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al Administration, Ca

anatysis is often considers

ttlernsnt of road smban P

asis is therefore given to

erp van padopvullings word


kument handel oor die roeline of eenvoudi

rd. Vir meer ingewikkeMe gevalie m e t daar van spesialis geategniese ku

gter nie dat geotegnisse kund

ord nie. Dit word benad
Die gebruik van toep

beveel dat sekere for

nvenience the investigation a B

carried out in stages. These ra

sophisticated invest
the earlier stages in some detail
ith the more complex prob
not identified and not because th
ation and design
process described, although se

reassd geometric standards for modern roads havs led to much h

eased capital costs and utilisation have demande
these factors Rave led to the necess
votvgd in embankment most obvious and

atbn are necessarily c







L . d ~---.1.1

I s? STAGE 2 nd S T A G E
seen as a ration
nerally of increasi

er each of the sta

ective, of the invest

s construded ecommically.
reas of the country in
isture contents on slope stabiliB

Iso directly related to embankment heights. Hence, in

re probable than for low embankments. Cogni
e relative probabilities of distress. It is, never-tta
nce to the embankment height to the exten%that
mbartkments ar ere are for example, numerous embankments below 5m height which have
th excessive settlement a instability and, conversely,
ssibility of distress.
the process of evaluating the res

aluation is no more than straightf

because it is to
ms. In other cases, it may be

ses, the evaluation phase may be the

hasized that evalu


separate formal pr
ullsy dlpt probably very thin


DECISIO Signad A B Charles

nvestigatbn, ie pits, auger holes, reholes, etc. shouM th
reholes so that maimurn information is obta
embankments cross alluvial ds its there will probably be a
ation for the structur
e boreholes to provide informatbn for both the ernbankme

t the structure will have to be piled and information

he rock quality. These aspects are of little relevanc
ch information on the overtying soil is required. The type of the
then be defined by the requirements of the embankment,
to h piled, information on the soil cover is still required in order to choose t h e

sed embankments are fairly I e, information from conve

icient for the embankment de . If further boreholes or pro
sitbned with care. The topography and the arr photos, and even t h
on as to where further investigation should be located. Onl
es at regular chainages and at standard offsets from the c

sitioning of boreholes grobabty reflects the most pessimist

o account to avoid excessive consewatism.

slope, for exampia, W

ith small crossfalls, ie
es of failure, are essentially similar to flat

ntinuities, such as fau&s or

to assess their
n and construction,

ossfallis, there are not likely to e large depths of

tx>t necessarily require such conditions.
use instability. Colluvium djacent to the main
of the investigation a appear to have a sat
e after construction, bue to a
arameters based on the initia

se sites are similar to those encountered at

ter course exists. It is likely that there
to the crossfali, and it is im
ent construction.

particularly aimed at ex

investigation. In partimlar, v
he same contrac? It is
ugh to the other; it coul
ught that further investigation ma

wide just sufficient information so fh

sy to achieve and all too often the invesli
frequently, th
01%; re expensive, at? vious, mistake is
by excessive laboratory testing, the results from
, nor used in the design
o n the trial pits,

The method 01 descri

f that stratum then
t appropriate investig
example, a series
tes, a l t h u g h some borehol

rns are classified under stab~lrtyand/or settlement. The relevant soil charaaeristics

th of the subsoil is required to estimate the stability of slopes. This can

of the material, or from tn-situ tests, such as the CPT, SPT and vane shear
evaluation of the tests and S equent analyses are
sign. if these indicate stability problem, re sophisticated test
ial testing. The shear strength of clays is
h, c, or the drained stre

ely the situations of a rapid applrcation of load,

licalion of bad, which

tests. The emphasis S

of the distribution
blern,then carefutly c

never be justified.
earth structures.

asic informatton can, hawev rtk

The analysis of th els by calculations of fact rs sf satev for stab~P~ty,
input parameters have been selected

ever, in defining accepta dsrs of safety an

erne level required tor the c

stabiffly factors of safet

ts, @gfactor of safety not less t h a n 1.5 or sett1

rticular circurnstanc

in the realms sf sp
f safety, it is likely to be the st
fety for road embankme

ntually back to the same

figure, is cakulated for
ki I
is unlikely that high pore
ankment. In some
intedace to allow rapid dissipation o
nt will be necessary.

ts of construction muM be ntrolled il necessary, the am

struction situatio
en be not less th
the check analyse

snt variable, ie it re -water level, it is

of safety. Such embankment
S. The acceptable factors

,Ofor the initial asse

re conditions. From
actor of safety shouM
Is to express these variable the form of simple critsri
il is necessary to use ju
ankment, in terms of th amount and time. Thes
roximate limits, from the initial or sscond-stage assessmen

, embankment settlement predictions m u

tcs five years. Ali such estimates

s are acceptable; in so
, so that time is

rary placing of a higher fill than

nt in the time available than

surcharge is primarily dependent on th

eneral situatbn only and each c
uires fairly sophisticated investigation a
urn surcharge height will be in
worth the additional pr

torn the stntdurs

ankments over soft
e slopes and gulleys. Such em
y firm, the large pressures caus
e the cross-fall, and thus heigh

cceptable settlement s h u M be
from the preliminary a
riod, it is necessary to procee

ns of the paramete
r that the Izictclr of safety is extremely dependerlt an % h e
cohesion T h e former, however, has a fairly smalf ran

The ar~alysis1s Wherefore most sensitive to variations In the pore pressure ratm
to assess for ail but the most s~rnpleslo stablllty analyses. This
of reailistcally nmdelling the geology and rhe

PhaP can occur qtdrte f ~ euently m scsuttlern

the usual sensiPivrPy analyses, 1s "rat of large c
n-sr'tusubsorls These may be stiff at the time af investig
eaker under an embankment in these cases
becabrse ass
lgEhs of t h e wefled sods. {and & h i s1s d[f%tcuM
difticultf or to analyre ?he em ankmenl an the basi of %heeffective stress

B are already familiar with the a plication of prcsba

nl constn~ctron,so the advantages of these rnetho

ents settle, but very fs

ility of many embankments.
stages, of increasing levels of so

+caseof most road embankments

of the fillcan be

f appropriate soil
le of the Pibt a

th of the d a y layer is assumed to = 1, then the factor of s

sensitivity analysis can very e

oukl then de~reaseto 2,10.

to check the influenc

t fits of using berms.

I a factor of safety les S


solidated clays, c' is t ' varies within a r

endent variable (See sect

factor of safety cha

asis of the constmd

of construction cannot be
e uses the same

st be emphasized that this is a very crude $9

ssessrnent by an experienced person.

&houghthis test was originally devised for th

een cone pressures, Q, and
se can be expressed by the folio

= Cone Factor and varies from 10 to 30

y =3 density of the subsoil
D = depth of subsoil

Far recent alluvial y be taken as 14 fort

is usually small co
r e h i n a r y analyses, t
arc!, in that shear
fry of the vane, ie.
hence 0f the shear stren

tisns of the DCP test and the asse

mare sophisticate

menil assessments,
ssessment of t h e future

n of embankment settle
s order of maagnitu sefltlement, viz B0 m
words, in the majorsy of cases


The methods of estimating settlements are subsections in the order in which

firs! action rs ta define the

late the requtred reit
nt s n the rnagr~~tuds
of the
the other considerations

ramme wi%!asst~ltin the pavemen! layers $:eing built a year or

B1 there are no stwc h $h@particular embarakment,
ss is to consider t

er of magnitude of t
le standard materi

Rcaw@ver,there is a s k settlement equation may be use

where 6 -- settlement
o = increase in stress due to embankment
H = thickness of compressible stratum
E = modulus = I f q ,
= coefficient of cornpressibility

e , tf the serbsaii is deseri ed as medium dense sand and is I Q m thick undertyi

out 20 MPa, U is about 200 kPa since the embankment dens
20 k ~ / dtherefore:

then be necessaq to valuate the consequences of this estimated se

ankment, and it can be constmcte

fy satisfactory, teadin

x cutvert passed throu

te of the coefficient of

er)/ f~ssured,with frequent

10 rn2iyeai in this case the time
be smfficsent, say 2 years

pie 1, therefore is 0.5 years, and only 50 rnrn seillemenl will occur aller this perbd
further invsstigation wiiB !hen be re

onstralg initial estimates based on n more than t@!Ea56e

al descriptions sl th
I f , as a result of the init1 1 assessment of settlemen
reqwred, Bhrs wsll generally take 181
and hence seR-tlements e

(a) SPT The tables m t

T values given a

t a refers ia the mean increase rn stress ue to the embankment !@adat t h e centre


erlying clomprcssible strata

ate thicknesses of corn
the thickness 01 subsoil is lar

se in veflical eflective stress at centre of stratum

ressure at centre af stratum

ives continuous readings of cone pressure, it is comrraon to su

gnitude of cone pressures, as well
nr is then carried out in a tabular form and rna

rnative method is the use of a set?lernent chart (Figure 1 1 )

uisman-de Beer equation given a

th sunicient accuracy f
e average cone press
f these cases m r e W histicated in-situ t , such as the piezo
ring piessuremeter (S

er cases, undisfu&e

ocedrnent to describe either this testin

recl in the geotechnical literature on the subject.

here more sophisticated testi methods are required, it

h suggested in this document, it is likely that such expertise wouM have

e of the investigation, since the planning is itself a fu

ation is organized, it should never result in the g

le logs and consolidation test resuhs, and asked to
. Institute for Mini
lies such as OM infilled chan

ne limitation of the seismic techn us is that the relatkrely small energy in

dudes reliable investigation at depths in excess of
extent, be overcome y using more sophisticated equipment or by using
recommended that the work shou only be carried out by personnel with

sistivity methods may also be used. These re ecialist input, sinc

e field operatbn techniques appear to be si
very useful for detecti anomalies such as intrus
of marked changes in materials and for detecting water.

(W in many cases sa
rcient information for the first-stags inve
on of the subsoil in a relatively ondistu

in art excavation dee

is used primarily on satur

re many variations in the rnetho

e more usual methods.

chniques can be divided into so

number of different mac
necessary to obtain a
e from SPTs or CPTs. This is unusu
ionof the embankmen

ignificant pmblem i

as by fieM tests, such

that the more clayey samples are

the csnsistency

criptions are inter