# 5 Distributed Forces

:
Centroids ond Centers Grovity of
5.1 5,2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.1I 5.12 Introduction Center Grovityof q Twoof Dimensionol Bodv Centroids Aruo, qnd Lines of First Moments Areosqnd Lines of Composite Plotes Wires ond Determinotion Ceniroids of by Integrotion Theorems Poppus-Guldinus of Distributed Loods Beoms on Forces Submerged on Surfoces Center Grovityof o Threeof Dimensionol Body.Centroid of o Volume Composite Bodies Determinotion Centroids of of Volumes Integrotion by

5.I INTRODUCTION
we have assumedso far that the attraction exefted bv the earth o' a 'ihis force, called lgld body could be representedby a single force W the lorce ol gravityor t]e weight of the 6ody.was to be appliedat the centerof grauity of the body (Sic. 3.2).Actually. earth the u fo."" "*"rt, on eachof the particles forming the body. The action of the earth on a rigrdbody shouldthus be represented bya largenumber of smallforces distributed over tre entire body. you wiil lear"tiin this chapter,however, that all of thesesmall forces can_be replacedby a singleeq:uivalent force W You will alsoleam how to determinethe centeiof giavig,,i.e., the point of application of the resultant W, for bodies of .,"io.,, ,h"o", ^ In the first part of the chapter, two-dimensionalbodiesl such as flat plates and wires contaitted in a given plane, are considered. Two conceptscloselyassociated with thsdetermination of the center of gravity of a plate or a wire are introduced: the concept of the centroid of an area or a line and the concept of thefrsr iwment of an area or a line with respect to a given axis. You will alsolearn that the computationof the area of a sur{ace of revolutionor of the v^ol-ume a body of revolutionis directly related of to the determinationof the centroid of the line or areausedio n"rr"r_ ate that surfaceor body of revolution (Theoremsof pappus-Gul&nus). And, asis shownin secs.5.8 and 5.9, the determinatio" of tt centroid " 'the 9f g arga simpliffes the analysisof beams subjected to distributed loads and the computationof forces exertedon submergedrectangularsurfaces, such as hydraulic gatesand portions of daJs. In the last part of the chapter,you will learn how to determine _ the center of gravity of a three-dimensionalbody as well as the centroid of a volume and the first moments of that volume with respect to the coordinate planes.

5.2 CENTER GRAVIW A OF OF TWO.DIMENSIONAL BODY
Phoro 5.1 The preciseboloncingof ihe components o mobilerequires understonding of on of ceniersof grovityond centroids, moin topics the of this chopter.

Let us first considera flat horizontal plate (Fig. 5.1). we can divide the plate into n small elements.The coordinat6sof the first element

ZMo: iW=Lx LW 2M,: yW=Zy LW Fig. 5.1 Centerof grovityof o plote.

220

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222

Distributed Forces: Centroids ond Centers oI \rrovtty

5.3 CENTROIDSAREAS OF AND LINES
In the caseof a flat homogeneous prate of uniform thickness,the magnitude Aw of the weight of an element of the plate can be expressed as AW : yt AA where 7 : specific weight (weight per unit volume) of the materiar f : thicknessof the olate M : area of the elemint
plate as

Similarly,we can express magnitudeIv of the weight of the entire the 1ry: yA

where A is the total area of the plate. If U.S. customary units are used,the specificweight 7 should be expressed lb/ft3,ihe thickness in feet, and the are"as andA in t M in square feet. we observethat Aw and w will then be expressed in pounds.If SI units are used,7 shourdbe erpressed N/in3, rn t in meters, and the areasM and A in square, -"i"rr; the weights AW and W will then be expressed newttns.i in for AW and W in the moment equations (5.1) and ,. . _.Srb:atauting dr\4drng throughoutby yl , we obtain x1M, + x2M2 + ... + x,M, yrMr -t y2M2 + ... + i,M, If we increasethe number of elementsinto which the area A is divided and simultaneouslydecreasethe size of each -" obtain in the limit "l"-"rrt, ?M4 2M,: iA: iA:

,e:[*ae ie:laae

(5.3)

These equationsdefine the coordinatesr and y of the center of gravity of a homogeneous plate. The point *hosi coordinates .r are ard y is also known as the centroid c of the area A of the plate (Fig. 5.3). If,the plate is not homog"'"orr, these equatior., "J,,r,oa be used to determine the center.of gravity of the plater they stilr define, however,the centroid of the aiea. In the caseof a homogeneous wire of ,niform cross section,the magnitudeAW of the weight of an element of wire can be expressed as AW: ya AL where 7 = specific weight of the material a : cross-sectional of the wire area AL : Iength of the element
llt shouldbe noted that in the SI systemofunits a given materialis generally characterizedby its densiryp (mass per unit volume)rathei tran by its speific *"igr, f. ir, specificweight of the materlalcan then be obtainedfrom the relaiion y=pg -i p expressed kg/m3. observe in yh:.",g =, we that 7 will be expressed in ?:t l, (kgm")(nr/s'). is,l'"::N/m,. "'. that in

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Forces: Cenrroids centers ond

(b) Fig. 5.5

to expressthese mom_ents_as products of the length L of the the line and the coordinatesi and y of iis centroid. An area A is said to be sErurnntric usith respectto an axis BB, if for every point of the th"." existsa point p' of the same f "t""" areasuch that the line PP' is pelpendicular to B'8, and,isdivided into two equal parts by that axis Fig. s.Ea),A line L is said to be sranmetric with respect to an ans BB' if it satisffessimilar corrditilr,r. When an area A or a line L possesses axis of slrnmetry BB', its an -BB' first moment with respect to is zero, and its centroid is located on that a:<is. example,in the caseof the areaA of Fig. 5.5b,which For is s)rmmetri" *i+ respect to the. g axis, we observe fiat fo. element of areadA of abscissa there existsan element dA' of ".r"ry r equar area and with abscissa-x.rt follows that the integral in the ffrst of Eqs. (5.5) is zero and, thus, that p, : 0. It alsofoll-ows from the {irst of the relations (5.3) that t : 0. Thus, if an areaA or a line L pos_ sesses aris of symmetry its centroid c is located on that axis,' an we further note that.if or two ?n area- line possesses axesof syrnmetry',its centroid c must be located at the intersection of the trvo axes (Fig; 5:6). This property enablesus to determineimmediatelythe cen_ troid ofareassuchascircles,ellipses, squares, rectangles, equilateraltrior other s)rrnmetricftgurbs aswell as the ceniroid oi lines in the Tgles, shapeof the circumferenceof a circle, the perimeter of a square,etc.

\a)

(b)

Fig. 5.6 An area A is said to be sym.m.etric with respect to a center o if for every element of areadA of coordinatesx and, there existsan a element dA' of equal area with coordinates-r and"-rr (Fis. 5.7). It then follows that the integrals in Eqs. (5,5) are both zero"and that 0. It alsofollowsfrom Eqs. (5.3)that i : :0, that is, Q,:.Qr: i that the centroid of the areacoincideJwith its center of srrmmetrvO. similarly, if_a line p_ossesses a center of symmetry o, the centroid of the line will coincidewith the center O. It should be noted that a figure possessing center of s)rynme_ a try does not ndcessarily possess *ir of symmetry (Fig. 5.7[ while u" a {igure possesfiing axesof symmetrydoesnot necesiarilypossess two a center of symmetry (Fig. 5.6a). However,if a figure possesies two axeso{ symmetry at a right angle to each other, the point of intersection of these a6esis a center of syrnmetry (fig. F.Ob). - Determining the centroids of unsymmetrical areas and lines and of areasand lines possessing only one axis of symmetry will be discussed Secs. and 5.7. centroids of commonshapes areas in 5.6 of and lines are shown in Fig. 5.BA and B.

Fis. 5.7

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Fig. 5.8B

Centroidsof commonshopesof lines.

5.5 COMPOSITE PTATES WIRES AND
In manyinstances,a flat plate can be divided into rectangles,triangles, or tjre other common shapes shownin Fig. 5.8A. The abicissa o? it, x centerof gravityG canbe determined from the abscjssas i.t,iz, . . . ,in of the centersof gravity of the variousparts by tt"t it" moment of tle weight of the whole plate about"*pr"rrirrf is equal the 4 axi"s to the sum of the momentsof the weiglqs of the variorlsparts abtut the same axi; (f1S. 5.9). The ordinatJl of the center o?gravity of the plate is found in a similar way by equating moments about'the r axis.We write ZMi X(W, + Wz-l ... + W,) :itWr +i2W2+ ... + i.Wn 2M*: Y(Wr+ Wz* ... + W.) : ytWr + ... + irW, + i,W*

LMo: XZW=DrW 2M,: f>W=LyW Fig. 5.9 Cenier grovity o composite of of plote.

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A uniform semicircular rod of weight w and radius r is attached to a nin at A and rests againsta frictionless surface at B. Determine the reacti6ns at A and B.

Free-Body Dicgrom. A free-body diagram of the rod is drawn. The forces aciing on the rod are its weight w, which is applied at the center of gravity G (whose.positionis froy b.8Bi; reaction at A, repres"entel r by its componentsA*"bq1"a and a{ig. and Ar; hJrizontal reactjon at B.

ffi:;T -*(+):,

"T:j,'r
\=w I

u:#* q

N''

:;:
tana: w/n:n

*:Y*
,t : tu(, *;!)"'

edding the two componentsof the reaction at A:

The answerscan also be expressed follows: as A : 1.049\Iz L72.3'

":*,::

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'pepnlcur ""{iffiJ:l"Tfi 'osIV 'e,tqu8euse peleeJ] er€ aq e,r,qr8eu lsntu sel€urpJooc 3o u8rs eql 'eldurexero3) (se1oq s€ereleql requaural o1no,,( lelluesse roJ ..pe^ouer,,eJ€qcrq,,rA sr 'sprorluec eql e,trlcadsereql pu€ sqfuel ro s€orBeql Sululet ]I Jo selBurprooc -uoc elqel € lJnrlsuoc nod urelqord qcee roJ l€ql pueururocer,{18uo.qs ,q eA 'edeqsparrsepE urelqo o] ureq] pp€ s€ IIe \ se s€eru+curlqnsuec nol 1eq1 _ ro {1}carroco1 no,{ dlaq 1e8ro;+ou oCJ'sq18uel s€or€puu sprorluocrlar{} qsrrq€}sa 'qor4 'os1y de,n aldrues ur auop sr su) queuoduroc quere33Tp Sur.ttoqs er{l ru^\ (I'g auo utr{}_eJoru edeqsrelncnrud € }crulsuoc o1alqrssod ur uego sr }r s€eJe eueld ro3 ]uq1azluBocerplnoqs no 'B'g '8tg Jo sedeqsuoururoceql tuor3 aurl ro eere ue,L13 eq1 lcrulsuoc o+ ,,\\oqeplcop ol eq ppoqs uoqnlos .rnol ur dels 1s.rge{J "n 'pezrseqdure aq pporis leq] slugodleroles te,te,ttoq 'ere areq; 'adft slql Jo surelqordSurzrlos ueq.^a ^\olloJ plnoqs nol arnpecord aql olurlsnl[ 6'9 pue .ssurl puD ipaJo sllsoduros spro4ua' aW Su1;B)ol "t I'g sualqor4 aldurug to 'l(g'g) 'sbg] elrsoduloc Ber€eql Jo sluauour roJ sale1d alrsoduoc Jo sploJluac aql a+Ecol e^Er{ ol lsJrJaql eurruJalopro sauq pu€ sBoJB 'sruelqord aql 3upro11o3 uI '[(t'g) 'sbg] seurT pu€ t(e'g) 'sbgl seereeueld IIIm nol 'sbg] serr,r pue seroog Jo sprorlueceql pue [(f'g) leuorsueurp-omt ,Qprer8y Jo Jo sroluec eql Supecol ro3 suoqenbapreua8 eql padole,repe,{\ uossel sql uI

-rooc eql;o ur8uo Jouorl'cor eloullryerec sle^p prnorrs aql aq]

5"I

through

5,9

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

,o--*]

F

I

300mm 30mm

I
I I

'1,r,,*-2rin --*r

L

t[**-]
Fig. P5.l

I

lt-----,1
Fig. P5.3

U

3 in.

Tt
A

I I I I

6 in.

t

i--

'ra-.--(l| ,"/r, -- /
Fig. P5.6

x

L--.1 20in.
Fig. P5.7 Fig. P5.9

232

8l'gd '6lJ I I
I

.Vltrt=fteqtos t-t/6-t o\lBt eql euprrelap ,II.g .qotd Jo 'eer€relnuuerues eq] rod 6l.g '4 : <u,^ BerEeq+ oqs I qcq.{\ roJ q/o o\er arlt eulurretep rod gl.g '6/(t + I;) snrpurJo alcrrc Jo cr€ uB roJ ]eql saqceordde plorluec aql Jo uortecol eqf 'zr saqceordde rr se +Bqt ^ orls ll"g

I

w
t,
9t'9d '6!t tt'gd'6!t

ll.gd puD 91.9d .6!t

.i? ,I,r pu€^ ,6-r. Jo srurel ur eerE pepeqs eql Jo plorluec aql Jo eleurprooc /, eql eunrralo(l 9L.g

et'9d '6!J

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I _1
'r402

t,
zt'gd '6!j 11'9d'5!l o1'9d '6!J

--*l 08

----f-ultu9u
esdqelne5

t,
et[ suiatqord

'u.4aoqs eueld eqt pJorlueceqt etecoT g1.g ee.re q$norql Ol.S Jo Distributed 234 OI \rfovlry Forces:Cenfroidsond Centers ,5.20 A composite beam is constructed by bolting four plates to four 60 X 60 X l2-mm anglesas shown. The bolts are equally spacec along the beam, and the beam gupportsa vertical load. Ai provec in mechanicsof materials,the shearingforces exerted on the bolts at A and B are proportional to the fir;t momentswith respect to the centroidal r axis of the red shadedareas shown. ,espectiuely, in parts a and b of the figure. Knowing that the forc6 exerte.d on the bolt at A is 280 N, determine the force exerted on the bolt at B. 60 mm 450 mm T\a) _t -T 12 mm I I I (b) Fig. P5.2O Fig. P5.21 5.2t snd 5.22 The horizontal r axis is drawn throush the centroid C of the area shown, and it dlvides the area into iwo component areas,41 and A2. Determine the first moment of each comtponent area with respect to the r axis, and explain the results obtiined. 1.50 in l H t l l I 0,/ D r n . f-1.50 itr. I L--t 2.00in. 0.75 in. Fig. P5.22 .leluozrrorl raquaw er{t uoruodsrql sr }eq1os go Jo ^ IrIr€Jo I r{}tsue1 aqurro}ep'!u eq} 0S.0sI p t€q}puuD tEpepoddns sr requtetuerp l€rp bqmoul 'bqqn1 ynu$mp J0 ocotdeliup t
Irrog peurJoJ sJ pup alrqou e 7o lueuoduoc e sr J{CIJA7 re<Iuory

o0'g

Oe.gd puD 67.gd.6H

8Z'9d '6:l

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'peleclpur ern8g eql 3o .relaurr.rad 5o ,,(lraer8Jo roluoc eql el€coT aqt ruroJ ol luoq sr err,^Asnoeue;ouroq ,uql V q6no,tql ?A.g IU'*

'6.9d'tsr,{ga.g .I.gd .tsrd - ?(.9 'peturoJ snql ernilJ err. erll A

'|sa'lr'7 .r.gir .!r.{ 1''' qr.g

ez'gd'6tJ
q

ge[

surelqord

'urnurrxeur "d sl f yo en1e,l ienle^ tuntulx€ru leql sI tBr{A\pue lpr{.r rod (g) 'sue r eq} ot €ere pep€qs eql Jo aseq aql urorS f ecu€lslpaql pu? '!'qp sturet ut 'fl sserdxg(o) ''d Aqpelouapsr srxe r eql ol lceoser qlvl\ eer€ pep€qs eql Jo lueulotu lsrrJ aql tc.g

236

Dishibuted Forces: Centroids ond Centers of Grovity

5.3r The homogeneous ABC wire

is bent into a semicircular arc and a straight section as shown and is attached to a hinge at A. Determine the value of d for which the wire is in equilibrium for the indicated position.

5.32 Determine the distance h for which the centroid of the shaded
area is as far above Tine BB' as possible when (a) k :

(b)k = 0.80.

0.10,

h

Fig. P5.3I

L!:1-]
Fig. P5.32 ond P5.33 5.33

B'

Knowing that the distance h has been selectedto maximize the distance y ftomline BB' to the centroid of the shadedarea, show that y : 21113.

5.6 DETfRiAINATIONCTNTROIDS Of BYINTTGRATION
The centroid of an area bounded by analwical curves (i,e.. curves defined by algebraic equations) is usually determined by evaluating the integrals in Eqs. (5.3) of Sec. 5.3:

re:

[.ae

"

,td:l,aae
J "

(5.3)

If the element of area dA is a small rectangle of sides dr and dq, the evaluation of each of these integrals .eqrires a double i,ntegr"ation with respect to r and y. A double integration is also necesiory if polar coordinates are used for which dA is a small element of sides dr and r d0. In most cases, however,it is possibleto determine the coordinates of the centroid of an area by performing a single integration. This is achievedby choosing dA to be a thin rectangle or strip or a thin sector or pie-shapedelement (Fig. 5.12); the centroid of the thin rectangle is located at ils center, and the centroid of the thin sectoris located at a distancefr from its vertex (asit is for a triangle). The coordinatesof the centroid of the area under considerationare then obtained by expressing that the first moment of the entire area with respect to each of the coordinate axesis equal to the sum (or integral) of the corresponding moments of the elements of area.

'slusurels puo spro4usJ zt.g .6!l lDrluererjlp sDsrD Jo (r)
7 tq /D\

oPzr i=vP
L A.o$=pk r6 4soJg-lar fr.p(x-o)=yp rpfr.:yp zth=P4 ._12- n=Pn o -T I h (h'x)a @'s) -tpol:, ,p*l:, :g'g 'ces p ft'g)'sbg ur spr8alur eq18unen1e.rc pautrue+apaq lq rrecprorluec s1r'uoeenba cprqaSle ue lq peugep$ euq ? ueq A .BarBaq+ Jo plorluec eqlJo 4p* t sepurprooc aql roJ pe los eq u€c s,rott"n6e eseql 'pel€nle e ueeq e,req (6'9) .sbg ur qer8elur eqt pue paulu -relap ue_eq eere eql acuo .uorler8alure18urs ol pecnper snq] seq e sr uoperBalul eql xeqlo aq+ Jo sture+ ur se]eurpJoocaql Jo auo sserdxaol pesn eq ppor{s e,trnc Surpunoq eq};o-uonenbe aq} pue '(6'9) sepuroJ olut pelnlqsqns aq ppoqs suorsserdxa epgdordde eql 'seleurp-rooc relod ur ue.l,r8sr BarB eq] Surpunoq e^rnc eq] 3o uonenba eql uerl \ posn eq pForls c yed Jo tuetuele pedeqs-erd '8Id ur euop ueeq a{} jsluaruala 3o sad,(t uoruruoc aarq} roJ 6I'9 seq srql 's[EpuareJJrp alegdordde eq] pue lurod leql yo seleuro-rooc eql eq Jo suue] ur pesse-rdxe ppor{s yp }uauele eq} Jo eere e{+ 'oslv_'uoll"Japlsuocrepun €aJBaql Surpunoq e^rnJ erp uo pel€col lurod e Jo seleulprooc aq+Jo srurol ur passerdxaaq pporls Vp EarB Jo +uatualaarll Jo plorluoc orll Jo I"fi pue l'r seleurproocaql 'sluatuele aserF ruor; palndruoc eq os[B rrec ]r '<u,&\orDl fpee;p ]ou $V eaJ€ arp JI v?FiJ:v&:"d (o's) veP! v!: nd I: rcZ uouo.rOetul sp;olue] Jo uorrouluJerec ,(q 9'g elu 4,e1\4.'yp 4 ]uetrrele eq+Jo proJluec erl+Jo seleurprooc e\t 1" pue lux Aqfiunoue C 238 ond Centers Forces: Centroids Distributed of Grovity The differential length dL shouldbe replacedby one of the following depending upon which coordinate,x: U, 2r ^0,is chosen expressions, as the inde'oendentvariable in the equation used to define the line theorem): (thesee"prissionscan be derived using the Pythagorean dL: ,FE,J,-[.e,J', dL: dL: (#)'* After the equation of the line has been used to expressone-of the coordinatesin terms of the other, the integration can be performed, and Eqs. (5.4) canbe solved for the coordinatesi and y of the centroid of the line. OF 5.7 THEOREMSPAPPUS.GULDINUS Thesetheorems,which were first formulated by the Greek geometer Pappusduring the third century e.o. and later restatedby-the Swiss mathematiciunG,tldittrrs,or Guldin, (7577-1643)deal with surfaces and bodies of revolution. A surfaceof reaolution is a surfacewhich can be generatedby rotating a plane curve about a fixed axis.For example(Fig. 5.f3), the Photo 5.2 The storogetonks shown ore oll Thus, their surfoce oreos bodiesof revolulion. usingthe con be determined ond volumes of theorems Poppus-Guldinus. C Sphere ,2" '.}A Cone |____ C '.-jA C Torus Fis.5.13 surfaceof a spherecan be obtainedby rotating a semicirculararcABC about the diameter AC, the surface of a cone can be produced by rotating a straightline AB about an axisAC, and the surfaceof a torus or ring can be generatedby rotating the circumference of a circle axis.Abody of reoolutionis a body which can about a nonintersecting rotating a plane area about a ffxed axis.As shown in be generatedby Fig. 5.f4, a sphere, a cone, and a torus can each be generatedby rotating the appropriateshapeabout the indicated axis. i_ffifl"\ _ ,) Mi r \ Sphere dq\ -4 A f f i 1 1, ,-) Tonrs Cone Fig.5.14 T'HsORHM t. The area of a surface of reaolution i's equal to the length of the generating curae times the distance traueled by the centroid of the curae while the surface is bei'nggenerated. Proof. Consider an element dt of the line L (Fig. 5.15), which is revolved about the r axis.The area dA generatedby the element lI '(g'q 'qora eldures ees)urvrorqsI perp arp lq palr:a'cg ,l''o.l -.r, retunlol orl+uory\{ eare aueld € plor}uoc erp outtura}ep ol Jo rr \orDI Jo sI o^Jnc e{+ lq pelenaa? eceynJ aq+ Ber€ aT+ o"q ,-." ,.r"1d Jo eJo pro4uec aw euluua+apol pasn eq osF rlr.,c ,{eql .flesranuo3 .uou -nlo er se.poqJo_ saumlo orB pus uoqnlo oJJo socBJJns SBOJB Jo erD J0 elnduroc ol lezv'elduns€ re#o im4ppg-snddedJo^sureroerl+ aql 'eare buperauaEaql slcesJeluT uoll -elor J: strB aq] I lldde lou seop {rreroerf+erp leql pe+ou eq ppoqs 'uIBBv 'v q ku6'ir"rq Jo plorlusc eql .,(qpelezterlecuelsrp ",{r 9t'9'6H (rls) , el"q e \ ,(g.g.ces) VA ot pnba sr yp n I pr8elur oql aculs prra 'vp ku,6 I : ,y sI V lq pepreua8 aumlo^ orrlue erl+ 'srr-q.;.Vp fru6'o1 1".r1" rt .(gl'g '3rg) sure eql lueurela eql lq pelereue8 r Ap eurnlo eql ln pe^lo er sl qcFI.,lA Eere eql Jo yp luaurele ue replsuoD v looJd 'palotaua? Bu1,aq hpoq aq+a1lqm v aq+ s"utxt oato 3up1oaql to p?oquac aq+ hq palaaDr+aiuolw vfruT:A aq+o+Tonba uo?tnloaar fipoq o to auryoaaq1 .ll n {o dldde 1ou p1norA uarooql aql pu€ 'su8rsellsoddoSurz'uq seerealereua8ppozn spreelrll rerl}Ie uo suoncas01\ eql 'prp ll JI :pelElor sr I qJrq \ ]noqB + Jo aPIS sDre arp ssoJc1ou lsnru a.trnc Suuereue8 erp leq] palou eq ppoqs ]I '(gf 'S 'Bf.{) TJo prorluec aql lq pelo €r} ecu€}srparn,sr hu6 ereq^ (0r'q) 74sz: v el"q eroJareql eM'I& o1 pnba q :fp n I prFelul eql teql g'g 'ces uI punoJ e \ lBrF SuqJeceg'W fruZ t : V sI Z lq peleraue8 BerB erqua eql 'snqJ '.Ip nL6 o1 pnba sr s1'9'6H 6eZ snulp;ngrsnddo; suaroaql l'9 Jo Determine by direct integration the location of the centroid of a parabolic spandrel. k$ermilttion d the Consfoat k fhe value of /c is determined by substituting^r : a artdy : b lnto tlle grven equation. We have b ='kaz or k : b/a'. The equatiorr of the curve is tlus ,A: b1*', o .uz or *: fuA''"

Varticcl Oiffurerdiol Element We choosethe differential element shor.n and.find the total area of the ftgure.

d:[ae:l ,o.:[5r :13:1",: +
The ffrst moment of the differential element with respect to the y axis is i"1 ilAi hence, the ffrst moment of the entire area with respect to this axis is

240

rv(,

t u 1 1* n i l t t 7 : V

( z\l(' - \ r : I )161116

\r"/L\l

/

)

7xrt6 : v
16: r

-

\

r

,
'6

('\I

L I'b /

.plorl o^eq o,\\ ,Sg.S .Bl.{ o1 Euu"reSag -ua: sll ,{q pa1a,te4 acuetsrpeqt pup cre arll 3o qfual o1 1".pora "q1 3o ".p pnbe sr pale-reue8 Bare eqt ,snurpp3-snddea 3b 1 -"rb"q1 o1 B.rroro""y

.

-

-

_

"

.

.

1

'srxe e Iecruo e lnoq€ cr€ relncrrc_rapenb Buqelor .(q rw\\orlsuolln[o^Jt pJur€lqosr rlJrr{1!\ Jo JJe#ns Jw Jo eerBJrl] JulrurJ]ec

?"8 W3?808d 3?dtfifvs
;t;,1';:;:;;.;,;,.)::;;1L;;;111;11);1,;:1a:1;:':.;:,.::,::::::t:jili

n- =0

o uys,-t6 : (nr.6)x. elrra a,tr '7r : hfl ecurg n uls : z16 : ";lg urs]u-r o-r o-r r o"0 -_ 0p0soc | tep"i.)(psoc'l) | : lp, | : oJ oJ J "t sr srn 6 eql ol lcedser {}-r.ll. orp Jo lueurour lsrL} aql c.re
x

op"=-r&

- n r 6 : 0 'pl r : e p " l : W l | t " : pJ oJ J
'uope,r8elur .{q peuru;alep sr crt aqt 3o qrBual eq} pu€ 'u,\\oqs sB uasoqc sr }uaurola '0 : 6 'srr"e eql o1 r lcadser qll.^ IBJulru[u,{s sr cre arll JruIS V IelluereJJrp

'-[

sistt{?1{}s
'rr \or{s olcrrc Jo cre ar{l Jo plol}uec orl} Jo uoqecol eq} eulurJelec

$"9$t:nTgsud 3?dwvt
l'l.ll:ll!:,l':,::.:::;:'::l;:l::::...'::::!:|.)|::.::.::|;.|:.:|;:i|.:;

400m 20 rnm

The outside diameter of a pulley is 0.8 m, and the crosssection of its rim is as shown. Knowins that the pulley is made of steel and that the density of steel is p : 7.35 x io3 kgm3, ieteimine the massand the weight of the rim'

---f-] l-*l* oo 20 mm

__L
60 mm

I

I
SOLTJTION
The volume of the rim can be found by applFng Theorem II of PappusGuldinus, which states that the volume equals the product of the given areaand the distancetraveledby its centroid in one complete cross-sectional revolution. However, the volume can be more easily determined if we observethat the cross section can be formed from rectangle I, whose area is positive, and rectangle II, whose area is negative'
Distance Traveled by C, mm

-*ltoo'"* lr roT"'ir.;---'=lT--

'

|

l

:'

I
375 mm
365 mm

l
-i' ,:

I t
t

I

Area, mme

Volume, mm3

= (5000)(2356) 11.78x 106 2n(375) : 2356 : 2n(365) : 2293 (-1800x229s) -4.13 x 106 Volumeof rirn : 7.65 x 106 : Since 1 mm : 10-3 m, we have I mm3 : (10-3 m)3 10-e m3, and rye ob7 : ( 7 . 6 5x 1 0 6 ) ( 1 0 - e m i:) . 6 5 x l 0 - 3 m 3 . ,5''v-: i.os x 106mm3 x m : 60,0kg 4 m : pv: (7.85x 103kg/m3)(7,65 10-3m3) : : trtr/ 5iJ9N 'q : mg: (60.0kgXo.SirrVs'9) 589 kg ' m/s2 w

{.::i.'

5.8 PROBLEf{I sA't'TPLE
Using the theorems of Pappus-Guldinus,determine (a) the centroid of a semi;ircular area,(b) the centroid of a semicircular arc. We recall that the volume and the surfacearea of a sphere ate tnra and 4nf , respectively'
-,. . : . , . j . ) . . . . . . : : :. : . : t : ; : 1 1 , : . ..:

soruiloN
The volume of a sphere is equal to the -product of the area of a semicircle and the distance traveled by the centroid of the semicircle in one revolution about the r axis.

V:2riA
L=rr

3rrr3:2rryrlnr2) ":* i

#
,7Tl

Likewise, the area of a sphereis equal to the product of the length of the generatinq semicircle and the distancetraveled by its centroid in one revolution. A : 2nAL 4nra : 2rg(trr)
AI

.4.4

242

tvz
'EJJP

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5.34 threugh 5,36

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express your answer in terms of a and h.

q=mx

F_A_______tl

.*L
Fig. P5.35
tZ

.r/

,/ ;:,:
ll=kxz

II
h

Fig. P5.34

Fig. P5.36

5.37 fhrough 5"Sg Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.

a + r a2 b2

t

"

,

l
Fig. P5.39

Fig. P5.37

5,4O crnd 5.4I

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the

'l

li

", -

l.t*

^\t

I

Fig. P5.41

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'plorluec

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6
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$VC suetqord 'qpve o 'u^\oqs eere Jo sruJal uI ro,^sue .rno.{sse.rdxg aqt Jo plorluec eqt uorl€r8alur lcarrp lq euruualaq vtr'g ?rtrl g?.g 'u.t\or{s€arp eql Jo plorluec aql uoper8e}ul lcerrp ,,{qeurur;eleq gj'g 246 Forces: Centroids ond Cenlers Distributed of Grovify 5.50 Determine the centroid of the area shown when a : 2 in. is 9. 5.51 Determine the value of a for which the ratio ili 5.52 Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the area of Prob. 5.1 about (a) the line x : 240 mm, (b) the y axis. 5.53 Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the area of Prob. 5.2 about (a) the line y : 60 mm, (b) the y axis. Fig. P5.50 ond P5.5I 5.54 Determine the volume and the surfaceareaof the solid obtainedby rotating the area of Prob. 5.8 about (a) the x axis, (b) the y axis. 5.55 Determine the volume of the solid generatedby rotating the parabolic area shown about (a) the r axis, (b) the axis AA'. 5.56 Determine the volume and the surface area of the chain link shown, which is made from a 6-mm-diameter bar, if R : 10 mrn andL:30mm. l-. Fig. P5.56 for 5.57 Verify that the expressions the volumes of the first four shapes in Fig. 5.21 on page 260 are correct. 5.58 A f-in.-diameterhole is drilled in a piece of 1-in.-thicksteel;the hole is then countersunkas shown. Determine the volume of steel removed during the countersinking process. 5,59 Determine the capacity, in liters, of the punch bowl shown if R : 250 mm. Fig. P5.58 Fig. P5.59 g9'9d'5H 'u^\or{s uoqcosssorccrloqeredeql seq I leq} 8uI^\oDI .epuqs oqlJo eplslnooqlJo eore aceJrns aulturaleq 'crlse1d eqt Juacnlsuer] \ Jo laoqs uql € Luo$ paurroJsl tqd{ p3}unour-llB B roJ op€qsarlJ gg.f * 'els?,r\seluocaq lBql lo^\op eql .3uo1.ur Jo erunlo^ Frtrq aq] 3o a8rluacred oql aurruroloq 7 puB relelllerp q 'ul I Ie.Aope urorJ peurnl sr u,^^oqs 8ed uepoo,nr, arlJ ?g.s

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248

Cenhoidsond Centers Forces: Distributed of Grovity

The concept of the centroid of an area can be used to solve other thosedealing*ith the weightsoJ fl?t plaGs.conproblemsbesides 'sider, for example,a beam t.rppottittg a distributed load; this load may consistof the *"igftt of materialssJpported directly or indirectly by be the beam, or it rn"ay causedby wrnd or hydrostaticpressure.The distributed load can be representedby plotting the load u, supported in per unit leneth (Fie. 5.17);this load is-expressed N/m or in lb/ft' 'the on an element of beam of length masnit;de of tf,e force exerted d.xis dfr : u dx, and the total load supportedby the beam is

B

x

(a)

w:l'

u; dx

We observethat the product u; dx is equal i1 magnitude to the element of areadA sho*n in Fig. 5.I7a.the load W is thus equal in magnitude to the total area A under the load curye:

w:ldA:A
(b) Fig. 5.17

loadW, of trre We now determine where a single concentrated W as the total distributed load, should be applied same magnitude on the bJam if it is to produce the samereactionsat the supports load W, which represents,the (Flg. 5.I7b). However,tlis concentrated the given distributed loa&ng, is equivalentto the loading of resrll1xnt the only when considering free-bodydiagramof the entire beam.The loadW is obtained point of upplicationP of the equivalentconcentrated that the moment of W about P91"t O is^equalto the fy "*pt"rtitg rnrn of the ioments of the elementalloadsdW about O:

: (oP)w

t

Jxdw
. I

or, since dW : w dx : dA andW : A,

( oP) A_ J; o x d A

(5.r2)

shown Photo 5.3 The roofsof the buildings mustbe oble to supportnot only the totol weight disiributed of the snow but olso lhe nonsymmefric from driftingof lhe snow. loods resulting

Since the integral representsthe first moment with respectto-the u; axis of the area ,rnder the load curve, it can be replaced by the oroduct rA. We therefore have OP : r, where r is the distance irom the r,rlaxisto the centroid C of the areaA (thls is nof the centroid of the beam). A distributed load on a beam can thus be replaced by a conof centrated load; the magni,tude thl's si'ngleload is equal to the area through the cenund.erthe load curne, and lts li,neof action passes area.It should be noted, however,that the concentrated troid of that load is equivalent to the given loading only as far as external forces .on""ired. It can be used to determine reactionsbut should not "r" used to compute internal forces and deflections. be

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;,-ii'n,\,
rf \= 1500N/ill

S A ' $P L EP R S B L T & I . ? 5 A beam supports a distributed load as shown. (a) Determine the equivalent at concentrated load. (b) Determine the reactions the supporls. ;- / 4.5kN/m I ssruT;oru c. Squivalent Co*centrafed Lcad" The magnitude of the resultant of the load is equal to the area under the load cuwe, and the line of action of the resuJtant-passes through the centroid of the samearea.We divide the area under the load curve into two triangles and construct the table below. To simplif' the computations and tabulation. the given loads per unit length have been convertedinlo kN/m. A, KN Triangle I Triangle II f,m r A ,k N ' m I ZiA : 63 4.5 r3.5 )A : 18.0 2 + L8k\ Thus, X)a :ZiA: X(tA t N) : 63kN ' m x::.s* W : 1fi ]<;'r" J The equivalent concentrated load is and its line of action is located at a distance 7 : :].8 rn ta the riS-* at A 4.5kN 13.5 iiN .i T-----q- ---w t f 8-- * E - - wY - - ' af by b, Reccfions. The reaction A is r erticaland is denoted A: the reacfion at B is representedby its componentsB, and Br. Ihe given load can be consideredto be the sum of two triangular loads as shown.The resultant of triangleand actsat its centroid, eachtriangular load is equalto the area-ofthe We write the following equilibrium equations for the free body shown: i)r":0: +\ )Ma : 0: +\ xM, : s. s':0 -(4.5 kNX2m) - (13.5 kNXam) + By(6m) : 0 3" : l8'5 i<Ni' +(4.5kNX4m) + (13.5 kNX2m) - 4(6 m) : 0 A:7.5kN? ? A.lt*rszre*ic.e The given distributed load can be replaced by its Stsluti,*sEz" resultant, which was found in part a. The reactionscan be determined by writing the equilibrium equations )f, : O, 2Ma: 0, and )Ms : 0. We a{ain obtain &, =,'tJ : Sry l{1.5kN'l A:7.5kNt .4 250 t9( 7"::,,,,X'ir:A {i[ Q!i9'6i * X : ,:l ,i ,,t, ,, :elrsoddopue pnbe sl JA ar"J aql uo rele.,neql lq x B pauaxa sacJoJ aqlJo U luellnsar aqJ .p_aururratop ars H_ yo uorlca.,rp p,re, .l-l{--------*-7 --.# spnlluiEtu eq] q_cF{,r\ uro$ u.e\erp a13ueu1 sr ecroJv.d pu€ rzt{;o p uoa qt,gg.zr=" *rY". , "";;;=; -Jrsrr.)ur lurod eqt q8no.rq+ nsessed g- ';urrrn""ro, ,q lrn,u irrrn3 10 q=

.i : i

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I i I

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problems.in ]essoninvolve two_commonand very important g,pes ot' T|" loading: fis I distributed loads on beamsand forces on s.tb*eiged^surfaces tf stantwidth. As we discussed Secs. and 5.9 and illustratedIn Sampleprobs-5.g "orrin 5.8 5 19,determining the singleequivalentforce for eachof theseload'ings r"q"rr", iidknowledge a ol' centroids. l. Anclyzing heoms rubiected |o dis*ibuied locds. In sec. 5.8, we showed that a distributed load on a beam can be replaced by a single equivalent force. The magnitude of this force is equal to the aiea ,rndei the d[tributed load curve and its line of action passesthrough the centroid of that area. Thus, yo" ,r.o"rJ begin your solution by replacing th'e various distributed loads on a grven beam by their.respective singleeqtti"aletitforces.The reactions the supports the beam at of can then be determinedby using the methodsof Chap. 4. possible, complex distributed loads should be divided into the commonfvhen shapeareasshownin Fig. 5.BA fsample prob. 5.9]. Each of theseareascan then be replaced by a single-equivalent force. If required, the system of equivalent forces can be reduced fu.rtter to a singleequivient force. As you study Sample Prob. 5.9, note how we have used the"analogy betrveenforce'und t'h" "r"u "rrd techniques for locating the centroid of a com"posite area to analyzea beam subjected to a distributed load.

points and techniquesshould be rememberedwhen rJ,ritrg problems of this tlpe: o. The pressurep ^t,^ depth h below the free surfaceof a liquid is equarto , yh or pgh, where 7 and p are the speci{ic weight and the density of the iiquid, respectively. The load per unit length-toacting oi a submergedsurfaceof "onr'tuni width b is then u:bp:byh:bpgh

2" sclring proLlerns jnr:l"i*s forceson-suhmerged bedies.The following

b" the line of action of the resultant force R acting on a submerged plane surfaceis pelpendicular to the surface. c. For a vertical or inclined plane rectangular surfaceof width b,the loading on the surfacecan be rep:esentedby a linearly distributed load which is trapezoil dal in shape(Fig. 5.18).Further, the magnitudeof R is given by

n : lh"e
where hu is the vertical distance to the center of the surface and A is the area of the surface.

2,s2

egt,

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(b) the reactions at the beam supports. Parabola 7"' -rf1a1\ott\,1, f00\'n,_+_++_j" -dLrfu l__+_ ____! Fig. P5.66 Fig. P5.67 5.68 tlrrough Determine 5.73 for the given loading. the reactions at the beam supports '1E0 ]b/fi A [in - { {\,-t-tire* I { { I i : _:*: D "* cs' I I u* t t t f.-rr,_-l.-6ft_# f\ -*fi-:f-i.i(x)lr,/rt l Fis. P5.68 Fig. P5.69 200lb/lt 1200 N/rn Fig. P5.7O Fig. P5.71 Fig. P5.72 Fig. P5.73 254 l8'9d '6!t o8'9d '6!t 'urep aql Jo Cg eceJeq+ uo rele \ eq] lq pal-raxesecro3arnsserd eq] Jo tuel1nsoreql (c) 'o yed Jo lu€{nsar eql Jo uor}ecrldde 3o 'utep eql lurod eq] (g) Jo gy es€q eql uo puno.r8eqr lq pauoxa secroJ uollcBor aq] Jo +u€llnsor aql (D) aururrolop uorlcas tllep app\-u-T e rod 'uaoqs s€ sl III€p olarcuoc e Jo uollces ssorc erIJ 1g.g 'urep aql Jo Cg oceJor{} uo ro}e.^a dq pepexe socroJe"rnsserd eqt or{} Jo tu€}Fser oql (c) 'o yed Jo }uet1nsoreql Jo uor}€crldde go '*ep erl] lurod eqt (q) Jo gv eseq eql uo punor8 eqt lq pepexa socroJ uollc€er oql Jo ]u€{nsal aql (r) oururJo}apuorlcas urep oPI.4A-ur-I rod 'u1v\oqs sI IUBPolarcuoc e Jo uorlces ssolc eqJ, O8'g s€ € i.,{lnuep s1rua,tr8Fr.r;l?eur u.;o gq8ie,r cglceds eq] eupu;slsp o] ^\oq rc1 VV6 atsrd. uo rlorrtoo+ ;rS) alar.]uor3o^.i11suap ioJ rqi rrll : 'd prre x "ur73>i.01 0i, c '$l!un r{11:,lypasn s}mn ralp.^tqsar:;.lo .$1sul;p ro3 aqtr a.ru 1g ,.0I : d asn 'S'jf .,{-rerirolsnc .t} a}orruoc 1o"trr,r&1agi;ads aq} ro3 ig/ql 0!I : A pul?.ro1rr,ll iq3r;,u rgrcads orll ro.; ttJ/\I?'Tg: I esn 'suralqo"rd qsarjjo 1q31anr ar1] 3ur,eo11t5 u1 8l'9d'6!t v31 v tt gd Puo 9t 9d .6tt N)t08 N)lt6 -r uu-] yl sw 'so?Joenp,\ Surpuodserroc (q) 'urlpl eql ro3 06 : vrn qc1q,u, z ecuBtsrp aqt (a) eugualap 'gl,'g 'qord Jo buroeolpue urEeqeq] ro.{ 6l'5 ) t u'dH w ly(il 09r 'urnrrqllnbo o1 Sulpuodse JJocscnpue voryo senle eql ^lreeu{ € suoxa }eq} aururrolocl 'u.{\oqss€ p€ol pft.{\on pe}nqrJ}srp er{J Al'g IIos uo slser pue speol pol€rluocuoc o.4] slroddns gV :rrrcoq 'i) lE uollc€ar arl] Surpuodser.roc (g) 'orez sgg ls uopceer eI{} qclq/t\ roJ ClJgv ureoq oql Jo g puo erll te 0m peol pelnqrrlsrp eql (o) eul:utrcleq 1gg '].}/ql 0SI : orn ueqnt3u! -peo1ue.trBeq] roJ slroddns ureeq eql l€ suollceer eql eurtureJe1 gtg 'slroddns erl] l€ suopceerSurpuodsarroc eql (q) 'urnurrurur sr g poddns Je uorlceer eql ler{} os 2 acuelsrp aql (a) eurure]ee g1.g g4.gd pun tZ.ga.6U -i --l [,G uiiN 008I 'sl.roddns 'pnbe ere g pue y sgod eql lB suollcee.rSurpuodserrocaq] (q) -dns 1e suollceer l€cruol or{l lerll os 2 ecu€lslp eql (a) eururre1ee Vl'S 992 su€tqord 256 Cenhoidsond Centers Forces: Distributed ot (,rovrry 5.82 The 3 x 4-m side AB of a tank is hinged at its bottom A and is held in place by a thin rod BC. The maximum tensile force the rod can'withstand without breaking is 200 kN, and the design specificationsrequire the force in the rod not to exceed20 percent ol this value. If the tank is slowly {illed with water, determine the maximum allowable depth of water d in the tank. T C s.83 The 3 Fig. P5.82 ond P5.83 x 4-m side of an open tank is hinged at its bottom A and is held in place by a thin rod BC. The tank is to be filled with glycerine,whose density is 1263 kg/m'. Determine the force T in the rod and the reactions at the hinge after the tank is filled to a depth of 2.9 m. 5.84 The friction force between a 6 X 6-ft square sluice gate AB and its guides is equal to l0 percent of the resultant of the pressure forces exertedby the water on the face of the gate. Determine the initial force needed to Iift the gate if it weighs 1000 Ib. 5.85 A freshwater marsh is drained to the ocean through an automatic tide gate that is 4 ft wide and 3 ft high. the gate is held by hinges located along its top edge at A and bears on a sill at B. If the water level in the marsh is h : 6 ft, determine the ocean Ievel d for which the gate will open. (Specific weight of salt water : 64 lb/ft'.) Fig. P5.84 5.86 The dam for a lake is designedto withstand the additional force causedby silt that has settledon the lake bottom. Assumingthat silt is equivalent to a liquid of density p, : 1.76 X I0" kg/m' and considering a 1-m-wide section of dam, determine the percentage increasein the force acting on the dam face for a silt accumulation of depth 2 m. Fig. P5.85 lig. P5.86 and P5.87 5.87 'the baseof a dam for a lake is designedto resist up to 120 percent of the horizontal force of the water. After construction,it is found that silt (that is equivalentto a liquid of densityp, : 116 x 103kg/m3) is settling on the lake bottom at the rate of 12 mm/year.Considering a l-m-wide section of dam, determine the number of years until the dam becomesunsafe. 0.27 I 0.45 -T A l 0.48 5.88 A 0.5 X 0.8-m gateAB is located at the bottom of a tank filled with water. The gate is hinged along its top edge A and rests on a frictionless stoD at B. Determine the reactions at A and B when cable BCD is slack. 5.89 A 0.5 x 0.8-m gateAB is located at the bottom of a tank filled with water. The gate is hinged along its top edge A and rests on a frictionless stop at B. Determine the minimum tension required in cable BCD to open the gate. 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258

Forces: Centroids Centers ond 3i.3|o1i,i

5.I O CENTER GRAVITY A THREE-DIMENSIONAL OF OF BODY. CENTROID A VOLUME OI
The,center of graoity G ol a three-dimensional body is obtained by divlding the body into small elements and by then expressing that the weight W of the body acting at G is equivalent to the system of distributed forces AW representing the weights of the small elements. Choosing the y aris to be vertical with positive sense upward (Fig. 5.20) and denoting by i the position vector of G, we write that
Photo 5.4 To predictthe flightchorocferistics of the modified Boeing 747 when used to tronsport spoceshutile. centerof grovityof o the eoch croft hod to be determined.

vt

!

A1'\ -

Alllj

II'J
7 z

Fig. 5.2O W is equal to the sum of the elemental weights AW and that its moment about O is equal to the sum of the mornents about O of the elemental weights:

)F:

-wj : >(-Arvj)

(-AWj)] )Me: Fx (-Wj) :)[rx Rewritingthe last equation the form in iW x (-jl : ()r Aw) x (-j)

(5.14)

(5.r5)

we observethat the weight W of the body is equivalentto the system of the elementalweightsAW if the following conditionsare satisfied: W:>LW iW:)rAW Increasingthe number of elementsand simultaneously decreasing the sizeof each element,we obtain in the limit

w:Iaw iw:l,o*

(5,16)

We note that the reiations obtained are independent of the orientation of the body. For example,if the body and the coordinate axes were rotated so that the e axis pointed upward, the unit vector -j would be replacedby -k in Eqs. (5.14)and (5.15),but the relations (5.16)would remain unchanged. Resolving vectorsi and r into the rectangularcomponents, note that the secondof the relations we (5.16)is equivalentto the three scalarequations

iw:l.o*

iw = ) a d w

(

zw--lzdw

l

(5.17)

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sh
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silsosrrFod$Jo)11'9 "- : : - " " "; ; : ' : ' : . a ' ' ' : " " : J ' : SATYIPIE PROBLEfr,i I 5.I Determine the location of_the center of gravity of the homogeneousbody of revolution shown, which was obtained by joining a hemiiphere and a cylinder and carving out a cone. SOLUTIOI-l Becalse of symmetry tle center of gravity lies on the r axis.As shown in the ffgure below, the body can be obtained by adding a hemisphere to a cylinder and then subtracting a cone. The volume and the absdssaof the centroid of each of these componentsare obtained from Fig. 5.21 and are entered in the table below. The total volume of the bodv and the first moment of its volume with respectto the y.:,plane are then determined,. ,l ,l j { O O m - t= 2 2 . 5 m m 50 mm Co Hemisphere Cylinder Cone Volume, mm3 I /,+ i, mm iV, mma -Y.v 5 0.4524x106 i;roor3: : 1.1310x106+50 ?-(60)'z(r00) - , ( 0 o r - r r o o r - 0 . 3 7 7x t 0 6 0 : )V= 1.206x106 - 1 0 . 1 8x 1 0 6 +56.55x 106 -28.28 x 106 )iV:+18.09x106 Thus, X>v: >;v X(I.ZOOx 106mm3) - 18.09 X 106mma X-15rnni 4 262 e94 'r1I 8I9"I 'ilI CtCG"at* L 'ut ltg'0 * ; _ " -_; ,\ :A.ZK: LKZ_ rut 999'8: (€ui986'9)2 L?0'9- : (errggZ'g),t ,A4K: AKL vvr rut 8i0'e : (€q 9BG'9)X :A{K : AKX .snt[J ss9'8: AlK 1fr0's- : L-K t6t'0 '0 86e 888'I rul 'A 870'e : AIK g T cc q7o. : 9BZ'9 AK 68g'0VLT'I868'0 96I'0I 860'0860'06II'6 96I'I vu'l'Ax 92',0 q6',Z 'ut'z 9ZO 887t'I 96'0 'UI .J #I,AZ II8878'0I'ur L 6 6 t ' o - : ( S O ) u { S O ; . ' , - AI III L66t'0-: (90)r(90)aII I r/9'r : (s'\rlar\ 9'r : (9'0x6xg'7) rul'^ irrs6o- Arc,rlrc.rc -T 'u] I I t7 uIl 'seuElct eleurproocerF Jo rlcEe01 lceoser qll^\ eunlo^ eql Jo sluaruou aql puE alunlo lBlol oql oururralapuaql a^\ 'olq€} aql uI €l€p eql EuIsO '.t\oleqelqBl eq] uI parelue eff pup paulturelep eft lueuoclwoc qc€e '(1I pus III) s.repurtlc Jo plorluec aq] Jo seteurproocaql pue eunlo^ eql Suncertqnsueql put (II) repuulc ralrenb e o1 (1) ped releu€rp-'ur-1 o,Lr1 -ide1a1e"red e reln8uelca"r Suppe lq peurulqo eq u€c ]ueruala eulqc€ur erlJ .".ffi, uI 9'0 + NOltnl0s r z 'uI I q alor{ r{cBa Jo ral -dur€p or{J 'u \oqs }uauldlJ autllJeul 3o [ar]s aI{} Jo 'Q1nur8 raluer aq} el€ro'l Yl'g wrr80ud rldwvs ' r : . " g**tPlf png**-Ffvl 5"13 Determine the location of the centroid of ihe half right circular cone snown. - - j : : : : : - . . . . . : . : . . . j . . : . - : : : " : . . : : . . : : : . . . : . . ' . . . : . . . j . . . . . : : . . : . . . : . : . . : : . . . . - - . 'i s{}*,1rT*#*{ Since the xg plane is a plane of symmetry the centroid lies in this plane and a : 0. A slab of thicknessdr is chosen as a differential element. The volume of this element is 4y : )rr2 dx -y"i The coordinates i,1_and ol the centroidol'the elementare obtained from Fig. 5.8 (semicirculararea). rot : x - 3 !/"t : f 4r ^i We obserye that r is proportional to x and write r a ;: i The volume of tJrebody is | , h r h a ': i* r : - v : I dv--I' f,,' tr : l" i,(?r\ or: T6 ' Jr Jo' \h / J The moment of the differential element with respect to the ya plane is ia d.V; the total moment of the bodywith respect to this plane is lh /o \r, : lh : o o. r h t ) : I 7x I x " t d v J o x ( ! r r 2 d r J or ( j z ) ( n / I d x I d \ J I Thus. / ' i :l *v *",av ,+: + plane is g"1dV: the lolal moment is f- c* j* .,1 h Likewise. the moment of the differential element with respect to the ar lirdv L Thus, : o lh4r, e\, : 2lh/o\'. : - -3 ' I n 3o 'T r 2 r r ' ) t l x 3 J | (1;, x / l d r 7 o \ 6 L iv : Ii",av 264 ' na'h 6 6 oth ' {i , ? i . 99L 'Ap plorluecarpJo saleurprooD ara noi aq+ (t6'g'sbg ur /': pue 'P4'p.y1ur11 Jo 'alnduroc pulurer.ure8ua.tt ,{ltn.rt.q ol o^r?rl fltu no,{ spr8alur atp 5o ,Qxaldrnocaq] .{pcaripru \ (Sf g 'qor4 elduresur r pue r rroe^qeqdn1suoile1al e{r[) solq€ al+ 1ce33e -uEAarl] Suouteqsrrqelse no.{ 1eq}dlqstroqeler ltrll -roqusureJo1lueyoduri sr 1r eq} 'flerls 'qor4 alduregur se)qelsuq} E eq.'(erusrq} le.te,tro11 Ierupu{.{r urq] r: ro (g1'g 'uoqnio^er 'alnduroc ol +sersua are lrr11spr8alur elqnop .io a18urs aql Jo sapoq rog 'alqrssod eqt sacnpordrlrll.\\ .{q y 'Sud3puapr uoqnlos .rnoi ur8eq pporls Ap aqt 'Bl.{) qEIS no.{'snq1 'Ap allrnlo^ uFIt e rc (76'9 31g)lrreur Jo tualualerqt roJ (gZ'q -EIIJ ulql e rerlllo Sursooqc,{q pagqciurls uec (Af'q) 'rbS jo sp;Betureqt Supenp.ta aq '6I'g 'ces nr peurelclre "**a4**fu4zltry&*t*Xq sy saruergee €ffesals>eWfuWwZ "& *e VZK: V<Z Y4< : Y<,t V{K : VKX ot asec slql q ecnpe.r snq (16'9) suoqunbg 'e1u1d ue.tr8 p Jo eaie aqt q v ererp\ 'y1 'sbS lcnpold aqt qli \ pccrlda.r sr A rreq \ (tZ'g) Jo tno rotceJ II.rr!\s.llu1deql go 'q uuo{nm ?nns aLpp sa1oyd / sseDlJrql eLp,'ssau:p!LL+ llraaas Jo apeur ,{poq e rod TZK: TKZ il< : I<I 7{K : 7KX ot esEcslql ut ecnpe-rsnql (IZ'g) suorlenbg 'tueurele_ ue,rr8r 3o ql8ue1 eql sl T a.raq,\\'7y lcnpord aq+ rllp\ pecelder sr A uoqa (tf'g) 'sbS Jo lno rolcp,JIII \ s+uouroleorl\\ eql Jo y r?orelurrollces-ssorcoLIl'uo!+ 4as' ssoJl uuottun alLtosaql Jo slLLauap alroT lDranas'Joap€Lu,{poq e -rod "* 'lelrel€Lrrarues aql urro,ygurl saJI.\\uIJo.]Iun.Iaqlla ro Jo apr?ursa1e1d +o Tonads o3r? 1tstl] elou e'11 Jo slsrsuoJ fpoq ue,rr8 eql uerl \ ,rncco +se"reluL sasr)e 'alcrrJ rJ+l?rrh e jo illorluec eq] roJ srroq -enba eql Sursn parrrelqo ala,{\ .rapur1.,{c ralrenb arl} Jo pioJlual eql Jo sa}BurpJooD no( s€ 'oslv 'salpoq alrsod f pur: r aql ^\oq a.lrasqo '6I'9 'qord aldureg .,(pn1s -uroc Surzl,pue ueq,r\ solqe+ Ilue suru-r8urpeler"rdorddr lcnrlslror o1 rro.,(aFerrtocua .{13uor1s uru8e ecuo a.u 'snrlJ lecr]uepl o,re suralqord leuorstreurlp-corq] pu€ -o,\\l -ro.Iuoqnlos Jo spoqlaur arp 'altrlsnllI ZI'g prrr? [I'g 'sqord aldureg Jo suor]nlos eq+ sV 'reldeqc oql ul rorlrea pe-reprsuocsruelqord 1luolsuetulp-o,\\l aq] ro1 posn suorlenbe oq] lo Lrorsualxa ,Lldurrse.re suorlenba asaql +Eq] ezlleor plnoqs notr ue (r6'9) A."7 1r:.\ _ A7'7 1r.\z AII111-\ _ A7 I ./r-\-\ A\'7 1r::\ _ A'7V lr\^ :(16'9) 'sbg Sursnpelecol aq osluutc {poq aq} Jo {1rtr:"r8 rotuoc Jo aql 'asec prcads slrlt roJ 'oroJe"raql'aunloo s4t pro4uoo oql rllp\ seplculor .{o e ,{poq eql 3o ,Qr,ter8 relrier eqt 'l)poq snoaua7outorl Jo rsec aq} ro3 le.te,trog Jo (06'9) :Pesn eq qsnur "g (96'9)'sbg'prauaBuI '6*irry-&a*&*&e3g* &Az'r"x& &*xa*41*e3*r"q*xg*,w3 '}uaurlJ 'esuc p.reua8eql o] peqddeeq oslt .{eur- t1a l€uorsueurp-eerq+ 'sedeqsuotuuror olur '(poq et11 3u1ppr1p llrercgJr tsour eql Sursooqc IBriuareJJIp '.(r1aurur.{s Sursn-sarpoq luuorsuaulp-o^q .IoJ passnJslp.{lsnoltard e.u senbru 'settlnlo^ -qce] oql eql rreql Jo splo"rluor ro selpoqlEuolsuerurp-rrrtll JoxJo IIv erll ilr,ter8Jo s-reluec elucolol pe{se eq ilpl\ no,{'uosselslq} roJ suLelqord u$ eql

A\ZK: X\KZ

A\4K :,4\KI

,4\IK : A\KX

.{tr f %ttrf }ffi{*:r{4 ffi{ f 6 ,3ff*%

5.96

Determine the location of the centroid of the composite bodv shown when (a) h : 2b, (b) h : 2.5b.

'

t,\l

,4*_[t\o=_

Fig. P5.96 5.97 Determine the y coordinate of the centroid of the body shown.

Fig. p5.97 ond p5.98 5"98 Determine the a coordinateof the centroid of the bodv shown. (Hint: IJsethe result of Sampleprob. 5.13.) 5.99 The compositebody shown is formed by removing a semieilipsoid of revoiution of semimajor axis h and semiminoiaxis a/2 fim a hemisphere of radius a. Determine (a) the r7 coordinate of the centroid when h : a/2, (b) the ratio h/a for -hi"h 7 : -0.4a.

Fig. P5.99

'u^\oqs urroJ or{t l€taur-leeqs Jollr.rer8Joratueceql etecoT tOL,g pug ggl.g

rol'gd '6!r

901'9d'6!r

'llr,ter8 tOt'gd puo ggl'96 '6;1

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Jo reluec

uJtJJn,z

uJrrr9z
/

'6;1 lOt'gd puo gg1'94

(;
(lrur 09

l*-16

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l9Z

suatqord

268

Forces: Centroids centers ond 31.3|of#

5"!Og A wastebasket,designed to fit in the corner of a room, is 16 in. high and has a basein the shapeof a quarter circle of radius l0 in. Locate the center of gravity of the wastebasket, knowing that it is made of sheet metal of uniform thickness.

Fig. P5.r08 $-lQg A mounting bracket for electronic components is formed from sheet metal of uniform thickness. Locate the center of gravity of the bracket. ",rffi. o.ruK.. 5"?lC A thin sheetofplastic ofuniform thickness bent to form a desk is organizer. Locate the center of gravity of the organizer. ,l (' ';i:' ')t;,J,,-.-r\ ( 3 30mm / \ r=6mm r=6mm r=6mm Fig. P5.lI0 eO ^rf, x etr'gd '6t! Jo 'sseu{ciql urroJlun sl rlclq.{\ 'lBlelu leerls elues eql uorJ peler Jo -IJqeJeJo,{\slcnp oql 1eq1Sugatoul 'pel€crpur se paurol aq o] ol€ lcnp r€ln8u€lce|ur-g X p e pue lcnp lecrrpurl,{J rJtrruprp- uf g uy Sl t,E dlquresse eql;o llr,ter8 raluac eql elr?col zlr'gd'6!l .,{\oqlo arl] Jo AI^€ri Jo ralu€c aql olEcoT 'ssau)lcrql urroJrun Jo pnP er{l roJ .{\oqla uv g i [.9 lE]etrl ]eeqs Jo epr?ul sr ue]s^s tsu4€lrlue E Jo llt'gd'6!t uIC7=J 692 suetqoid '8uru.Lre erl] Jo .{lr^€r8Jo raluec aql elecoT 'sseu -{clql urroJlun lelaur }aoqs luo41paleclrqeJsr Suru.tte ^\opurl\ V 111'g Jo Distributed 270 or (,rovrry Forces:Centroidsond Centers 5.114 A thin steelwire of uniform crosssection is bent into the shape shown. Locate its center of gravity. Fig. P5.lt4 5.1t5 ond 5,116 Locate the center of gravity of the figure shown, knowing that it is made of thin brass rods of uniform diameter. ,l 'l^ 30in. I ,: "\ Fig. P5.ll5 Fig. P5.tt6 ( 5ft I z ru ,w#^ 7 x ,l ffi 5.117 The frame of a greenhouseis constructed from uniform aluminum channels.Locate the center of gravity of the portion of the frame shown. 5.118 A scratch awl has a plastic handle and a steel blade and shank. Knowing that the density of plastic is 1030 kg/m3 and of steel is 7860 kg/m", locate the center of gravity of the awl. -l['o*80 ____J mm 3.5 mm Fig. P5.l1 {.-_ Fis. P5.ll8 97t'gd'6lJ 921'9d '6H IW lZl'gd '6!t x l r-.t___-__l I 'slx€ x oql lnoq€ €ar€ popeqs aql EUI -tetor lq pourElclo olunlo^ orllJo plorluac oql alecoT 921"9 PUP 921'9 'uorlnlo^ar ploloqeredv Jo uorlnlo^erJo plosd{lelrrlosv areqdsuleq Y tu t's gg1'E A7,Z'g 'rq8t"q lenbe 3o saurn eql asuq^oqlol pue adeqs 10^ o.^l olur edeqsaq+sap1.tlp '8r,q ue.r,13 3^o 'II'F 3o adeqsue,u8 aql q8norqr lelpred sr eueld Surpnc^eq1, ,{q eueld Surpnc I€crue^ e Burssed paurelqo seurnlol o,tl} eql roJ r Jo sanle^ or{} uolter8e}ul tcerrp lq eurturelaq ttrl'g q5no*q* eet'S rutu 086 = r. 'alqel oq] 3o l1rcr8 Jo raluec orll olecol rq} }Ptll sr j-l8l OO1Z sse13 pup c./3{ OgSl st lrr}s 3o ,{lrsuap Jo 'l,1a,rr;;edsa"r'uur puB ulru bur,,vrouy 009 Jre dol rlqEl rtllJo ssJu 0l -{crql e oq} Pu€ roleul€Ip eql '6urul 09I Jo Eo-re l€uol}ces-ssorc pue 'tsu1qn1 LrLLr p relaru€Ip aplslno uB seq qcrq,t\ IoolsJo epetu er€ VZ p.r" pecedsllenbe er€ olqet peddol-ssu18 IIEurseJo s8el aerql er{J 121"9 ozt'gd '6tt 6lr'gd'5!J l uI0t0 Tt [-ril:;rI 'rul/ql g0t'0 : ss€rq :slqBra.tt cSlceds) ('"rtlql tOt'O : rrnurunle Jo$oq elsodruoc aq+3o .,{1r.ner8 ro}uac aql_ot€coT u1 7 qr8ual 'rBIIocsserq Y QEE'9 Jo por runururnleuB uo palunout sl "ul 9'6 qFualSo eql .,(lquresse 3o ,{1r,,re-r8 reluac arl} Jo uol}EcoleI{} eulluJa}ep Jo ' q azuorq tqBle.uc151cads 1o ,ylnt vgz'OsI IaelsJo pu€ eul/ql 8It'0 'enaels azuorqY 61['9 iql w r Sur.ttou;tr laals€ oprsulpolunorll sr Burqsnq

I
00 I
I

I

I

I

Ll(,

suotqord

272

Forces: Cenlroids ond Centers Dishibuted of Grovity

5.127

Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area about the line K : h.

tig. P5.127 *5.128 Locate the centroid of the volume generatedby revolving the portion of the sine curve shown about the r axis.

u=bsnF "// za

r{-

l;ik

F-a------r-"--4

ffi_i_

I

Fig. P5.128qnd P5.129 '5.129

Locate the centroid ofthe volume generatedby revolving the portion of the sine curve shown about the y axis. (Hint: Use a thin cylindrical shell of radius r and thickness dr as the element of volume.)

*5,130 Show that for a regular pyramid of height h and n sides (n = 3, 4, . . . ) the centroid of the volume of the pyramid is located at a distance h/4 abovethe base. 5.131 Determine by direct integration the location of the centroid of one-half of a thin, uniform hemisphericalshell of radius R. 5.132 The sidesand the baseof a punch bowl are of uniform thicknesst. If t << R and R : 250 mm, determine the location of the center of gravity of (a) the bowl, (b) the punch.

Fig. P5.t3l

Fig. P5.132

get'ga '6ll

tr.. t \
q

)x

z

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.e:[.ae ae:laae

(5.3)

Similarly, the determination of the center of gravity of a homngeneousu;ire of unifunn crosssection contained in a plane reducesto the determination of the centroicJC of the line L iepresenting the wire; we have

.r : f.ar or:laar

(5.4)

Finst ffimmenfs The integrals in Eqs. (5.3) are referred to as the first mamznts of the area A with respect to the y an! x axesand are denoted by Qo and Q,, respectively [Sec.5.4]. We have

Qr: iA

Q": YA

(5.6)

The ftrst moments of a line can be defined in a similar wav. Fropertier cf symm*fry The determination of the centroid C of an area or line is simplified when the area or line possesses certain properties of symmetry. lf the area or line is symmetric with respect to an axis, its centroid C

274

'ftr'g 'qora apueg] V eere eq] eulurretep o1 pasn oq osl€ uuc ]uotualo oruuseql :"fl pue hfl slueurour1srrJ Jo arp rpoq elndruoc ol €eJeJo lueurele errresar1 esn ol snoe8eluerrpe 11 sr

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v.p.! vz: no l:

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(e'q)

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!LZ,

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276

]'[|ofri

relatethe determination the of The theorems Pappus-Culdlrus of areaof a surface revolution the volumeof a bodyof revolution of or Theorennc Pcppus-suidinus the determination the centroidof the generating of to of curve0I AI0A
[Sec. 5.7]. The area A of tb.e surface 6-tt.it"d by 'i,tatirtg a cuNe

Forces: cenhoids centers ond

of lengthL abouta fixedaxrs (Fig.5,250) rs
A: 2riL (5.r0)

t--*

l \ -\-l- l
z"i \,,i
(a)

,rA=

where y representsthe distancefrom the centroid C ofthe curve to the fixed axis. Similarly, the volume V of the body generated by rotating an area A about a fixed axis (Fig. 5.25b) is

V :2rryA

(5.1r)

(b)

where y representsthe distancefrom the centroid C of the area to the fixed axis. The conceptof centroid of an areacan alsobe usedto solveproblems other than those dealingwith the weight of flat plates. For example, to determine the reactionsat the supportsof a beam [Sec.5,8],we can replace a distributed Loadw by a concentratedload W equal in magnitude to the areaA under the load curve and passingthrough the centroid C of that area (Fig. 5.26). The same approachcan be used to determine the resultantof the hydrostaticforces exertedon a rectangularplate submerged a liquid [Sec.5.9]. in

Fig. 5.25

Dirtribuledlosds

Fig.5.26 Cenler o* grcvity of s threedirnensionol bodv The last part of the chapter was devoted to the determination of the center of graai,ty G of a three-di,m,ensi,onal body. The coordinatesr, Z of G were defined by the relations a,

iw:l.o* iw:Jro* vw:l^o* (s.r7)
In the caseof a homngeneous body, the center of gravity G coincides Cenlroid nf s volunne with the centroid C ol the oolumi V of the body;1he coor&nates of C are defined by the relations

* v : l . a v v v : Ia a v z v : I z d , v

(5.1e)

If the volume possesses plane of sym:rnntry, centroid C will lie a its in that plane; if it possesses planesof symmetry C \l'ill be located two on the line of intersection of the two planes; if it possesses three planesof symmetrywhich intersect at only one point, C will coincide with that point [Sec.5.10].

82.9 .6lJ

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5.137 ond 5.138

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.

v

48 mm

54 mm

72mm

Fig. P5.137

Fig. P5.138

5.139 The frame for a sign is fabricated from thin, flat steel bar stock of massper unit length 4.73 kg/m. The frame is supported by a pin at C and by a cable AB. Determine (a) the tension in the ca6le (b) the reaction at C.
0.6m

Fig. P5.t39 5.140 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Expressyour answer in terms of a and h.

A=k(l-crz)

Fig. P5.l4O

9il'9d'6H

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280

Distributed Forces: Centroids ond Centers of Grovity

5.t46

(b) when = LtZ, tk ratioh/L whrch = L. h for t

Consider the compositebodv shown. Determine (a) the value of r

Fig. P5.146 5.147 Locate the center of gravity of the sheet-metalform shown.

Fig. P5.147

5.148 Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area about the r axis.

3m

Fig. P5.148

e)'gd '6!l
v

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292

Distributed Forces: Centroids ond Ceniers OI \rrovlry

5.c4 Appronmate the curve shown using to srraightrine segments,and -determine"the then write a computer program that can be used to location of the centroid of the line. use this program to determine the ]ocationof the (n c e n t r o i d w h e a )a : I i n . , L : I I i n . , h : 2 i n . ; ( b ) a : 2 i n . . L : 17in.. h = 4 in; (c) a : 5 in, L : 12 in., h : I in.

Fig. P5.C4

5.C5 Approximate the general spandrel shown using a series of n rectangles, each of width Aa and of the form bcc'b', and then write a compurer program that can be used to calculate the coordinates of the centroid o-f the area. Use this program to locate the centroid when (a) m : 2, a : 80 mrn, h : 80mm; (b)m : 2,a : 80 mm, h : 500mm; (c)m :5, a : 80 mrn, h : 80mm; (d) m : 5, a : 80mm, h : 500 mm. In each case. comDare the answers obtained to the exact values of - and I computed fromthe formulas given in Fig, 5.8A and determine the percent"g" 6rror.

Fig. P5.C5

5.C6 SolveProb. 5.C5, using rectangles the form bdrJ'b'. of

*5.C7 A farmer asks a group of engineering students to determine the volume of water in a small pond. using cord, the students first establisha 2 x. z-ft grid acrossthe pond and then record the depth of the water, in feet, at each interseciion point of the grid (see the accompanyingtable). Write a computer program that can be used to determine (a) the volume

0 O
c

0 I
c

0 O

0 I

OI 6 8
L

9 o
C E

0 0 0

9 L 8 9

9 B 8 9

9

I T 8 t I 0 "

V L 9 9 8 0 0

t I 0
9

t O 0
9 proc

0 I t 9 9 9 8 r 0

0 0 8 V 8 8 I 0 0

0 8 8 r I 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 "'

v
c

6 I

e8(,

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