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suoddns Jraql pue salnlcnJls osoql ol uo^r8 eq IIr a srsAI€uB pupl etuEseql pue 'pereprsuoceq ilI.4\sarnlcrlrls Jo Ieuorsueurp-aerr{}3o unlrqrlnbe aql latdeqc a{} ur re}€T 'suoqc€eJ pu? sacroJu,{\orntunaq} JoJpe^los eq u€c urnrrqrrnbe 5o suoEenbaeql .pelroddnslpadord sr arnl raqlaq.l.t' ecu€^peuI ,&\ou>I nod uec l€q+os -crqs er{}Jer{}er{.AA eururre}epo} ,&\oq urual IIp\ notr .poddns 3o ad,fi qcee_ql1.t\ pe}elcoss€ eq uorlceer cglceds .pereprsuoceq 11t.r ilI-^a v spoddns.slrlq arnlcnrls aq] uo pouexe suoxJloar eql .alnlcnJls € ol paqddo secroJeql ol uoqmpe u1 .sruer8erp lpoq-air3 rraq] .tt€rp o] ,4,oqureel pulr saueldrreq] q peur€luoc secroJo1pelcafqns sa_ln7 -cru$ raldeqc Iuuoxsu3nu?p-g% urnlrqllpba eqt reprsuoc]srrJ a,^A Jo s1q+uI 'uro"Bo^pp hpoq-aa{ Surpuodseuoc aq} .,lrerp o} uaq} pue lpoq turp uo Suqce serroJ er{} Jo p l;luept }srrJ o} I€quessesr }r lpoq pt8tr E roJ runuqrflnbe3o suouenbeer{} a}Ir.a o} rapro uI 'peraplsuoc,{poq eq} o} uoqoru Fuor}B}orro IBuoR€l _ -suerl ou uedurr \ secroJ .urnlrqlilnbe ur III l€ruega aqrSo ruelsli eq] ,{poqpfu e ro3'aroyarar{J'pecuul€q ar€ sorr zpue,li.r aq1lnoq" socroJleurelxa eq+Jo sluaruotu eql l€q] +cBJ ssa.rdxe aql (g.f) .rbg :pe_cueleq suoqcarrp ere z put 'k 'x aqt ur socroJ l€urelxa eq+ sluau Jo -odruocaq] }€q1lc€J ar{t sserdxa (Z'f) .tbS +*qr ar11-.ipoddns "1o., s11 .{q ro ll uo po}raxe suor}ccartr,t\ou>lun lpocl pt8tr aql o1 perrdde secJoJ rlr\oDlun aurrrJatep o+ pasn eq um peurelqo suoBenbeeq;

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DIAGRAM 4.2 FREE.BODY
In solving a problem concerning the equilibrium of a rigid body, it is essential to consider all ol the forces acting on the body; it is equally important to exclude any force which is not directly applied to the body. Omitting a force or adding an extraneousone would destroy the conditions of equilibrium. Therefore, the first step in the solution of the problem should be to draw afree-body diagram of the rigid body under consideration.Free-body diagramshave in already been used on many occasions Chap. 2. However, in view of their importance to the solution of equilibrium problems, we summarizehere the various stenswhich must be followed in drawing a free-body diagram

Diogrom | 4.2 Free-Body 59

l. A clear decision should be made regarding the choice of the free body to be used. This body is then detachedlrom the ground and is separatedfrom all other bodies. The contour of ih" body thus iso'latedis sketched. 2. All external forces should be indicated on the free-body diagram. These forces represent the actions exerted on the free body by the ground and by the bodies which have been detached; they should be applied at the various points where the free body was supported by the ground or was connected to the other bodies.The ueight of the free body should also be included among the exterial forces, since it representsthe attraction exertedby the earth on the various particles forming the free body. As will be seen in Chap. 5, the weight should be applied at the center of gravity of the body. When the free body is made of severalparts, the forces the variousparts exert on each other should not be included among the external forces. These forces are internal forces as far aJthe free body is concerned. 3. The magnitudes and directions of the known extemal forcos should be clearly marked on the free-bodydiagram.When indicating the directions of these forces, it must be remembered that ihe forces shown on the free-body diagram must be those which are exertedon, andnotby, the free body. Known external forces generally include rhe u:eight of the free body and forces applted for a given purpose. 4. Unknorpn external forces usually consist of the reactions, through which the ground and other bodies oppose a possible motion of the free body. The reactionsconstrainthe free body to remain in the sameposition, and, for that reason,are sometimes called constrainingforces. Reactionsare exefted at the points where the free body is supported by or connectedto other bodies and should be clearly indicated. Reactionsare discussedin detail in Secs.4.3 and 4.8. 5. The free-body diagram should also include dimensions,since these may be neededin the computation of moments of forces. Any other detail, however,should be omitted.

Photo 4.1 A free-bodydiogrom of the troctor forces shownwould includeoll of the exlernol octing on lhe lroclor: the weight of the troctor, the weightof the lood in the bucket, ond the forcesexertedby the ground on the tires.

how to Phoro 4.2 In Chop. 6, we will discuss mode of fhe determine internolforcesin structures pieces,suchos the forcesin the connected severol thot supportthe bucketof the troctorof members 4.]. Photo

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Connections l6l for 4.3 Reoctions Supports_ond of o Two-Dimensionol Slructure

Support or Connection

Reaction

Numberof Unknowns

I Force with known line of action

Rocker

Frictionless surface

I
Short cable Short link Force with linown line ofaction

I Collaron fri"ilfi"ri'-a Force with larown Iine of action

Frictionlesspin in slot

Frictionlesspin or mnge

Roughsurface

Force ofunknown direction

J

Fixed support

Force and couple

Fig. 4.1

Reoclions supportsond connections. ot

When the sense of an unknourn force or couple is not readily apparent, no attempt should be made to determine it. Instead, the senseof the force or couple should be arbitrarily assumed;the sign of the answer obtained will indicate whether the assumption is correct or not.

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however,for checking the solution obtained from the original three equationsof equilibrium. While the three equationsof equilibrium cannot be augmented by addltional equations, any of them can be replaced by another equation. Therefore, an alternative system of equations of equilibrium is 2F,:0 )Uo : 6 2Mp :0 (4.6)

Body in of o 4.4 Equilibrium Rigid TwoDimensions

r63

where the secondpoint about which the momentsare summed (in this case,point B) cannot lie on the line parallel to the y axis that through point A (Fig. a.zb). These equationsare sufficient passes conditions for the equilibrium of the truss. The first two equations indicate that the exteinal forces must reduce to a singlevertical force at A. Since the third equation requires that the moment of this force be zero about a point B which is not on its line of action, the force must be zero, and the rigid body is in equilibrium. of A third possibleset of equations equilibrium is 2Me:0 2Mu=g 2Mc:0 (4.7)

where the pointsA, B, andC do not lie in a straightline (Fig. 4,2b). The first equation requires that the externalforces reduce to a single force at A; the secondequation requires that this force passthrough B; and the third equationrequiresthat it passthrough C. Sincethe points A, B, C do not lie in a straightline, the force must be zero, and the rigid body is in equilibrium. that the sum of the The equation ZMs: 0, which expresses a moments ofthe forces about pin A is zero, possesses more defi(4.7). meaningthan either of the other two equations nite physical expressa similar idea of balance,but with These two equations respectto poiintsabout rihich the rigid body is not actuallyhinged. They are, however,as useful as the first equation, and our choice of equilibrium equationsshould not be unduly influenced by-the physicalmeaningof theseequations.Indeed, it will be desirablein practice to choose equations of equilibrlum containing only one of unknown,sincethis eliminatesthe necessity solvingsimultaneous equations.Equationscontainingonly one unknown can be obtained by summing moments about the point of intersectionof the lines oi action of t*o unknown forces or, if these forces are parallel,by summing componentsin a direction perpendicular to their common dirEction] Fo. example,in Fig. +.S,in which the truss shown is held by rollers at A and B and a short link at D, the reactionsat A and B can be eliminated by summing r components'The reactions at A and D will be eliminated by summing moments about C, and the reactionsat B and D by summing moments about D. The equationsobtained are >F.:0 )lZ":6 ZMo:g

ll

C

Each of these equationscontains only one unknown.

Fig. 4.3

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rylruvd 'sNorl)vru SINIVUISNOf, rrvNtwull]oNt Allv)tffts 9'v

se'pog ptotd unuq!;lnbl Vgl 1o

unlorownsis equal to the number of equationsis no guaranteethat or the body is completelyconstrained that the reactionsat its supports

Indeterminote{eoctions. 4.5 Stoticolly 165 rorflotLonstrotnTs

shownis held by rollers atA,B, and E. While there are three unknown reactions,A, B, and E (Fig. 4.6b), the equation )4 : 0 will not be satisfiedunlessthe sum of the horizontal componentsof the applied forces happensto be zero. Although there are a sufficient number of these constraintsare not properly arranged,and the truss constraints, is free to move horizontally.We saythat the truss is imprcrperlyconstrained. Since only two equilibrium equationsare left for determining three unknowns, the reactions will be statically indeterminate' Thus, improper constraintsalso produce static indeterminacy. Another example of improper constraints-and of static indeterminacy-is provided by the truss shown in Fig. 4.7. This truss is pl l held by a pin at A and by rollers at B and C, which altogetherinvolve four unknowns.Since only three independent equilibrium equations C are available,the reactions at the supports are statically indeterminate. On the other hand,we note that the equation2Md: 0 cannot be satisfiedunder generalloading conditions,sincethe lines of action of the reactionsB and C passthrough A. We conclude that the tmss can rotate about A and that it is improperly constrained.i of The examples Figs.4.6 and 4.7 lead us to concludethat a rigid (b) body ls i,mpnryed,yconstrai,nedwheneoer the supports, even though arranged in such Fig. 4.6 lmproper constrqints. they may provide a sufffcient number of reactions,are that the reactiorn mtnt be either conatrrent or parallel.\ a lDarJ rigid body is comIn summary to be surethat a two-dimensional its s,tppottt are staticall-y pletely constrainld and that the reactions at determinate,we shouldveri$' that tlre reactionsinvolve three-and only three-unknowns and that the supportsare arrangedin such a way that they do not require the reactionsto be either concurrent or paralle-. Supportsinvolving staticallyindeterminate reactionsshould be of used wiih care in the desi,gn structuresand only with a full knowledgeof the problemsthey may cause.On the other hand, the analysis staticallyindeterminate reactionsoften can of itructures possessing be rrartiallv carried out by the methods of statics.In the caseof the truss of Fig. 4.4, lor example,the vertical componentsof the reactions at A and B were obtained from the equilibrium equations. For obvious reasons,supports producing partial or improper constraintsshould be avoided in the design of stationarystmctures. structurewill not necHowever,a partially or improperly constrai"ned essarilycollapse;under particular loading conditions,equilibrium-can be maintained.pot example,the trussesof Figs. 4.5 and 4.6 \ /ill be in equilibrium if the applied forces P, Q, and S are vertical. Besides, stnrctureswhich are designedto move should be only patially constrained.A railroad car, for instance,would be of little use if it were completelyconstrainedby havingits brakesapplied permanently.
lRotation of the tmss about A requires some "play' in the supports at B and C. In practice such play witl alwals exist. In addition, we note that if the play * kept small, the fusphcements of the rollers B and C and, thus, the distancesfromA to the lines ofactionof the reactions B and C will also be small. The equation )Mo : 6 then requires that B and C be very large, a situation which can result in the failure of the supports at B and C. lBecause this situation arises from an inadequate arrangement or geometry of the supports, it is often referred to as geolnztric instabilit7.

Fig. Consider 4.6a,in whichthe truss determinate. are statically

(b) Fig, 4.7 lmproper constroints.

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It,}

A 2100-lb tractor is used to lift 900 lb of gravel. Determine the reaction at each of the two (a) rear wheels A. (b) front wheels B.

20 in. Fig. P4.l 4.2

40 in.

50 in.

A gardener uses a 60-N wheelbarrow to transport a 250-N bag of fertilizer. What force must she exert on each handle?

0 . 7m 0.15 m

+..t

The gardenerof Prob. 4.2 wishesto transport a second250-N bag of fertilizer at the sametime as the first one. Determine the maximum allowablehorizontal distance from the axle A of the wheelbarrow to the center of gravity of the secondbag if she can hoid only 75 N with each arm. (b) the tension cableBC. in
1; lb 20lb il; lb 20lb l; lb

4.4 For the beam and loading shown, determine (a) the reaction at A,

[u'-]Fig. P4.4

u-

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qt00[

qt 00r

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ur8 , urg ,utz

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serpog p16ru r.unuq!;tnbl Zll 1o

4,15 Two links AB and DE are connected by a bell crank as shown. Knowing that the tension in link AB is 720 N, determine (a) the tension in link DE, (b) the reaction at C.

Problems 173

60 mm

Fig. P4.15 and P4.16 4.16 links AB and DE are connected by a bell crank as shown. Determine the maximum force that can be safely exerted by link AB on the bell crank if the maximum allowable value for the reaction at C is 1600 N. The required tension in cable AB is 200 lb. Determine (a) the vertical-force P that must be applied to the pedal, (b) the corresponding reaction at C. 'two

4.I7

4.18 Determine the maximum tension that can be developedin cable AB if the ma.timum allowable vzrlueof the reaction at C is 250 lb. 4.19 The bracket BCD is hineed at C and attached to a control cable at B. For the Ioadingshown,determine(a) tlre tensionin tle cable, (b) the reaction at C. Eig. P4.17 ond P4.18
240 N trr" 2,tr0

Fig. P4.19 4.2O Solve Prob. 4.19, assumingthat a : 0.32 m. 4.21 Determinethe reactionsat A andB when (a) h : 0, (b) h : 200 mm. 20]b

(,
D

20 1l)

Fig. P4.21 4.22 For the frame and loading shown, determine the reactions at A and E when (a) q :30", (b) a : 45. |ig. P4.22

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na'vd'6H
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4.29

A force P of magnitude280 lb is applied to member ABCD, which is supportedby a frictionlesspin at A and by the cable CED. Since the cable passesover a small pulley at E, the tension may be assumedto be the same in portions CE and ED of the cable. For the casewhen a : 3 in., determine (a) the tension in the cable, (b) the reaction at A. Neglecting friction, determine the tension in cable ABD and the reaction at support C.

Problems 175

4"30

Fig. P4.29

100 mm Fig. P4.3O 4,3I

100 mm

Rod ABC is bent in the shapeof an arc of circle of radiusR. Knowing that 0 : 30", determine the reaction (a) at B, (b) at C. Rod ABC is bent in the shapeof an arc of circle of ra&us R. Knowing that 0 : 60", determine the reaction (a) at B, (b) at C. Neglecting friction, determine the tension in cable ABD and the reaction at C when 0 : 60".

4.32

4.33

lig. P4.31 ond P4.32

Fig. P4.33 ond P4.34

LT,J

4.34

Neglecting friction, determine the tension in cable ABD and the reaction at C when 0 : 45".

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4.39

Two slots have been cut in plate DEF, and the plate has been placed so that the slots {it two fixed, frictionless pins A and B. Knowing that P : 15 lb, determine (a) the force each pin exerts on the plate, (b) the reaction at F.
4 in.

Problems 177

'-lw

['

Fis. P4.39
4.40 For the plate of Prob. 4.39 the reaction at F must be directed downward, and its maximum allowable value is 20 Ib. Neglecting friction at the pins, determine the required range of values of P. Bar AD is attached at A and C to collars that can move freely on the rods shown. If the cord BE is vertical (a = 0), determine the tension in the cord and the reactionsat A and C.

4.41

Fig. P4.41

4.42 Solve Prob. 4.4L If the cord BE is parallel to the rods (a : 30"). 4.43 An S-kg masscan be supportedin the three different ways shown.
Knowing that the pulleys have a 100-mm radius, determine the reaction at A in each case.

i'--t

om

l'--t

om

\al

Fig. P4.43

'u ' ql07
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serpo6 pt6!u unuqt;lnbl 8ll 1o

4.49

Knowing that the tension in wire BD is 1300 N, determine the reaction at the ffxed support C of the frame shown.
750N

Problems 179

4"5O Determine the range of allowablevaluesof the tension in wire BD if the magnitude of the couple at the ffxed support C is not to exceedl00N'm. 4.51 A vertical load P is applied at end B of rod BC. (a) Neglectingthe weight of the rod, expressthe angle g correspondingto the equilibrium position in terms of P, l, and tlle counterweight W. (b) Determine the value of 0 coresponding to equilibrium lf P : 2W.

I
I 4.52 4.53

Fig. P4.49 ond P4.5O

l_
Fig. P4.51 A slenderrod AB, of weight I4l, is attachedto blocksA and B, which move freely in the guides shown. The blocks are connected by an elasticcord that passes over a pulley at C. (a) Expressthe tension in the cord in terms of W and 0. (b) Determine the value of 0 for which the tension in tle cord is equal to 3W. Rod AB is acted upon by a couple M and two forces, each of magnitude P. (a) Derive an equation in 0, P, M, and I that must be satis{ied when the rod is in equilibrium. (b) Determine the value of 0 correspondingto equilibrium when M : 150 N ' m P : 200 N, and I : 600 mm. Fig. P4.52

Fig. P4.53

4.54 Rod AB is attachedto a collar at A and rests againsta small roller
at C. (a) Neglecting the weight of rod AB, derive an equation in P, Q, o,l, and 0 that must be satisftedwhen the rod is in equilibrium. (b) Determine the value of 0 correspondingto equilibrium w h e nP : 1 6 l b , Q : L z l b , l : 2 0 i n . , a n da : 5 i n .

Fig. P4.54

69'td

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4-6o

-rhe bracket

ABC

can be s.'pported

in the

eight

different

ways

of 4.6 Equilibrium o TweForceBody

t 8l

consistof smoothpins' rollers' or short All shor,Im, connectjons
links. For each case, answer the quesLionslisted in Prob. 4'59, and, wherever possible, compute *re reactions, assuming that the magnitude of the force P is 100 Ib.

fB-* g-TF -"-ffm e* il fu ry ry
f
tig, P4,5O

hry
Vp

ffi?

f

i

ffi 8
Vp

R

BODY OF 4.6 EQUITIBRIUM A TWO.FORCE
A narticular caseof equilibrium which is of considerableinterest is thit of u rigid body subjectedto two forces.Sucha body is commonly called a hao-forcebody. It will be shown that if a two-force body X in equilibrium, the two forces mast haae the sarnemagnitude, the sameline of action, and oppositesense. Consider a corner plate subjectedto two forces F1 and F2 act(Fig.4.8a).If the plate is to be in equiing at A and B, respectively librium, the sum of the moments of F1 and F2 about any axis must be zero. First, we sum momentsabout A. Sincethe moment of F1 is obviously zero, the moment of F2 must also be zero and the line of action of F2 must passthrough A (Fig. 4.8b). Summingmoments about B, we prove similarly that the line of action of F1 must pass through B (Fig. 4.8c). Therefore, both forces have the sameline of action (line AB). From either of the equations)F" : 0 and XF, : g it is seenthat they must also have the samemagnitude but opposite sense.

\a)

(b)

Fig. 4.8

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:: ..::.::.:::,,i..::::..::..:...:::::.::,'1::;::,:1.t:l':,:i;ll!:,..:,i.;;;.:i:;i1:;1;;:;

4'6 PROSLEM SAfi,lPLE
A man raisesa 10-kg joist, of length 4 m, by pulling on a rope. Find the tension T in the rope and the reaction at A.

::a: ::a::': :,::::.1 ::t ::a ::::' :l::::

$oLuTloN
Free-Body Diagrnm. The joist is a three-force body, since it is acted upon by three forces: its weight W, the force T exerted by the rope, and the reaction R of the ground at A. We note that ^ m/s') : 98.1 N w : mg: (10 kg)(9.81

Three-Force}ody. Since the joist is a three-force body, the forces acting on it must be concurrent. The reaction R, therefore, will passthrough the point of intersection C of the lines of action of the weight W 1nd the-teniion force T. This fact will be used to determine the angle a that R forms with the horizontal. Drawing the vertical BF through B and the horizontal CD through C, we nole that

BD : (CD) cot (45o+ 25') : (1.4f4 m) tan 20o : 0.515 m m m CE: DF : BF - BD :2.828 m - 0.515 : 2,313 We write CE tata:n= 2.313 m *rn^:1.636 a : )5,0' We now know the direction of all the forces acting on the joist' 4

cD : EF : AE :;(AF) : r.4r4m

AF : BF : (AB) cos 45" : (a m) cos 45o : 2.828 m

Force Triongle. A force triangle is drawn as shown, and its interior angles are computed from the known directions of the forces. Using the law of sines.we write
grJ.t N T *t 3L4"

R sin110'

98.1N s i n3 8 . 6 " ?' : Ei.g I\i : l4?"8 N j5S.6' It 4 ':'4

r83

?81

'p alEu€aql aururrolep '9'7 'qord o1 ere1l1' pu€ gy suorsueurp pelBlncl€c,{pseaaq} erer-[,!\ gc _Pesn aldurEs ur euoP sB,^A srqJ 'u^\oDlun u€ se^lo^ur l€q] uolsuatulP € Pu€ sq};ual lpoq-ae"r; palulnclecl11sea u,aou>l ro ueo, +aq uoq€lar E {aes uaql pu€ ure"r8erp e8rel ,(lqeuos€eJ ,r\€rp IsJIJ fipc1gp relunocue nol 31 'suor+cnrlsuoc e clrletu -oe8 pepeeu eql qcle{s or }lnrUJIp eq uec tI 'poo}srepundgseasr serpoqacroJ -aerr{tFurnlo.r,ur aqr surelqord uoqnlos er{}roJ aloq€ patou aldrcur.rd q8noqlly Jo '[g'Z 'qora aldureg]a18uer"q ecroJB Sursnlq uopnlos aq+alalduroc o1nol ,uoil€ ueq+leru ,&leuoe8 aldurrsJo esn eqJ '1urod eureseqt q8norqt ssudsec;o3earql eseq] +€qi 8ul^\oqs ure.r8erp lpoq-ee.r; rnol ,terp 'sec.ro3 e urelqo.rd e^los oJ € luerrncuoc qlp\ {poq ocJoJ-eerql Surrrlorrur '7a77otod Jo +uarrncuo, eq lsnru slurod esoql Jo rlcee ]€ Supce secroJeq] Jo sluu+ 'U -lnser er{J'stutod ssrq{ .{uo lD sal'rol ot papolqns sr ,tpoq a3rot-aerqt V

unoutlJo lnq apnlru8euru.4ou{un Jo ocroJ al8urs u ,,(q uorlcee.r i:':::"y" " -oduroc u,,!\onlun o,^] eql Surcelde.r sruelqord etuos lq Jo suoqnlos eqt {Sqdurrs o1 nol ^\olle III \ luadord srq1-'asuas aqsoddopuo 'uo?tgo aup1 muosaU?'apnl {o -ry7ou. aluos eqr e^Brllsntu qurod asaq+ qcee +€8ur1cu sacroyaql Jo slu€l1nser Jo eI{J 'sturod orfi {uo lo lstrof ot patFlqns dpoq o sr dpoq s}rot-or t V .l

plSp e Jo urnuql'mbego sesuc .repcqrudo,4l pera^oc suoqcas S"rp"""r:P:;I

tn''',, ftt'' ffit-ft1i*u'
:,

;, ,.,,. .,;,t:*1 t

4.61 Determine the reactions at A and B when a : 180 mm.

300 N

4,52 For the bracket and loading shown, determine the range of values
of the distancea for which the magnitudeof the reaction at B does not exceed600 N.

4.63 Using the method of Sec.4.7, solveProb. 4.17. 4.64 Using the method of Sec.4.7, solveProb. 4.18. 4.55 The spannershown is used to rotate a shaft. A pin {its in a hole at
A, while a flat, frictionless surfacerests againstthe shaft at B. If a 60lb force P is exerted on the spann"t ^t D, find the reactionsat A and B. Fig. P4.61 ond P4.62

Fig. P4.65
Al

4.66 4.67 4,68

Determine the reactionsat B and D when b : 60 mm. Determine the reactionsat B and D when b : L20 mm. Determine the reactionsat B and C when a : L.5 in.

l__250

mm

I
D 50 lb

Jln

Y

I

4.69

A 50-kg crate is attachedto the trolley-beam systemshown.Knowing tlat a : 1.5 m, determine (a) the tension in cable CD, (b) the reaction at B. Solve Prob. 4.69, assumingthat a : 3 m. Fig. P4.69

4.70

g/'rd'6H

gl'td'6!t

'B']€ uonceorarl] pue proc oq] ur uorsuol oql aururralep'le1pd oql Jo azrseq] 3upce13eu pue u.e\oqs burpeol arll rod 'proc oq] Jo QD prre cv suoprod ur aur€s oq] aq o] pounsse eq leru uorsue] aql 'C p lelnd ssoluorJcr{B ra,ro SulssedpuB J pu€ V le paqcElle proc elqrsualxeur lq pue ue g le le{cerq pue urd e,(q pepoddns q Cgv requrel4l g/.t ?.}s gl.b

ntnd'6H

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JW
i-.- ut Zr-+ll t

tt"v zt'?

e4'rd puo ZZ'rd .6lt

,.t'vd'6lt
ur zr--J
l

'proc eql ur uorsue] aql pue ', v lB uoqJper erF puu lurodplur sll tE peol qfg7 € suoddnspor er{}JI 'Cg proc ot poqc€}F sr pua raqto aql puE y rauroc aql ur slser {IV pot Jo puo ouo ,,1.v

serpog plot61o'Lnpq;;1nb398 I

4.77 Rod AB is supported by a pin and bracket at A and rests against
a frictionless peg at C. Determine the reactionsat A and C when a 170-N vertical force is applied at B.

Problems 187

4.78 Solve Prob. 4.77, assumingthat the 170-N force applied at B is
horizontal and directed to the left.
150mm

4.79 Using the method of Sec.4.7, solveProb. 4.2I. 4.80 Using the method of Sec.4.7, solveProb. 4.28. 4,81 Knowing that 0 : 30o,determine the reaction (a) at B, (b) at C

Fig. P4.77

Fig. P4.81 ond P4.82 4.82 4.83 Knowing that 0 : 60", determine the reaction (a) at B, (b) at C. Rod AB is bent into the shape of an arc of circle and is lodged betweentwo pegsD and E. It supportsa load P at end B. Neglecting friction and the weight of the rod, determine tle distance c correspondingto equiJibriumwhen a : 20 mm and R : 100 mm. A slender rod of length L is attached to collars that can slide freely along the guides shown. Knowing that tle rod is in equilibrium, derive an expressionfor the angle 0 in terms of the angle B.

Fig. P4.83

4.84

Fig. P4.84 ond P4.85

4.85 An 8-kg slender rod oflength L is attachedto collarsthat can slide
freely along the guides shown. Knowing that tlie rod is in equilibrium and that B : 30o, determine (a) the angle 0 that the rod forms with the vertical, (b) the reactions at a and B.

'B pue y aql (q) 'umFqII lB suoEcEor -rnbe ot Surpuodserroc e13ue aql (a) eurrurelep .ql 0T : A pue A ''ul 06 : U "uI gI : .I'69'V'qord Jo por oqt roJ ]ErF Sup,nouy96tr,

68'td'6H

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'72 < s JI $tre '! sl{r lou soopurnuqrrmbe 5o uonrsod lBrll ^,\or{S pu€ T Jo s{urol ur ?1 ecuelsll) roJ uorsseroxe e^Lrec's rFSuel proc e ol eql ue Jo
prre IIE/A ssaluollclJJ B }surBFE pue euo q}L\\ poqc€De pua rerto _et[} 'rl,Aoqs s3 unuq{mbe uI pleq sr rFbualjo por uroJrun repuels v 98., T serpog pr6rX unuqr;rnb3 88 I 1o

qt qnd Connections.for 4.9 Reqctions Supports t 69 o Three-Dimensionol Structure

4.8 EQUITIBRIUM RIGID OFA BODY IN THREE DIMENSIONS
We saw in Sec. 4.1 that six scalarequations are required to express the conditions for the equilibrium bf a rigid body in the general three-dimensional case:

2M*: g

)4:o

)Fr:g

2Mr:o

s D - 0 2M^: 0
2 L z -

(4.2) (4.3)

Theseequationscan be solvedfor no more than sir unknotuns,which generallywill represent reactionsat supports or connections. In most problemsthe scalarequations(4.2) and (4.3) will be more convenientlyobtainedif we first express vector form the conin ditions for the equilibrium of the rigid body considered. We write

)F:0

)Mo:)(rxF)

:0

(4.r)

and expressthe forces F and nosition vectors r in terms of scalar compoirentsand unit vectors. Iriext,we compute all vector products, either by direct calculationor by meansof determinants(seeSec.3.8). We observe that as many as three unknown reaction components may be eliminated from these computations through a judicious choice of the point O. By equating to zero the coefficients of the unitvectors in eachof the two relations(4.1),we obtain the desired scalarequations.t

4,9 REACTIONSSUPPORTS CONNECTIONS AT AND FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAT A STRUCTURE
The reactionson a three-dimensionalstructure range from the single force of known direction exerted by a frictionless surface to the force-couple system exerted by a fixed support. Consequently,in problems involving the equilibrium of a three-dimensionalstructure, there can be between one and six unknowns associatedwith the reaction at each support or connection.Varioust1pesof supportsand

tln some problems, lt will be found convenient to eliminate the reactions at two points A and B from the solution by writing the equilibrium equation 2Mds : 0, which involves the determination of the moments of the forces about the axis AB joining points A and B (see Sample Prob. 4.10).

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L__
Ball Frictionless surface
Force with known line of action (one unknown)
uab-te

+F

F

v

Force with known Line ofaction (one unknown)

Two force components

Three force components

,'',F

NIr

. ",,f n,,...1ff'5+' g ) l
Fixedsupport

s",

NI.

Universal joint

Three force components and one couple

Three force components and three couples

(N{") 'g; il)

urf
( i u - ) f \{ - ^
i!:tri-\ r _

Hinge and bearing supporting radial load only

Two force components (and two couples)

,,Llnn"

Pin and bracket

Hinge and bearingsupporting axialthrust andradialload

Three force components (and two couples)

Fig. 4.lO

Reoctions supports ol ond connections.

r9l

C6L
'qord eldrues ees) s+uPurIUrJlrP tllroJ all uI prssrrclxe '(0I Jo 8 oq osp {rec 6'l pw g t sqor4 eldure5 ur pue urelqo.rd aidures stp ur slueruour eql+

e q V l€ uopcr?er l€ql apnlcuor A erF iy q(N I'g6i * firu *Ai* = y 0: C +'9."+'V. 0 : 6 ' 9 6 T + I ' 8 6I ? N T ' 8 6 -: " Y ov nY iiY o : 186 - "8 + o : 186 - gf:L + N9t6+ : orazo-rre sanp^aq] C pue '"g 'rg ro3Suprqpsqns e1r-r.!\ 'o oq€peurelqo e,tt
suopenbe zptrc h.ag1u1slueuoduoc oIFJo surnseqJleql Sulssa.rdxe suoqcorTp eql auu'(f) bU uI orez o1pnba { pu? fJo sluercl}Jaoc 3uE1e5 ffIecs o,^ 1u.mlQo

i.*:.ry(N r'g$f)+ : :)

{(N r'86)* t}q r:*r+ : g
oroJaroql aft 3 pue g lB suoqcear aqJ,

tB N 9t/+ : 'fl N r'86- : N6'96r+:3

og6'r o : 6'688o : 39'o +'96'r 0:9'889-Ct

:olaz oq lsnrll srr:€ o]Bulproocqc€e ]noqB sJuauour er{} qolq.&\'suoqenbe repcs ae.rq1B_upnolloJ erl+Jo rilns aql }€ql sss.rdxe eq: urpJqoe.r\ '(Z) 'bS ur oraz o1 pnba I 'f 'l:o stuerclJJaoc bu4le5

{.2}

- nsr'il + f(Jeo+'s6'r) - (g'sss--ct) 0: {(6'688 0 : IDg + [cs'o - 19'899 {6'688- I'gz'r - 4ng6'r
rolro^ oql Surlnduro3 +o eq o.,lr'slcnpord

uIt'0 -

+ o : {c x ({6'r- fe + re'o)

:0: (,{ x r)< = yIIK (fiso-) x ({90 - 16'0) ({'g + ["9) xl6't + o : { ( c + " g + ' v ) + f ( N 1 8 6 - ' s+ 6 v ) {r) 0 :rI, + f(N 186)_ 4"g+[kg +I,'v + lnv :0 :.{K

urI

e :orez ol luap,tpba ura1s,{s ruroJ rapptl er{} uo 8ur1ce sacroJ or{} }eq] sso.rdxoo16 'xuot4wrzbgtuns:q212abg 'porJsrles st 0 : '.{K uorlenba oql ecurspeol 'sr aq] ua.r.13 raprn rungqr[nbe ur to o,^Aorl lI 'sll€r eq] Suop IIor ol eeg pe8uegun eql }e sr 1r ipeurerlsuoclperped lpo snql sr ropp€l oqJ 'leet{.&\ o,ltl 'slueuodruocuollceer u.4orllIun o^lJ pu€ euo pue 1eeq.u pe8ueg qc€e trE

T8 f(rrr rao)- : flusTur 6)(q 06 + 3{ 08)- : l7u- : 111
tepptl pu€ u€ur eq] 3o lq8re.r,r poulqruoc orp er€ pe lo^ul secroJ aqJ 'u,{\erp sr roppel aq} 3o ure;8ero (poq-aar; y 'auasfiwyq&pd6-ea;g

F**lLf??#s
..,,.',..,,:;:;;:,it:,,,',,'.,".:',".,;.,1,::,:l:::::::::.:,:,1::;:.::1.::

',f pue'g'Y

'O lulod ]B roog oq] slcasralu]rappel pu€ u€tu le suoqc€ararll aurrurolacl rrjl rrp Jo A\ lq31a,u pourqu-ror Jo uor].)n eurl eq1 lq8u dq] ol suerl pue Jo 8u4ser p rapptl eql uo spuelsueu 34-gg uV [e^\ aq] o] poq] 1pr e lsureBe peSuegunue lq pue IIer e uo Polunou-tg PuB y slooq \ pa8ueg ozttl 1eeq,r,r ,{q papoddns sl urooraro}s? ur so^laqsq8q qcear o} pasn reppel 34-96 y

!1

&"wwmg#xd xldwvs
";-;1":.::..):;;;;;;..':;:;.;;.;.;.;1l:..;l....:...-.:;:;,;';.:.,......;

.

-

.

sA&{pt*p***[xfs 4.s
by A 5 x B-ft sign of uniform densityweighs270 Ib and is supported a joint Determine tension each ball-and-socket at A andby two cables. the in
cable and the reaction at A.

--T--=l "
5ft

seruTrsN
Free-&*dy Di*grcnn. A free-body diagramof the sign is drawn. The forces acting on the {ree body are the weight W : -(270 lb)j and the reactions at A, B, and E. The reaction at A is a force of unknown direction and is represented by three unknown components. Since the directions of the forces exerted by the cables are known, these forces involve only one unknown each, namely, the magnitudesTsp and ?a6. Since there are only ffve unknowns, the sign is partially constrained.It can rotate freely about the r axis;it is, however,in equilibrium under the given loading, since the equation2M, :0 is satisfied. The componentsof the forces T6p and Tu" can be expressed terms in of the unknown magnitudesTsp and Tucby writing

a
2ft

ttsu

B
x

BD: EC:
TBo: Tnc:

-(8 ft)i + - (0 rr/r -l-

(4 ft)j - (8 ft)k (3 ft)j + (2 ft)k

BD : \2ft EC : 7 ft

' u'Ynn )
F '

(BD\ :Tao(-fri+f-]tcl

/Ed\ r"1nC : r r c ( - i i + i ; - i t < l )

that Equilibriurrl actingon the signform frquctian*" We erpress the forces
a system equivalent to zero:

: +T6c - t270lb)j 0 >F :9, Ai + Alj + A.k + TBD ( A "- S T B D $ r r . t i + ( A y+ t r T u+ ] T r , - 2 7 0 l b ) j , )Ma: Xr x F) : g'

+ (A.- ?7",+ lr"r1u: o {t)

3 j ( 8 l " r ) i T r o ? ? i + j j - 3 t <+ t o f r ) ix r E c ( - ? i ^ * ; + i k l x ) .. : + (4ft)ix (-2701b)j 0
- 1 D \2.667T8D+2.57ITEC 080lb)k+ (5.333I8- I.7l4Tr.[: g t2) Settingthe coeflicients olj and k equal to zero in Eq. (2), we obtain two scalarequationswhich can be solved for T6p and Ts6: '/sp : 1 0 J . 3l r l Tr,x,: ?'151lt 4 Setling the coefficients of i, j, and k equal to zero in Eq. (1), we obtain three more equations,which yield the componentsof A. We have

"{

* +i338 11}}* l}eLz1hij * t22.,5)b,tk{'4. +

r93

v6L

"h.
#

: {tN rl'ltir+ [x ct:) r !i\ (]'iil-]+ y f8 N981+ :

!(ru s'ei) + l(N !16)+: s
oroJororF ere g pu€ v ]B suopcear erlJ *B :y N9?6* : N0g6+ :

ov pu'' J JosenIB^ erp Burlnlpsqns,"r?*l*Hil;'J:l?:i""ffit::ilj "v'
W. i\ tl?f: * ,L uetqo a A'(f ) 'bS ur orezol pnbl srolca^ eqlJo slueroglooc 3up1e5 eql tr1un 'V 'V N 9'tl,* : NI 0'67+ :

* ,(z) vrorezol *","51"t' bs 11":H;::,ti:lHi:y:'d";ffiT pnba
(;) + 0 : I r ( N v a a- t l ) + l ' t t f - ' v z ) + l . r ( uv 6 B J i - n v z - ) o : f(Nvlz_) x ('t'+ Yl i

6'rt* {tt + rtt-) x (ry+ 'i?J-

,O:(gx.r)K:sr{K ( r ) o : l U * - ' v ) - f i N t o z- t ! - o g+ o v ) + l ( r i - ' g + " v ) * :0:lIK o: f(r*rroz) r + f"g + t'g"+r'y + ffy + I'y
I !,\ tti6) =,1\

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2s

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6't I tilrgoud lldwvs

A 450-1bload hangs from the corner C of a rigid piece of pipe ABCD which has been bent as shown. The pipe is supportedby the ball-and-socket joints A and D, which are fastened, respectively,to the floor and to a vertical wall, and by a cable attached at the midpoint E of the portion BC of the pipe and at a point G on the wall. Determine (a) where G should be located if the tension in the cable is to be minimum, (b) the correspondingminimum value of tlre tension.

30ruiloN
Free-Body Diagram. The free-body diagram of the pipe includes the load W : (-450 lb)j, the reactionsat A and D, and the force T exerted by the cable. To eliminate the reactionsat A and D from the computationi,r"e express that the sum of lhe momentsof the {brcesaboutAD is zero. Denoting by ,\ the unit vector alongAD. we write

,l

) M a p : o : I . ( r t x T ) + r . l . q d x w ): o
AC x w: (r2i + r2j) x (-450j) : -5400k

(l)

The seconcl term in Eq. (1) canbe computed follows: as

fts ,r : =: A

r2i + t2i ___ ;__: 6k ii + gj _ *k D I S J J J

) i . ( A d x w ) : ( 3 i+ a r-j i L l . ( - 5 4 0 0 k : + 1 8 0 0
Substituting the value obtained into Eq. (I), we write )L' (AE x T) : -18001b'ft
+

(2)

Minimum Value cf Tonsion. Recallingthe commutative property for mixedtriple products, rewriteEq. (2) in the form we
t3) which showsthat &e projection of T on the vector i x Ad is a constant. It follows that T is minimum when parallel to the vector
'1,1,0)
ril

T' (,[ x AE) :

+

-18001b'ft

a

i xm

: (3i+ 3j - *k) x (6i + 1zj): 4i - zJ+ 4k T*i, : T(3i- ij + 3t l
{4}

Since the correspondingunit vector is 3i * *j + 3t , we write Substitutingfor T and I x AE in Eq. (3) and computing the dot products, we obtain 6T = -1800 and, thus, T = *300. Carrying this value into (4), we obtain : T-i, : -200i + f00j - 200k 71,,1,, 3iXi lb 4 Locstion of G. Since tle vector E? and the force T*,n have the same direction, their cornponentsmust be proportional, DenoUngthe coordinates of C by x. y. 0, we write

-12:0-6 "-6:lt *200 -200 + 100

f :r,

y:lDft

11

r95

961

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4.?l

A 4 X 8-ft sheet of plywood weighing 34 Ib has been temporarily placed among three pipe s.,pports. The lo-e, edge of thl sheet restson small collarsat A and B and its upper edge leansagainst pipe C. Neglecting friction at all surfaces,determine the reaJtions at A. B, and C.

Fig. P4.91

It"92 Two tape-spools attachedto an axle supportedby bearingsat A are and D. The radirrsof spool B is 30 *m arrd the radius of spool C is 40 mm. Knowing that ?s : 80 N and that the systemrotates at a constantrate. determinethe reactions A and D. Assumethat at the bearing at A does not exert any a.tial thrust and neglect the weights of the spoolsand arle.

4.93

Solve Prob. 4.92, assumingthat the spool C is replaced by a spool of radius 50 mm.

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96'Vd'6tt
Y

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n6'nd'6u

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v6"v

sarpog pr6ru unuq!1!nbt 86 I 1o

4.Q7 An opening_ a floor is coveredby a 1 X 1.2-m sheet of plywood in of mass18 kg. The sheetis hinged at A and B and is maintainedin a position slightly abovethe flooi by a small block C. Determine the vertical component of the reaction (a) at A, (b) at B, (c) at C.

Problems | 99

Fig. P4.97

4.98

Solve Prob. 4.97, assumingthat the small block C is moved and placedunder edge DE ati point 0.15 m from corner E.

4.99 The rectangular plate shown weighs 80 Ib and is supported by three vertical wires. Determine the tension in each wire.

Fig. P4.99 ond P4.|OO

4"100 The rectangular plate shownweighs80 lb and is supported by
three vertical wires. Determine the weight and location of the lightest block that should be placed on the plate if the tensionsin the three wires are to be eoual.

,ot'rd'6lt

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eor?d'6lt

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4.105 A f0-ft boom is acted upon bv the 8401b force shown. Determine the tension in each cable and the reaction at the ball-and-socket joint at A.

Problems 20 |

1 . 2m

Fis. P4.lO5

4.106 A.2.4-m boom is held by a ball-and-socket joint at C and by two cablesAD and AE. Determine the tension in each cable and the reaction at C. 4.107 Solve Prob. 4.106, assumingthat the 3.6-kN load is apphed at point A. 4.t0g A 600-lb crate hangsfrom a cable that passes over a pulley B and is attached to a support at H. The 200-lb boom AB is supported joint at A and by two cablesDE andDF. ftre by a ball-and-socket center of gravity of ihe boom is located at G. Determine (a) the tension in cablesDE and DF, (b) the reaction at A.

...-',,,3.6kNV ,,. \

u@ffi:>/.
, ^ . r.zm

{
Fig. P4.l05

5ft

Fis. P4.r08

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'6;1 O1'td puo 691'76

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serpog p!6!U unuq;;1nbt ZOZ 1o

4.I12

Solve Prob. 4.111, assumingthat the 320-lb load is applied at A.

Problems

2O3

4.1 13 A 20-kg cover for a roof opening is hinged at cornersA and B. The roof forms an angle of 30" with the [orizontal, and the cover is muntuned in a honzontal position bv the brace CE. Determine (a) the magnitude of the foice exerted by the brace, (b) the reacti9ry the hinges.Assumethat the hinge at A does not exert any 1t a,xial thrust.

Fig. P4.ll3

4.114 The bent rod ABEF is supported by bearings at C and D and by wire AH. Knowing that portion AB ol the rod is 250 mm long, determine (a) the tension in wire AH, (b) the reactions at C ani D. Assumethat the bearing at D does not exert any axial thrust.

Fig. P4.ll4

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gu'rd'6H

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serpog p!B!d unpq111nblVOZ 1o

4,119 SolveProb.4.II4, assuming that the bearingat D is removedand that the bearing at C can exert couples about axesparallel to the y andz axes. 4.120 Solve Prob, 4.117, assumingthat the hinee at B is removed and that the hinge at A can exert couples aboirt axesparallel to the y ano z axes.

Problems 2Os

4.121 The assemblyshown is used to control the tension ? in a tape that passesaround a frictionless spool at E, Collar C is welded io rods ABC and CDE.It can rotate about shaft FG but its motion alons the shaft is prevented by a washer S. For the Ioading shown, determine (a) the tension ? in the tape, (b) the reaction at C.

T Fig. P4.l2l

T

4.1?.2 The assemblyshown is welded to collar A that fits on the vertical pin shown. The pin can exert couples about the x andz axesbut does not prevent motion about or along the y axis. For the loading shown, determine the tension in each cable and the reaction at A.

480 N Fig. P4.122

'g l€ Sulce f('"r . qt OOS)I : ;41eldnoc t lq pecelder sr pu€ pelotuer sI d ecroJot1t1eq1 bulurnsse'LZI.V.qord o los gA1.? 'ur0I:rpu€ ''uI g : q''vlzI:0'q1076: d u o q . 4 Ap u E . g . y l € s u o l l c E e r c 's11oqaleeerql lq pegoddns eql eurrurelep 'uoqcuJ 3urpa13e51 sr lBr{l ..reuror,, e uroJ o} rerlleio} poplo/\\ ere spol earql /;rl.v 'v +€uotc€eJ aql puB elqBcqc€a q uogual aql almrue]ep '(ruur .selquc 00t : o) O p peqdde q peol N-Ogt eqt lBqt 8q,nou;1 eerq+,(q pne y rc tulof rc4cos-pue-1eq lq pepoddns sI eCgV errrern g4,l.? e g71'td puo 991'y6 '6;1

t,

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ezl'td'6t)

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sarpog p!6tu urnuqr;lnbl 902 1o

4.129

In order to clean the clogged

AE, a plumber has disconnected both ends of the pipe and i a power snake through the opening at A. The cutting head the snake is connected by a hear.ycable to an electric motor that at a constantspeedas the plumber forces the cable into pipe. The forces exerted by M : -(90 N'm)k. Determine the additional reactions at B. C. D causedby the cleaning operation. Assume that the reaction each support consistsof two force components perpendicular to pipe'
the plumber and the motor on the tesettted by the wrench F : -(48 N of the cable can be rep-

Problems 207

i

2m

I

Fig. P4.129

4.130 Solve Prob. 4.129, assumingthat he olumber exerts a fbrce
F : -(48 N)k and that the motor turned off (M : 0).

4.t3' The assemblyshown consistsof an

mm rod AF that is welded to a crossconsistingof four 200-mm ar The assemblyis supported by a ball-and-socketloitrt at F and by short linlcs,each of which forms an zrrgleof 45'with the vertical For the loading shown, determine (a) the tension in each link, (b) reaction at F.

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'3J1,4 aql ur uols

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t8 t ' t d ' 6 ! {

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zerrd'6H

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se;pog 1ournpql;;nb3 p!6!U 802

4.137 Two rectangularplates are welded together to form the assembly shown. The assemblyis supported by ball-and+ocket joints at B and D and by a ball on a horizontal surfaceat C. For ihe loading

Problems 209

shown, determine reacfron C. the at

Fig. P4.137

ff

Vol

4.138 Two 2 x 4-ft plyrvood panels, each of weight 12 lb, are nailed together as shown. The panels are supported by ball-and-socket 2ft joints at A and F and by the wire BH. Determine (a) the location of 11 in the ry plane if the tension in the wire is to be minimum, (b) the correspondingminimum tension. Fig. P4.138 4.139 Solve Prob. 4.138, subject to the restriction that H must lie on the A aris, joints at A and E 4.140 The pipe ACDE is supported by ball-and-socket and by the wire DF. Determine the tension in the wire when a 640-N load is applied at B as shown.

12lbi

$

t

Fig. P4.l4O

4.I4I

by that SolveProb, 4.140,assuming wire DF is replaced a wire
connecting C arrd F.

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three for can equations besolved only anv of ei,roa cet equilibrium rwu-rf'nensiorra\ or tTie inb'iea6tiohl-at sripports a n^gid untndrniii,
mora structr.rre cannot be comp'letely determined it th-ey invotve

ond Review SummorY 211

liii

+t--uu -*t.no.-^., loading conditions;'th" ,t rr"t rre is said to be pa'rtiall'y constratned' fhe fict that the reactions involve exactly three unknowns is no guarantee that the equilibrium equations can be solved for all three inhoo*ns. If the suppbrts are arranged in such a way that the reactions

than jf involve hand, the.reactions fewer 4.5]. [Snc. 0n theother *ill -ot be rnaintained under general -.1."ft1-"i..-

trrd*t*rmtnm*Y Stcfi*mi they are saidto be staticallg,indeterminate iiron unknowns; Fsr*int{*{q$*rsififs

minate, and the structure is said to be im'propedy constrai'ned'

indeterare or aresitherconcurrent parallel,tLe reactions statically

i$tf$ {mpr*p*r {*r*$trffi

Two particular casesof equilibrium-of -arigid body were given specialatt6ntion.In Sec.4.6, atwo-forcebody was defined as a rigid dodv subiectedto forces at only two points' and it was shown that th. iesrrliunts F1 and F2 of these for6es must have the same magnitude, the sami line of action, and oppositetiense(Fig' a ll), a property which will simpllfy the solution of certain problemsinLater ihapters. In Sec.4.7, aihiee-force boclywas defined as a rigid body subiected to forces at only three poinis, and it was shown that the must be ei,therconcurrent Fr, .es,rltunts Fz, and F3 bf these-forces (Fig. a.12) or parallel. This property providesus with an alternative to app"roach tLe solution ofptoble-i involving a three-force body IsampleProb. 4.6].

kwdy Tw*-$mr**

fu*dy T*':rm*-$mn*m

Fr

rj

Fig.4.Il

Fis. 4.12 Fig.4.12

In the secondpart of the chapter, we consideredthe equili'bbody and saw that each of the reactions rium of a three-dimensional exerted on the body by its supports could involve between one and six unknowns,dependingupon the type of suppofi lSec.4.8]' In the general case of the equilibrium of a three-dimensional body, all of the sk scalarequilibrium equations(4.2) and (4.3) listed at the beginning of this review should be used and solved for sir unknou:ns[Sec. 4.9]. In most problems,however,these equations will be more conveniently obtained if we first write )F:0 )Mo:E(rxF) :0 (4.1)

*$ m ffiqr"ri$ibriurm r*tr*e-dirnemsimns{ body

the and express forcesF and positionvectorsr in terms of scalarcom-

can products thenbe computed The ponenis unit vectors, vector and
iither directlv or by means of deteririnants, and the desired scalar of to zero the coefffcients the unit vecobtainedLy equations "q,.utir.g 4.91. tors lsampleProbs.4.7 through

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serpog prbru Lunpglpnb3ZIL 1o

4.142 A hand truck is used to move two kegs, each of mass a0 kg. Neglecting the massof the hand truck, determine (a) the vertical force P that should be applied to the handle to maintain equilibrium when a : 35', (b) the correspondingreaction at each of the two wheels.

500mm

8oo -*l mm

A

Eis. P4.142

"l_:
4.143 Determine the reactionsat A and C when (a) a : 0, (b) a : 30'. Fig. P4.143

4.144 A lever AB is hinsed at C and attached to a control cable at A. If the lever is subjected to a 75lb vertical force at B, determine (a) the tension in the cable, (b) the reaction at C.

rsm."^B

/D ID

I
lig. P4.144 4.145 Neglecting friction and the radius of the pulley, determine (a) the tension in cable ADB, (b) the reaction at C.
80 mm 80 mm

ti)t, m

_l
Fig. P4.145

2r3

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uIg A uIg

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n "

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sarpog ;o unuqt;lnblVIZ ptolu

4.152 The rigid L-shaped member ABF is supportedby a ball-and-socket joint at A and by three cables.For the-loading'shown, determine the tension in each cable and the reaction at .I.

Review Problems 215

Fig. P4.152

4.153 A force P is applied to a bent rod ABC, which may be supportedin four different ways as shown. In each case,if possible,determine the reactions at the supports.

Fig. P4.153

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4.C5 A 200 x 250-mm panel of mass20 kg is supported by hinges along edge AB. Cable CDE is attached to the panel aiC, purr"r ou"t u r*all pulley at D, and supports a cylinder of mass m. Neglecting the effect of friction, write a computer program that can be used io calculate the mass of the cylinder correspondingto equilibrium for values of 0 from 0 to g0" using 10" increments. Using appropriate smaller increments, determine the value of 0 correspondingto m : 10 kg.

Computer Problems 217

Fig. P4.C5

4.G6 The derrick shown supports a 2000-kg crate. It is held by a ball-andsocketjoint at A and by two cablesattached at D and E. Knowing that the derrick standsin a vertical plane forming an angle { with the xy plane, write a computer program that can be used to calculatethe tension in each cable for valuesof f from 0 to 60ousing 5' increments.Using appropriatesmaller increments, determine the value of @ for which the tension in cable BE is maximum.

v

B

Fig. P4.C6

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