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SCHEMATIC SYMBOLS

AMPLIFIER/
RELAY COIL
BUFFER

RELAY
ANTENNA
CONTACT

DIPOLE
THERMISTOR
ANTENNA

VOLTAGE
LOOP
DEPENDENT
ANTENNA
RESISTOR

PIEZO
ELECTRIC VARISTOR
CRYSTAL

JACK SHIELDING

PLUG FOR SHEILDED


JACK CONDUCTOR

LOUD
NEON BULB
SPEAKER

HEAD SET MICROPHONE

ELECTROLITIC/
PERMANENT
POARIZED
MAGNET
CAPACITOR

ELECTRO OPERATIONAL
MAGNET AMPLIFIER

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DIODE NPN TRANSISTOR

ZENER DIODE PNP TRANSISTOR

VERACTOR
N-Channel JFET
DIODE

TUNNEL DIODE P-Channel JFET

MOSFET
PHOTO DIODE P-Channel
(Depletion Type)

LIGHT MOSFET
EMITTING N-Channel
DIODE (Depletion Type)

MOSFET
SCHOTTKEY
N-Channel
DIODE
(Enhancement Type)

2
Dual Gate
MOSFET
N-Channel OR Gate
(Enhancement
Type)

DIAC AND Gate

TRIAC NAND Gate

UJT NOR Gate

Silicon Controlled EXCLUSIVE-OR


Rectifier (SCR) Gate (XOR)

Insulate Gate
EXCLUSIVE-NOR
Bipolar Transistor
Gate (XNOR)
(IGBT )

NOT Gate/
JK Flip Flop
INVERTER

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Expt. No.: 01
Date : dd/mm/yyyy

FAMILIARIZATION OF ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS,


COLOUR CODES AND MULTIMETER

AIM: To get familiarized with the colour codes of resistors, electronic components and
multimeter.

COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
Name of the components Quantity/ Number
Multimeter 1
Resistors 4
Capacitors 2
Diodes 2
Transistors 2

THEORY:
Four band colour coding system
 First significant digit
 Second significant digit
 Number of zeros or multipliers
 Tolerance
Five band colour coding system
 First significant digit
 Second significant digit
 Third significant digit
 Multiplier
 Tolerance

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FOUR BAND COLOUR CODING SYSTEM FOR RESISTOR

COLOUR NUMBER MULTIPLIER TOLERENCE


Black 0 100 -
Brown 1 101 ± 1%
Red 2 102 ± 2%
Orange 3 103 -
Yellow 4 104 -
Green 5 105 -
Blue 6 106 -
Violet 7 107 -
Grey 8 108 -
White 9 109 -
Gold - 10-1 ± 5%
Silver - 10-2 ± 10%
No Colour - - ± 20%

COLOUR CODING OF CAPACITORS

COLOUR NUMBER MULTIPLIER TOLERENCE


Black 0 100 20%
Brown 1 101 1%
Red 2 102 2%
Orange 3 103 -
Yellow 4 104 -
Green 5 105 -
Blue 6 106 -
Violet 7 - -
Grey 8 10-2 -
White 9 10-1 -

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4-Band Colour Coding System

1. First significant digit


2. Second significant digit
3. Multiplier
4. Tolerance

5-Band Colour Coding System

1. First significant digit


2. Second significant digit
3. Third significant digit
4. Multiplier
5. Tolerance

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Ceramic Disc Capacitors

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Schematic Symbols: (Left side of rough and fair records)

Diode

1A Power Rectifier Diode (Plastic)

Switching Diode

1A Power Diode (Plastic)

Signal Diode (Glass)

Zener Diode

3.3V Zener diode (Plastic/ Glass)

NPN-Transistor

PNP-Transistor

Bottom view of Transistors

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Diode Testing:

Forward bias shows Reverse bias shows


low resistance high resistance

Transistor Testing:

Forward bias shows low resistance for both NPN & PNP transistors

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Reverse bias shows high resistance for both NPN & PNP transistors

Emitter-Collector resistance in both directions should be high

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PROCEDURE:
Calculating Resistance
The multimeter is suited to DC mode negative pin is inserted in the common slot positive
pin in the ohm slot. The resistor held in between the pins and the reading is compared with
the obtained using the colour code and percentage error is calculated using the formula.
𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑑𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔− 𝑀𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔
Percentage error = ∗ 100%
𝐶𝑜𝑙𝑜𝑢𝑟 𝑐𝑜𝑑𝑒 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔

Capacitor
Identify the capacitor: Electrolytic polarized capacitor and ceramic disc capacitor, calculate
the capacitance value accordingly. Measure the capacitance using the multimeter and
calculate the error using the formula.
𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒−𝑚𝑢𝑙𝑡𝑖𝑚𝑒𝑡𝑒𝑟 𝑟𝑒𝑎𝑑𝑖𝑛𝑔
Percentage error = ∗ 100%
𝐶𝑎𝑙𝑐𝑢𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 𝑣𝑎𝑙𝑢𝑒

Diode Testing
To check the biasing of the diodes, first the cathode and anode are determined and the
multimeter is switch on in Continuity/ Diode mode (AC mode) with pins in mA and
common slot. The negative pin is held to the cathode (n side) and positive to anode (p side)
to hear a beep sound, which conforms the quality of the diode.
Transistor Testing
To check the working of transistor, first type of transistor NPN or PNP is determined. Then
the emitter, base and collector are found. A beep sound is heard at the time of forward
biasing and no sound during reverse biasing. The quality of the transistor is confirmed.

PRECAUTIONS:
 Knob of multimeter should be completely placed to the point to the correct mode.
 The head should not touch the pins of multimeter while measuring resistance.
 Carefully determine the type of capacitors, diodes and transistors.
 Switch off the multimeter before inserting the wires into slots.

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TABULAR COLUMN: (Left side of rough and fair records)

Resistance Calculation
Sl. No Colour code Calculated Measured Percentage
value value error

Capacitance Calculations
Sl. No Type Calculated Measured Percentage
value value error

Diode Testing
Sl. No Type Barrier potential

Transistor testing
Sl. No Type Potential

RESULTS: (Right side of rough and fair records)

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Expt. No.: 02 a
Date : dd/mm/yyyy

BREAD BOARD ASSEMBLING – COMMON EMITTER AMPLIFIER


AIM:
To assemble common emitter amplifier on a bread board
TOOLS REQUIRED:
Long nose plier
COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
S.No Component Quantity
1 Bread board 1
2 Transistor 1
3 Resister 47KΩ 1
4 Resister 10KΩ 1
5 Resister 2.7KΩ 1
6 Resister 680Ω 1
7 Capacitor 10µF 1
8 Capacitor 3.3µF 1
9 Capacitor 4.7µF 1

PROCEDURE:
 A transistor must be fixed on the bread board.
 A 47KΩ resistor is connected from base to Vcc terminal.
 A 2.7KΩ resistor is connected from collector to Vcc terminal.
 A 10KΩ resistor is connected from base to input terminal.
 A 680Ω resister and electrolytic capacitor of 10µF are connected from
emitter junction and other end to ground.
 A 4.7µF capacitor (+ve) is connected from base and (-ve) terminal is
connected to input terminal.
 A 3.3µF capacitor (+ve) is connected from collector and (-ve) to output
terminal.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

+12V (+ve)

4.7k 2.7k
3.3µF

Q1

4.7µF

OUTPUT
INPUT 10k 680 10µF

-ve

(Common Emitter Amplifier Circuit)

RESULT:
Common emitter amplifier circuit was assembled on bread board
successfully and verified.

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Expt. No.: 02 b
Date : dd/mm/yyyy

BREAD BOARD ASSEMBLY – PHASE SHIFT OSCILLATOR


AIM:
To assemble a phase shift oscillator circuit using bread board
TOOLS REQUIRED:
Long nose plier
COMPONENTS REQUIRED:
S.No Component Quantity
1 Bread board 1
2 IC 741 1
3 Resister 3.3KΩ 1
4 Resister 680Ω 3
5 Resister 22KΩ 1
6 Capacitor 0.1µF 3

PROCEDURE:
 An IC741 should be taken and it should be on the bread board. It has total of
8 terminals.
 A 330KΩ resistor must be connected across the 2𝑛𝑑 and 6𝑡ℎ terminals.
 7𝑡ℎ terminal is connected to the +ve 15V and 4𝑡ℎ terminal to the –ve 15V.
 The 22KΩ resistor is connected from the 2𝑛𝑑 terminal to RC parallel circuit
with 3 resistors and 3 capacitors.
 The 3𝑟𝑑 terminal of IC741 and three resistors of RC circuit should be
grounded.
 Extension wires are used to make connections neat and clean.

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CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

33kΩ

+Ve
7
2
-
22kΩ/390Ω 6
IC 741

+
3
4
GND
-Ve

0.1μF 0.1μF 0.1μF

680Ω 680Ω 680Ω

GND GND GND

(Phase Shift Oscillator Circuit: Breadboard assembly)

RESULT:

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Expt. No.: 03 a
Date : dd/mm/yyyy
SOLDERING
AIM
To study soldering components, solder tools and heat sink.
TOOLS REQUIRED
Soldering station -1
Nose plier-1
Pocket Knife-1
MATERIALS REQUIRED
Solder wire 60:40-6g
Resistor-4.7Ω
Resistor-22kΩ
Printed Circuit Board-1 No
THEORY
The process of joining two or more similar or dissimilar metals by melting
another metal having lower melting point than the metals to be joined is called
soldering. Some components, such as transistors, can be damaged by heat when
soldering. The heat sink takes away some of the heat being supplied by the
soldering iron and this helps to prevent the component's temperature increasing
too much. Heat sinks in the form of clips are available, which can be connected
on the lead between the joint and the component body.

TYPES OF SOLDERING
1. Soft Soldering: -
It is used where the strength of the joint is not important, but electrical
conductivity is desired.

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MELTING POINTS OF SOLDER (TIN AND LEAD ALLOY)

TIN(%) LEAD(%) MELTING POINT(˚F)


0 100 618.8
10 90 577.4
20 80 532.4
30 70 491.0
40 60 446.0
50 50 401.0
60 40 368.6
70 30 370.0
80 20 388.4
90 10 419.0
100 0 466.0
FLUX AND SOFT SOLDER FOR VARIOUS METALS
METAL FLUX SOFT SOLDER
TIN(%) LEAD(%)
BRASS ZINC 66 34
CHLORIDE
GUNMETAL ROSIN OR 63 34
CHLORIDE OF
AMMONIA
COPPER ROSIN OR 60 40
CHLORIDE OF
AMMONIA
LEAD ROSIN 33 67
TINNED STEEL ZINC 64 36
CHLORIDE
GALVANISED HYDRO 58 42
STEEL CHLORIC ACID
ZINC HYDRO 55 45
CHLORIC ACID
IRON & STEEL CHLORIDE OF 50 50
AMMONIA
GOLD ZINC 67 33
CHLORIDE
SILVER ZINC 67 33
CHLORIDE
BISMUTH ZINC 33 33
CHLORIDE

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2.Hard soldering
It is used where the strength as well as electrical conductivity is desired.
FLUX AND HARD SOLDER FOR VARIOUS METALS
METAL FLUX HARD SOLDER
COPPER(%) ZINC(%) SILVER(%) GOLD(%)
BRASS SOFT BORAX 22 78
BRASS BORAX 45 55
HARD
COPPER BORAX 50 50
GOLD BORAX 22 - 11 67
SILVER BORAX 20 10 70
IRON & BORAX 64 36
STEEL
CAST IRON CUPROUS 55 45
OXIDE

SOLDERING METERIALS
Soldering iron
Electric soldering irons are available in the various voltages and power rating such
as 10W/250V, 35W/250V and 125W/250V etc. They are also available in voltage
ratings of -in between values.
Solder
It is an alloy of tin and lead. The conductivity of such an alloy is around 1/7𝑡ℎ of
that of copper. The surface of thing to be soldered must be held as close as possible,
and a minimum quantity of solder is to be applied for a good electrical joint. Solder
for general purpose consists of 60% tin and 40% lead.
Soldering flux
Flux makes the soldering easy, it cleans the joint by removing the oxide formed
while heating .It also wets the surface and makes the solder float easily. Since the
solder available now a days are flux cored, the use of flux is not essential generally

Tinning of the bit:


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The tip of the soldering iron bit has to be coated with solder before soldering. This
is known as tinning of the bit.
Rules for soldering
1. Select the proper soldering iron for the desired work.
2. Tin the bit before soldering.
3. Always keep the tinned bit clean
4. Do not use excess flux(or)solder
5. Do not overheat PCB(or) other devices
6. Clean the surface to be joined before soldering
7. Use an iron with a grounded tip for soldering EMOS devices
Precautions
Never touch the element or tip of the soldering iron.
Always return the soldering iron to its stand when not in use
Wash your hands after using solder
RESULT

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Expt. No.: 03 b
Date : dd/mm/yyyy

SOLDERING AN INVERTING AMPLIFIER CIRCUIT


AIM
To solder the inverting amplifier circuit on a PCB. (Inverting amplifier circuit
gives an output which is exactly 180 degree out of phase with respect to input.)

TOOLS REQUIRED
Soldering station 50W/230V-1
Long Nose pliers-1
Pocket Knife-1

COMPONENTS REQUIRED
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Solder wire (60:40)-5g
IC741-1
Resistor 4.7kΩ-1
Resistor 22kΩ-1
PCB-1
PROCEDURE
1. The IC741 is put onto the PCB
2. End 4 is connected to -ve terminal and end 7 to +ve terminal.
3. Connect a 6.7k resistor to pin 2 of IC . Input is given from other end of resistor
4. The terminal 6 is connected to output
5. The terminal 3 is grounded
6. Then the terminal 2,3,5,6,7 of IC 741 are soldered to PCB

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM OF INVERTING AMPLIFIER


Pin diagram of IC741

RESULT

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