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International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics

Volume 119 No. 15 2018, 1407-1415

ISSN: 1314-3395 (on-line version)
Special Issue


Mohan D.M.S1, Vignesh.J2, Iyyappan.P3, C.Suresh4*.
Student, Department of Civil Engineering, Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering College,
Avadi, Chennai,,,
, Assistant Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, Vel Tech Multi Tech Dr. Rangarajan Dr.Sakunthala Engineering
College, Avadi, Chennai,, Corresponding Author


Plastics are rapidly growing segment of the municipal solid waste. Disposal of waste materials including waste
plastic bags has become a serious problem. Amount of waste plastic bags being accumulated in 21st century
has created big challenges for their disposal. The waste plastics in house hold is large and increases with time.
In each country waste consumption is different, since it is unaffected by socioeconomic characteristics and
waste management programs, but the level of plastics in waste consumption is high. In order to overcome this
issue, we have to use it in effective way. This project is about recycling waste plastics into pavement blocks and
study their characteristics. Pavement blocks are perfect materials on the pathways and streets for simple laying
and finishing.Here the strength properties of pavement blocks comprising of waste plastics and the design
considerations for pavement block incorporating waste plastic bags is presented. It will be a boon to modern
society and environment. The main aim is to use the plastic nature in construction fields with limited additions.
It will be definitely a cost economical and can be applied in different forms.

INTRODUCTION in various sizes and shapes viz. rectangular,square

and round blocks of different dimensions with
Pavement in construction is an outdoor floor or designs for interlockingof adjacent tiles blocks. The
superficial surfacecovering. Paving materials raw materials required for manufacture of
include asphalt concrete, stone such as theproduct are Portland cement and aggregates
flagstone,cobblestone, and sets , artificial stone, which are available locally inevery part of the
bricks, tiles, and sometimes wood. Inlandscape country. This pavement are less susceptible to
architecture pavements are part of the hard scape rutting,
and are used onsidewalks, road surfaces, patios, minimum fatigue or thermal cracking, low
courtyards. Paver block technology has stripping due to moisture and offersgreat durability,
beenintroduced in India in construction a decade little or no impact on processing and also produces
ago for a specific requirementnamely footpath and ecofriendly construction and costs less. Road
parking areas etc. Now paver block is being surface or pavement is the durablesurface material
adoptedextensively in different use. In this laid down on an area intended to sustain vehicular
investigation various properties such or foottraffic, such as road or walk way. In the past,
ascompressive strength, split tensile strength and gravel road surfaces, cobblestoneand granite sets
water absorption of paverblocks consisting of were extensively used, but these surfaces have
plastic wastes, unconventional materials such as mostly beenreplaced by asphalt or concrete laid on
quarrydust and fine aggregate of various a compacted base course. Road surfacesare
percentage replacement are used. Cementconcrete frequently marked to guide traffic. Today, Paving
tiles and paving blocks are precast solid products methods are beginning tobe used for low impact
made out of cementconcrete. The product is made roadways and walkways.Block tiles and paving
blocks find applications in pavements,

International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

footpaths,gardens, passenger waiting sheds, bus-

stops, industry and other public places. QUARRY DUST
The product is commonly used in urban areas for
the above applications.Hence, the unit may be A quarry is a place from which dimension stone,
setup in urban and semi-urban areas, near the rock, constructionaggregate, riprap, sand, gravel, or
market .Alot of face-lift is being given to roads, slate has been excavated from the ground. Aquarry
footpaths along the roadside. Concrete is the same thing as an open pit mine from which
paving blocks are ideal materials on the footpaths minerals are extracted.The only nontrivial
for easy laying, better lookand finish. Whereas the difference between the two is that open pit mines
tiles find extensive use outside the large building that12produce building materials and dimension
andhouses, lots of these materials are also used in stone are commonly referred to asquarries. It can
flooring in the open areas ofpublic offices and be used as substitute to sand fully or partially. It
commercial buildings and residential apartments. offers acomparatively good strength compared to
sand with or without admixtures inconcrete. The
MATERIALS USED advantages of quarry dust are cost effective, easily
available,consumption reduces the pollution in
Following are the materials use in our Pavement environment and effectively used as a
block production. Theyare as follows, replacement material for river sand.


A plastic bag, poly bag, or pouch is a type of Fine aggregate are basically sand own from the
container made of thin,flexible, plastic film, land or the marineenvironment. Fine aggregate
nonwoven fabric, or plastic textile. Plastic bags are generally consists of natural sand or crushed
usedfor containing and transporting goods such as stonewith most particles passing through a 9.5mm
foods, produce, powders, ice,magazines, chemicals, sieve. Fine aggregate are intergranular materials
and waste. It is a common form of packaging. such as sand, gravel or crushed stone that are an
Openbags with carrying handles are used in large end productin the own right. They are also the raw
numbers. Stores often providethem as a materials that are an essential ingredientin concrete.
convenience to shoppers. Some stores charge a For a good concrete mix, aggregate need to be
nominal fee for a bag.Heavy duty reusable clean, hard, strongparticles free of absorbed
shopping bags are often considered chemical or coating of clay and another
environmentally betterthan single use paper or finematerials that could case the deterioration of
plastic shopping bags. Because of environmental concrete.
andlitter problems, some locations are working
towards a phase out of light weightplastic bags. MIX DESIGN
Looking to the global issue of environmental
pollution by postconsumerplastic waste, research
efforts have been focused on consuming thiswaste DEFINITION
on massive scale in efficient and environmental Mix design can be defined as the process of
friendly manner.Researchers planned to use plastic selecting suitableingredients of mix and determine
waste in form of concrete ingredient as theconcrete the relative proportion with the objective
is second most sought material by human beings ofproducing concrete of certain minimum strength
after water. and durability aseconomically as possible. There
are many methods are available for mixdesign. In

International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

this paper the mix design followed based upon trial S.NO RATIO WORKABILITY STRESS
and error (P : F.A)
results upto which the design steps are adopted.
1 1/2:1 Poor 6
2 1/2:2 Fair 7
Types of plastic bags = PE, PP, PS,
Temperature of heating = 1400 F -1600 F 3 1:2 Good 10
Exposure condition = Moderate
Degree of supervision = Good 4 1:3 Excellent 12
Size of fine aggregate = 1.7mm
Specific gravity of fine aggregate = 2.65 Table 4.4.2 b) Mix possessing Quarry
Specific gravity of PS = 1.05 dust added in %
Specific gravity of PB = 0.6
Specific gravity of PP = 0.9-0.92 S.NO RATIO QUARRY STRESS
Specific gravity of LDPE = 0.91-0.93 ( P : F.A)
Specific gravity of HDPE = 0.96-0.97 DUST N/mm2
In %
when plastic is heated at 1400 to 16 00 F it is melted 1 1:3 10 12
into a liquidform and this liquid is calculated into a 2 1:3 20 13
ml. if 1/2 kg of plastic bags is heatedupto a 450ml
of liquid is obtained. similarly the mix proportion 3 1:3 30 15
of plasticratio is denoted by liquid(ml).


In order to check the workability of the plastic mix TESTS AND RESULTS
we made a trailand error method. After some trails
it is found that by fixing plastic liquidquantity COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF
constant and the quantity of fine aggregate keeps PAVEMENT BLOCK
altering. Finally, adesigned mix of excellent
workability is obtained. Then a cube The tests are required to determine the strength of
of50mm×50m×50mm is casted and the Specimen andtherefore its suitability for the job.
compressive strength is found From the Out of many test applied to the Paver, thisis the
table below the stress of various mix is utmost important which gives an idea about all the
tabulated. characteristics ofspecimen. By this single test one
judge that whether specimen has been
doneproperly or not.
Design mix tabulation
Size of the cube = 50mm×50mm×50mm
Table a) Normal mix possessing plastic Ratio of mix without quarry dust
and fineAggregate ( P : F.A) = 1 : 3

International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue


3days 7days 14days
1. Trial 1 12 13 15

2. Trial 2 11 14 15

3. Trial 3 12 13 14

The tensile strength of Paver block is one

of the basic and important properties. This is a

Size of the cube = 50mm×50mm×50mm method to determine the tensile strength of paver
block. The Paver block is very weak in tension due
Ratio of mix with quarry dust of 30%
to its brittle nature and is not expected to resist the
( P : F.A) =1:3
direct tension. The Paver block develops cracks
when subjected to tensile forces. Thus, it is
necessary to determine the tensile strength of
specimen to determine the load at which the Paver
3days 7days 14days
1. Trial 1 14 15 16

2. Trial 2 13 14 14

3. Trial 3 14 15 15

block members may crack.

Size of the cube = 50mm×50mm×50mm

Ratio of mix without quarry dust

( P : F.A) =1:3


International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

1 Trial 1 10 15 15

S.NO TRIALS SPLIT TENSILE 2 Trial 2 10 10 10

3 days 7days 14days
3 Trial 3 10 10 15
1 Trial 1 5 10 15
2 Trial 2 10 10 15
3 Trial 3 5 15 10


The casted specimen was subjected to a
water absorption test, to study the character of
plastic block. After the drying period is completed,
the specimen was immersed in water tank is left for
24 hours. The blocks shall then be removed from
the water and allowed to drain for one minute by
placing them on a 10 mm or coarser wire mesh,
Size of the cube = 50mm×50mm×50mm visible surface water being removed with a damp
cloth, the saturated and surface dry blocks
Ratio of mix with quarry dust of 30%
immediately weighed. After weighing all blocks
( P : F.A) =1:3 shall be dried in a ventilated oven at 100 to 1150C
for not less than 24 hours and until two successive
weighing at intervals of 2 hours show an increment
of loss not greater than 0.2 percent of the last
STRENGTH N/mm2 previously determined mass of the specimen.

3 days 7days 14days

International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

S.N SPECI DRY WET % OF 1 A 705 718 1.84

O MEN WEIG WEIG WATER 2 B 712 723 1.54

3 C 710 722 1.60

1 A 710 710 1.42

2 B 705 712 1.00

3 C 708 715 0.98


Size of the cube=50mm×50mm×50mm
Chloride attack is particularly important because its
Ratio of mix with quarry dust of 30% primarily causes corrosion of reinforcement. The
( P : F.A) =1:3 BIS earlier specified the max chloride content in
binder as 0.05%. But it has been revised that the

S.N SPECIME DRY WET % OF allowable chloride content in binder to be 0.1%.

O N WEIGH WEIGH WATER The cubes were cast the size of 50×50×50mm and
T T ABSORPTI kept at a room temperature. After 5days the cubes
were removed from the mould and kept in the oven

International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

at 1200C for 7days. In conventional blocks after PERCENTAGE OF LOSS OF

24hrs the cubes were removed and cured 28days in WEIGHT(WITH Q.D)
normal water. Then the cubes are immersed in a 1%
and 2% concentric HCL acid, measurement of NO N WEIGHT WEIGHT LOSS OF
weight and compressive strength of cubes and WEIGHT
calculation of durability factors were completed. 1 A 760 735 3.3
2 B 755 729 3.5
WEIGHT(WITHOUT Q.D) 3 C 760 741 2.5


(gm) (gm)

1 A 750 720 4

2 B 745 723 2.95

3 C 748 730 2.4

From the above study, the analysis
concluded that the waste plastics can be used in the
pavement block production. This modified
pavement block is applicable in the construction of
rigid pavements. The block consists of quarry dust,
fine aggregate, plastics out of which the fine
aggregate and quarry dust percentage is 60 to 70
and from the above observation it is computed to

International Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics Special Issue

use 20% recycled plastics, which does not affect (5)C K Subramania Prasad, Benny Mathews
the properties of block. Abraham,“Plastic fibre reinforced soil block as a
(a) The compressive strength of modified sustainable building material” in the year 2012.
pavement block are as equal as conventional block. (6)Vishal kumar, Dr.A.K.Mishra, “Utilization of
(b) The cost of construction will be waste material in pavement blocks” in the year
reduced and also helps to avoid the general 2016.
disposal technique of waste plastics namely, land (7)S.Vanitha,V.Natarajan and M.Praba,“Utilization
filling and incineration which have certain burden of waste plastics as a partial replacement of coarse
on ecology. aggregate in concrete blocks” in the year 2015.
(c) By using the plastics in pavement (8)S F Wong,“Use of recycled plastic in a
block, reduces the weight up to 15%. pavement system” in the year 2010.
(d) We also find that plastic pavement (9)P.Turgut and E.S.Yahlizadeconduct a parametric
block is economical and has several advantages trial study for reducing paver blocks utilizing fine
and coarse waste glass.
when compared to the concrete pavement block.
(e) Lastly the strongly conclude the use of
recycled plastics in pavement block is the best
option for the disposal of plastic and ultimately
reduces plastic pollution in the environment.

(1)Miss Apurva J Chavan, “Use of plastic waste in
flexible pavements” in the year 2013.
(2)Bahia Rabehi, Brahim Safi, and
Rabahchaid,“Use of Recycled plastic bag waste in
construction field”in the year 2014.
(3)Dr.R.Kumutha and Dr.K.Vijai,“Use of waste
material in paver blocks” in the year 2015.
(4)Satish Parihar, PramodPatil, Hemraj R
Kumavat,“Recycled plastic used in concrete paver
block” in the year 2010.