the
combustion mode was operated in the MILD combustion regime. The thermal efficiency, wall cavity
temperature, heat flux distribution within the cavity and pollutant emissions are reported for the
two modes of operation for a range of energy input, equivalence ratio, heat extraction, air preheat
and solar-to-fuel energy input ratio. The stability limits for stable operations are also identified for
each mode of operation. It was found that MILD combustion can be successfully stabilised within the
HSRC in a wide range of operating conditions with and without air preheating, and in the mixed-
mode of operation, providing ultra-low NOx and CO emissions. Also, the stability limits were found
to increase by adding concentrated solar radiation to the combustion process. The thermal
performance was found to be similar in both combustion-only (conventional combustion and MILD)
and mixed-mode (up to ≈ 88% assuming reasonable heat recovery from the exhaust gas), confirming
that an overall benefit can be derived from the device.

111

Development and application of a multi-domain dynamic model for direct steam generation solar
power plant Rousset, A., Baviere, R., Vuillerme, V. 2018 IFAC-PapersOnLine

51(2), pp. 777-782

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© 2018 Direct Steam Generation (DSG) concentrated solar plants are promising but complex power
systems. This latter feature originates both from the variety of physical phenomena and the dynamic
nature of the boundary conditions at play during plant operation. A representative yet
computationally efficient numerical simulator is a valuable tool to assist engineers in the proper
design, control and operation of such specific water-steam cycle. The present communication
reports on the development of a multi-domain dynamic model representing a DSG plant. To do so,
we followed a code-coupling approach and relied on the domain-decomposition paradigm. More
specifically, we built three sub-models respectively in the thermal-hydraulic, the optical and the
control-command domains and coupled them through an in-house co-simulation platform called
PEGASE. We used the CATHARE system code to solve the thermal-hydraulic problem and the more
generalist DYMOLA software to model the convective and radiative heat exchanges within the solar
receiver. As an example, we then applicate the simulator to elaborate an efficient controller for the
steam separator level.

112

Design of an integrated CSP-calcium looping for uninterrupted power production through energy
storage Karasavvas, E., Panopoulos, K.D., Papadopoulou, S., Voutetakis, S. 2018 Chemical
Engineering Transactions

70, pp. 2131-2136

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Copyright © 2018, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l. Solar driven large scale uninterrupted power production can be
accomplished with a combination of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plant and a Thermochemical
Energy Storage (TCES) based on a Calcium Looping (CaL) process. Thermal energy can be stored in
the form of chemical energy due to calcination reaction and released back as thermal energy during
the carbonation reaction (CaO + CO2 ↔ CaCO3). This paper presents the preliminarily design,
integration, and simulation of such process plant in AspenPlusTMby considering solar energy in the
system. This includes indirect solar heated calcination by explicitly heating up CO2 at high
temperatures at a concentrated solar heat exchanger (receiver), where CO2 is directly imported into
the calciner not only to preheat solids, but to provide the appropriate energy for the highly
endothermic calcination reaction. The global efficiency of the integrated system reaches 31.5 %. A
parametric analysis is presented on the effects of key parameters, such as the carbonation pressure,
the CO2 inlet temperature to calciner, and CaO storage temperature.

113

A review of solar thermal energy storage in beds of particles: Packed and fluidized beds Almendros-
Ibáñez, J.A., Fernández-Torrijos, M., Díaz-Heras, M., Belmonte, J.F., Sobrino, C. 2018 Solar
Energy

Article in Press 1

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd This review summarizes different solar thermal energy storage techniques from
a particle technology perspective, including sensible, latent and thermochemical techniques for low-
and high-temperature applications that use particles as the storage medium in the thermal energy
storage system. The focus is on applications, experimental results, modeling and future trends. This
review describes two different particle technologies used to store thermal energy: packed and
fluidized beds. The advantages and disadvantages of both technologies are reviewed throughout
different studies found in the literature for various thermal energy storage systems. Packed beds
have the main advantage of thermal stratification, which increases the efficiency of solar collectors
in low-temperature sensible energy storage systems and augments the exergy content in the bed.
Moreover, they have been proven to be suitable as dual-media thermocline storage systems for CSP
plants. In contrast, the high mixing rates of fluidized beds makes them suitable for the rapid
distribution of concentrated solar energy in particle receiver CSP systems. In addition, their high heat
and mass transfer rates, compared with those of packed beds, make them the preferred particle
technology for thermochemical energy storage applications. This review also notes that it is
important to find new materials with an appropriate size and density that can be properly used in a
fluidized bed. Additionally, more specific research efforts are necessary to improve the
understanding of the behavior of these materials during the fluidization process and over a high
number of charging/discharging cycles.

114

An experimental characterization of Calcium Looping integrated with concentrated solar power


Tregambi, C., Salatino, P., Solimene, R., Montagnaro, F. 2018 Chemical Engineering
Journal

331, pp. 794-802

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) and renewable energy sources are
both essential to mitigate the CO2emissions in the near future. Calcium Looping (CaL) is an
important post-combustion carbon capture technology that has reached the maturity of the pilot
plant stage. On the other side Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) is a fast-growing renewable
technology in which solar energy, concentrated up to several MW m−2, can be used to produce
electricity or to drive an endothermic chemical reaction. The integration between a CSP system and
a CaL cycle, in order to use a renewable source to supply the energy required by the calciner, would
strongly improve the performance of the CaL process by overcoming some of its main drawbacks.
However, the role that highly concentrated radiation can have on the sorbent properties in the CaL
cycle is still matter of investigation. In this study, the CaL-CSP integrated process is experimentally
investigated through the use of a directly irradiated Fluidized Bed (FB) reactor. Simulated
concentrated solar radiation featured a peak flux on the FB surface of approximately 3 MW m−2and
a total power of about 3 kWth. Several calcination and carbonation tests have been performed on
samples of a commercial Italian limestone, in order to establish the evolution of the sorbent capacity
of CO2capture at increasing number of cycles. The properties of the limestone samples were further
investigated by means of microstructural characterization. The comparison between results
obtained with and without the use of the solar concentrated flux to thermally sustain calcination
provides useful information on the potential of solar driven CaL and on the measure to overcome
some of its potential limitations.

115

Performance bounds and perspective for hybrid solar photovoltaic/thermal electricity-generation


strategies Vossier, A., Zeitouny, J., Katz, E.A., (...), Flamant, G., Gordon, J.M. 2018
Sustainable Energy and Fuels

2(9), pp. 2060-2067

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© 2018 The Royal Society of Chemistry. Hybrid solar photovoltaic (PV)/thermal power systems offer
the possibility of dispatchable, affordable and efficient solar electricity production-the type of
transformative innovation needed for solar cell devices to realize high grid penetration. The PV sub-
system enjoys high efficiency, and the thermal sub-system can ensure uninterrupted power delivery
via backup gas heating and/or multi-hour thermal storage. However, elucidation of the basic
performance bounds, and the quantitative perspective required for judging the leading hybrid
strategies relative to one another, as well as relative to the existing alternative of autonomous
photovoltaic and solar thermal power systems, have remained incomplete. A more thorough and
basic evaluation of the performance of the assorted combinations of PV and solar thermal sub-
systems over a wider range of possible operating conditions than regarded previously is presented
here. This involves analysis of the most fundamental processes limiting system efficiency, tempered
by the realities of current and foreseeable PV and thermal technologies. The 3 leading hybrid
strategies are: (1) concentrated solar beam radiation irradiating an integrated PV-thermal receiver,
with the unique advantage of recuperating PV thermalization losses as heat delivered to the thermal
receiver, thereby contributing to driving the turbine, (2) the spectral splitting of concentrated solar
beam radiation, with sub-bandgap photons directed to a thermal receiver and the rest to
concentrator PV cells, and (3) nominally 1 sun PV cells performing double duty as both a direct
converter and as a spectrum-splitting reflector that concentrates sub-bandgap photons onto a
thermal receiver. The two figures of merit appraised are: (a) the solar-to-electricity conversion
efficiency, and (b) the share between thermal and PV electricity production.

116

Temperature distribution on a plant receiver adapted from a commercial solar plant in Ait Baha-
Morocco Rabhi, L., Khmou, A., Boutammachte, N. 2018 Asian Journal of Scientific Research

11(1), pp. 96-104

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© 2018 Louiza Rabhi et al. The trapezoidal cavity absorber for linear fresnel reflectors has been
frequently studied by researchers. In this study, the temperature distribution was determined using
this same absorber to consider the solar conditions of Meknes city (Morocco) during two different
chosen days from cold and hot seasons in the city at 12 pm, when the maximum direct normal
irradiance (DNI) was reached. The plant considered was adapted from a commercial solar plant in Ait
Baha, Morocco. Materials and Methods: Simulation tools were used to carry out this study, indeed,
design and simulation of the linear fresnel system for the trapezoidal cavity absorber were done by
Tonatiuh. Mathematica 9 program was generated for post processing binary files obtained from
Tonatiuh and finally, temperature distribution was simulated in COMSOL Multiphysics 5.2a. Results:
The proposed plant reached considerable and satisfying values, especially for the day when the DNI
was high, thus a concentrated solar power (CSP) plant in Meknes city will be beneficial. It was found
that temperature was low in January in comparison with that in July, but it could increase if
considering the receiver during the entire duration of sunshine; Indeed, it could attain a high value
of up to 650°C on 15 July at 12 pm and reach a low value of 180°C on 30 January, 2016 at the same
fixed time. Conclusion: On the basis of this study, the proposed installation achieves considerable
and satisfying values for a fixed time, so a CSP plant in Meknes city will be beneficial. For months
when the DNI is minimal, an energy storage study or the use of waste heat from industry is needed
to increase the heat at the output of the receiver.

117

A thermo-economic methodology to select sCO2 power cycles for CSP applications Crespi, F.,
Sánchez, D., Rodríguez, J.M., Gavagnin, G. 2018 Renewable Energy

Article in Press 0

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The interest in Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) power cycles has grown
exponentially in the last decade, thanks to distinctive features like the possibility to achieve high
thermal efficiencies at intermediate temperature, small footprint and adaptability to a wide variety
of energy sources. In the present work, the potential of this technology is studied for Concentrated
Solar Power applications, in particular Solar Tower systems with Thermal Energy Storage. Further to
a previous thorough sensitivity analysis of twelve sCO2cycles assessing the impact of turbine inlet
temperature and pressure ratio on thermal efficiency, specific work, solar share and temperature
rise across the solar receiver, the present paper investigates the features of two of these cycles in
more detail. The most important conclusions of this section are that: a) the peak values of these
thermodynamic figures of merit are obtained at different pressure ratios; b) specific work and
temperature rise across the receiver seem to follow parallel trends whilst this is not the case for
thermal efficiency; c) for a given turbine inlet temperature, higher pressure ratios increase the
temperature rise across the receiver strongly, but the effect on thermal efficiency is uncertain as this
can either increase or decrease, depending on the cycle considered. A deeper analysis of thermal
efficiency and receiver temperature rise is therefore mandatory, given that these parameters have a
very strong effect on the capital cost of CSP power plants. On one hand, a higher thermal efficiency
implies a smaller solar field, the largest contributor to the plant capital cost; on the other, the
temperature rise across the receiver is inversely proportional to the size of the thermal energy
storage systems, as it is also the case for state of the art steam turbine based CSP plants. In order to
quantify these trends, an economic analysis is developed using an in-house code and the open-
source software System Advisor Model to evaluate the trade-offs between these two effects. As a
result, the Overnight Capital Cost is estimated at some 5000 $/kW, with the individual contributions
of solar field, thermal energy storage and power block being given in the paper.

118

Oxide particles as combined heat storage medium and sulphur trioxide decomposition catalysts for
solar hydrogen production through sulphur cycles Agrafiotis, C., Thomey, D., de Oliveira, L.,
(...), Zagaja, M., Janus, D. 2018 International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

Article in Press 0

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© 2018 Within the general framework of investigating novel routes for solar hydrogen production,
the idea of combining a solar centrifugal particle receiver with sulphur thermochemical cycles,
involving SO3 dissociation to SO2 and O2 as key step, is pursued. In this perspective, the present
work concerns the synthesis, development, evaluation and characterisation of particles suitable to
operate as media for direct solar irradiation absorption, transfer and storage as well as catalysts for
the SO3 dissociation reaction. Commercial bauxite-based proppants were modified to incorporate
raw materials with elements known for their catalytic activity with respect to the SO3 dissociation,
namely iron, copper, manganese and their combinations. The catalytic activity of such modified
proppants was tested in fixed bed reactor test rigs at 850 °C and ambient pressure with
concentrated liquid sulphuric acid as feedstock. Extensive screening tests complemented by
physicochemical properties measurements before and after catalytic testing, identified systems that
at 850 °C, 1 atm and Gas Hourly Space Velocity of 11,800 h−1 could achieve high SO3 conversions
(60%, corresponding to 68% of equilibrium value) for over 125 h of continuous operation. This
performance was achieved without degradation of their mechanical strength which, in fact exhibited
a slight increase from 53 N in the fresh state to 55 N after long-term exposure to reaction conditions.
However such systems were susceptible to colour alteration, affecting adversely their absorptance in
the 1000–2500 nm wavelength range. Compositions with the best combination of properties are
scheduled for large-scale synthesis and on-site testing in a pilot-scale solar receiver.

119

Particles in a circulation loop for solar energy capture and storage Kang, Q., Flamant, G., Dewil,
R., (...), Zhang, H.L., Deng, Y.M. 2018 Particuology

Article in Press 1

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© 2018 Chinese Society of Particuology and Institute of Process Engineering, Chinese Academy of
Sciences This study defines and assesses the selection criteria for suitable particulate materials to be
used in an upflow bubbling fluidized bed (UBFB) or dense up-flow powder circulation system for
solar energy capture and storage. The main criteria identified are based on the thermophysical and
thermomechanical properties, attrition behavior, and the considerations of health and
environmental hazards of the candidate powders. Finally, a cost comparison and tentative ranking of
the different candidate powders is presented in addition to a weighted scoring. Significant scoring
differences can be observed between the various materials. Olivine possesses the most favorable
characteristics and appears to be the particulate material of choice for solid/gas suspension heat
transfer fluids.

120

Solar thermal hybrids for combustion power plant: A growing opportunity

Open Access

Nathan, G.J., Jafarian, M., Dally, B.B., (...), Hu, E., Steinfeld, A. 2018 Progress in Energy and
Combustion Science

64, pp. 4-28

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© 2018 The development of technologies to hybridise concentrating solar thermal energy (CST) and
combustion technologies, is driven by the potential to provide both cost-effective CO2 mitigation
and firm supply. Hybridisation, which involves combining the two energy sources within a single
plant, offers these benefits over the stand-alone counterparts through the use of shared
infrastructure and increased efficiency. In the near-term, hybrids between solar and fossil fuelled
systems without carbon capture offer potential to lower the use of fossil fuels, while in the longer
term they offer potential for low-cost carbon-neutral or carbon-negative energy. The integration of
CST into CO2 capture technologies such as oxy-fuel combustion and chemical looping combustion is
potentially attractive because the same components can be used for both CO2 capture and the
storage of solar energy, to reduce total infrastructure and cost. The use of these hybrids with
biomass and/or renewable fuels, offers the additional potential for carbon-negative energy with
relatively low cost. In addition to reviewing these technologies, we propose a methodology for
classifying solar-combustion hybrid technologies and assess the progress and challenges of each.
Particular attention is paid to “direct hybrids”, which harness the two energy sources in a common
solar receiver or reactor to reduce total infrastructure and losses.

121

A CFD-DEM study of hydrodynamics with heat transfer in a gas-solid fluidized bed reactor for solar
thermal applications Bellan, S., Matsubara, K., Cho, H.S., Gokon, N., Kodama, T. 2018
International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

116, pp. 377-392

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The particles flow and heat transfer characteristics of a high temperature solar
thermochemical fluidized bed reactor have been studied for solar beam-down concentrating
systems. A numerical model has been developed by the combined approach of computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) and discrete element method (DEM) collisional model since it is an effective
approach for studying the gas-solid flow. The discrete ordinate model has been used to solve the
radiation heat transfer. An experimental visualization of particles circulation pattern and mixing of
two-tower fluidized bed system has been presented. A good agreement has been found between
the experimental measurements and numerical predictions. The effect of gas superficial velocity,
bed mass and inlet gas temperature on the flow pattern and temperature characteristics of the bed
have been investigated. The results showed that the maximum and average temperature of the bed,
depends on the top layer position and focal point of the concentrated radiation, decreased when
increasing the total mass of the bed.

122

Heat loss analysis from a trapezoidal cavity receiver in LFR system using conduction-radiation model
Mohan, S., Saxena, A., Singh, S. 2018 Solar Energy

159, pp. 37-43

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Linear Fresnel Reflector systems are medium temperature (100–400 °C)
application systems where heat flux from the sun is concentrated on absorber tubes housed in a
trapezoidal cavity by an array of mirrors. The absorber tubes carry working fluid inside them. Several
earlier works have considered convective and radiative heat transfer from these trapezoidal cavities
in LFR systems. It has also been shown that the convective heat transfer constitutes up to 15% of the
total heat losses which is significant. On the other hand, it is seen that the flow velocities are
negligible due to stratification of isotherms with hot air trapped on top of the cavity which suggests
that convection should be negligible. In the present work, it is shown that the heat transfer which is
considered as convective is actually, only conduction through (almost) static air inside the cavity.
Due to the abovementioned reason, in the present work, only conduction-radiation problem is
considered in the cavity which is far easier to solve due to the absence of complex Navier-Stokes
equations. The comparison of heat transfer results obtained using conduction-radiation model and
those obtained using convection-radiation model show that the difference between the two results
is negligible. Moreover, new correlations are developed with fewer parameters to capture the
underlying physics of the heat loss mechanism in such cavities.

123

Design and analysis of reflectivity for Mylar-coated solar dish Sriram, V., Kanimozhi, B.
2018 International Journal of Ambient Energy

39(1), pp. 51-53

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© 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. Energy is the key driver of the
economy but energy crisis is a problem for the present-day source of energy. The concentrated solar
power systems make use of different reflector configurations to convert the solar energy into high-
temperature heat energy. Parabolic dish system is considered as the best suitable system for
achieving high temperature and so it is opted for the study. Here, a solar dish is designed with an
open diameter of 1.8 m (which is 2.5 m2in area), and reflective film is being used to reflect the solar
irradiance and concentrated it in the focal point. A receiver of 1 mm thickness and 10 cm diameter is
used at the receiver end to measure the temperature of the focal point. The setup has made to
attain a maximum temperature of 940°C and average temperature of 850°C in the focal point at
clear sky in a sunny day.

124

Thermoelastic stress in concentrating solar receiver tubes: A retrospect on stress analysis


methodology, and comparison of salt and sodium Logie, W.R., Pye, J.D., Coventry, J.
2018 Solar Energy

160, pp. 368-379

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Temperature distribution in nonaxisymmetrically concentrating solar thermal


receivers tubes is calculated for the steady-state solution with a Gauss-Seidel iteration in cylindrical
coordinates. The classical plane-biharmonic thermoelastic approach to nonaxisymmetrically heated
tube stress is applied. Calculation of the dominant axial thermal stress component is included.
Validation is obtained with the linear-elastic thermal stress OpenFOAM® solver. Thermoelastic stress
in stainless steel 316 Schedule 5S DN25 (1″) tubes containing liquid sodium is found to be 35% lower
than in tubes containing molten salt. The difference is due to the higher conductivity of liquid
sodium which maintains a smaller temperature difference between the front and back tube sides. A
simplified thermal stress formula is shown to be erroneous if not implemented as originally
documented. The sensitivity of tube thermoelastic stress to tube material and flow properties is
illustrated with parameter variation, and the impact of solar concentrated heat flux is explored with
some typical and ideal tube circumference flux profiles.

125

A novel system for high-purity hydrogen production based on solar thermal cracking of methane and
liquid-metal technology: Thermodynamic analysis Zheng, Z.-J., Xu, Y. 2018 Energy
Conversion and Management

157, pp. 562-574

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd A novel zero-carbon-emission system for producing high-purity hydrogen and
carbon nanoparticles was proposed in this paper. Concentrated solar energy as the only energy
source was utilized in a cascaded way. That is to say, concentrated solar energy was first used to
provide heat with high temperature for the thermal cracking of methane, and then used to drive the
heat-to-power cycle for the output of mechanical work or electricity. The produced mechanical work
or electricity was used for separating hydrogen from the unreacted methane based on the
membrane technology. The performances of the whole system and its major facilities were studied
through the first law thermodynamics. The results showed that, receiver loses about 35% of the
input energy due to the high operating temperature, and about 59% of the input energy is used for
the purification of hydrogen. The system performance is mainly affected by four key parameters
including the heat loss of receiver, the conversion rate of methane in the reactor, the operating
pressure of the membrane separator, and the heat-to-power rate of the power generation cycle.
Decreasing the operating pressure of the membrane separator is one of the most efficient ways to
improve the system efficiency. With the partial pressure of hydrogen in the retentive-side of
separator decreasing from 791 to 200 kPa, the ideal system efficiency increases from 0.4 to 0.8.

126

Thermoelectric properties and performance of flexible reduced graphene oxide films up to 3,000 K
Li, T., Pickel, A.D., Yao, Y., (...), Drew, D.H., Hu, L. 2018 Nature Energy

3(2), pp. 148-156

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© 2018 The Author(s). The development of ultrahigh-temperature thermoelectric materials could
enable thermoelectric topping of combustion power cycles as well as extending the range of direct
thermoelectric power generation in concentrated solar power. However, thermoelectric operation
temperatures have been restricted to under 1,500 K due to the lack of suitable materials. Here, we
demonstrate a thermoelectric conversion material based on high-temperature reduced graphene
oxide nanosheets that can perform reliably up to 3,000 K. After a reduction treatment at 3,300 K, the
nanosheet film exhibits an increased conductivity to ~4,000 S cm-1 at 3,000 K and a high power
factor S 2 σ = 54.5 μW cm-1 K-2. We report measurements characterizing the film's thermoelectric
properties up to 3,000 K. The reduced graphene oxide film also exhibits a high broadband radiation
absorbance and can act as both a radiative receiver and a thermoelectric generator. The printable,
lightweight and flexible film is attractive for system integration and scalable manufacturing.

127

Transient performance of an impinging receiver: An indoor experimental study Wang, W.,


Malmquist, A., Aichmayer, L., Laumert, B. 2018 Energy Conversion and Management

158, pp. 193-200

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The impinging receiver is a new member of the cavity solar receiver family. In
this paper, the transient performance of a prototype impinging receiver has been studied with the
help of a Fresnel lens based solar simulator and an externally fired micro gas turbine. The impinging
receiver can offer an air outlet temperature of 810 °C at an absorber temperature of 960 °C. The
radiative-to-thermal efficiency is measured to be 74.1%. The absorber temperature uniformity is
good but high temperature differences have been detected during the ‘cold startup’ process. The
temperature changing rate of the receiver is within 3 °C/s for the startup process and 4 °C/s for the
shut-down process. In order to avoid quenching effects caused by the impinging jets, the micro gas
turbine should be turned off to stop the airflow when the radiative power is off.

128

Design and demonstration of a high temperature solar-heated rotary tube reactor for continuous
particles calcination Abanades, S., André, L. 2018 Applied Energy

212, pp. 1310-1320

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd This study aims at developing a novel solar reactor concept for the continuous
processing of reactive particles involved in high-temperature thermochemical reactions (500–1600
°C). The reactor is composed of a cavity-type solar receiver for radiation absorption and heat
transfer to a rotary tube in which the reactive particles are continuously injected. This type of
reactor shows several advantages in comparison with existing solar thermochemical reactors and
the main key characteristics are: (i) external heating by concentrated solar energy, (ii) indirect
heating of reactants (reacting zone separated from the zone receiving solar radiation) thus avoiding
products deposition on the optical window, (iii) continuous injection of solid reactive particles, (iv)
rotation of the tube enabling particles transport and circulation to the outlet, (v) uniform heating of
the reactive zone, (vi) direct contact between particles and inner tube wall, enabling optimal heat
transfer, (vii) long residence time of particles controlled by the adjustable tube tilting angle, tube
rotational speed and particle feeding rate, (viii) reactor adapted to various solid-gas reactions and
possible large-scale extrapolation. This versatile solar reactor can be operated for a large variety of
thermochemical processes involving solid reactants such as calcination reactions (e.g. decarbonation
of limestone for lime or cement production). In this study, proof-of-concept experiments were
performed to demonstrate the feasibility of continuous solar calcination of limestone particles
(CaCO3→ CaO + CO2(g)), which for example could be associated to a cement production solar
process, but also applied to CaO-based sorbent regeneration in a CO2capture process or
thermochemical energy storage via CaCO3/CaO reversible reactions.

129

Particle motion and heat transfer in an upward-flowing dense particle suspension: Application in
solar receivers García-Triñanes, P., Seville, J.P.K., Ansart, R., (...), Leadbeater, T.W., Parker, D.J.
2018 Chemical Engineering Science

177, pp. 313-322

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Concentrated solar power (CSP) plants conventionally make use of molten salt
as the heat transfer medium, which transfers heat between the solar receiver and a steam turbine
power circuit. A new approach uses particles of a heat-resistant particulate medium in the form of
many dense upward-moving fluidised beds contained within an array of vertical tubes within the
solar receiver. In most dense gas–solid fluidisation systems, particle circulation is induced by bubble
motion and is the primary cause of particle convective heat transfer, which is the major contributing
mechanism to overall heat transfer. The current work describes experiments designed to investigate
the relationship between this solids convection and the heat transfer coefficient between the bed
and the tube wall, which is shown to depend on the local particle concentration and their rate of
renewal at the wall. Experiments were performed using 65 µm silicon carbide particles in a tube of
diameter 30 mm, replicating the conditions used in the real application. Solids motion and time-
averaged solids concentration were measured using Positron Emission Particle Tracking (PEPT) and
local heat transfer coefficients measured using small probes which employ electrical resistance
heating and thermocouple temperature measurement. Results show that, as for other types of
bubbling beds, the heat transfer coefficient first increases as the gas flow rate increases (because
the rate of particle renewal at the wall increases), before passing through a maximum and
decreasing again as the reducing local solids concentration at the wall becomes the dominant effect.
Measured heat transfer coefficients are compared with theoretical approaches by Mickley and
Fairbanks packet model and Thring correlation. The close correspondence between heat transfer
coefficient and solids movement is here demonstrated by PEPT for the first time in a dense upward-
moving fluidised bed.

130

Parametric investigation of particulate flow in interconnected porous media for central particle-
heating receiver Lee, T., Shin, S., Abdel-Khalik, S.I. 2018 Journal of Mechanical
Science and Technology

32(3), pp. 1181-1186

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© 2018, The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers and Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of
Springer Nature. An interconnected porous structure can be utilized to regulate the particle mass
flow rate for central Solar particle-heating receivers (SPR) in Concentrated solar power (CSP)
systems. The porous structure reduces the speed of the falling particulate material, i.e. increases its
residence time within the receiver, thereby allowing a large temperature rise to be achieved in a
single pass. An experimentally- validated numerical model of particulate flow within a porous
structure was presented in an earlier publication (Lee et al., 2015). In this note, the numerical model
is parametrically applied to quantify the effect of various design parameters on the performance of
the SPR. The effects of receiver height, porous medium characteristics, and particle size on the mass
flux and average particle residence time within the receiver have been quantified. Generalized
correlations for the mass flux and average residence time have been developed. These correlations
represent the main result of this work; they should aid designers of SPRs in selecting the appropriate
range of parameters for their application.

131

A novel solar concentrating system based on a fixed cylindrical reflector and tracking receiver
Maatallah, T., Houcine, A., El Alimi, S., Ben Nasrallah, S. 2018 Renewable Energy

117, pp. 85-107

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The performance of a novel solar energy concentrating system consisting of a
cylindrical mirror placed in a stationary position and a receiver tracking system is investigated. Via a
computational tool based on the ray-tracing method, the sensitivity of the geometric concentration
ratio, rim angle, shadow angle, incidence angle and hourly insolation level to the optical
performance of the concentrator are evaluated. The simulation includes a model of solar
concentrating system based on the approximation of the optical behavior of a cylindrical reflector. In
fact, the optical efficiency of the solar concentrator system is examined. The results prove that the
maximum of the optical efficiency is achieved for 20 × geometric concentration ratio and 80°-rim
angle. Moreover, the concentrated solar density and the Local Concentration Ratio (LCR) distribution
along the tracked receiver tube are analyzed and compared to those obtained by the classical one-
axis tracked parabolic trough concentrator system.

132

Determination of critical thermal loads in ceramic high concentration solar receivers Smirnova,
O., Fend, T., Capuano, R., (...), Schwarzbözl, P., Sutter, F. 2018 Solar Energy Materials and Solar
Cells

176, pp. 196-203

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Solar towers with volumetric air receiver technology are a promising
technology for continuous or demand oriented electricity supply from a sustainable resource with
competitive costs. The absorber elements used for this receiver technology are permeable ceramic
honeycombs, which are heated up by concentrated solar radiation. Afterwards the heat is being
transferred to air, which finally feeds the steam generator of a Rankine-Cycle. Resulting from the
intensive solar flux of up to 800 kW/m2, the absorber modules are exposed to severe thermal loads.
Maximum temperatures of more than 1000 °C are reached. Furthermore, during daily start-up and
shut down procedures and additionally during cloud transitions the absorbers undergo transient
heat loads, which might reduce their lifetime. The objective of the present study is to quantify the
effect of typical thermal loads and to calculate the resulting mechanical stresses inside the absorber
modules. Two types of absorbers have been compared, a conventional coarse honeycomb and an
advanced one with a higher cellularity offering an improved efficiency potential. The mechanical
strength of the cellular material is used to find out whether the computed thermomechanical
stresses are critical or not. Finally, experimental thermo-shock tests have been carried out to
validate the numerical models. It could be shown that under normal operation the
thermomechanical stresses remain in a range markedly below the fracture stress in both absorber
variants. As a consequence, limits are given to what extent the material should be thermally loaded
during operation.

133

Optical design of compact linear fresnel reflector systems Zhu, J., Chen, Z. 2018 Solar
Energy Materials and Solar Cells

176, pp. 239-250

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Compact linear Fresnel reflector (CLFR) system employing multiple receivers is
promising with better optical performance and cost effectiveness compared to linear Fresnel
reflector (LFR) system, especially for applications with limited ground availabilities. Nevertheless,
only few researches have been conducted to evaluate optical design and performance of the CLFR
system. In this study, geometrical models for the CLFR system with flat mirrors and receivers are
developed on the basis of polar orientation. A comparative study of concentration characteristics
among the LFR, CLFR-complete and CLFR-hybrid systems is conducted based on numerical, ray
tracing simulation and experimental results. In addition, optical design analyses of the CLFR-hybrid
system are carried out from various design aspects. It is noteworthy that the mirror arrangement
and focal length should be optimized for the CLFR-hybrid system with considerations of the
associated geometrical characteristic and optical performance. For a small-scale CLFR-hybrid system
with a solar field width of 2100 mm and a focal length of 1500 mm, the geometrical concentration
ratio of 15.14 and ground utilization ratio of 0.95 are achieved respectively. The findings
demonstrate the feasibility of the CLFR-hybrid system with flat mirrors and polar orientation, which
provide progress to the concentrated solar power technology.

134

High temperature systems using solid particles as TES and HTF material: A review Calderón,
A., Palacios, A., Barreneche, C., (...), Rodriguez-Sanchez, A., Fernández, A.I. 2018 Applied
Energy

213, pp. 100-111

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Thermal energy constitutes up to 90% of global energy budget, centering on
heat conversion, transmission, and storage; therefore, the technology for harvesting solar energy
worth to be developed. One of them is the concentrated solar power (CSP) solar towers where sun-
tracking heliostats reflect solar radiation to the top of a tower where the receiver is located. The
great advantage of CSP over other renewable energy sources is that energy storage is feasible,
particularly when the heat transfer fluid (HTF) is also used as thermal energy storage (TES) material
which is the case of solid particles. A lot of development efforts are under way for achieving
commercial direct solar solid-particle systems. Solid particle systems for transferring high
temperature thermal energy are purposed for increasing the efficiency of these systems when
converting heat into electric power. This review recapitulates the concept of these systems taking
into account the main receiver designs, particle conveyance, particle storage systems and
components, the heat exchanger, and the main challenges that must be overcome to split this
technology as a commercial one, especially from the materials availability point of view. This review
summarizes the actual status of the use of solid particles for TES and as HTF for CSP Tower, and
condenses all the available information and classifies them considering the main functional parts and
remarking the current research in each part as well as the future challenging issues.

135

Estimating the cost of high temperature liquid metal based concentrated solar power Wilk, G.,
DeAngelis, A., Henry, A. 2018 Journal of Renewable and Sustainable Energy

10(2),023705
0

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© 2018 Author(s). The current levelized cost of electricity from concentrated solar power is too high
to directly compete with natural gas under current carbon emissions policies. An approximate 50%
cost reduction is needed relative to current power tower technology based on molten nitrate salts,
and one pathway to a major cost reduction is to operate the system at higher temperatures,
enabling a more efficient heat engine. Here, we consider a future system that can operate at gas
turbine inlet temperatures of ∼1300-1500 °C by using liquid metals as heat transfer and storage
fluids with a ceramic based piping infrastructure. In general, ceramics are more expensive than the
current stainless steels, but they are less expensive than the nickel alloys that are proposed to be
used in higher temperature chloride molten salt plants. Considering various tradeoffs, it was not
clear a priori whether or not the potential gains in heat engine efficiency would be negated by
increased material costs or how much net reduction in levelized cost might be possible. This study
answers this question by first detailing a base case molten nitrate salt power tower plant with
published cost data. Then, a future liquid metal version of a power tower is modeled using similar
specifications as the liquid salt plant to determine if there are any obvious costs that might negate
the efficiency gains associated with operating well above 1000 °C. The results of the analysis showed
that although the receiver and several other sub-systems become more expensive, there is a net
cost reduction in the range of 20%-30%, depending upon the heat engine efficiency.

136

Numerical investigation and experimental validation of the impacts of an inner radiation shield on
parabolic trough solar receivers Wang, Q., Yang, H., Huang, X., Li, J., Pei, G. 2018 Applied
Thermal Engineering

132, pp. 381-392

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd Conventional parabolic trough solar receivers are widely used to harvest heat
energy at temperatures ranging from 400 °C to 550 °C. However, high temperatures cause excessive
heat loss in solar receivers. Two types of novel solar receivers with an inner metal radiation shield
(RS), one with solar selective absorbing coating on the outer surface and one without, were
proposed and constructed to improve the thermal performance of solar receivers. Experiments were
conducted in an enthalpy difference lab, and mathematical models with spectral radiant
distributions were established to predict the thermal performance of the solar receivers. A
comparison between the simulated and experimental results showed satisfactory consistencies.
Predictions were obtained using the models with the root mean square deviation of less than 6%.
The novel solar receiver without solar selective absorbing coating on the outer surface of the RS
showed superior performance at absorber temperatures exceeding 550 °C. At the absorber
temperature of 600 °C, the percentage of heat loss reduction of the receiver with solar selective
absorbing coating and of that without reached 23.4% and 24.2%, respectively.
137

A new calorimetric facility to investigate radiative-convective heat exchangers for concentrated solar
power applications Luque, S., Santiago, S., Gómez-García, F., Romero, M., González-Aguilar, J.
2018 International Journal of Energy Research

42(3), pp. 966-976

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Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. A new calorimetric facility for the aerothermal assessment
of radiative-convective heat exchangers in concentrating solar power applications has been
developed and is described in this paper. The configuration of volumetric solar receivers enables
concentrated sunlight to be absorbed and conducted within their solid volume, from where it is
gradually transferred by forced convection to a heat transfer fluid flowing through their structure.
Current design trends towards higher thermal conversion efficiencies have led to the use of complex
intricate geometries to maximise temperatures deep inside the structure. The work presented aims
to aid these objectives by commissioning a new experimental facility for the fully integrated
evaluation of such components. The facility is composed of a high-flux solar simulator that provides
1.2 kW of radiative power, a radiation homogeniser, inlet and outlet collector modules, and a
working section that can accommodate volumetric receivers up to 80 mm × 80 mm in aperture.
Irradiance levels and flow field nondimensional governing parameters are highly representative of
on-sun experiments at larger scales. Results from experiments with a siliconised silicon carbide
monolithic honeycomb are presented, conducted at realistic conditions of incident radiative power
per unit mass flow rate to validate its design point operation. Measurements conducted include
absorber solid temperature distributions, air inlet and outlet temperatures, pressure drop, incident
heat flux, and overall thermal efficiency. The relative influence of different sources of thermal loss is
analysed and discussed.

138

Thermal and hydrodynamic performance of a novel volumetric solar receiver Teng, L., Xuan, Y.
2018 Solar Energy

163, pp. 177-188

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Concentrated solar power (CSP) technology is a promising alternative to the
traditional coal-fired power plant due to the abundance and non-pollution of solar radiation. As the
key component of a CSP plant, solar receiver thus attracts much attention recently. Nevertheless,
existing receivers suffer from low efficiencies when attaining high outlet temperatures. This paper
proposes a highly efficient solar receiver equipped with metal coated mirrors. It is theoretically
demonstrated to possess a high thermal efficiency of 88.6% at a high outlet temperature of 1352 K.
This extraordinary performance is attributed to that the recycle of radiative heat loss via the metal-
coated mirrors. These mirrors could reflect the radiation emitted from porous media, and the
numerical results indicate that 64.27% of the reflected radiation then returns to porous media.
Therefore, the amount of the radiation released to atmosphere decreases dramatically, thereby
significantly improving the thermal efficiency of the proposed receiver. In addition, the recycle of
radiation loss could contribute to reducing light pollution of the solar receiver. The application of
highly reflective reflectors to the solar receiver provides a novel approach to improve the thermal
efficiency of the high-temperature solar receiver.

139

TurtleCam: A "smart" autonomous underwater vehicle for investigating behaviors and habitats of
sea turtles

Open Access

Dodge, K.L., Kukulya, A.L., Burke, E., Baumgartner, M.F. 2018 Frontiers in Marine Science

5(MAR),90

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© 2018 Dodge, Kukulya, Burke and Baumgartner. Sea turtles inhabiting coastal environments
routinely encounter anthropogenic hazards, including fisheries, vessel traffic, pollution, dredging,
and drilling. To support mitigation of potential threats, it is important to understand fine-scale sea
turtle behaviors in a variety of habitats. Recent advancements in autonomous underwater vehicles
(AUVs) now make it possible to directly observe and study the subsurface behaviors and habitats of
marine megafauna, including sea turtles. Here, we describe a "smart" AUV capability developed to
study free-swimming marine animals, and demonstrate the utility of this technology in a pilot study
investigating the behaviors and habitat of leatherback turtles (Dermochelys coriacea). We used a
Remote Environmental Monitoring UnitS (REMUS-100) AUV, designated "TurtleCam," that was
modified to locate, follow and film tagged turtles for up to 8 h while simultaneously collecting
environmental data. The TurtleCam system consists of a 100-m depth rated vehicle outfitted with a
circular Ultra-Short BaseLine receiver array for omni-directional tracking of a tagged animal via a
custom transponder tag that we attached to the turtle with two suction cups. The AUV collects video
with six high-definition cameras (five mounted in the vehicle nose and one mounted aft) and we
added a camera to the animal-borne transponder tag to record behavior from the turtle's
perspective. Since behavior is likely a response to habitat factors, we collected concurrent in situ
oceanographic data (bathymetry, temperature, salinity, chlorophyll-a, turbidity, currents) along the
turtle's track. We tested the TurtleCam system during 2016 and 2017 in a densely populated coastal
region offCape Cod, Massachusetts, USA, where foraging leatherbacks overlap with fixed fishing gear
and concentrated commercial and recreational vessel traffic. Here we present example data from
one leatherback turtle to demonstrate the utility of TurtleCam. The concurrent video, localization,
depth and environmental data allowed us to characterize leatherback diving behavior, foraging
ecology, and habitat use, and to assess how turtle behavior mediates risk to impacts from
anthropogenic activities. Our study demonstrates that an AUV can successfully track and image
leatherback turtles feeding in a coastal environment, resulting in novel observations of three-
dimensional subsurface behaviors and habitat use, with implications for sea turtle management and
conservation.

140

Design of a high temperature (1350 °C) solar receiver based on a liquid metal heat transfer fluid:
Sensitivity analysis DeAngelis, F., Seyf, H.R., Berman, R., (...), Moore, D., Henry, A. 2018
Solar Energy

164, pp. 200-209

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd One approach to reducing the cost of concentrated solar power is to improve
the heat engine efficiency by increasing its maximum operating temperature. To achieve higher
operating temperatures, we have studied using a liquid metal heat transfer fluid in conjunction with
a receiver made from a ceramic/refractory material. As a first step in the design of such a receiver,
we conducted sensitivity analyses of several receivers, allowing us to determine what factors most
significantly affect receiver performance. Material properties, natural convection from the receiver
cavity, and the location of hot spots within the cavity were found to have the largest effect on
receiver efficiency. It was also determined that stresses due to thermal expansion can exceed the
fracture strength of the receiver material if care is not taken to minimize these stresses.
Interestingly, the stress as opposed to performance considerations, set the most important
constraints on the receiver geometry.

141

Ocular risks assessment in a central receiver solar power facility based on measured data of direct
solar radiation Samaniego Rascón, D., Ferreira, A.D., da Silva, M.C.G., Iriarte, C. 2018 Solar
Energy

164, pp. 77-88

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Among the Concentrated Solar Power technologies, central receiver systems
(CRS) is the technology moving to the forefront in market penetration. CRS requires the use of
heliostats oriented toward the central receiver in order to concentrate solar radiation. The excess of
light due to the reflection of the sunlight on the heliostats’ surface and the brightness of the receiver
are considered as possible situations of risk for the eye. The paper briefly outlines the physiological
response to solar radiation subjected to momentary ocular exposures. This will be followed by the
description of health impairments and the presentation of the methodology and safety doses. A case
of study based on direct solar radiation measurements, is foreseen. Two scenarios were evaluated,
the action of seeing directly to a heliostats’ surface and the action of seeing the reflected radiation
from the receiver. In the case of seeing the brightness from receiver, there exist a low potential to
cause a temporary effect on the eye. Besides, a person that is looking at heliostat surface has a huge
potential to present a temporary effect (after-image). The final section of the study will present and
discussed the results obtained from the analysis of the case of study and provide some
recommendations. The investigation aims to contribute with information directed to environmental
scientists, standard developers and the solar industry that could improve/develop safety procedures
directed toward the occupational health and safety within solar energy applications.

142

Simulation of thermal hydraulic performance of multiple parallel micropin arrays for concentrating
solar thermal applications with supercritical carbon dioxide Hyder, M.B., Fronk, B.M.
2018 Solar Energy

164, pp. 327-338

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Concentrated solar power (CSP) plants have the potential to provide 24 h,
renewable electricity. Current CSP systems have high capital and operational costs which makes the
levelized cost of electricity uncompetitive with conventional techniques. Recent experimental
research has shown the potential of small unit cells (up to 2 × 2 cm) containing micropin arrays (DH <
1 mm) to operate efficiently at high incident flux (>140 W cm−2) using supercritical carbon dioxide as
the working fluid. Applying this technology to CSP systems would result in a smaller central receiver,
which would reduce thermal losses, increase receiver efficiency and reduce the capital cost of the
receiver component. This study investigates and addresses the practical thermal and hydraulic issues
in numbering up these small unit cells into numerous parallel cells within an integrated module
design. A thermal hydraulic network model is developed to quantify the distribution and the overall
receiver efficiency of an integrated module. This model is used to specify maximum allowable unit
cell size and header dimensions to maintain acceptable thermal performance and pressure loss.
Once a module design was finalized, parametric studies were performed to study the effects of
varying incident flux on flow distribution and thermal performance of the module. The results show
that an integrated module design can be achieved with less than 5% flow maldistribution and a
pressure drop acceptable to the remainder of the system.

143

Design optimization of a large-scale thermoelectric generator

Open Access

Al-Habahbeh, O.M., Mohammad, A., Al-khalidi, A., Khanfer, M., Obeid, M. 2018 Journal of
King Saud University - Engineering Sciences

30(2), pp. 177-182

2
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© 2016 The Authors The optimum implementation of a thermoelectric generator (TEG) is


investigated. In order to study the feasibility of such system, a model for a large-scale TEG is
designed and optimized to convert thermal energy into electricity. The mathematical formulation of
the system comprising multiple TEG modules is modeled and simulated. It is assumed that the
source of the thermal energy comes from concentrated solar receiver. Temperature solutions and
heat transfer coefficients are obtained. The major geometrical and thermal parameters affecting the
efficiency of the system are identified and optimized for best performance. Design aspects, such as
the leg length, and heat transfer conditions have a significant impact on generated output power
and efficiency.

144

Analysis of the performance of linear Fresnel collectors: Encapsulated vs. evacuated tubes
Cagnoli, M., Mazzei, D., Procopio, M., (...), Savoldi, L., Zanino, R. 2018 Solar Energy

164, pp. 119-138

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In order to reduce the cost of the produced electricity, the Linear Fresnel
Collector (LFC) system is a promising Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) technology. In this paper a
detailed study is conducted aimed at the assessment of the heat losses from the receiver of a real 1
MWe pilot plant based on the Fresnel collector and cooled with a thermal oil. The receiver unit,
which consists of an absorber tube and a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC), is investigated
numerically in order to determine the receiver performance in different wind directions. Two
receiver configurations are analyzed: a simply encapsulated one and an evacuated one. In the latter
case, high vacuum conditions are reached in the gap between the absorber tube and the glass cover,
whereas in the former case, air at ambient pressure fills the gap. The spatial distribution of the heat
flux absorbed by the absorber tube and by the glass cover is determined by means of an optical
analysis, conducted with the Monte Carlo based open-source ray-tracing tool Tonatiuh, and it is the
driver of the ensuing thermal fluid dynamic analysis. A reference operation condition is studied in
detail by means of a 1D model that solves the energy balance for the coolant along the entire length
of the receiver. The characterization of the 1D model requires an accurate, multi-dimensional
computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis, based on the commercial STAR-CCM+ code, which aims
at determining the useful heat transferred to the coolant and the convective and radiative heat
losses as a function of the oil temperature. A 2D CFD model is used to simulate the thermal behavior
of the receiver at different locations along its axis in case of no wind or wind blowing across the
collector axis. A 3D CFD model is adopted to study the impact of the wind blowing along the
collector axis. The external air is considered in the computational domain in both CFD models, to be
able to accurately assess the convective share of the heat losses. At the end, the oil temperature
profile along the receiver tube, as well as the heat losses and the thermal efficiency trends, are
presented and discussed. The 2D model is also exploited to perform an annual analysis, varying the
solar flux and the sun position, but considering just a single wind direction. The results of our
analysis indicate that the benefit of using an evacuated tube depends on the heat absorbed on the
linear receiver, which depends in turn on the solar flux and on the sun position. The annual-based
performance improvement obtained using an evacuated tube is not dramatic, due to the relatively
low temperatures of the receiver. Moreover, this analysis also concludes that the receiver
performance is only slightly affected by the wind direction and intensity up to ∼ 4 m/s, due to the
presence of the CPC that protects the receiver from the external air stream.

145

Corrigendum to “Recirculating metallic particles for the efficiency enhancement of concentrated


solar receivers” (Renew. Energy (2016) 96 (850–
862)(S0960148116304578)(10.1016/j.renene.2016.05.047)) Sarker, M.R.I., Saha, M., Rahman,
M.S., Beg, R.A. 2018 Renewable Energy

119, pp. 539

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© 2017 Correct Authors: MRI Sarker, Manabendra Saha, Bassam Dally, Maziar Arjomandi. Centre for
Energy Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Adelaide, SA, 5005,
Australia. The authors' leo. The last two authors name of the published article should be removed
and new authors' name should be as follows: Authors: MRI Sarker, Manabendra Saha, Bassam Dally,
Maziar Arjomandi. Centre for Energy Technology, School of Mechanical Engineering, The University
of Adelaide, SA, 5005, Australia. The authors would like to apologize for any inconvenience caused.

146

Modeling and design guidelines for direct steam generation solar receivers Lin, M., Reinhold, J.,
Monnerie, N., Haussener, S. 2018 Applied Energy

216, pp. 761-776

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Concentrated solar energy is an ideal energy source for high-temperature
energy conversion processes such as concentrated solar power generation, solar thermochemical
fuel production, and solar driven high-temperature electrolysis. Indirectly irradiated solar receiver
designs utilizing tubular absorbers enclosed by a cavity are possible candidates for direct steam
generation, allowing for design flexibility and high efficiency. We developed a coupled heat and mass
transfer model of cavity receivers with tubular absorbers to guide the design of solar-driven direct
steam generation. The numerical model consisted of a detailed 1D two-phase flow model of the
absorber tubes coupled to a 3D heat transfer model of the cavity receiver. The absorber tube model
simulated the flow boiling phenomena inside the tubes by solving 1D continuity, momentum, and
energy conservation equations based on a control volume formulation. The Thome-El Hajal flow
pattern maps were used to predict liquid-gas distributions in the tubular cross-sections, and heat
transfer coefficients and pressure drop along the tubes. The heat transfer coefficient and fluid
temperature of the absorber tubes’ inner surfaces were then extrapolated to the circumferential of
the tube and used in the 3D cavity receiver model. The 3D steady state model of the cavity receiver
coupled radiative, convective, and conductive heat transfer. The complete model was validated with
experimental data and used to analyze different receiver types and designs made of different
materials and exposed to various operational conditions. The proposed numerical model and the
obtained results provide an engineering design tool for cavity receivers with tubular absorbers (in
terms of tube shapes, tube diameter, and water-cooled front), support the choice of best-
performant operation (in terms of radiative flux, mass flow rate, and pressure), and aid in the choice
of the component materials. The model allows for an in-depth understanding of the coupled heat
and mass transfer in the solar receiver for direct steam generation and can be exploited to quantify
the optimization potential of such solar receivers.

147

Characterization of desert sand to be used as a high-temperature thermal energy storage medium in


particle solar receiver technology Diago, M., Iniesta, A.C., Soum-Glaude, A., Calvet, N.
2018 Applied Energy

216, pp. 402-413

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Desert dune sand is considered as a potential sensible heat thermal energy
storage (TES) material. Several samples are collected from different locations of the desert in the
United Arab Emirates (UAE), and relevant thermophysical and mechanical properties are measured.
In addition, the optical properties of desert sand are investigated to evaluate its performance as a
direct solar absorber. Thermogravimetric analyses show that the samples appear to be thermally
stable between approximately 650 °C to 1000 °C following an initial mass loss occurring during the
first heating cycle. The transformation of calcium carbonate into calcium oxide at higher
temperature during the first heating process has a negative impact on the solar absorption of the
sand. In addition, the high calcium content leads to sand agglomeration which has significant
implications on receiver design and operation. It is therefore critical to locate sand collection points
with low carbonate content.

148

Effects of geometrical parameters of a dish concentrator on the optical performance of a cavity


receiver in a solar dish-Stirling system Yan, J., Cheng, Z.-R., Peng, Y.-D. 2018 International
Journal of Energy Research

42(6), pp. 2152-2168

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Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Dish-Stirling concentrated solar power (DS-CSP) system is
a complex system for solar energy-thermal-electric conversion. The dish concentrator and cavity
receiver are optical devices for collecting the solar energy in DS-CSP system; to determine the
geometric parameters of dish concentrator is one of the important steps for design and
development of DS-CSP system, because it directly affects the optical performance of the cavity
receiver. In this paper, the effects of the geometric parameters of a dish concentrator including
aperture radius, focal length, unfilled radius, and fan-shaped unfilled angle on optical performance
(ie, optical efficiency and flux distribution) of a cavity receiver were studied. Furthermore, the
influence of the receiver-window radius of the cavity receiver and solar direct normal irradiance is
also investigated. The cavity receiver is a novel structure that is equipped with a reflecting cone at
bottom of the cavity to increases the optical efficiency of the cavity receiver. Moreover, a 2-
dimensional ray-tracking program is developed to simulate the sunlight transmission path in DS-CSP
system, for helping understanding the effects mechanism of above parameters on optical
performance of the cavity receiver. The analysis indicates that the optical efficiency of the cavity
receiver with and without the reflecting cone is 89.88% and 85.70%, respectively, and former
significantly increased 4.18% for 38 kW XEM-Dish system. The uniformity factor of the flux
distribution on the absorber surface decreases with the decreases of the rim angle of the dish
concentrator, but the optical efficiency of the cavity receiver increases with the decreases of the rim
angle and the increase amplitude becomes smaller and smaller when the rim angle range from 30°
to 75°, So the optical efficiency and uniformity factor are conflicting performance index. Moreover,
the unfilled radius has small effect on the optical efficiency, while the fan-shaped unfilled angle and
direct normal irradiance both not affect the optical efficiency. In addition, reducing the receiver-
window radius can improve the optical efficiency, but the effect is limited. This work could provide
reference for design and optimization of the dish concentrator and establishing the foundation for
further research on optical-to-thermal energy conversion.

149

The recent trends in optimization of thermal performance of parabolic trough solar collector
Aravindan, S., Giridharan, N., Amirdesh Sudhan, B. 2018 International Journal of
Mechanical Engineering and Technology

9(5), pp. 655-661

Hide abstract Related documents

© IAEME Publication. The concentrated solar collectors are attractive to the solar community to
meet the most of the energy requirements when compared to other renewable sources of energy.
Especially, parabolic trough and dish solar collectors are capable of supplying the heat and electricity
for the domestic and industrial needs. Both the collectors are operating at different concentration
ratios. The increased concentration ratio of parabolic dish collectors is producing higher
temperatures. However, the plant level applications utilize the parabolic trough collectors. Various
optimization techniques and methods are adopted to utilize the parabolic solar collectors effectively.
The most efficient method is the integration of multiple applications to the solar systems. The recent
trends in the optimization methods are discussed in this article.
150

Experimental investigation of the effects of wind speed and yaw angle on heat losses from a heated
cavity Lee, K.L., Chinnici, A., Jafarian, M., (...), Dally, B., Nathan, G. 2018 Solar Energy

165, pp. 178-188

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© 2018 An experimental investigation of the effects of wind speed (0–12 m/s) and yaw angle (0°–
90°) on the convective heat losses from a cylindrical cavity heated with a uniform wall temperature,
is presented. The cavity is heated with 16 individually controlled copper surface elements, so that
both the heat losses and the heat flux distribution can be measured and subjected to a controlled
convective environment in the open section of a wind tunnel. It was found that the convective heat
losses through the aperture are ∼4 times greater for the head-on wind case than for the side-on
wind case, when the inverse of Richardson number (1/Ri) > 77 (wind speed >12 m/s). For the no-
wind condition, ≈85% of the heat was lost from the lower half of the surface of the cavity, while for
1/Ri > 43 (wind speed >9 m/s), the heat loss was more uniformly distributed over the surface of the
cavity. For head-on-wind conditions and for 1/Ri > 19 (wind speeds >6 m/s), the convective heat
losses are ∼2 times greater than for side-wind conditions. The correlations between the mixed
(natural and forced) convective heat losses, Nusselt number and Richardson number are also
reported.

151

Modeling and Calculation of Optical-Geometric Characteristics of a Solar Concentrator with Flat


Fresnel Mirrors Akbarov, R.Y., Kuchkarov, A.A. 2018 Applied Solar Energy (English translation of
Geliotekhnika)

54(3), pp. 183-188

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© 2018, Allerton Press, Inc. The basic characteristics of a concentrator, such as the number of
reflectors, their coordinates and orientation, the degree of concentration, and others are
determined with the use of the optical-geometric approach depending on the configuration
parameters of the concentrator. Based on the presented formulas and numerical results, it is
possible to determine the parameters of an arbitrary configuration of a linear-focus concentrator
with flat Fresnel reflectors located on a parabolic base. The specific features of the distribution of
the energy density over the receiver are determined. The paths of solar beams in the system and
formation features of the transverse focal lines of the concentrated optical radiation are graphically
analyzed for the case of the exact orientation of the concentrator on the Sun.

152
Design and analysis of solar-tracking 2D Fresnel lens-based two staged, spectrum-splitting solar
concentrators Yeh, P., Yeh, N. 2018 Renewable Energy

120, pp. 1-13

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd This research investigates a spectrum control method that improves the
concentration flux uniformity and redirects the energy that tend to build up temperature under a
Fresnel lens (FL). The design is mapped via ray tracing technique based on Snell's law and the law of
reflection as applicable to the lens, the spectrum splitters, and the 2nd stage reflectors. To examine
the illumination patterns on the receivers of a spectrum splitting concentrator that consists of a FL
and two dichroic mirrors, a spectrum allocating algorithm, which is able to define the three-point
coordinate sets of all the on-lens prisms, has been developed. The coordinates are then ported to
TracePro for FL construction and light path verification. This study also investigates suitable second
stage compound flat concentrators for recovering the radiation that misses the target range.
Computer simulations of acrylic based FLs determine the maximal energy available under the lens.
The results have been calibrated with published measured data before they are used to chart out
the spectrum segments’ locations on each target. This study explores different locations’ spectral
composition details via target position adjustment and, consequently, helps to fit different
concentrated wavelengths to their suitable applications.

153

Performance modeling and techno-economic analysis of a modular concentrated solar power tower
with latent heat storage Rea, J.E., Oshman, C.J., Olsen, M.L., (...), Ginley, D.S., Toberer, E.S.
2018 Applied Energy

217, pp. 143-152

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In this paper, we present performance simulations and techno-economic
analysis of a modular dispatchable solar power tower. Using a heliostat field and power block three
orders of magnitude smaller than conventional solar power towers, our unique configuration locates
thermal storage and a power block directly on a tower receiver. To make the system dispatchable, a
valved thermosyphon controls heat flow from a latent heat thermal storage tank to a Stirling engine.
The modular design results in minimal balance of system costs and enables high deployment rates
with a rapid realization of economies of scale. In this new analysis, we combine performance
simulations with techno-economic analysis to evaluate levelized cost of electricity, and find that the
system has potential for cost-competitiveness with natural gas peaking plants and alternative
dispatchable renewables.

154
Thermodynamic Analysis for a Concentrating Photovoltaic-thermochemical Hybrid System
Wang, Y.-J., Li, Q., Li, D.-H., Xuan, Y.-M. 2018 Kung Cheng Je Wu Li Hsueh Pao/Journal of
Engineering Thermophysics

39(5), pp. 1021-1026

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© 2018, Science Press. All right reserved. In this paper, a novel model of a concentrating
photovoltaic-thermochemical (CPV/TC) hybrid system is proposed. Solar spectrum is seperated into
several parts to enable photovoltaic (PV) and thermochemical (TC) conversion by utilizing the
parabolic trough concentrator with a spectral beam splitter. The TC module absorbs the solar energy
to supply the reaction heat of methanol-steam reforming (MSR) that produces hydrogen for power
generation. The energy and exergy analyses on the CPV/TC hybrid system are carried out. The results
reveal that the exergy losses of the CPV/TC hybrid system are mainly concentrated on the optical
exergy loss, the exergy loss in the process of PV conversion and the exergy loss in the process of TC
conversion which account for 32.7%, 32.2% and 27.0% of the total, respectively. The output power
of the PV module, the methanol conversion rate of the solar receiver and the overall system
efficiency with different splitting wavebands are investigated. Moreover, the CPV/TC hybrid system
is compared with a single PV or TC system. The results indicate that the optimal splitting waveband
for the PV module is 450-870 nm and the overall power generation efficiency can reach 26.0% which
is 11.1 and 6.1 percentage points higher than that of a single PV and TC system under the same
conditions.

155

Analysis and design of a radial waveguide concentrator for concentrated solar thermal applications
Nithyanandam, K., Narayan, A., Pitchumani, R. 2018 Energy

151, pp. 940-953

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Non-imaging concentrators based on optical waveguides have the potential to
provide low cost solar collection for concentrated solar thermal applications through the elimination
of moving parts and tracking structures. The primary working principle involves collection and
transport of light through total internal reflection within an optical waveguide onto thermal
receivers. This study explores the optical and thermal transport characteristics of radial waveguides
integrated with a linear receiver. An analytical closed-form solution for the coupled optical and
thermal transport of solar irradiation through a radial planar waveguide concentrator integrated
with a linear receiver is developed. The effects of various design and operating parameters on the
system performance, which is quantified in terms of net thermal power delivered, aperture area
required and collection efficiency are discussed. Design constraints due to thermal stress, maximum
continuous operation temperature and structural loading were considered to identify feasible
waveguide configurations. A cost analysis is conducted to determine the preferred design
configurations that minimize the cost per unit area of the radial waveguide concentrator-receiver
system. Optimal design configurations that result in the minimum levelized cost of power (LCOP) are
identified for thermal desalination and concentrating solar power generation applications.

156

Levelized cost of electricity evaluation of liquid sodium receiver designs through a thermal
performance, mechanical reliability, and pressure drop analysis Conroy, T., Collins, M.N., Fisher, J.,
Grimes, R. 2018 Solar Energy

166, pp. 472-485

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The receiver in a concentrated solar power (CSP) tower system accounts for a
considerable proportion of plant capital costs, and its role in converting radiant solar energy into
thermal energy affects the cost of generated electricity. It is imperative to utilize a receiver design
that has a high thermal efficiency, excellent mechanical integrity, minimal pressure drop, and low
cost in order to maximize the potential of the CSP system. In the present work, thermal, mechanical,
and hydraulic models are presented for a liquid tubular billboard receiver in a representative CSP
plant. A liquid sodium heat transfer fluid as well as a number of receiver configurations of heat
transfer area, tube diameter, and tube material have been analysed. The thermal analysis
determines tube surface temperatures for an incident heat flux, thereby allowing for the calculation
of thermal losses and efficiency. The mechanical analysis is carried out to establish creep
deformation and fatigue damage that the receiver may undergo through a life service. The hydraulic
analysis is concerned with calculating the required pumping power for each configuration. Results
show that thermal efficiency increases for a decreasing heat transfer area, however reducing
receiver area comes at the penalty of increasing tube surface temperatures and thermal stresses.
The selection of tube diameter is critical, with small diameters yielding the greatest thermal
efficiency and mechanical life, however the increased pressure drop reduces the overall plant
efficiency due to a necessary increase in pumping power. The optimum receiver configuration is
established by finding an appropriate trade-off between thermal performance, service life, pressure
drop, and material costs, by using the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) as the objective function.
The analysis highlights necessary trade-offs required to optimise the design of a solar receiver.

157

Sun backward gazing method with multiple cameras for characterizing solar concentrators
Hénault, F., Coquand, M., Defieux, P.-H., Caliot, C. 2018 Solar Energy

166, pp. 103-114

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd This paper describes a sun backward gazing method with multiple cameras
optimized for fast and accurate control of solar concentrators in operating conditions. For
Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), such methods should enable easy commissioning of the optical
segment of the facility, survey of damaged mirror facets and regular control of wind loads or gravity
effects without disturbing the daily electricity production process. The proposed method makes use
of a matrix of cameras located at the vicinity of the solar receiver and observing sunrays reflected by
the concentrator. The theoretical principle is explained and interpreted in terms of a fictitious
enlarged sunshape function. The main data processing steps are detailed and a set of numerical
simulations demonstrate the potential of the method to measure large mirror slopes errors. The
achieved measurement accuracy is currently estimated to 0.05 mrad RMS and 5 µm RMS in terms of
surface slopes and shape errors respectively. Potential improvement of the method is also evoked.

158

A Hybrid Electric and Thermal Solar Receiver Weinstein, L.A., McEnaney, K., Strobach, E., (...),
Wang, E.N., Chen, G. 2018 Joule

2(5), pp. 962-975

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© 2018 Elsevier Inc. Solar energy offers a promising renewable energy source; however, it is
expensive to store electricity from photovoltaics (PV), the most widely deployed solar electricity
technology. Solar thermal energy technologies can be paired with inexpensive thermal storage, but
are more expensive overall. We have developed a solar receiver that combines PV and solar thermal
systems to efficiently convert solar radiation to electricity (to be used immediately) and thermal
energy (to be stored and converted to electricity on demand). This paper describes the Hybrid
Electric And Thermal Solar (HEATS) receiver and models its performance. An idealized model
predicts high solar-to-electricity efficiency (35.2%) with high dispatchability (44.2% of electricity from
thermal energy) at an operating temperature of 775 K. Modeling using measured performance
values for HEATS subcomponents predicts 26.8% efficiency and 81% dispatchability with silicon PV
and 28.5% efficiency and 76% dispatchability with gallium arsenide PV, both operating at 700 K. PV
and solar thermal systems are the main methods for solar energy conversion. PV cannot utilize the
entire solar spectrum, and it is expensive to store the generated electricity. Solar thermal systems
convert sunlight to electricity using thermal energy as an intermediary, allowing the use of
inexpensive thermal storage, but are more expensive than PV overall. Hybrid systems that convert
some of the solar spectrum to electricity directly using PV and the rest to thermal energy can
achieve higher efficiency than PV or solar thermal systems while allowing the use of thermal storage.
Here, we introduce a stacked hybrid receiver design enabled by transparent aerogel and a spectrally
selective light pipe. Modeling predicts a 35% solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency with further
subcomponent improvement and >26% efficiency with the best subcomponent properties reported
to date. Further development of this receiver could thus yield a high-efficiency option for solar
energy conversion. We propose a Hybrid Electric And Thermal Solar (HEATS) receiver, which
converts incident concentrated sunlight to both electricity and high-temperature thermal energy.
Hybrid solar receivers that deliver electricity and thermal energy are promising because they can
make better use of the entire solar spectrum than PV alone, and thermal energy can be stored
inexpensively, allowing electricity generation when the solar resource is unavailable. The HEATS
receiver is enabled by transparent silica aerogel and a spectrally selective light pipe.

159

Concentrating solar power tower technology: Present status and outlook Boretti, A.,
Castelletto, S., Al-Zubaidy, S. 2018 Nonlinear Engineering

Article in Press 2

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© 2017 Walter de Gruyter GmbH, Berlin/Boston 2017. The paper examines design and operating
data of current concentrated solar power (CSP) solar tower (ST) plants. The study includes CSP with
or without boost by combustion of natural gas (NG), and with or without thermal energy storage
(TES). Latest, actual specific costs per installed capacity are high, 6,085 $/kW for Ivanpah Solar
Electric Generating System (ISEGS) with no TES, and 9,227 $/kW for Crescent Dunes with TES. Actual
production of electricity is low and less than the expected. Actual capacity factors are 22% for ISEGS,
despite combustion of a significant amount of NG exceeding the planned values, and 13% for
Crescent Dunes. The design values were 33% and 52%. The study then reviews the proposed
technology updates to improve ratio of solar field power to electric power, capacity factor, matching
of production and demand, plant's cost, reliability and life span of plant's components. Key areas of
progress are found in materials and manufacturing processes, design of solar field and receiver,
receiver and power block fluids, power cycle parameters, optimal management of daily and seasonal
operation of the plant, new TES concepts, integration of solar plant with thermal desalination or
combined cycle gas turbine (CCGT) installations and specialization of project.

160

Review on concentrated solar power technologies with thermal energy storage Sudhan, B.A.,
Aravindan, S., Kumar, S.A. 2018 International Journal of Mechanical Engineering and
Technology

9(6), pp. 131-137

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© IAEME Publication. Concentrated solar power (CSP) is mainly encouraged to harness the solar
energy for producing electricity. The CSP technologies are highly dependent on the efficient reflector
and receiver designs, working medium and thermal storage technologies to produce intermittent
electrical power with several options like hybrid, peak load operations, co-generation etc. The
receiver design and optimization of the power plant are important to meet the economic challenges
of the CSP generation technologies. This article is focused on such challenges and possible remedial
options.
161

A low temperature water-cooled radiation calorimeter for estimation of concentrated solar


irradiance Verma, R.N., Kumar, R., Dixit, A., Chandra, L. 2018 Solar Energy

167, pp. 194-209

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Radiation calorimeter is a device for assessment of the incident local
concentrated solar irradiance (CSI) onto a receiver surface. This is required to evaluate the
performance of a concentrated solar thermal system using, for instance a volumetric receiver, for
applications. In this paper a low-temperature water cooled radiation calorimeter (RADCAL) is
presented. This is designed as a cavity based on the concept of blackbody to maximize the
absorption of the incident CSI on its absorber surfaces. Solar selective coatings are deposited on its
reflector and absorber surface to achieve the same and are characterized using standard
methodologies. This depicts an absorptivity of 0.95 and a reflectivity of 0.87 in the desired range of
the solar spectrum and is theoretically verified. The absorption of energy results in temperature rise
of RADCAL, which is controlled by an external water jacket to limit its value at 100 °C for mitigating
the use of pressurized water. At any instant and eventually at the steady-state the CSI is estimated
following the conservation of energy principle. The developed RADCAL is experimentally evaluated
up to a CSI of 800 Suns (1 Sun = 1 kW/m2) using Joule heating. The entire heat transfer process is
analysed with the developed unsteady state one-dimensional mathematical model. A comparative
assessment of the measured and calculated RADCAL body temperature provides the underlying
uncertainty and confirms its design basis. Furthermore, the design and given consideration allows its
use in arid desert condition with dust and wind. Thus, RADCAL is likely to serve in future for
evaluating concentrated solar thermal system in arid deserts.

162

Optical analysis of a novel collector design for a solar concentrated thermoelectric generator ur
Rehman, N., Uzair, M., Siddiqui, M.A. 2018 Solar Energy

167, pp. 116-124

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd This paper proposes a novel design for a solar concentrated collector for
thermoelectric power generator (SCTEG), with optimum power output per unit length of collector.
This collector consists of a parabolic trough concentrator (PTC) and a receiver mounted with two
thermoelectric generators (TEGs) along the aperture of the concentrator. In addition to assessment
of the conventional design parameters, this study investigates the effects of two new geometrical
parameters on the optical performance of SCTEGs. These parameters are the vertex angle between
the inner surfaces of the TEGs, and the focus offset, which is the displacement of the vertices of the
TEGs above or below the focal point of the concentrator. A geometric model, which develops the
basis of a ray-tracing technique for performing the optical analysis, is also described. Simulations
performed for a set of design parameters showed that both parameters affected not only the optical
efficiency but also the local flux distribution (LFD) on the surface of the TEGs. Iso-optical efficiency
contours and numbers of LFDs were plotted, taking different values of these parameters to
determine optical efficiencies. A flat-plate receiver configuration showed 85.2% optical efficiency
but with a single high peak in LFD at the centre, which was undesirable. A slight alteration in vertex
angle and focus offset resulted in same optical efficiency but improved LFD. The highest optical
efficiency determined was 93.61% for the wide-receiver configuration. A thermodynamic analysis of
the SCTEG design is also presented. This research work will assist in the development of more
efficient SCTEGs.

163

Novel thermosiphon-powered reverse osmosis: Techno-economic model for renewable energy and
fresh water recovery Giwa, A., Hasan, S.W. 2018 Desalination

435, pp. 152-160

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© 2017 Elsevier B.V. Recently, thermosiphon has been considered as an economically competitive
approach for the withdrawal of thermal energy from molten salt. This feature of thermosiphon is
particularly attractive for concentrated solar power (CSP) technology because molten salt can be
used both as the direct receiver and thermal energy storage material, and pumping requirements
can be minimized. However, the thermosiphon loop must be properly designed; otherwise the
heated molten salt can flow in the reverse direction or solidify before heat exchange is fully carried
out. In this paper, the dependence of important molten salt flow characteristics such as
temperature, velocity and friction factor on the thermosiphon loop dimensions is theoretically
investigated. The model is carried out for the withdrawal of 1 MW of thermal energy from the
molten salt. The economic assessment of the conversion of this energy to electricity for reverse
osmosis desalination is also carried out. It is observed that by using the minimum possible value of
leg length and maximum possible values of diameter and pressure head, the lowest decline of
temperature and highest velocity of flow can be achieved along the loop. Fresh water production is
more valuable than electricity and steam production by 460% and 480%, respectively.

164

Evaluating thermodynamic performance limits of thermochemical energy storage subsystems using


reactive perovskite oxide particles for concentrating solar power Albrecht, K.J., Jackson, G.S.,
Braun, R.J. 2018 Solar Energy

167, pp. 179-193

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Concentrating solar power with cost effective and efficient thermal energy
storage (TES) has the potential to achieve high dispatchability and enable high penetration of other
renewable energy sources. However, levelized cost of electricity of integrated CSP systems remains
prohibitively high, and new storage subsystems with higher specific energy storage (kJ kg-1) and
overall solar-to-electric efficiencies are needed to lower the costs of dispatchable electricity from
CSP. This paper explores the potential for increased specific energy storage and solar-to-electric
efficiencies of a TES subsystem that combines sensible and chemical energy storage (i.e.,
thermochemical energy storage – TCES) using a redox cycle of reducible perovskite oxide particles.
The TCES subsystem stores energy through sensible heating and endothermic perovskite reduction
in a concentrated solar particle receiver at high temperature (Thot from 700 to 1100 °C) and low O2
partial pressure (pO2 from 10-2 to 10-4 bar). Stored energy is recovered as needed in a particle
reoxidation reactor/heat exchanger fed by air. Energy parasitics to lower pO2 for perovskite
reduction in the receiver by vacuum pumping or inert sweep gas generation depend on system
design and operating conditions. In this work, TCES with the perovskite strontium-doped calcium
manganite (Ca0.9Sr0.1MnO3-δ) is evaluated for specific storage and overall solar-to-electric
efficiency in a subsystem using vacuum pumping or N2 sweep gas for the reducing environment in
the receiver. Vacuum pumping parasitics increase proportionally to changes in oxygen non-
stoichiometry (Δδ) and are prohibitively high for Δδ>0.1. Sweep-gas parasitics to separate N2 from
air asymptote to smaller constant values at large Δδ. Thus, a sweep gas subsystem has lower
balance-of-plant parasitics at Δδ needed for high specific TCES. Improvements in vacuum pump
efficiencies from current commercially available values to >10% could reduce pumping parasitics and
achieve solar-to-electric efficiencies approaching 35%. Various combinations of reducing pO2 and
increasing Thot can achieve the same energy storage for either inert sweep gas or reversible
vacuum-pump systems with solar-to-electric efficiencies above 35%.

165

Comparison of different CSP technologies for combined power and cooling production Ravelli, S.,
Franchini, G., Perdichizzi, A. 2018 Renewable Energy

121, pp. 712-721

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The present paper deals with the performance prediction of Concentrated Solar
Power plants integrated with cooling energy production. The plant configuration is based on a
typical steam Rankine cycle (rated 62.1 MWe). The thermal input is provided by two different solar
fields: i) Parabolic Trough Collectors and ii) Central Receiver System with heliostats reflecting on the
tower top. In the former case, both north-south and east-west oriented collectors are investigated
and compared in the study. A Thermal Energy Storage system allows driving the power block 24-h
per day also in periods with low solar irradiation. A steam flow rate extracted from the turbine low
stages feeds a set of two-stage absorption chillers, and the produced chilled water is supplied to a
district cooling network. A computer code integrating the commercial software Thermoflex and
Trnsys has been developed to model and to simulate over 1-year period the solar field and the
power block. The power plant is supposed to operate in island mode, having to meet power and
cooling demand for a population of about 50,000 inhabitants in the Saudi desert region. Solar fields
and storage system were sized according to a techno-economic optimization algorithm for the
minimization of the investment costs. The simulation results show the beneficial effect of the
combined power and cooling production in terms of peak load shaving. Compared to the troughs,
solar tower exhibits a higher efficiency, thus requiring a lower aperture area and lower investment
costs. The techno-economic analysis shows that the axis orientation has a strong impact on the
trough collectors and that east-west oriented devices perform better for the investigated load-
following application.

166

Investigation of thermodynamic performances for two-stage recompression supercritical CO2


Brayton cycle with high temperature thermal energy storage system Wang, X., Liu, Q., Lei, J.,
Han, W., Jin, H. 2018 Energy Conversion and Management

165, pp. 477-487

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The supercritical CO2 (S-CO2) Brayton cycle with high temperature thermal
energy storage is proposed to efficiently utilize solar thermal energy. A molten halide salt (mixture of
8.1 wt.%NaCl + 31.3 wt.%KCl + 60.6 wt.%ZnCl2) that can operate at a relatively high temperature is
selected as a heat transfer fluid (HTF) and a storage medium. The proposed two-stage
recompression Brayton cycle is used as power block to make full use of high-level solar energy and
reduce power consumption. The thermodynamic performances and economic assessments are
investigated to illustrate the feasibility of the proposed system, and the comparison between halide
salt and nitrate salt is conducted. Theoretical results show that the solar-to-electric efficiency in the
system with halide salt reaches to 19.16–22.03% in four representative days, which is higher than
existing concentrated solar power plants with the tower central receiver, and the monthly averaged
solar-to-electric efficiency of the halide salt system is increased by 11% as compared with the nitrate
salt system. Research findings introduce a promising approach for the efficient utilization of the
abundant solar resources in western China.

167

Efficiency improvement of a solar direct volumetric receiver utilizing aqueous suspensions of CuO
Zhang, R., Qu, J., Tian, M., Han, X., Wang, Q. 2018 International Journal of Energy
Research

42(7), pp. 2456-2464

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Copyright © 2018 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. In this paper, an experimental study was performed to
investigate the photothermal conversion properties of CuO-H2O nanofluid-based volumetric
receiver mainly considering the effects of nanoparticle (NP) concentration, irradiation time, and
receiver depth. First, stable aqueous suspensions of CuO with NPs having average diameter close to
10 nm were produced by the precursor transformation method. The spectral transmittances of CuO-
H2O nanofluids decrease with increasing the NP concentration (0.01-0.25 wt%) at wavelengths of
200 to 1350 nm. The photothermal conversion performance of CuO-H2O nanofluids is sensitive to
the receiver depth, irradiation time, and NP concentration. The higher NP concentration causes
stronger optical absorption in the upper part and reduces the temperature at the bottom
accordingly. The temperature difference between CuO-H2O nanofluid and distilled water increased
initially and then decreased with the increase of penetration depth, and there existed an optimal
depth of 1 cm with respect to the best photothermal conversion performance. The receiver
efficiency decreased with increasing the light irradiation time, and an efficiency improvement up to
30.4% was achieved for the 0.25 wt% nanofluid at the optimal depth of 1 cm as compared with
water. This work shows that volumetric receivers provide a potential alternative for solar thermal
energy utilization versus surface-based absorber especially under concentrated solar radiation.

168

Performance analysis of a volumetric receiver composed of packed shaped particles with spectrally
dependent emissivity Zhu, Q., Xuan, Y. 2018 International Journal of Heat and Mass
Transfer

122, pp. 421-431

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The volumetric receiver is a key component in the concentrated power plant. In
this work, we propose a novel porous medium structure for solar volumetric receivers by accounting
for both high heat transfer features and low pressure drop, which is composed of packed strut cross
shaped particles whose surface radiative property is spectrally dependent. A local thermal non-
equilibrium model is established, and the effective parameters of the porous media are obtained
from the Kelvin model. The effects of the pore size, porosity, wavelength related emissivity and
Heywood circularity factor of the strut cross section on the heat transfer and flow in the receiver are
investigated. Results show that the radiation loss of the receiver mainly depends on the first five
representative elementary volumes. The efficiency increases with the porosity and Heywood
circularity factor. By decreasing the infrared emissivity of the receiver, the efficiency increases about
3% compared to the receiver with constant emissivity. Finally, a hybrid dual layer receiver is
introduced to improve the heat transfer and flow performance, and the efficiency enhancement of
up to 4% can be achieved.

169

Effects of particle polydispersity on radiative heat transfer in particle-laden turbulent flows


Rahmani, M., Geraci, G., Iaccarino, G., Mani, A. 2018 International Journal of Multiphase
Flow

104, pp. 42-59


1

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd This study considers the effects of polydispersity of particles on thermodynamic
and hydrodynamic behaviour of solid particle solar receivers. To this end we consider a canonical
setting of a semi-periodic domain and perform DNS of turbulent flows interacting with point
particles subject to a heating source. The turbulent flow is seeded with polydisperse particles that
have a specific cumulative distribution function of particle sizes that is tuned based on available
measurements. A thermodynamically equivalent monodisperse particle size is calculated, in a sense
that the mass loading ratio of particles to gas and the total frontal area of particles available for
radiation absorption are matched between the polydisperse and monodisperse particles. Our results
show that the effective heat transfer rate between the two phases is significantly impacted by both
particle clustering and polydispersity. We compare our DNS results to the predictions of a semi-
analytical 1D model that assumes uniform particle concentration and gas properties per streamwise
cross-section. Gas and particle temperatures predicted by this 1D model show least agreement with
DNS at a Stokes number close to unity, where particles are most preferentially concentrated.
Capturing the quantitative effects of particle preferential concentration on the effective heat
transfer leads to a closure problem in the context of the 1D model. Using the DNS data, we examine
such closure models and assess whether closure corrections inferred from monodisperse DNS can be
applied to polydisperse mixtures viewed as superposition of multiple monodisperse systems.

170

Wind tunnel measurements of forced convective heat loss from multi-megawatt cavities of solar
central receiver systems Siegrist, S., Stadler, H., Hoffschmidt, B. 2018 Solar Energy

169, pp. 607-615

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd We investigated the forced convective heat loss from a model of a multi-
megawatt cavity receiver of a concentrated solar power (CSP) tower system in a high-pressure wind
tunnel. Measurements of 5 geometrical configurations of this model as well as measurement
uncertainties are reported in this contribution. The experiment covered a Reynolds number range of
between 2·106and 8·106, based on the external dimensions and flow field. In general, the measured
values are highly sensitive to the geometrical configuration, the wind velocity, and the wind
direction. The results show that the maximum forced convective heat loss for all configurations
occurs when the wind blows from frontal directions of between 60° and 80° relative to the tower
symmetry plane. We found that the peak location does not vary for different inclinations, but does
vary for different aperture openings. Also, the results show that the direction of the wind causes the
forced convective heat loss to vary with a factor of up to 6.1, but at least with a factor of 2.6. Last
but not least, our power-law correlation of the dependency of the forced convective heat loss on the
Reynolds number matches literature values.

171
A study of granular flow through horizontal wire mesh screens for concentrated solar power particle
heating receiver applications – Part I: Experimental studies and numerical model development
Sandlin, M., Abdel-Khalik, S.I. 2018 Solar Energy

169, pp. 1-10

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd A proposed design for a concentrating solar power (CSP) receiver uses granular
material – such as sand – as the heat transfer and energy storage medium. Early designs of particle
heating receivers (PHR) utilize a falling curtain of particles which directly absorbs the concentrated
solar radiation. However, falling curtain receivers have several disadvantages including significant
heat and particle losses and short residence time within the irradiation zone. One design proposal
which overcomes these challenges is the so called “impeded flow PHR design” in which the particles
flow over, around, or through a series of obstacles in the flow path. This reduces the average
velocity of the particles, thereby increasing their residence time in the irradiation zone of the
receiver. It also reduces heat and particle losses from the receiver. However, granular flows through
complex structures are not well understood, rendering a priori design of impeded flow PHR
geometries difficult. To better understand these flows, lab scale models of a PHR design variant
using horizontal wire mesh screens have been constructed, allowing granular flows through the
receiver geometry to be experimentally analyzed. In addition, two different numerical modeling
approaches – the discrete element method (DEM) model, and a two-fluid computational fluid
dynamics (CFD) model – have been developed to model the flow of particles through the specified
receiver geometry. The results of the DEM model are in reasonable agreement with the
experimental data with respect to mass flux, and better matches the experimental data than the CFD
model. A companion paper presents parametric studies to assess the sensitivity of model predictions
to various design and modeling parameters (Sandlin and Abdel-Khalik, 2017).

172

Study on the thermal performance of a novel cavity receiver for parabolic trough solar collectors
Liang, H., Zhu, C., Fan, M., (...), Zhang, H., Xia, J. 2018 Applied Energy

222, pp. 790-798

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In this research, a novel cavity receiver for the parabolic trough solar collector
(PTC) is presented. A center tube and two inclined fins act as the absorber to absorb the solar energy
concentrated by the parabolic trough reflector. Its manufacture is simple. Compared to the tube
bundle absorber, it is more convenient to connect in series and avoids the possible non-uniform
distribution of the flow in practical applications. An experimental setup was constructed to test the
thermal performance of this kind of cavity receiver. The experimental collector efficiency was in the
range of 34.18–48.57%. The used physical parameters and installation error in the experiment
resulted in the relatively low collector efficiency. A three-dimensional heat transfer model was
established and validated by the test results. Effects of thermal conductivity of the insulation
materials, emittance of the glass cover and absorber, and optical parameters on the thermal
performance of the cavity receiver were estimated in detail. The results quantitatively indicated the
importance of improving the physical property parameters of the collector, e.g. if the optimal
parameters were selected, the collector efficiency could reach 64.25%, which was comparable to the
metal-glass evacuated tube receiver. It indicates that the performance improvement potential of this
kind of cavity receiver is huge and the results can theoretically guide the improvement in
manufacture and installation. The present study is beneficial for promoting the large-scale
application of the PTC in a simple and convenient way and the development of solar thermal
technologies. The experimental test of the collector with the optimized parameters of this research
and detailed cost analysis will be performed in the future work.

173

Sensitivity study of thermal performance characteristics based on optical parameters for direct
steam generation in parabolic trough collectors Reddy, K.S., Ajay, C.S., Nitin Kumar, B. 2018
Solar Energy

169, pp. 577-593

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Solar parabolic trough collector is one of the most potential Concentrated Solar
Power (CSP) technologies with high dispatchability. The performance of the Parabolic Trough
Collector (PTC) is significantly influenced by the distribution of radiant flux around the line focus
receiver. In this paper, an accurate estimation of radiant flux around the line focus receivers of
different parabolic trough collectors of varying aperture widths from 5 to 7.5 m has been studied.
Effects of total internal reflection in the glass tube, glass tube absorptivity, receiver reflectivity, limb-
darkening effect, surface errors and anti-reflective coating have been considered. A direct steam
generation model (recirculation mode) has been developed and the effect of geometric errors in the
collector on its optical and thermal performance characteristics has been discussed. The thermal
efficiency of the direct steam generation collector is influenced by the optical characteristics of the
collector and hence the thermal efficiency at different optical errors has been evaluated for the fore-
mentioned commercial collectors under the influence of declination. The thermal efficiency is more
sensitive to optical errors at low insolation levels and vice versa. For a change in tracking from 0 to
10 mrad, for PTC7.3configuration, thermal efficiency drops by 0.58% at 1000 W/m2, and 2.02% at
300 W/m2. The thermal efficiency is also more sensitive to optical errors at higher values of
declination. The collector of low geometric concentration ratio has a low sensitivity and low thermal
efficiency and vice versa. Hence, the overall efficiency of different collectors at different optical
errors has to be studied so as to obtain the appropriate collector configuration for specified optical
errors and location of installation. Based on the analysis, graphical results which could aid in the
selection of best collectors based on the latitude location, DNI and optical errors has been
developed. The evaluation of collectors has also been extended towards power plant characteristics.
The nominal power has been set to 50 MW. The location of Jodhpur in India has been selected and
the total power generated per unit area has been studied for different collectors, for different
optical errors. Based on the graphical results developed, appropriate collectors may be chosen for
those locations based on their associated optical errors.

174

Process integration of Calcium-Looping thermochemical energy storage system in concentrating


solar power plants Ortiz, C., Romano, M.C., Valverde, J.M., Binotti, M., Chacartegui, R.
2018 Energy

155, pp. 535-551

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The Calcium-Looping process is a promising thermochemical energy storage
method based on the multicycle calcination-carbonation of CaCO3-CaO to be used in concentrated
solar power plants. When solar energy is available, the CaCO3 solids are calcined at high
temperature to produce CaO and CO2, which are stored for subsequent utilization. When power is
needed, these reaction by-products are fed into a carbonator reactor where energy is released from
the exothermic carbonation reaction. In comparison with currently commercial energy storage
systems, such as solar salts, the Calcium-Looping process presents several benefits such as the
feasibility to work at significantly higher power cycle temperatures, a higher energy storage density
and the possibility to store energy in the medium-long term. The present manuscript analyzes a
number of novel Calcium-Looping configurations for energy storage combined with CO2 cycles in a
solar tower plant. The high overall efficiencies achieved (32–44%, defined as the ratio of net electric
power production to net solar thermal power entering the calciner) indicate a potential interest for
the integration of the Calcium-Looping process in Concentrating Solar Power Plants, although major
technological challenges related to the design of the solar receiver and of the high temperature
solids handling devices remain to be faced.

175

Integration and architectural issues of a photovoltaic/thermal linear solar concentrator Cappelletti,


A., Ceccherini Nelli, L., Reatti, A. 2018 Solar Energy

169, pp. 362-373

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© 2018 Modern photovoltaics and thermal technologies are widely available for the building sector
at competitive prices. However, innovative approaches must be explored and implemented to find
new architectural solutions at the building scale. This paper presents an electro-thermal solar
concentrator and proposals for its building integration. The proposed device has a small size and is
based on a 20x semi-parabolic mirror concentrating the sunlight on a linear focus where a string of
mono-crystalline PV cells is placed. A thermal receiver is placed on the back-side of the cells, a fluid
circulating in the thermal receiver provides the heat recovery. The linear focus allows a monoaxial
sun tracking. The proposed device has been numerically analyzed with the support of experimental
data. The small size and the linear focus make feasible the integration of arrays of the proposed
innovative device in roofs or façades of both new and existing buildings where they contribute to the
auto-generation of a portion of the overall required energy. Several examples of the possibilities of
array building integration of the described small-size solar concentrator are proposed. The device
can be horizontally and/or vertically mounted to better match the architectural needs. The potential
yearly power generation of a single unit three meters long, is evaluated to be as high as 120
kWhelettric/year and 500 kWhthermal/year. Horizontal mounting results in a power production
about 30% higher than the vertical mounting. The significance of this paper is that small size, single
axis solar tracking, suitable for building integration is presented, studies of its possible integration in
the building are given, the power generation capabilities of the proposed solutions are analyzed in
detail. These capabilities have been derived using data achieved by experimental tests performed on
a prototype constituted by four semi-parabolic mirrors. The novel contribution is that a new
research direction toward further improvement of the performance, system design and installation
of a prefabricated modular façade component, is presented. Moreover, the proposed PVT low
concentrated solar device is integrable into buildings, easy to install and manage. Finally, the
modern and attractive architectural designs are proposed.

176

Numerical analysis of inserts configurations in a cavity receiver tube of a solar power tower plant
with non-uniform heat flux Liu, Y., Ye, W.-J., Li, Y.-H., Li, J.-F. 2018 Applied Thermal
Engineering

140, pp. 1-12

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In order to analyse the effects of inserts configurations on heat transfer
performance of solar cavity receiver tube (RT), a three-dimensional numerical model with four
different inserts under non-uniform heat flux boundary condition was developed. Based on this
model, the effects of inserts configurations, the effects of non-uniform heat flux boundary condition,
the effects of thickness and positions of twisted-tape were analyzed. The numerical results show
that RT-I with the twisted-tapes has the better comprehensive performances than those of other
three kinds of RTs, and the RT-I with twisted-tapes is recommended to the solar cavity tower
receiver. The twisted-tape RT-I has the highest Nu and the lowest circumferential temperature
difference ΔT and average temperature of outer surface of receiver tube Tm, which are 21.74, 43 K,
and 586 K, respectively. In addition, the thickness of twisted-tape has the significant effect on heat
transfer performances of RTs. The twisted-tape with much more thickness will enhance the heat
transfer and reduce the ΔT and Tm. Moreover, under the non-uniform boundary heat fluxes, RT-I
with twisted-tapes placed in the back-sunlight domain is favorable than that of twisted-tapes placed
in the sunlight concentrated domain. The contribution can provide a reference for this type of
receiver design and reconstruction.
177

Transient numerical model for the thermal performance of the solar receiver Xu, L., Stein, W.,
Kim, J.-S., (...), Guo, M., Wang, Z. 2018 Applied Thermal Engineering

141, pp. 1035-1047

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Transient thermal performance calculations are necessary to predict the thermal
power output and to monitor the dynamic characteristics of solar receivers. So this study described
the establishment of a transient numerical model for the thermal analysis on unsteady behaviors of
the external solar receiver. The numerical integration method was used to solve this model including
the rate of the temperature change with time and the temperature-dependent thermophysical
properties of the receiver tube as well as the heat transfer fluid (HTF). This transient model can
investigate on how the temperature distributions of the receiver and the HTF evolve from the initial
values under different boundary conditions. The fundamental aim of this study is to demonstrate the
transient performance of the receiver in order to benefit the operation strategies which are
supposed to improve the receiver efficiency without risk to the receiver itself. Therefore, this study
focuses on how the bulk temperature of the HTF responds to the initial and boundary conditions in
consideration of the thermal capacity of the solar receiver. Especially, for the comparison between
the transient and steady-state calculations, this study predicted the transient time, the convective
heat loss, the radiative heat loss and the HTF heat gain in different operation modes or conditions.
Thus, the results show that how essential impact factors such as the initial condition, the thickness
of the receiver tube, the DNI level and the wind speed affect the transient thermal performance of
the solar receiver. Additionally, the transient model has the function of the adjustment of the flow
rate of HTF in order to satisfy the required HTF temperature at the receiver outlet under the various
conditions including the concentrated solar flux and the wind speed.

178

Multiple-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann simulation of flow and heat transfer in porous volumetric
solar receivers Zhao, W., Zhang, Y., Xu, B., (...), Wang, Z., Jiang, S. 2018 Journal of Energy
Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME

140(8),082003

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Copyright © 2018 by ASME. The flow and heat transfer (FHT) in porous volumetric solar receiver was
investigated through a double-distributed thermally coupled multiple-relaxation-time (MRT) lattice
Boltzmann model (LBM) in this study. The MRT-LBM model was first verified by simulating the FHT in
Sierpinski carpet fractal porous media and compared with the results from computational fluid
dynamics (CFD). Three typical porous structures in volumetric solar receivers were developed and
constructed, and then the FHT in these three porous structures were investigated using the MRT-
LBM model. The effects of pore structure, Reynolds (Re) number based on air velocity at inlet, the
porosity, and the thermal diffusivity of solid matrix were discussed. It was found that type-III pore
structure among the three typical porous structures has the best heat transfer performance because
of its lowest maximum temperature of solid particles at the inlet and the highest average
temperature of air at the outlet, under the same porosity and heat flux density. Furthermore,
increasing the thermal diffusivity of solid particles will lead to higher averaged air temperature at the
outlet. It is hoped that the simulation results will be beneficial to the solar thermal community when
designing the solar receivers in concentrated solar power (CSP) applications.

179

Copper-oxide spinel absorber coatings for high-temperature concentrated solar power systems
Karas, D.E., Byun, J., Moon, J., Jose, C. 2018 Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

182, pp. 321-330

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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. Concentrated Solar Power (CSP), a promising renewable energy technology,
involves methods to concentrate the sun's energy onto receiver systems that generate steam,
activate turbines, and consequently generate electrical power. To ensure CSP technologies remain
cost-competitive, absorber coatings on CSP receiver systems require performance enhancements for
increasing solar-thermal energy conversion efficiency. In this work, black metal-oxide nanoparticles
comprising copper-cobalt oxides (CuxCo3−xO4) and copper-manganese oxides (CuxMn3−xO4) are
synthesized for solar absorptive potential by hydrothermal syntheses – selected for low-cost,
energy-efficient fabrication capable for bulk manufacturability. The material is deposited onto high-
temperature, durable Inconel substrates by a flexible spray-coating method, and characterization is
performed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS), and
X-Ray Powder Diffraction (XRD) analyses, as well as measurements to gauge thermal performance.
High temperature stability of a model solar receiver surface using these synthesized materials are
assessed by comparing spectral reflectance and a figure-of-merit efficiency metric before and after
high temperature exposure beyond 1000 h. To extend spectrally-selective absorbance capability, the
coating surfaces are geometrically-textured using sacrificial polymer beads that are jointly
implemented in the spray-coating process. This study ultimately showcases materials produced with
high figure-of-merit conversion efficiency, demonstrating solar absorber coatings capable of
interfacing with next-generation CSP receiver systems.

180

Characterization of thermal performance, flux transmission performance and optical properties of


MAX phase materials under concentrated solar irradiation Sarwar, J., Shrouf, T., Srinivasa, A.,
(...), Radovic, M., Kakosimos, K. 2018 Solar Energy Materials and Solar Cells

182, pp. 76-91

1
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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. In this study, thermal performance and optical properties of MAX phase
materials subjected to high concentrated flux are characterized. A new indoor facility is developed
that allows for investigation of the independent effect of irradiance and temperature on the thermal
performance of the material. Two MAX namely, Titanium Aluminum Carbide (Ti2AlC) and Chromium
Aluminum Carbide (Cr2AlC) are examined in this study. Both materials are exposed to high
concentrated homogenized flux in the range of 527.2 kWm−2– 917 kWm−2for 1000 s and 3000 s
using a high flux solar simulator while their temperatures are maintained at 60 °C ± 5 °C via water-
cooled heat flux gage. Materials’ surface characterization before and after irradiation is carried out
using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray fluorescence analysis. It is found that
both materials have excellent resistance to high concentrated flux, but that Ti2AlC shows higher light
scattering due to the oxidation of its surface. It is also found that the variations in the optical
properties over time do not depend on the selected incident flux level. The thermal performance of
Ti2AlC and Cr2AlC was found to varies in the 0.56 – 0.68 and 0.60 – 0.67 range, respectively, for
selected flux levels. Flux transmission performance of both materials is not affected by exposure to
high concentrated flux.

181

Numerical study on thermal stress and cold startup induced thermal fatigue of a water/steam cavity
receiver in concentrated solar power (CSP) plants Wan, Z., Fang, J., Tu, N., Wei, J., Qaisrani,
M.A. 2018 Solar Energy

170, pp. 430-441

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© 2018 The high temperature receivers in CSP plants should startup frequently, so the thermal
stress and the fatigue failure are critical important for its safety and stability. In our present study, a
computation model is proposed for a water/steam cavity receiver in CSP plant. The model couples
the light propagation, the light-heat conversion, the thermo-elasticity and the thermal fatigue
analysis together. Monte Carlo ray tracing method (MCRT), finite volume method (FVM) and boiling
heat transfer are coupled to get the thermal boundary of the boiling panel. Finite element method
(FEM) is adopted to obtain the temperature and stress–strain distribution of the boiling panel.
Elastic stress analysis and equivalent stress fatigue assessment method is used to investigate the
fatigue failure of the boiling panel. Two different structures of the boiling panel are researched,
following results are obtained: The heat flux on the boiling panel is highly non-uniform and it results
in the similar non-uniform distributions of temperature and stress-strain as well as the displacement
of the boiling panel. The non-uniform stress-strain leads to the warping of the boiling panel and the
largest displacement is in the direction normal to the heat absorbing surface toward the cavity
internal, the largest displacement range is 17 cm. Fins of the boiling panel at the elbow region (case-
1 in the present study) can lead to hot spots of which the temperature is extremely higher than that
of boiling tubes, cutting off the fins at the elbow region (case-2 in the present study) can eliminate
the hot spots and has no impact on temperature distribution of the boiling panel's main part. The
temperature difference on the cross section of the boiling tube is very high (about 130 °C while the
heat flux is about 350 kW/m2) both in radial and circumferential direction, and this high
temperature difference results in the high thermal stress on the boiling panel and the maximum
thermal stress occurs at the welding region. The welding quality has a significant impact on the
fatigue failure of the boiling panel. For a receiver design life of 20 years, membrane wall with cutting
off the fins at the elbow region (case-2 in the present study) is a good design and the welding quality
level 3 should be ensured at least and only one cold startup for a day is permitted.

182

Energy- and exergy-based thermal analyses of a solar bakery unit Ayub, I., Munir, A., Amjad,
W., Ghafoor, A., Nasir, M.S. 2018 Journal of Thermal Analysis and Calorimetry

133(2), pp. 1001-1013

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© 2018, Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest, Hungary. The use of solar concentrating technique for cooking
purpose has been widely reported rather than for the baking process which is rigidly precise and
requires process controlled conditions. Secondly, the energy and exergy analyses are rarely made for
the baking process. In this paper, an energy- and exergy-based thermal analysis of an innovative
solar bakery unit powered by Scheffler reflector has been presented. The system comprised of
primary reflector (Scheffler reflector), secondary reflector, receiver and baking chamber. The baking
experiments were conducted using four product samples (cakes) at 180 °C. The entire bakery unit
was divided into two main parts, i.e. fan–receiver and baking chamber to find out the inefficiencies
of bakery unit and its components. It was found that fan–receiver component handled major portion
of solar energy and showed energy losses. It possessed high improvement potential (IP) rate (0.153
kW), high exergetic factor (f) value (59.26%) and low exergy efficiency (15%). Thermal analysis of
baking process in the baking chamber showed variations in rate of energy utilization, energy
utilization ratio, exergy losses and exergy efficiency in range of 0.01–0.07 kW, 25–75%, 0.19–1.08
kW and 6.62–56.46%, respectively. The overall exergy efficiency of system was found to be 59.26%.
The study provides a detailed and sequential procedure to perform the thermal analysis of a solar
concentrated technology-based bakery unit.

183

Geometry optimization of a heat storage system for concentrated solar power plants (CSP)
Solé, A., Falcoz, Q., Cabeza, L.F., Neveu, P. 2018 Renewable Energy

123, pp. 227

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In the present study, geometry optimization of a phase change material (PCM)
heat storage system is presented. The existing PCM-fins heat exchanger system works at the back
side of a solar receiver in order to minimize the effect of the solar radiation fluctuations inside the
cavity. As initially designed, the system does not accomplish the expected design purposes and thus
optimization is needed. Optimization is usually time-consuming and some algorithms need a starting
point, therefore one suitable method is geometrical optimization which aims to find the optimal
shape of a system for a given criteria and providing a rough optimal geometry. Here, constructal
theory, ‘point to volume’, is applied to find the optimum shape factor of the elemental volume of
the presented PCM-heat exchanger. With this methodology, an optimum ratio of the PCM and fin
width and length is found and beyond that the method is extended to 'surface to volume’ problem.
Results have been numerically validated using a CFD software and demonstrate that it gives a very
good approximation of the real optimum which can be used as initial configuration for further
optimization through CFD simulation or other optimization methods that require a starting point.

184

Modeling and optimization of a solar system based on concentrating photovoltaic/thermal collector


Ben Youssef, W., Maatallah, T., Menezo, C., Ben Nasrallah, S. 2018 Solar Energy

170, pp. 301-313

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPV/T) solar collector systems are designed
to provide simultaneously thermal and electrical energies. This paper analyzes a numerical model of
a photovoltaic thermal collector in order to evaluate its performances from energy and economic
viewpoints. Therefore, a two dimensional numerical model has been developed and applied in this
study. This electrical/thermal model is based on the energy balance of the CPV/T receiver in order to
calculate the net thermal and electrical output energy. A comparison between the numerical results
and those obtained by experimental studies is presented in order to prove the viability of our
developed model. The results show that the output power predicted by the numerical model has a
good agreement with the experimental data with low mean percentage errors. Indeed, the effects of
several parameters on the performance of the system were examined and discussed in details. The
simulation process has allowed evaluating the power generation of the CPV/T system and
performing a comprehensive economic analysis study under Chambery and Tunisia conditions. The
CPV/T system has proven its viability and feasibility especially in regions with high solar radiation.

185

Design and Analysis of a Three-Phase Wireless Charging System for Lightweight Autonomous
Underwater Vehicles Kan, T., Mai, R., Mercier, P.P., Mi, C.C. 2018 IEEE Transactions on Power
Electronics

33(8), pp. 6622-6632

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© 1986-2012 IEEE. Lightweight autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs), powered by rechargeable
batteries, are widely deployed in inshore surveying, environmental monitoring, and mine
countermeasures. While providing valuable information in locations humans have difficulty
accessing, limited battery capacity of such systems prevents extended mission times. In order to
extend mission times, this paper proposes a three-phase wireless charging system that could be
used in a field-deployable charging station capable of rapid, efficient, and convenient AUV
recharging. Wireless charging should not, however, affect instrumentation located inside the AUV.
Thus, a three-dimensional finite element analysis tool is employed to study the characteristics of
magnetic fields inside the AUV during three-phase charging. Simulation results reveal that the
magnetic field generated by the proposed three-phase coil structure is concentrated away from the
center of the AUV, where instrumentation would nominally be located. Detailed circuit analysis and
compensation method to achieve resonance on both transmitter's and receiver's sides are also
given. To validate the proposed concept, a three-phase wireless charging system is developed.
Experimental results demonstrate that the system is able to transfer 1.0 kW with a dc-dc efficiency
of 92.41% at 465 kHz.

186

Comparison of solar radiation data sources for design and performance appraisal of CSP systems in
India Sharma, C., Sharma, A.K., Purohit, I., Mullick, S.C., Kandpal, T.C. 2018 International
Journal of Ambient Energy

39(6), pp. 594-605

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© 2017, © 2017 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group. The choice of a solar
radiation data source is expected to have a significant impact on the predicted performance of a
concentrating solar power (CSP) system and consequently on its technical and financial feasibility. In
the present study, an attempt has been made to analyse the effect of choice of various solar
radiation data sources on the predicted performance of a CSP system at 13 different locations in 5
different climatic zones of India. It was observed that there is significant variation in the amount of
annual electricity output obtained for various locations using different solar radiation data sources
resulting in variations in levelised cost of electricity. For a 50-MW parabolic trough-based CSP plant
located in Jaisalmer, the estimated value of annual electricity output varies from 63 to 124 GWh. For
a CSP plant based on the central tower receiver technology, the corresponding range is from 106 to
145 GWh.

187

Experimental study and thermal analysis of a tubular pressurized air receiver Chu, S., Bai, F.,
Zhang, X., (...), Cui, Z., Nie, F. 2018 Renewable Energy

125, pp. 413-424

0
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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Pressurized air receivers potentially used in concentrated solar power plants are
being developed and studied to achieve higher systemic efficiency from solar to electricity. In this
article, a novel receiver with double spiral tubes coiled into conical type was proposed and
fabricated. The design shows a bending limitation of a diameter of 60 mm in the bottom of the
receiver. Some experimental tests were conducted under a solar furnace in the real weather
condition. The results reveal that this kind of receiver could obtain high-temperature outlet air at
908 °C with relatively low direct normal irradiation (DNI) of around 785 W/m2. Based on the
comparisons of the outcomes of 9 test cases, it could be concluded that the outlet air temperature is
mainly dominated by the value of DNI, while the pressure drop is determined by both DNI and mass
flow rate of the air. Besides, the thermal inertia of the receiver demonstrates benefits for stable
output and quick recovery induced by small adjustments in the real operation process. All of these
results and analysis provide a helpful reference for validation, optimization and operational
strategies for this kind of pressurized air receiver.

188

Cracks and welds detection approach in solar receiver tubes employing electromagnetic acoustic
transducers Gómez Muñoz, C.Q., Arcos Jimenez, A., García Marquez, F.P., (...), Mohimi, A.,
Papaelias, M. 2018 Structural Health Monitoring

17(5), pp. 1046-1055

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© The Author(s) 2017. There is a significant rising in development of new concentrated solar plants
due to global energy demands. Concentrated solar plant requires to improve the operational and
maintainability in this industry. This article presents a new approach to identify defects in the solar
receiver tubes and welds employing a simple electromagnetic acoustic transducer. The absorber
tubes in normal working conditions must withstand high temperatures, which can cause the tubes to
deteriorate in areas such as welding, or it can cause hot spots due to defects or corrosion. A proper
predictive maintenance program for the absorber pipes is required to detect defects in the tubes at
an early stage, reducing corrective maintenance costs and increasing the reliability, availability, and
safety of the concentrated solar plant. This article presents a novel approach based on signal
processing and pattern recognition for predictive maintenance employing electromagnetic acoustic
transducers. Hilbert transform is used to obtain the envelope of the signal that is smoothed by
wavelet transform. It reduces the probability of detecting false-positive alarms. The algorithm uses
the distance of the sensors from the edges to perform a self-identification of signal events. The
events are located using two possible ways of ultrasound propagation, forward and reverse, and the
time of flight of each echo. The algorithm correlates the theoretical events with events found
experimentally. These echoes could come from different paths due to the electromagnetic acoustic
transducer that generates forward and reverse shear waves. The main novelty in this approach is
that the detection and location of the defect is determined considering two echoes that come from
the same defect, but they arrive at the sensor flowing by different paths. The results are obtained
with a double validation by matching the echoes that meet certain conditions. It increases the
accuracy of the inspection and reduces false alarms. The approach has been tested and validated in
an experimental platform that simulates the concentrated solar plants.

189

Hector, a new methodology for continuous and pattern-free heliostat field optimization Cruz, N.C.,
Salhi, S., Redondo, J.L., (...), Berenguel, M., Ortigosa, P.M. 2018 Applied Energy

225, pp. 1123-1131

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In the framework of central receiver solar plants, the heliostat field can take up
to 50% of the initial investment and cause up to 40% of energy loss. The most popular design
strategies are based on: (i) forcing heliostats to follow known distribution patterns and (ii) iterative
selection of positions. However, these methods might produce suboptimal solutions. The evolution
of computational platforms allows the development of more flexible approaches. In this work,
Hector, a new meta-heuristic aimed at facilitating coordinate-based optimization, is presented. First,
since East-West symmetry is imposed, one of those regions is ignored and the number of heliostats
to be placed is halved. Second, the selected region is split into separate circular sectors around the
receiver. Next, at every iteration, a new heliostat is added to the most promising sector. Then, it is
optimized by a user-selected algorithm, as an independent problem, in a continuous search-space.
This procedure is repeated until all the required heliostats have been deployed. The computed half is
finally cloned into the other one. Two versions of this strategy are proposed. Our empirical results
show that, for a given optimizer, better fields are obtained with Hector. The second version yields
the best fields but requires more runtime.

190

Materials compatibility for the next generation of Concentrated Solar Power plants Sarvghad,
M., Delkasar Maher, S., Collard, D., (...), Will, G., Steinberg, T.A. 2018 Energy Storage Materials

14, pp. 179-198

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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. The next generation of Concentrated Solar Power (CSP) plants are expected to
operate at higher temperatures than those currently in use, for improved efficiency and reduced
cost of power generation. This paper, presents a proposed scheme for a CSP plant designed to
operate at temperatures from 550 to 700 °C. With regard to the three main sections of the proposed
plant including receiver, storage and power generator, a comprehensive review on degradation
mechanisms that threaten structural alloys at elevated temperatures has been provided and the
gaps in the literature identified. Thermal fatigue and creep were recognized as general threats to all
sections of the system. In addition, specific degradation mechanisms caused by liquid sodium as the
preferred heat transfer fluid material, eutectic salts or metals as Phase Change Material (PCM) in the
storage and sCO2 Brayton cycle in the generator have been discussed in detail. For the purpose of
studying compatibility, a list of candidate alloys, with acceptable mechanical strengths at 550 to 700
°C, has been developed together with some ideas for future research. Further research on the
proposed list could result in the better understanding of the interaction between candidate
structural materials and environmental conditions in the next generation of CSP plants.

191

Evaluation of thermal shock resistance of silicon oxycarbide materials for high-temperature receiver
applications Mazo, M.A., Padilla, I., Tamayo, A., (...), López-Delgado, A., Rubio, J. 2018
Solar Energy

173, pp. 256-267

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Materials used as solar receivers in concentrated solar power technology must
withstand severe operational conditions caused by concentrated solar radiation. For this solar
technology several ceramic material candidates (silicon carbide, porous and dense silicon
oxycarbide) have been subjected to thermal shock resistance test by using Fresnel lens, the
equipment available, that concentrates the solar radiation more than 2600 times. Fast heating (37 °C
s−1) and cooling rates (28 °C s−1) from 100 to 1200 °C and dwelling time of 10 min are employed.
The evolution of materials surface has been evaluated during test by spectroscopic methods and
both confocal and electronic microscopies. It has been obtained the surface map of each analyzed
sample in order to evaluate the effect of the concentrated solar radiation on the surface and the
relationship with their durability. The absorptance values were also determined before and after the
ageing test using normal direction between 400 and 1100 nm. Concentrated solar radiation
facilitates the decomposition of tested materials producing the formation of gaseous species (mainly
CO and CO2) and a dense SiO2layer which is formed over the material surface. SiC and porous silicon
oxycarbide materials fail the thermal shock resistance test. SiC experiences a catastrophic break and
in the case of porous silicon oxycarbide, gases generated can evolve easily through the pores
producing a severe degradation of the material surface. However, dense silicon oxycarbide resists
100 cycles at 1200 °C due to the formation of a protective SiO2layer over the material surface and its
dense microstructure that slow down the diffusion of the gases preventing bulk material from being
degraded. The surface studies confirm the formation of a crystalline SiO2phase all over the surface.
Furthermore, the very similar coefficients of thermal expansion of silicon oxycarbide and silica (≈0.4
× 10−6°C), protects material against catastrophic failure. Finally, the absorptance values remain fairly
constant before and after thermal shock test (94.78 to 95.96–96.09%). The high resistance of dense
silicon oxycarbide materials to thermal shock under concentrated solar radiation makes these
materials suitable candidates of being used as high temperature solar receivers.

192

Solar power technology for electricity generation: A critical review


Open Access

Ahmadi, M.H., Ghazvini, M., Sadeghzadeh, M., (...), Naeimi, A., Ming, T. 2018 Energy Science and
Engineering

6(5), pp. 340-361

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© 2018 The Authors. Energy Science & Engineering published by the Society of Chemical Industry
and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Negative environmental impact of fossil fuel consumption highlight the
role of renewable energy sources and give them a unique opportunity to grow and improve. Among
renewable energy sources solar energy attract more attention and many studies have focused on
using solar energy for electricity generation. Here, in this study, solar energy technologies are
reviewed to find out the best option for electricity generation. Using solar energy to generate
electricity can be done either directly and indirectly. In the direct method, PV modules are utilized to
convert solar irradiation into electricity. In the indirect method, thermal energy is harnessed
employing concentrated solar power (CSP) plants such as Linear Fresnel collectors and parabolic
trough collectors. In this paper, solar thermal technologies including soar trough collectors, linear
Fresnel collectors, central tower systems, and solar parabolic dishes are comprehensively reviewed
and barriers and opportunities are discussed. In addition, a comparison is made between solar
thermal power plants and PV power generation plants. Based on published studies, PV-based
systems are more suitable for small-scale power generation. They are also capable of generating
more electricity in a specific area in comparison with CSP-based systems. However, based on
economic considerations, CSP plants are better in economic return.

193

Analysis of Nanofluid-Based Parabolic Trough Collectors for Solar Thermal Applications Freedman,
J.P., Wang, H., Prasher, R.S. 2018 Journal of Solar Energy Engineering, Transactions of the
ASME

140(5),051008

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Copyright © 2018 by ASME. Solar-to-thermal energy conversion technologies are an important and
increasingly promising segment of our renewable energy technology future. Today, concentrated
solar power (CSP) plants provide a method to efficiently store and distribute solar energy. Current
industrial solar-to-thermal energy technologies employ selective solar absorber coatings to collect
solar radiation, which suffer from low solar-to-thermal efficiencies at high temperatures due to
increased thermal emission from selective absorbers. Solar absorbing nanofluids (a heat transfer
fluid (HTF) seeded with nanoparticles), which can be volumetrically heated, are one method to
improve solar-to-thermal energy conversion at high temperatures. To date, radiative analyses of
nanofluids via the radiative transfer equation (RTE) have been conducted for low temperature
applications and for flow conditions and geometries that are not representative of the technologies
used in the field. In this work, we present the first comprehensive analysis of nanofluids for CSP
plants in a parabolic trough configuration. This geometry was chosen because parabolic troughs are
the most prevalent CSP technologies. We demonstrate that the solar-to-thermal energy conversion
efficiency can be optimized by tuning the nanoparticle volume fraction, the temperature of the
nanofluid, and the incident solar concentration. Moreover, we demonstrate that direct solar
absorption receivers have a unique advantage over current surface-based solar coatings at large
tube diameters. This is because of a nanofluid's tunability, which allows for high solar-to-thermal
efficiencies across all tube diameters enabling small pressure drops to pump the HTF at large tube
diameters.

194

An integrated concentrated solar fuel generator utilizing a tubular solid oxide electrolysis cell as
solar absorber Lin, M., Haussener, S. 2018 Journal of Power Sources

400, pp. 592-604

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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. We numerically assessed the potential of a solar reactor concept for efficient
fuel processing under concentrated solar irradiation. This design integrates a cavity receiver, a
tubular solid oxide electrolyzer, and the concentrated photovoltaic cells into a single reactor. The
tubular electrolyzer simultaneously acts as the solar absorber (for reactant heating) and as the
electrochemical device (for water and carbon dioxide splitting). A multi-physics axisymmetric model
was developed, considering charge transfer in the membrane-electrolyte assembly, electrochemical
and thermochemical reactions at the electrodes’ reaction sites, species and fluid flow in the fluid
channels and electrodes, and heat transfer for the whole reactor. A high solar-to-fuel efficiency was
predicted (18.6% and 12.3% for indirectly and directly connected approaches, respectively, both at
CPV= 385 and Cap= 1273). For synthesis gas production, the upper current density threshold to
avoid carbon deposition was found to be 8725 A/m2at reference conditions. A continuous range of
H2/CO molar ratios of the synthesis gas was achieved by varying the inlet H2O/CO2ratio, the
irradiation concentration, and the operation current density. Efficiency-optimized operating
conditions and design guidelines are presented. Our novel and integrated solar reactor concept for
the solar-driven high-temperature electrolysis of H2O and CO2has the potential to provide a simple,
high solar-to-fuel efficiency reactor at reduced cost, all given by the reduced transmission losses of
the integrated reactor design.

195

Comparative thermodynamic analysis of densely-packed concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT)


solar collectors in thermally in-series and in-parallel receiver configurations Sharaf, O.Z., Orhan,
M.F. 2018 Renewable Energy

126, pp. 296-321


1

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In this study, two densely-packed concentrated photovoltaic thermal (CPVT)
solar collector configurations are optically and thermodynamically designed and analyzed and then
exergoeconomically and environmentally assessed and compared. The designs are composed of
parabolic dish concentrators, multi-junction photovoltaic (MJPV) cells, segmented thermoelectric
generator (sTEG) couples with interconnectors, and finned minichannel heat extractors (mHXs). In
configuration I, the receiver assembly components are connected thermally in-series whereas in
configuration II they are connected thermally in-parallel. Geometric relations are employed to size
the concentrator with design evaluations taking place with the aid of ray trace simulations. To better
homogenize the reflected flux, the receiver is slightly shifted from the effective focal plane of the
concentrator. Optical analysis reveals that the dish reflector is very sensitive to incidence angle
deviations. It is found that the thermally in-series configuration offers an average annual exergy
efficiency of 29.1% compared to 19.3% for the thermally in-parallel configuration. Both
configurations offer comparable average annual energy efficiencies with a slight environmental and
exergoeconomic advantage towards the thermally in-parallel configuration. The thermally in-series
configuration is shown to provide a higher economic and thermodynamic value when electrical
output is given preference over thermal output. The thermally in-parallel configuration, on the other
hand, is favored in applications where thermal energy streams at multiple outlet temperatures are
simultaneously desired, including a high-temperature thermal output. From an environmental
viewpoint, both configurations are found capable of displacing a considerable amount of primary
energy and CO2-equivalent emissions. While from an exergoeconomic viewpoint, for a system
lifetime of 25 years, it is shown that the investment cost needs to be brought to approximately
21,000 AED for the proposed CPVT units to yield a positive lifecycle net present value (LCNPV). The
annual escalation rate of electricity is observed to have a significant effect on the LCNPV of the
collectors. Both environmental and exergoeconomic performance indices are shown to be sensitive
to the thermal energy application meant for the CPVT collectors. Exergy analysis reveals that a drop
in electrical exergy is offset by a rise in thermal exergy when higher system operation temperatures
are used. The performance of both designs is simulated and compared on a monthly basis using
weather data of Abu Dhabi, UAE.

196

Innovative Design of a Thermal Battery: Influence of Carbon Nanotubes Concentration on Thermal


Storage Characteristics Yilbas, B.S., Anwar, M.K., Al-Sharafi, A. 2018 International Journal of
Thermophysics, 39(10),112

© 2018, Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature. Innovative design of a
thermal battery resembling the solar thermal receiver is introduced. The fully connected aluminum
meshes and the phase change material (NaCO3) with the presence of multiwall carbon nanotubes
(MWCNT) are used as the thermal energy storing medium in the thermal battery. The aluminum
meshes behave like heat carriers and increase heat diffusion rates, while the use of MWCNT in the
phase change material enhances the thermal conductivity of the thermal energy storing medium.
The flow field, temperature rise, and liquid fraction are simulated numerically in the thermal battery
using the finite element code for various concentrations of MWCNT. The findings revealed that the
aluminum meshes improve the thermal conduction in the energy storing medium. Temperature
increases locally in the storing medium and disturbs the uniform-like temperature distribution inside
the thermal battery when only phase change material is used. The presence of MWCNT enhances
the thermal conductivity and minimizes the excessive temperature rise inside the storing medium. In
addition, the mixture of phase change material and MWCNT provides almost steady rate of melting
inside the thermal battery; however, increasing MWCNT concentration > 6 % in the phase change
material does not significantly shorten the total melting duration of the energy storing medium.

197

Design of high-temperature solar-selective coatings based on aluminium titanium oxynitrides Aly


Ti1-y (Ox N1-x ). Part 2: Experimental validation and durability tests at high temperature Escobar-
Galindo, R., Guillén, E., Heras, I., (...), Azkona, I., Krause, M. 2018 Solar Energy Materials and
Solar Cells

185, pp. 183-191

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© 2018 Elsevier B.V. The durability of two solar-selective aluminium titanium oxynitride multilayer
coatings was studied under conditions simulating realistic operation of central receiver power
plants. The coatings were deposited by cathodic vacuum arc applying an optimized design concept
for complete solar-selective coating (SSC) stacks. Compositional, structural and optical
characterization of initial and final stacks was performed by scanning electron microscopy, elastic
recoil detection, UV–Vis–NIR-IR spectrophotometry and X-Ray diffraction. The design concept of the
solar selective coatings was validated by an excellent agreement between simulated and initial
experimental stacking order, composition and optical properties. Both SSC stacks were stable in
single stage tests of 12 h at 650 °C. At 800 °C, they underwent a structural transformation by full
oxidation and they lost their solar selectivity. During cyclic durability tests, multilayer 1, comprised of
TiN, Al.64Ti.36N and an Al1.37Ti.54O top layer, fulfilled the performance criterion (PC) ≤ 5% for 300
symmetric, 3 h long cycles at 600 °C in air. Multilayer 2, which was constituted of four AlyTi1-
y(OxN1-x) layers, met the performance criterion for 250 cycles (750 h), but was more sensitive to
these harsh conditions. With regard to the degradation mechanisms, the coarser microstructure of
multilayer 1 is more resistant against oxidation than multilayer 2 with its graded oxygen content.
These results confirm that the designed SSCs based on AlyTi1-y(OxN1-x) materials withstand
breakdown at 600 °C in air. Therefore, they can be an exciting candidate material for concentrated
solar power applications at high temperature.

198

A simulation tool for concentrated solar power based on micro gas turbine engines Mazzoni, S.,
Cerri, G., Chennaoui, L. 2018 Energy Conversion and Management

174, pp. 844-854

3
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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In the scenario of the small scale 3–35 kWe concentrated solar power plant
based on point receiver technologies, the dish-Stirling configuration is one of the most commonly
adopted one. New and clean efficiency of these Stirling engines is typically of 30–40%. Yearly
average efficiency, during the system operations, is significantly reduced to 10–15% due to the
Stirling engines high maintenance costs and poor reliability issues. These drawbacks limit the small
scale dish-Stirling engines market attractiveness. The adoption of cheap, reliable and widely
available engines, such as micro gas turbines is a promising solution for substituting Stirling engines
since it ensures constant performance over time. Since micro gas turbines for concentrated solar
power plants equipped with dish concentrator have not been widely deployed, the development of
a plant simulator is helpful for predicting the overall concentrated solar power plant performance
and for optimizing the plant operations under different boundary conditions. The plant simulator is
aimed to demonstrate the economic viability and the technical feasibility of dish-micro gas turbine
systems. The paper includes the methods for developing a simulation tool for solar dish – micro gas
turbine applications. The solar concentrator, receiver/absorber, micro gas turbine, high speed
generator and power electronic systems have been modelled and the plant simulator has been set-
up by means of a quadratic programming technique. The simulator has been used to perform steady
state simulations for predicting the performance and for ensuring a safe and reliable power plant
operation when the direct normal irradiation changes. The results for a net generated power of
about 6 kWe have shown a nominal peak efficiency of about 10%, making this micro gas turbine
solar plant layout market attractive.

199

Experimental performance of 300 kWth prototype of parabolic trough collector with rotatable axis
and irreversibility analysis Wang, R., Qu, W., Hong, H., Sun, J., Jin, H. 2018 Energy

161, pp. 595-609

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© 2018 Parabolic trough collector (PTC) is the most mature concentrating solar thermal technology.
Limited by the cosine effect, annual thermal efficiency of PTC is only 50%. To show the limitations of
performance of PTC and find corresponding solutions, an irreversibility analysis of PTC is
experimentally conducted. Global exergy destruction is divided into exergy destructions in
concentrator and receiver according to process analysis. Experimental results shows that the exergy
destruction in concentrator accounts for the largest share. It indicates the process that sunlight
being concentrated onto receiver is the key limitation of the performance of PTC. Experiments of the
PTC with rotatable axis tracking show that rotatable axis tracking could decrease the exergy
destruction in concentrator obviously. The annual exergy efficiency would be expected to be
improved by 3% points according to the experimental results. This indicates that rotatable axis
tracking is a practical method to improve the performance of PTCs. The influences of azimuth angle
of PTC and heat transfer fluid temperature on exergy destruction are also analysed based on
experimental data. In this study, the key limitation of the performance of the PTC is revealed and
practical methods to decrease the exergy destruction of the PTC are provided.

200

Combined solar energy and combustion of hydrogen-based fuels under MILD conditions Chinnici, A.,
Nathan, G.J., Dally, B.B. 2018 International Journal of Hydrogen Energy

43(43), pp. 20086-20100

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© 2018 Hydrogen Energy Publications LLC This work presents the stability and performance
characteristics of a Hybrid Solar Receiver Combustor operating in the Moderate or Intense Low
oxygen Dilution (MILD) combustion regime. The device was operated at 12-kWth in two different
modes of operation, i.e. combustion-only (MILD) and mixed (combustion and solar introduced into
the device simultaneously), using natural gas (NG), liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), hydrogen (H2),
NG/H2 and LPG/H2 blends. A 5-kWel xenon-arc lamp was used to simulate the concentrated solar
radiation introduced into the device. The influence of the mode of operation and fuel composition
on the combustion stability, thermal efficiency, energy balance, pollutant emissions, heat losses and
distribution of heat flux within the receiver are presented for a range of values of the heat
extraction. It was found that MILD combustion can be successfully stabilised within the HSRC over a
broad range of operating conditions and fuel type, and in mixed operations, with low CO (for carbon-
based fuels) and NOx emissions. The addition of H2 and/or concentrated solar radiation to the MILD
process was found to increase its stability limits. Mixed and combustion-only operations showed
similar performance, regardless of the fuel type, providing further evidence that the fuel flow rate
can be used dynamically to compensate for variability in the solar resource. Also, the heat extracted
from the heat exchanger and the specific fuel consumption were found to increase and decrease,
respectively, by adding H2 to the system for both modes of operation, showing that hydrogen
addition is beneficial. The numerical analysis revealed that the higher performance with H2 is
attributable to a higher radiative heat transfer rate than for NG and LPG under MILD conditions.

An axial type impinging receiver Wang, W., Laumert, B. 2018 Energy

162, pp. 318-334

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd An axial type impinging receiver has been developed for a solar dish-Brayton
system. By using selective reflection cavity surfaces as a secondary concentrator, the solar
irradiation is reflected and concentrated on a cylindrical absorber that is located in the center of the
cavity. A modified inverse design method was applied for quickly finding possible cavity receiver
designs, and a numerical conjugate heat transfer model combined with a ray-tracing model was
utilized for studying the detailed performance of the impinging receivers. The ray-tracing results
show that the flux distribution on the cavity and absorber surfaces can be efficiently adjusted to
meet the design requirements by changing the absorber diameter, the cavity diameter, the cavity
length and the offset length. A candidate receiver design was selected for detailed numerical
studies, and the results show that the average outlet air temperature and the radiative-to-thermal
efficiency can reach 801.1 °C and 82.8% at a DNI level of 800 W/m2. The temperature differences on
the absorber can be controlled within 122.7 °C for DNI level of 800 W/m2, and 126.4 °C for DNI level
of 1000 W/m2. Furthermore, the structure is much simpler than a typical radial impinging design.

202

An experimental and numerical study of granular flows through a perforated square lattice for
central solar receiver applications Sandlin, M., Abdel-Khalik, S.I. 2018 Solar Energy

174, pp. 463-473

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© 2018 A proposed design for a concentrating solar power (CSP) receiver uses a granular material -
such as sand - as the heat transfer and energy storage medium. Early designs of particle heating
receivers (PHR) utilize a falling curtain of particles which directly absorbs the concentrated solar
radiation. However, falling curtain receivers have several disadvantages, including significant heat
and particle losses, and a short residence time within the irradiation zone. One design proposal
which overcomes these challenges is the so called “impeded flow PHR design” in which the particles
flow over, around, or through a series of obstacles in the flow path. This reduces the average
velocity of the particles, thereby increasing residence time in the irradiation zone of the receiver. It
also reduces heat and particle losses from the receiver. However, granular flows through complex
structures are not well understood, rendering a priori design of impeded flow PHR geometries
difficult. To better understand these flows, lab scale models of a PHR design variant using a
perforated square lattice at an oblique angle have been constructed, allowing granular flows
through the receiver geometry to be experimentally analyzed. In addition, two different numerical
modeling approaches - the discrete element method (DEM) model, and a two-fluid computational
fluid dynamics (CFD) model - have been developed to model the flow of particles through the
specified receiver geometry. The results of the DEM model are in reasonable agreement with the
experimental data with respect to mass flux, and better matches the experimental data than the CFD
model.

203

Three-dimensional numerical simulation of upflow bubbling fluidized bed in opaque tube under high
flux solar heating Benoit, H., Ansart, R., Neau, H., (...), Flamant, G., Simonin, O. 2018
AIChE Journal

64(11), pp. 3857-3867

0
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© 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Solid particles can be used as a heat transfer
medium in concentrated solar power plants to operate at higher temperature and achieve higher
heat conversion efficiency than using the current solar heat transfer fluids that only work below
600°C. Among various particle circulation concepts, the dense particle suspension (DPS) flow in
tubes, also called upflow bubbling fluidized bed (UBFB), was studied in the frame of the CSP2 FP7
European project. The DPS capacity to extract heat from a tube absorber exposed to concentrated
solar radiation was demonstrated and the first values of the tube wall-to-DPS heat transfer
coefficient were measured. A stable outlet temperature of 750°C was reached with a metallic tube,
and a particle reflux in the near tube wall region was evidenced. In this article, the UBFB behavior is
studied using the multiphase flow code NEPTUNE_CFD. Hydrodynamics of SiC Geldart A-type
particles and heat transfer imposed by a thermal flux at the wall are coupled in two-dimensional
unsteady numerical simulations. The convective/diffusive heat transfer between the gas and
dispersed phase, and the inter-particle radiative transfer (Rosseland approximation) are accounted
for. Simulations and experiments are compared here and the temperature influence on the DPS flow
is analyzed. © 2018 American Institute of Chemical Engineers AIChE J, 64: 3857–3867, 2018.

204

A study of granular flow through horizontal wire mesh screens for concentrated solar power particle
heating receiver applications – Part II: Parametric model predictions Sandlin, M., Abdel-Khalik,
S.I. 2018 Solar Energy

174, pp. 1252-1262

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Numerical methods are increasingly being used to study granular flow
phenomena, given the difficulty in extracting data from physical studies. Two common methods are
the discrete element method (DEM), and a two fluid computational fluid dynamics (CFD) method. A
companion paper (Sandlin and Abdel-Khalik, 2018) compared a DEM model and a CFD model of a
granular flow through horizontal wire mesh screens, with experimental data. The aim of this study is
to assess the sensitivity of both models to various input parameters. The results of this investigation
will guide future modelers of particle heating receivers and other flowing particulate systems in
selecting the appropriate modeling options and parameters to enhance the models ability to predict
the actual particulate flow characteristics. For the DEM model, it was found that the granular
material properties, especially the values for normal and rolling friction, had the largest impact on
simulation results. For the CFD model, it was found that the constitutive relationships for frictional
pressure, viscosity, and the treatment of physical boundary conditions had the largest impact on
simulation outcomes. In addition, both numerical models exhibit a non-monotonic relationship
between mass flux and the granular coefficient of restitution, and show reduced mass flux when
using a simulation domain with offset wire meshes. The influence of other material properties and
sub-modeling options is less pronounced. Methods of obtaining appropriate material properties and
sub-modeling options are discussed.
205

Optimizing dispatch for a concentrated solar power tower Wagner, M.J., Hamilton, W.T.,
Newman, A., (...), Diep, C., Braun, R. 2018 Solar Energy

174, pp. 1198-1211

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Concentrating solar power (CSP) systems employ a sophisticated thermal
receiver, power cycle, and a heliostat field, comprised of thousands of mirrors spread over hundreds
of acres of land, and are most cost-effective with relatively large quantities of energy storage which
can be scheduled for dispatch. We exercise an existing optimization model that maximizes revenue
over a year-long time horizon, solved using a standard 48-h look-ahead policy at hourly fidelity on a
CSP system under development in California. The system employs molten salt power tower
technology with a 150 MWe (net) turbine, eight hours of thermal storage at full load, and a solar
field that provides 1.75 times the rated turbine thermal power. The model considers system
configuration and interoperability aspects, such as storage tank size, production capacities, and
ramp rates, and determines decisions that expedite financing, permitting, and plant design. Relative
to results achieved via industry practice, the existing optimization model reduces the number of
power cycle (i.e., turbine) start-up events by 86.4%, thereby improving net revenue by more than
8.5% annually; this corresponds to an approximately $140 M increase in net revenue over the
lifetime of the plant, taking a step towards advancing the long-term economic viability of large-scale
renewable energy systems. Sensitivity analysis on uncertain parameter values provides insight
regarding those values that influence profit most significantly.

206

Development and validation of a thermo-economic model for design optimisation and off-design
performance evaluation of a pure solar microturbine Iaria, D., Nipkey, H., Zaili, J.A., Sayma, A.I.,
Assadi, M. 2018 Energies

11(11),3199

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© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. The aim of this paper is to present a
thermo-economic model of a microturbine for solar dish applications, which demonstrates the
applicability and accuracy of the model for off-design performance evaluation and techno-economic
optimisation purposes. The model is built using an object-oriented programming approach. Each
component is represented using a class made of functions that perform a one-dimensional physical
design, off-design performance analysis and the component cost evaluation. Compressor,
recuperator, receiver and turbine models are presented and validated against experimental data
available in literature, and each demonstrated good accuracy for a wide range of operating
conditions. A 7-kWe microturbine and solar irradiation data available for Rome between 2004 and
2005 were considered as a case study, and the thermo-economic analysis of the plant was
performed to estimate the levelised cost of electricity based on the annual performance of the plant.
The overall energy produced by the plant is 10,682 kWh, the capital cost has been estimated to be
EUR 27,051 and, consequently, the specific cost of the plant, defined as the ratio between the cost
of components and output power in design condition, has been estimated to be around EUR
3980/kWe. Results from the levelised cost of electricity (LCOE) analysis demonstrate a levelised cost
of electricity of EUR 22.81/kWh considering a plant lifetime of 25 years. The results of the present
case study have been compared with the results from IPSEpro 7 where the same component
characteristic maps and operational strategy were considered. This comparison was aimed to verify
the component matching procedure adopted for the present model. A plant sizing optimisation was
then performed to determine the plant size which minimises the levelised cost of electricity. The
design space of the optimisation variable is limited to the values 0.07-0.16 kg/s. Results of the
optimisation demonstrate a minimum LCOE of 21.5 [EUR/kWh] for a design point mass flow rate of
about 0.11 kg/s. This corresponds to an overall cost of the plant of around EUR 32,600, with a dish
diameter of 9.4 m and an annual electricity production of 13,700 [kWh].

207

Thermal and mechanical analysis of a sodium-cooled solar receiver operating under a novel heliostat
aiming point strategy Conroy, T., Collins, M.N., Fisher, J., Grimes, R. 2018 Applied Energy

230, pp. 590-614

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The nature in which a solar receiver in a concentrated solar power plant
interacts with an accompanying heliostat field plays a significant role in plant performance and
economics. An appropriate heat flux distribution should help deliver maximum receiver thermal
performance, while minimising mechanical damage – thereby maximising power production and
reducing costs. The current work presents an investigation into the thermal performance and
mechanical reliability of a sodium-cooled solar receiver operating under heat flux profiles generated
by a novel heliostat aiming strategy. A modification of the HFLCAL model is used to generate heat
flux profiles for individual heliostats in a representative plant, and simulated annealing optimisation
techniques are used to produce a novel heliostat aiming strategy. The importance of giving
consideration to receiver limitations under non-uniform thermal boundary conditions in the
development of a heliostat aiming strategy is demonstrated in this study, with mathematical optical,
thermal, and mechanical models used to complete the analysis. An investigation has been conducted
for a point-in-time resulting in maximum thermal loading conditions, with theoretical modelling
techniques used to calculate receiver tube temperatures for aiming strategy yielded heat flux
profiles, thereby allowing for the determination of heat losses and mechanical reliability through
creep-fatigue damage. Results show that the simulated annealing algorithm can significantly
improve heat flux homogeneity on the receiver, potentially reducing peak heat flux to less than 10%
that of a single aiming point strategy, given an appropriate spillage allowance and aiming point grid
size. A satisfactory configuration of spillage allowance and aiming grid size exists so as to supply
maximum power to the receiver, while uniformly distributing the incident heat flux in order to meet
mechanical reliability requirements. Based on the receiver design and conditions simulated in the
analysis, a grid constructed of more than 81 aiming points (receiver area coverage of 32.7%), and an
additional spillage allowance of 10% allows the receiver to deliver maximum power output while
retaining mechanical durability through a 30 year plant life cycle.

208

Innovative thermal storage strategies for Fresnel-based concentrating solar plants with East-West
orientation Sebastián, A., Abbas, R., Valdés, M., Casanova, J.2018 Applied Energy

230, pp. 983-995

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd A novel proposal to drive forward linear Fresnel technology within the solar
market competitiveness is presented in this paper. It consists of two innovative storage strategies
conceived for the management of a flexible three-tank thermal storage system of molten salts,
which seeks the enhancement of part-load plant efficiency in alternative East-West oriented Fresnel
solar plants. A consistent methodology has been developed in order to assess quantitatively this new
proposal by means of annual performance simulations of a global model. This allows the comparison
of the aforementioned approach of Fresnel-based plant with reference parabolic trough collectors
(PTC) and linear Fresnel collectors (LFC), which are equipped with state-of-the-art two-tank thermal
storage of molten salts and North-South solar field orientation. Results show an increase of more
than 10% in annual plant efficiency compared to conventional North-South Fresnel plants based in
high latitude locations, i.e. Almería (Spain). This boost in LFC performance would imply narrowing
the gap with PTCs, where expensive high optical quality receivers are used. Findings in this paper
state that the proposed innovative strategies are proven to be more effective when low quality
receivers are used and when the solar fields are located far from tropics.

209

Modelling of a direct absorption solar receiver using carbon based nanofluids under concentrated
solar radiation Dugaria, S., Bortolato, M., Del Col, D. 2018 Renewable Energy

128, pp. 495-508

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© 2017 Elsevier Ltd The addition of nanoparticles in a base fluid can enhance its optical properties,
in particular its absorption properties. Thus, nanofluids can be successfully used in solar collectors to
absorb the solar radiation in their volume and avoid using an absorber plate. This paper investigates
the application of aqueous suspensions as volumetric absorber in a concentrating direct absorption
solar collector: a suspension of single wall carbon nanohorns (SWCNHs) in water is chosen as the
nanofluid. A model of a solar receiver with a planar geometry to be installed in a parabolic trough
concentrator is developed: the radiative transfer equation in participating medium and the energy
equation are numerically solved to predict the thermal performance of the receiver. The developed
model is capable to predict the temperature distribution, heat transfer rate and penetration
distance of the concentrated solar radiation inside the nanofluid volume. The simulated
performance of the direct absorption receiver has been compared with calculations and
experimental data of two surface absorption conventional receivers under the same operating
conditions.

210

Thermohydraulic analysis of single phase heat transfer fluids in CSP solar receivers Conroy, T.,
Collins, M.N., Fisher, J., Grimes, R. 2018 Renewable Energy

129, pp. 150-167

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Theoretical modelling techniques are used to compare the thermohydraulic
performance and thermal storage characteristics of molten salt, liquid sodium, and lead-bismuth in a
CSP solar receiver concept. For molten salt, the performance of a number of heat transfer
augmentation techniques are also studied. Sodium and lead-bismuth both yield excellent receiver
thermal efficiency (max ∼92%), when compared to molten salt (max ∼90%), due to high thermal
conductivity values that lead to large heat transfer coefficients. A high pressure drop penalty for
lead-bismuth largely offsets its thermal performance gain over molten salt, however sodium retains
its advantage as a receiver working fluid with a low pumping parasitic. The implementation of heat
transfer enhancement techniques can significantly improve the performance of a molten salt
receiver when compared to smooth tube designs. The low specific heat capacity and high unit cost of
lead-bismuth is prohibitive towards its use as a storage medium in storage-integrated plant designs,
resulting in very high LCOE values. Sodium is the most economically feasible fluid for systems with
low storage (<3 h), however the low per-unit cost and high specific heat capacity of molten salt
means that this is the most effective working fluid in systems with larger storage requirements.

211

Thermal performance of vortex-based solar particle receivers for sensible heating Davis, D.,
Jafarian, M., Chinnici, A., Saw, W.L., Nathan, G.J. 2019 Solar Energy

177, pp. 163-177

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd We report a first-order assessment of a novel vortex-based solar particle
receiver and the sensitivity of its thermal performance to a number of key operational parameters.
This assessment is made with a one-dimensional numerical model developed here to adapt the zonal
method to calculate heat and mass transport within the enclosure of the solar vortex receiver (SVR)
and to incorporate radiative and convective heat transfer between the particle phase, the air phase
and the receiver wall together with re-radiative and conductive loss from the receiver. This
simplified one-dimensional model allows for the systematic assessment of first order trends of mass
and energy balance within the SVR and is used here to advance understanding of the dominant
mechanisms controlling its thermal performance. Sensitivity studies of the thermal performance of
the SVR reveal that the receiver can be configured to operate as either an air-heater or a particle-
heater, depending primarily on the particle mass loading. For the present SVR configuration, the
critical value of mass loading, ṁp/ṁair ≈ 1 was found to define the boundary, above which the
device acts as a particle heater, and below which it acts as an air heater. Furthermore, an
assessment of the two-phase flow direction found that a counter-flow (relative to the incident
concentrated solar radiation) tends to result in a higher efficiency than a co-flow direction. The first
order trends of the sensitivity of thermal performance of the SVR to the particle and air mass flow
rates, particle size and receiver length were also assessed, finding that the ratio of receiver thermal
input to heat capacity of the two-phase flow has a controlling influence on the thermal efficiency of
the SVR, particularly with the front entry configuration. Overall receiver thermal efficiencies of up to
88% were predicted for the SVR operating with high mass flow rates of both particles and air, but it
is expected that the thermal efficiency of the device for all operating conditions assessed here would
increase with an increase in receiver scale from the laboratory-scale device considered here.

212

Annual performance of subcritical Rankine cycle coupled to an innovative particle receiver solar
power plant Reyes-Belmonte, M.A., Sebastián, A., Spelling, J., Romero, M., González-Aguilar, J.
2019 Renewable Energy

130, pp. 786-795

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© 2018 Concentrated solar power plants using molten salts as heat transfer and storage fluid have
emerged as the preferred commercial solution for solar thermal electricity in central receiver
technology. Despite their ability to store large amounts of thermal energy and efficient receiver
designs, further efficiency improvements are constrained by tight temperature restrictions when
using molten salts (290 °C–565 °C). In this work, a novel heat transfer fluid based on a dense particle
suspension (DPS) is used due to its excellent thermophysical properties that extend the operating
temperature of solar receiver and allow its coupling with higher-efficiency power cycles. In this
paper, the design of a DPS solar receiver working at 650 °C has been optimized for two commercial
sizes (50 MWth and 290 MWth) coupled to an optimized subcritical Rankine cycle. The results
showed that a five-extraction reheated Rankine cycle operating at 610 °C and 180 bar maximizes
power plant efficiency when coupled with a DPS central receiver, giving 41% power block efficiency
and 23% sun-to-electricity efficiency. For optimization purposes at design point conditions, in-house
code programmed into MATLAB platform was used while TRNSYS software was employed for annual
plant performance analysis.

213
Techno-economic analysis of solar thermal power plants using liquid sodium as heat transfer fluid
Fritsch, A., Frantz, C., Uhlig, R. 2019 Solar Energy

177, pp. 155-162

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© 2018 Solar thermal power plants with central receiver and thermal storage are expected to be
one key technology in future electricity generation, because they are renewable and due to the
thermal storage independent of the current solar radiation. State-of-the-art solar power plants often
use molten nitrate salts as heat transfer fluid. The use of liquid sodium instead leads to lower
electricity generation costs. Sodium has a high thermal conductivity and thus large heat transfer
rates are possible. Hence, a smaller absorber surface is sufficient for the same thermal power. As a
result, the sodium receiver achieves a higher efficiency at lower investment cost. Additionally, the
aiming strategy, which reduces the peak heat flux on molten salt receivers isn't necessary for
sodium. Even at high heat flux densities, the absorber tubes will be cooled sufficiently due to the
high heat transfer coefficients. Therefore, the sodium receiver in this analysis is designed for one
single aim point, resulting in a heat flux density of q̇mean=1.06MW/m2 and q̇ peak=2.99MW/m2.
The state-of-the-art system with molten salt considers q̇ mean=0.51MW/m2 and q̇peak=1.0MW/m2.
The presented techno-economic analysis of two sodium based concepts compared to a reference
system with molten salt results in up to 16% lower electricity generation costs.

214

On-sun testing of Miscibility Gap Alloy thermal storage Copus, M., Fraser, B., Reece, R., (...), Post,
A., Kisi, E. 2019 Solar Energy

177, pp. 657-664

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd The ability of a C-Zn Miscibility Gap Alloy (MGA) material to operate as a
combined solar receiver and storage was investigated. MGA thermal energy storage materials
comprise metallic PCM particles embedded within a conducting metal or semi-metal matrix to form
a macroscopically solid combined latent heat/sensible heat storage material. A receiver containing 4
× 1L MGA storage modules was mounted on a solar concentrating dish. The storage material was
directly illuminated by concentrated solar radiation at a flux of approximately 105 kW/m2, readily
attaining surface temperatures of 520–530 °C, well above the phase change temperature of 420 °C.
Single step charging led to a state of charge of 80% without exceeding a nominal surface
temperature of 530 °C. Cycling on and off sun in the range 460–520 °C was used to achieve a state of
99% charged. Thermal performance of the MGA during solar charging and its discharge by natural
cooling is presented and analysed.

215
Thermal analysis of a finned receiver for a central tower solar system Piña-Ortiz, A., Hinojosa, J.F.,
Pérez-Enciso, R.A., (...), Calleja, R.A., Estrada, C.A. 2019 Renewable Energy

131, pp. 1002-1012

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In this study, a thermal analysis of a finned receiver prototype for a thermosolar
tower system is presented. The experimental system consists of parallelepiped aluminum enclosure
of 1.2 m high, 1.23 m wide and 0.1 m depth. At the interior, 1232 cylindrical fins with a diameter of
0.0095 m (3/8″) and 0.09 m length increases the heat transfer area up to 225%. The vertical wall
receives the incoming solar concentrated radiation from a group of heliostats whilst at the interior a
constant flow of water removes the absorbed energy. Experimental temperature profiles were
obtained at different heights and depths and a comparison was made with numerical results
obtained with the use of commercial CFD software. It was found that the maximum thermal
efficiency of the receiver was 94.4%, decreasing as the radiative flux increases.

216

On-Sun performance evaluation of alternative high-temperature falling particle receiver designs Ho,
C.K., Christian, J.M., Yellowhair, J.E., (...), Golob, M., Nguyen, C. 2019 Journal of Solar Energy
Engineering, Transactions of the ASME

141(1),4041100

Hide abstract View at Publisher

Copyright © 2019 by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). This paper evaluates the
on-sun performance of a 1 MW falling particle receiver. Two particle receiver designs were
investigated: obstructed flow particle receiver versus free-falling particle receiver. The intent of the
tests was to investigate the impact of particle mass flow rate, irradiance, and particle temperature
on the particle temperature rise and thermal efficiency of the receiver for each design. Results
indicate that the obstructed flow design increased the residence time of the particles in the
concentrated flux, thereby increasing the particle temperature and thermal efficiency for a given
mass flow rate. The obstructions, a staggered array of chevron-shaped mesh structures, also
provided more stability to the falling particles, which were prone to instabilities caused by
convective currents in the free-fall design. Challenges encountered during the tests included
nonuniform mass flow rates, wind impacts, and oxidation/deterioration of the mesh structures.
Alternative materials, designs, and methods are presented to overcome these challenges.

217

Optimized design of a Linear Fresnel reflector for solar process heat applications Pulido-Iparraguirre,
D., Valenzuela, L., Serrano-Aguilera, J.-J., Fernández-García, A. 2019 Renewable Energy
131, pp. 1089-1106

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd Heat demands in industrial processes represent a high rate of the thermal
energy consumption that could be directly delivered by a concentrated solar thermal technology.
Linear Fresnel reflectors are a promising example of this kind of technology. This paper presents an
innovative and optically optimized design of linear Fresnel collector for solar process heat
applications. An in-house ray trace code was employed to evaluate different geometrical options of
the solar collector over conventional concepts, aiming to maximize its optical performance and
tackle the inherent weakness of this concentrating solar technology when it is compared to other
type of concentrators. Geometrical modifications accomplished in the optimization process include
the tilt of the concentrator and receiver, the receiver displacement and the concentrator rotation
along with the optimization of other relevant parameters. As a result, a significant upgrade of the
monthly power on the receiver was achieved, with an average enhancement ranging from 2% to
61%, compared to a standard linear Fresnel collector without the proposed modifications. This result
provides a more homogenous thermal power profile delivered along the year, which is an important
requirement to place the technology in the spotlight.

218

A universal solar simulator for focused and collimated beams Jin, J., Hao, Y., Jin, H. 2019
Applied Energy

235, pp. 1266-1276

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd This paper presents a 70 kWe indoor solar simulator for concentrating and non-
concentrating (quasi-collimated light) solar applications. Three major subsystems compose this solar
simulator: a lamp array, an optical integrator, and a collimating mirror. The lamp array consists of
seven radiation modules, each comprising a 10 kWe xenon short-arc lamp coupled to a custom-
designed reflector in the shape of a truncated ellipsoid. The optical integrator and collimating mirror
are applied to homogenize the intensity distribution of light and fix the light angle. The solar
simulator can continuously produce concentrated high-flux, medium-flux and non-concentrating
quasi-collimated sunlight. For a focal plane with a 60 mm diameter circular target, the measured
peak and mean radiative flux are 9200 kW/m2 and 5100 kW/m2, respectively, and the
corresponding radiation power is 14.45 kW. For a 4 × 3 m rectangular quasi-collimated light area, the
measured radiative flux, half divergence angle, and uniformity of the light are 0.94 kW/m2, 1.3°, and
92%, respectively. At 30% of the rated power output, the temperature of the parabolic trough
receiver increases to 350 °C; while at 80% of the rated power output, the focused radiation can
easily melt the metal of tantalum (in a quartz reactor), which corresponds to a melting temperature
of more than 3290 K. The solar simulator can continuously produce concentrated high-flux, medium-
flux and non-concentrating sunlight, which can serve as a universal experimental platform for solar
energy research.

219

Double Modulation Pyrometry Applied to Radiatively Heated Surfaces with Dynamic Optical
Properties Potamias, D., Alxneit, I., Koepf, E., Wokaun, A. 2019 Journal of Solar Energy
Engineering, Transactions of the ASME

141(1),011003

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© 2019 by ASME. The accuracy of radiometric temperature measurement in radiatively heated


environments is severely limited by the combined effects of intense reflected radiation and
unknown, dynamically changing emissivity, which induces two correlated and variable error terms.
While the recently demonstrated double modulation pyrometry (DMP) eliminates the contribution
of reflected radiation, it still suffers from the shortcomings of single-waveband pyrometry: it
requires knowledge of the emissivity to retrieve the true temperature from the thermal signal. Here,
we demonstrate an improvement of DMP incorporating the in situ measurement of reflectance. The
method is implemented at Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI) in its 50 kW high-flux solar simulator and
used to measure the temperature of ceramic foams (SiSiC, ZrO2, and Al2O3) during fast heat-up. The
enhancement allows DMP to determine the true temperature despite a dynamically changing
emissivity and to identify well-documented signature changes in ZrO2 and Al2O3. The method also
allows us to study the two dominant error sources by separately tracking the evolution of two error
components during heat-up. Furthermore, we obtain measurements from a solar receiver, where
the cavity reflection error limits measurement accuracy. DMP can be used as an accurate
radiometric thermometer in the adverse conditions of concentrated radiation, and as a diagnostic
tool to characterize materials with dynamic optical properties. Its simple design and ability to correct
for both errors makes it a useful tool not only in solar simulators but also in concentrated solar
facilities.

220

Thermal analysis of porous volumetric receivers of concentrated solar dish and tower systems
Reddy, K.S., Nataraj, S. 2019 Renewable Energy

132, pp. 786-797

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© 2018 Elsevier Ltd In this article, thermal analysis of Solar volumetric receiver used in concentrated
solar thermal power systems is studied. A cylindrical volumetric receiver used in the parabolic dish
collector and solar power tower is analyzed using a finite element method based tool COMSOL
multiphysics software. A non uniform Gaussian distribution based heat influx is applied at the
receiver to mimic the actual conditions. The steady state operation of the receiver is studied for
various porosity and thermal conductivity of the solid phase. Different parameters of Gaussian
distributions corresponding to different flux profile conditions are studied. The Gaussian profile heat
flux amounting to 1 MW/m2results in the Gaussian like temperature distribution of the fluid phase
near the receiver exit region. Higher thermal conductivity of 200 W/(m K) coupled with the high
porosity of 0.7 leads to the better operational efficiency of the receiver. Lower porosity results in
higher peak temperature in the fluid phase and higher thermal conductivity laterally spreads the
temperature across the receiver. The intermittent solar flux condition is realized through transient
response study of flux conditions. The temperature gain rate in transient case is found to be
approximately 24 K/s while the temperature drop is around 29 K/s.

221

Modeling a thermoplate conical heat exchanger in a point focus solar thermal collector Khalil, I.,
Pratt, Q., Spitler, C., Codd, D. 2019 International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer

130, pp. 1-8

Hide abstract View at Publisher

© 2018 Elsevier Ltd A three-dimensional ANSYS-FLUENT Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model
of the central receiver in a compact hybrid solar-thermal collector is presented. The small scale
cavity receiver is conical in shape, laser welded from Inconel 625 with a 38 mm entrance aperture,
and uses pressurized water as the Heat Transfer Fluid (HTF) within a thermoplate serpentine
flowpath. The coupled thermofluidic CFD model examines a simplified unrolled version of this
dimpleplate heat exchanger, representing the laminar flow within 10 × 1 mm expanded flowpath
serpentine channels complete with intrachannel spot welds and non-uniform concentrated solar
irradiance heating. The computational model is validated against experimental results with the
receiver at the focus of a 2.7m2 parabolic dish, two-axis tracking rooftop solar collector. For steady
state conditions with the outlet HTF reaching temperatures in excess of 200 °C, the HTF temperature
rise predicted by the computational model is in agreement with the experimental data. In order to
accurately capture the heat losses from the heat exchanger to its surrounding, we present an
additional three-dimensional CFD model including the heat exchanger and surrounding thermal
insulation. Contours of temperature and velocity at the midplane of the dimpleplate receiver heat
exchanger are presented.

222

Effect of heat flux distribution profile on hydrogen concentration in an allothermal downdraft


biomass gasification process: Modeling study Lenis, Y.A., Maag, G., De Oliveira, C.E.L., Corredor, L.,
Sanjuan, M. 2019 Journal of Energy Resources Technology, Transactions of the ASME

141(3),031801

Hide abstract View at Publisher


Copyright © 2019 by ASME. Considering the potential of using concentrating solar power systems to
supply the heat required for the allothermal gasification process, this study analyzes hydrogen
production in such a system by assuming typical radiative heat flux profiles for a receiver of a central
tower concentrated solar power (CSP) plant. A detailed model for allothermal gasification in a
downdraft fixed bed tubular reactor is proposed. This considers solid and gas phases traveling in
parallel flow along the reactor. Results for temperature and gas profile show a reasonable
quantitative agreement with experimental works carried out under similar conditions. Aiming to
maximize H2 yield, eight Gaussian flux distributions, similar to those typical of CSP systems, each
with a total power of 8 kW (average heat flux 20 kW/m2), but with varying peak locations, were
analyzed. The results show a maximum producer gas yield and a chemical efficiency of 134.1 kmol/h
and 45.9% respectively, with a molar concentration of 47.2% CO, 46.9% H2, 3.3% CH4, and 2.6% CO2
for a distribution peak at z=1.4 m, thus relatively close to the flue gas outlet. Hydrogen production
and gas yield using this configuration were 4% and 2.9% higher than the achieved using the same
power but homogeneously distributed. Solar to chemical efficiencies ranged from 38.9% to 45.9%,
with a minimum when distribution peak was at the reactor center. These results are due to high
temperatures during the latter stage of the process favoring char gasification reactions.

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