5 Distributed Forces

Centroids ond Centers Grovity of
5.1 5,2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 5.10 5.1I 5.12 Introduction Center Grovityof q Twoof Dimensionol Bodv Centroids Aruo, qnd Lines of First Moments Areosqnd Lines of Composite Plotes Wires ond Determinotion Ceniroids of by Integrotion Theorems Poppus-Guldinus of Distributed Loods Beoms on Forces Submerged on Surfoces Center Grovityof o Threeof Dimensionol Body.Centroid of o Volume Composite Bodies Determinotion Centroids of of Volumes Integrotion by

we have assumedso far that the attraction exefted bv the earth o' a 'ihis force, called lgld body could be representedby a single force W the lorce ol gravityor t]e weight of the 6ody.was to be appliedat the centerof grauity of the body (Sic. 3.2).Actually. earth the u fo."" "*"rt, on eachof the particles forming the body. The action of the earth on a rigrdbody shouldthus be represented bya largenumber of smallforces distributed over tre entire body. you wiil lear"tiin this chapter,however, that all of thesesmall forces can_be replacedby a singleeq:uivalent force W You will alsoleam how to determinethe centeiof giavig,,i.e., the point of application of the resultant W, for bodies of .,"io.,, ,h"o", ^ In the first part of the chapter, two-dimensionalbodiesl such as flat plates and wires contaitted in a given plane, are considered. Two conceptscloselyassociated with thsdetermination of the center of gravity of a plate or a wire are introduced: the concept of the centroid of an area or a line and the concept of thefrsr iwment of an area or a line with respect to a given axis. You will alsolearn that the computationof the area of a sur{ace of revolutionor of the v^ol-ume a body of revolutionis directly related of to the determinationof the centroid of the line or areausedio n"rr"r_ ate that surfaceor body of revolution (Theoremsof pappus-Gul&nus). And, asis shownin secs.5.8 and 5.9, the determinatio" of tt centroid " 'the 9f g arga simpliffes the analysisof beams subjected to distributed loads and the computationof forces exertedon submergedrectangularsurfaces, such as hydraulic gatesand portions of daJs. In the last part of the chapter,you will learn how to determine _ the center of gravity of a three-dimensionalbody as well as the centroid of a volume and the first moments of that volume with respect to the coordinate planes.

Phoro 5.1 The preciseboloncingof ihe components o mobilerequires understonding of on of ceniersof grovityond centroids, moin topics the of this chopter.

Let us first considera flat horizontal plate (Fig. 5.1). we can divide the plate into n small elements.The coordinat6sof the first element

ZMo: iW=Lx LW 2M,: yW=Zy LW Fig. 5.1 Centerof grovityof o plote.


'oJr/v\ i!r,ro.rO .re1ua3 o ro 1o c'9 fr.7:,yk :xytr7 ,14y ,t4yx7= 1nx ,fryntr7


'err,t.r. eql uo peltcol lou lllensn sr erl\. B Jo 11frn"r8 Jo reluec etll ]Bql olou e \'(A'g'3t,{) errc1d eW uI Su1l1 kx err.an roJ pe uep € eq u€c suonenbaerueseql 'ep1d pg BJo 1; fir,rer8 Jo reluec arp Jo 4 pu" t saluurproocaql pue A l{31" eq} augep suonsnba eseql


^ooI,:^O ^0,I: /a! nnl: n

:suorsserdxa Suproloy eq++1url[ uI ulelqo eq] e ^. 'lueruale qcee Jo ezrs aql es"eJcapdlsnoeuelpu4s pue papplp sr e1e1d qcII.,rA eqr olur sluetualeJo Jeqrunu eql eseeJcur ^\ou a \ JI


+ "A\V"fr + ... + 61y\Vzk IzttVrn : A4,4 :yy7 " , M V " * +. . . + u l y y u * +I n V r x - l y y x , f r W <

'qq8ge.,rn Flueuiele eg1Jo sluetuotu Surpuodsarroceql Jo runs eW o+ pnbe ere sexetr pue fi aqt ]noqu A\Jo slueurotueIF lerp elLI^\ e^,'pertdde aq ppoqs aql o1 11\+u€]Fsereql ereq/v\t lurod eWJo 4 PrrBr se1elnprooc u.mlQo "A\V * ... + zfu\V + I,,t{V : /!t :'.{K 'slq8gerr,l Ielueruale eqr yo sepqgrff€ru eql Suppe ,(q peuretqo sr ecroJ slq] Jo 'uopcerrp eul€s eqt ur ecJoJeliurs B eroJeJerflsr ,11apnlruie* "qI 'lellered eq ol peumsffi eq uec laq} sesod-rnd pcrperd luelpser rror{J IIB roJ ta.teznoq :rlpee eq+Jo roluac arll Pre^\ol PaperIP e.reqqErezlr lq lle,rncedser 'pe}ouep ro secroJ eser{J ''aLv ' "' '6arv "r!tv slueuele ert uo qu€e eql lq peyaxa secroJer{I 'c}e gelf 'rn pue rr dq pelouep ere "q Iil^ 6xdq5o 'zk prrc ]ueurelo puoces eq] Jo asoq


^oos ,!r,ror9 roru€J o 1o 2.9 iJu-olru.*16-o^g Jo


Distributed Forces: Centroids ond Centers oI \rrovtty

In the caseof a flat homogeneous prate of uniform thickness,the magnitude Aw of the weight of an element of the plate can be expressed as AW : yt AA where 7 : specific weight (weight per unit volume) of the materiar f : thicknessof the olate M : area of the elemint
plate as

Similarly,we can express magnitudeIv of the weight of the entire the 1ry: yA

where A is the total area of the plate. If U.S. customary units are used,the specificweight 7 should be expressed lb/ft3,ihe thickness in feet, and the are"as andA in t M in square feet. we observethat Aw and w will then be expressed in pounds.If SI units are used,7 shourdbe erpressed N/in3, rn t in meters, and the areasM and A in square, -"i"rr; the weights AW and W will then be expressed newttns.i in for AW and W in the moment equations (5.1) and ,. . _.Srb:atauting dr\4drng throughoutby yl , we obtain x1M, + x2M2 + ... + x,M, yrMr -t y2M2 + ... + i,M, If we increasethe number of elementsinto which the area A is divided and simultaneouslydecreasethe size of each -" obtain in the limit "l"-"rrt, ?M4 2M,: iA: iA:

,e:[*ae ie:laae


These equationsdefine the coordinatesr and y of the center of gravity of a homogeneous plate. The point *hosi coordinates .r are ard y is also known as the centroid c of the area A of the plate (Fig. 5.3). If,the plate is not homog"'"orr, these equatior., "J,,r,oa be used to determine the center.of gravity of the plater they stilr define, however,the centroid of the aiea. In the caseof a homogeneous wire of ,niform cross section,the magnitudeAW of the weight of an element of wire can be expressed as AW: ya AL where 7 = specific weight of the material a : cross-sectional of the wire area AL : Iength of the element
llt shouldbe noted that in the SI systemofunits a given materialis generally characterizedby its densiryp (mass per unit volume)rathei tran by its speific *"igr, f. ir, specificweight of the materlalcan then be obtainedfrom the relaiion y=pg -i p expressed kg/m3. observe in yh:.",g =, we that 7 will be expressed in ?:t l, (kgm")(nr/s'). is,l'"::N/m,. "'. that in

puB sexealeurprooceq] ol lcedsar rppt euu € Jo sluetuotu lsrlJ eql eusep ol pasn oq uuc (g'g) pue (g'q) 'sbg o1ftllu4s suou€lag (oJez 's!xB l€rg uo pel€col sr eer€ eq] Jo proJluec eql uaql rl rp." eleurprooc e o1 lcadser rfipr ee.reu€ Jo lueruotu lsrlJ eql JI dlesra,uo3 'oJezsr sIxBl€rp o1lcedser glluvr eare arll Jo luetuotu lsrrJ eq] 'sry a}?urprooc€ uo pel€col sr €er€ u€ Jo prorluec eq] ]eql JI (g'g) 'sbU ruo$ o^rosqoazulpulg 's8urpeolesrelsu€r]repun su€eq ut sessaJlsbuueeqs aql Huglrurelop JoJ sl€uolerri Jo sctueqcou ur InJasnosl€ eru Boff eq] Jo sluetuotu ]srlJ oqJ Jleslr €are eq] {q eare lerll Jo sluourotu lsrlJ aql Su1pprp,(q peurelqo eq rrec €arc ue JO plorluec egl Jo se]€utproorrqi lBrll (g'q) 'sbg ulo{ s^\olloJ }l


V A: ' d



:ploJluec slr Jo sel€urpJooc eql pue Ear€ eq] go spnpord aq] sBpasserdxaeq u€c V eere eq+Jo sluoruorulsrrJeq] ]Bql olou er!\'(g'g) 'sbg ritpn (g'g) 'sbg Suuedruo3



o* I: ^d

elu ^ aA\ "d tq palouap s pue s?rD aqt ol lcadsat Ultm V lo x tu"tu,olugu,v{eq+sou$apVp n I lerBalureqr llreputs 'od Aqpo}ouap sI p{re srxo k aq+ og padsat. Uqm V DarDaIIyto Tuautntu qs,r.{erp se u.4,ou{sr uor}resSurpacerd eqlJo (g'g) 'rbg uIVp x J pr8arur eq1

srNrloNV svluvJo srNlwow lsulJ v's

,enJ:t4 ,p*[:rz

suonenbaer1+ tuo{ pou1e]qoare T aufl a{+ Jo plo4uec eql Jo 4 pue r selauTprooc '(L'g 'ftg) erynr 3o adeqsegt SurugapI aun atfi aql eg+ aq+ to 3 ppo.tquac Wur soplculocua{+ arlr\ egl 3o fir,ter8 Jo ra}uoc ar{I
'ourlo plor+ue3 t.g .Ell Jo lV [rZ=.Ik
7y xg=.1x


'Dsro uo plortual Jo V Vf i Z = V f i , " W K VV xK=Vx tfrWK




saullpuo soervJostuor.uow f.g tsrll



Forces: Cenrroids centers ond

(b) Fig. 5.5

to expressthese mom_ents_as products of the length L of the the line and the coordinatesi and y of iis centroid. An area A is said to be sErurnntric usith respectto an axis BB, if for every point of the th"." existsa point p' of the same f "t""" areasuch that the line PP' is pelpendicular to B'8, and,isdivided into two equal parts by that axis Fig. s.Ea),A line L is said to be sranmetric with respect to an ans BB' if it satisffessimilar corrditilr,r. When an area A or a line L possesses axis of slrnmetry BB', its an -BB' first moment with respect to is zero, and its centroid is located on that a:<is. example,in the caseof the areaA of Fig. 5.5b,which For is s)rmmetri" *i+ respect to the. g axis, we observe fiat fo. element of areadA of abscissa there existsan element dA' of ".r"ry r equar area and with abscissa-x.rt follows that the integral in the ffrst of Eqs. (5.5) is zero and, thus, that p, : 0. It alsofoll-ows from the {irst of the relations (5.3) that t : 0. Thus, if an areaA or a line L pos_ sesses aris of symmetry its centroid c is located on that axis,' an we further note that.if or two ?n area- line possesses axesof syrnmetry',its centroid c must be located at the intersection of the trvo axes (Fig; 5:6). This property enablesus to determineimmediatelythe cen_ troid ofareassuchascircles,ellipses, squares, rectangles, equilateraltrior other s)rrnmetricftgurbs aswell as the ceniroid oi lines in the Tgles, shapeof the circumferenceof a circle, the perimeter of a square,etc.



Fig. 5.6 An area A is said to be sym.m.etric with respect to a center o if for every element of areadA of coordinatesx and, there existsan a element dA' of equal area with coordinates-r and"-rr (Fis. 5.7). It then follows that the integrals in Eqs. (5,5) are both zero"and that 0. It alsofollowsfrom Eqs. (5.3)that i : :0, that is, Q,:.Qr: i that the centroid of the areacoincideJwith its center of srrmmetrvO. similarly, if_a line p_ossesses a center of symmetry o, the centroid of the line will coincidewith the center O. It should be noted that a figure possessing center of s)rynme_ a try does not ndcessarily possess *ir of symmetry (Fig. 5.7[ while u" a {igure possesfiing axesof symmetrydoesnot necesiarilypossess two a center of symmetry (Fig. 5.6a). However,if a figure possesies two axeso{ symmetry at a right angle to each other, the point of intersection of these a6esis a center of syrnmetry (fig. F.Ob). - Determining the centroids of unsymmetrical areas and lines and of areasand lines possessing only one axis of symmetry will be discussed Secs. and 5.7. centroids of commonshapes areas in 5.6 of and lines are shown in Fig. 5.BA and B.

Fis. 5.7

'so3lD sedoqsuoululoc Jo Jo splo4ue) vg.g .6!l



p tll.s J'6

rolces Je[ncJrc


6+u, uLI + u




IerPu€ds I€rauec

I qo


OI qt,

IerprrBds c{oqered

l<-o+ I


w w
nt qt



Beff cIoq"JBd




8 Dt

fo -1o










6JJL t


Eer€ rElncJrcJrues




Eete ;upcnp-repen$


K - # - >





t s t s l
6 qq I u
eel? r€lnSuBFI





seullpubsbervlo stueurow y.9 lsrll



Forces: centroids cenfers ond

Quarter-circular arc



rsinr, a

Fig. 5.8B

Centroidsof commonshopesof lines.

In manyinstances,a flat plate can be divided into rectangles,triangles, or tjre other common shapes shownin Fig. 5.8A. The abicissa o? it, x centerof gravityG canbe determined from the abscjssas i.t,iz, . . . ,in of the centersof gravity of the variousparts by tt"t it" moment of tle weight of the whole plate about"*pr"rrirrf is equal the 4 axi"s to the sum of the momentsof the weiglqs of the variorlsparts abtut the same axi; (f1S. 5.9). The ordinatJl of the center o?gravity of the plate is found in a similar way by equating moments about'the r axis.We write ZMi X(W, + Wz-l ... + W,) :itWr +i2W2+ ... + i.Wn 2M*: Y(Wr+ Wz* ... + W.) : ytWr + ... + irW, + i,W*

LMo: XZW=DrW 2M,: f>W=LyW Fig. 5.9 Cenier grovity o composite of of plote.

l1'9 '6!t
eloq ftlncrlc cv

+ +


e18ue1cer1ng 6y elcrnuueg Iy



'(6'g 'qord eldur?S aes) slueruele rs olur eurl ro erLr eq] Surprarp,{q euq aTsodurocB Jo proJ eII] Jo eJlr*relrsoduroce Jo fi1,rer83o Jeluec eql euliuJslep o] .{ueurur elqgssod sr 1r (pupuls '(tt'q '3f,{) u8rsannefieu e peufirsse eq ppoqs aloqe Jo earB 'os1y 'surelBrll ol lcedsar rpIA\lueurour +srrJ a^rlEdeu e e^Bq IIyr\ lsrrJ e^aE8eu e e^Bq II! s n fi eqt Jo Uel oqt o1 pol€col sr prorl -uec esoq \ BaJs u€ 'eldurBx rog 'e,t4e8euro enqrsod aq uec ,saclog 'S?ere 'eeJEr{J€e Jo sluetllotu e{II Jo ueruour lsJrd Jo }uetuour aW ol u8rs aleudorddr uFrsseol ue{E} eq ppoqs ereC eql ulstqo o+ pasn eq uec leql +srg erp p1er,(suoqenbeeseql .'plorluec sil Jo tr puB x ro '?ere alrsodulocer{tlo


v4<: v<t




"ll4+...+6V64+r "\l!+...azyeyar


'j o^€q eAA'eare alrsodruoc lq 3o tueurorulsrs aqt Suuaprsuoc ,{ezu. repurs B ur punoJ sr xec eql (Of'g 'blg) Jo tr eleurpro "qJ sure6 erp o1pedser rppr , ^reluauela er1+ queurour }sJSeql Jo ,{-reluaualeal[+Jo queulour }sJs Jo Jo Iuns aql sB p{rB €aJE prre X Jo pnpord ar1+ q]oq pesserdxe sB [B]o] aq rr"J sore6 eq+ o1 pedser Ee-reelrsoduoc eqf Jo ofl l r"-o* FIa,r eq u"c BerB erll Jo Plo4uac eq] lsrlJ eW pq1 Supou lq aql ?ar€ sll C plo4uec el[+ $r^a saplculoc,$rner8yo Jo x Bssrcsqs Jeluec er{+ 'sserD{crtn pue snoeueSouoq aield eq131 $

'Dero a+rsoduoc o =vlL ='d

Jo prorlueJ Ol.g



erFJo ,( prrs x salBurpJooc arl+roJ pe los eq uec suoBenbeeser{J

'a1e1d yo aql {r.re-r8Jo re}uec

l(( sorr4 puo salo;6ellsoduro3 9'9

fu\lK: ATKX
'Uoqs roJ 10

sAtvtplEpRoB[EM 5.1
For the plane area shown, determine (a) the first moments with respect ro r ' the r and y axes,(b) the location of the centroid.


:tt:lltitt:), ::):.::l:t :,, ;..tt:t l:l

angle, and a semicircle and by then subtracting'a circlel Usins th? nate axesshown, the area and the coordinateso?the centroid oTeachofthe "oordi_ component areasare determined and entered in the table below The area of the circle is indicated as negative, since it is to be subtracted fro* ih" other areas.we note thatthe coordinatey of the centroid of the trianqle rs negativefor the axesshown.The first momentsof the componentareaJwith respectto the coordinateaxesare computedand enteredin the table.



rt=60mm rz=40mm

t5 46 --


-20 mm 80 mm 105.46 mm

60 mm 60 mm [A, mm3

A, mmz Rectangle Tiiangle Semicircle Circle

i, mm


-A, mm3

(120X80):9.6 103 x ; ( 1 2 o x 6 o:)3 . 6 x l o 3 ln(60)2 = 5.655 x 103 -n(40)2:-5.027x103 )A=13.828x103

60 40 60 60

40 -20 r05.46 80

+576 x +144 x +339.3x -301.6 x

103 103 10s 103

+394 x -72 x +596.4x -402.2 x

103 103 103 I03



c, Firctfi4rmentg the Ares. UsingEqs. (5.8),we write ef
: >iA: 506.2 x 103mms Q. : 2iA : 787.7 X 103mm3 Qo
Y = 36.6mm

,,erii \), - 6t)6 x 3{)'r1tttt" .,:d e,, * TSg x l{}ii mrnl

b. location of centrcid. substituting the values given in the tab]e into the equationsdefining the centroid of a composite irea, we obtain X>a : >4, x X(IS.AZS 103mm2) : 757.7X lOs mm3

X = 54.8 mm


X : 54.8mn "{i f(te.szs x 103 mm2): 506.2 to3mmg x Y : 36,6ntm "*.1



W'ulE:4 'uI0I: X W

0BI : ('ut09)I 6ur zut009: ('ut09)]

:1hg: tjlK:


ulrlqo a.u .auq elrsodurocB Jo plorluec eql Surugapsuonenba aqr orur rlq.r aqi *or3 p",ip1qo srnl'^ "'qr's"pnllNq"s


009 = 7{K


08I 0
zuI "lh

0 6rt

OI 96


0 ZI 7I
.UI .T






'rurl ptorlurcl€ql 'eroJrrorlJ Burpuodse.r.ror p;ri""r qia i"ig" "ql3o -urocfir.er8 Jo raluecslr 'err \ snoaueBouroq peur-ro3 er*Bg sr "ql ec.rls 3o "q+

eleurprooc oq+ o1 lcedsa-r qly'r sluatuour +srg arp elnduroc -eutru_ra1ap ^'sor€ pue luau8as JurI rIJEe Jo plolluJJ Jrll e^ Jo sJlpurprooc ar{l 'y 'umoqs srr€ r}Eurprooc aq; Sursooq3 .pauruue}rp rq ;e urbuo t{}lzu IIU^


.hg-\Er8 roluec slr Jo Jo uoEecol orl+ euru ^ -rele6l 'ary!\ snoeueSouroq'uFIl Jo ecerd e ruo$ ep€ru sr rr,lrogsem3g eql

A uniform semicircular rod of weight w and radius r is attached to a nin at A and rests againsta frictionless surface at B. Determine the reacti6ns at A and B.

Free-Body Dicgrom. A free-body diagram of the rod is drawn. The forces aciing on the rod are its weight w, which is applied at the center of gravity G (whose.positionis froy b.8Bi; reaction at A, repres"entel r by its componentsA*"bq1"a and a{ig. and Ar; hJrizontal reactjon at B.

ffi:;T -*(+):,

\=w I

u:#* q


tana: w/n:n

,t : tu(, *;!)"'

edding the two componentsof the reaction at A:

The answerscan also be expressed follows: as A : 1.049\Iz L72.3'




-relunocueuoos ilI \ nol +?ql scrdo] I€JeAes ur lBquasse IIF \ sad€qs eq elrsoduoJ Jo prorluec eq+ elecol ol elq€ Suraq le,taznoH .scrueqcJ- yo lp"1s eq] qll A op o] oplll e^€q uossel sql uI surelqo"rd erl] Jo lueur leqt reedde .&ur 11 eql Iecrua^-au,€s uo arl ]snul $+er8 Jo raluac s.lpoq aql pue urd eql .-"uqr;:il: ur sr urd alSurse urog pepuadsnsfl ]eql lpoq e ueq..u'uorlrpp€uI .oplcurocsplorl 'snql isnoeue8ouroq surelqord -uac pue fiper8 ere 3.tgo11oj aq+ Jo sreluacqaq+ ur peraprsuocsemoq eq; 'ifulnolD .raluar e$ Fu!^lo^ur sura;qo.rd6u;ryog .g ;o

B ol e^q€rer us EorB

tiifllt*:ifXl ]uoruoru aql 1eqlazlu8oc"r rsrrJ

Jo ;::1" pelou s€ 'oslv '€eJeIBlo] aq] elnduoc o1,{-ressecau sr }r re}}q eq} ro3 tenaznoq }ou :r€lltuls er€ eaJ€uB Jo sluauour lsrlJ eql SurururraleproJ puu Eeff rreJo prorluec aqt BupecolroJ sarnpecord eqa .oero up ,o stusurourtsllt sr{* Guu-qnr;o3 .g

'plorlueJ E Jo uollecol eql eulrurelep nol dleq o1 lf'g 'ceS] ,fileurrufs asn 'elqrssodueq A .)

.B ar.f errrrccI€ ,"rl1l'Jo,"i,*',1?il"":fil,Hf"Ji:,lT;;,",1?':r"* e ur Ero "*

'pepnlcur ""{iffiJ:l"Tfi 'osIV 'e,tqu8euse peleeJ] er€ aq e,r,qr8eu lsntu sel€urpJooc 3o u8rs eql 'eldurexero3) (se1oq s€ereleql requaural o1no,,( lelluesse roJ ..pe^ouer,,eJ€qcrq,,rA sr 'sprorluec eql e,trlcadsereql pu€ sqfuel ro s€orBeql Sululet ]I Jo selBurprooc -uoc elqel € lJnrlsuoc nod urelqord qcee roJ l€ql pueururocer,{18uo.qs ,q eA 'edeqsparrsepE urelqo o] ureq] pp€ s€ IIe \ se s€eru+curlqnsuec nol 1eq1 _ ro {1}carroco1 no,{ dlaq 1e8ro;+ou oCJ'sq18uel s€or€puu sprorluocrlar{} qsrrq€}sa 'qor4 'os1y de,n aldrues ur auop sr su) queuoduroc quere33Tp Sur.ttoqs er{l ru^\ (I'g auo utr{}_eJoru edeqsrelncnrud € }crulsuoc o1alqrssod ur uego sr }r s€eJe eueld ro3 ]uq1azluBocerplnoqs no 'B'g '8tg Jo sedeqsuoururoceql tuor3 aurl ro eere ue,L13 eq1 lcrulsuoc o+ ,,\\oqeplcop ol eq ppoqs uoqnlos .rnol ur dels 1s.rge{J "n 'pezrseqdure aq pporis leq] slugodleroles te,te,ttoq 'ere areq; 'adft slql Jo surelqordSurzrlos ueq.^a ^\olloJ plnoqs nol arnpecord aql olurlsnl[ 6'9 pue .ssurl puD ipaJo sllsoduros spro4ua' aW Su1;B)ol "t I'g sualqor4 aldurug to 'l(g'g) 'sbg] elrsoduloc Ber€eql Jo sluauour roJ sale1d alrsoduoc Jo sploJluac aql a+Ecol e^Er{ ol lsJrJaql eurruJalopro sauq pu€ sBoJB 'sruelqord aql 3upro11o3 uI '[(t'g) 'sbg] seurT pu€ t(e'g) 'sbgl seereeueld IIIm nol 'sbg] serr,r pue seroog Jo sprorlueceql pue [(f'g) leuorsueurp-omt ,Qprer8y Jo Jo sroluec eql Supecol ro3 suoqenbapreua8 eql padole,repe,{\ uossel sql uI

-rooc eql;o ur8uo Jouorl'cor eloullryerec sle^p prnorrs aql aq]




Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.




300mm 30mm


'1,r,,*-2rin --*r


Fig. P5.l


Fig. P5.3


3 in.



6 in.



'ra-.--(l| ,"/r, -- /
Fig. P5.6


L--.1 20in.
Fig. P5.7 Fig. P5.9


8l'gd '6lJ I I

.Vltrt=fteqtos t-t/6-t o\lBt eql euprrelap ,II.g .qotd Jo 'eer€relnuuerues eq] rod 6l.g '4 : <u,^ BerEeq+ oqs I qcq.{\ roJ q/o o\er arlt eulurretep rod gl.g '6/(t + I;) snrpurJo alcrrc Jo cr€ uB roJ ]eql saqceordde plorluec aql Jo uortecol eqf 'zr saqceordde rr se +Bqt ^ orls ll"g


9t'9d '6!t tt'gd'6!t

ll.gd puD 91.9d .6!t

.i? ,I,r pu€^ ,6-r. Jo srurel ur eerE pepeqs eql Jo plorluec aql Jo eleurprooc /, eql eunrralo(l 9L.g

et'9d '6!J


I _1

zt'gd '6!j 11'9d'5!l o1'9d '6!J

--*l 08


et[ suiatqord

'u.4aoqs eueld eqt pJorlueceqt etecoT g1.g ee.re q$norql Ol.S Jo

Distributed 234 OI \rfovlry Forces:Cenfroidsond Centers

,5.20 A composite beam is constructed by bolting four plates to four 60 X 60 X l2-mm anglesas shown. The bolts are equally spacec along the beam, and the beam gupportsa vertical load. Ai provec in mechanicsof materials,the shearingforces exerted on the bolts at A and B are proportional to the fir;t momentswith respect to the centroidal r axis of the red shadedareas shown. ,espectiuely, in parts a and b of the figure. Knowing that the forc6 exerte.d on the bolt at A is 280 N, determine the force exerted on the bolt at B.

60 mm

450 mm


_t -T
12 mm




Fig. P5.2O

Fig. P5.21

5.2t snd 5.22 The horizontal r axis is drawn throush the centroid C of the area shown, and it dlvides the area into iwo component areas,41 and A2. Determine the first moment of each comtponent area with respect to the r axis, and explain the results obtiined.

1.50 in


H t




0,/ D r n . f-1.50 itr. I

0.75 in.

Fig. P5.22

.leluozrrorl raquaw er{t uoruodsrql sr }eq1os go Jo ^ IrIr€Jo I r{}tsue1 aqurro}ep'!u eq} 0S.0sI p t€q}puuD tEpepoddns sr requtetuerp l€rp bqmoul 'bqqn1 ynu$mp J0 ocotdeliup t
Irrog peurJoJ sJ pup alrqou e 7o lueuoduoc e sr J{CIJA7 re<Iuory


Oe.gd puD 67.gd.6H

8Z'9d '6:l

'l€luozrroq sr reqweu oql Jo (ICg uorlrod leql os p ecuetsrpeql eururelep ,u 6 : I l€ql pu? p +epeyoddns sr roqruoru oql l€ql Sur,rouy '3u1qn1 runururnleyo ecard el8urs e uro{ pauroJ sr pue olrqoule3o;uauoduoc E sr IOJ7V rrqurol{ 6Z.5 'J le uollcBerrq] (g) 'dlqer arll ur uorsue] eql (r) eururela6l .gV elqer erl] o] pu€ 3 te u1d e o] peqcelle q'q 0I snlpBrpu€ ql 8 fqbla \Jo por rBlncrrc ruroJrunV gr.g

'peleclpur ern8g eql 3o .relaurr.rad 5o ,,(lraer8Jo roluoc eql el€coT aqt ruroJ ol luoq sr err,^Asnoeue;ouroq ,uql V q6no,tql ?A.g IU'*

'6.9d'tsr,{ga.g .I.gd .tsrd - ?(.9 'peturoJ snql ernilJ err. erll A

'|sa'lr'7 .r.gir .!r.{ 1''' qr.g




'urnurrxeur "d sl f yo en1e,l ienle^ tuntulx€ru leql sI tBr{A\pue lpr{.r rod (g) 'sue r eq} ot €ere pep€qs eql Jo aseq aql urorS f ecu€lslpaql pu? '!'qp sturet ut 'fl sserdxg(o) ''d Aqpelouapsr srxe r eql ol lceoser qlvl\ eer€ pep€qs eql Jo lueulotu lsrrJ aql tc.g


Dishibuted Forces: Centroids ond Centers of Grovity

5.3r The homogeneous ABC wire

is bent into a semicircular arc and a straight section as shown and is attached to a hinge at A. Determine the value of d for which the wire is in equilibrium for the indicated position.

5.32 Determine the distance h for which the centroid of the shaded
area is as far above Tine BB' as possible when (a) k :

(b)k = 0.80.



Fig. P5.3I

Fig. P5.32 ond P5.33 5.33


Knowing that the distance h has been selectedto maximize the distance y ftomline BB' to the centroid of the shadedarea, show that y : 21113.

The centroid of an area bounded by analwical curves (i,e.. curves defined by algebraic equations) is usually determined by evaluating the integrals in Eqs. (5.3) of Sec. 5.3:




J "


If the element of area dA is a small rectangle of sides dr and dq, the evaluation of each of these integrals .eqrires a double i,ntegr"ation with respect to r and y. A double integration is also necesiory if polar coordinates are used for which dA is a small element of sides dr and r d0. In most cases, however,it is possibleto determine the coordinates of the centroid of an area by performing a single integration. This is achievedby choosing dA to be a thin rectangle or strip or a thin sector or pie-shapedelement (Fig. 5.12); the centroid of the thin rectangle is located at ils center, and the centroid of the thin sectoris located at a distancefr from its vertex (asit is for a triangle). The coordinatesof the centroid of the area under considerationare then obtained by expressing that the first moment of the entire area with respect to each of the coordinate axesis equal to the sum (or integral) of the corresponding moments of the elements of area.

'slusurels puo spro4usJ zt.g .6!l lDrluererjlp sDsrD Jo (r)
7 tq /D\

oPzr i=vP
L A.o$ =pk
r6 4soJg-lar


rpfr.:yp zth=P4


o -T I



-tpol:, ,p*l:,

:g'g 'ces p ft'g)'sbg ur spr8alur eq18unen1e.rc pautrue+apaq lq rrecprorluec s1r'uoeenba cprqaSle ue lq peugep $ euq ? ueq A .BarBaq+ Jo plorluec eqlJo 4p* t sepurprooc aql roJ pe los eq u€c s,rott"n6e eseql 'pel€nle e ueeq e,req (6'9) .sbg ur qer8elur eqt pue paulu -relap ue_eq eere eql acuo .uorler8alure18urs ol pecnper snq] seq e sr uoperBalul eql xeqlo aq+ Jo sture+ ur se]eurpJoocaql Jo auo sserdxaol pesn eq ppor{s e,trnc Surpunoq eq};o-uonenbe aq} pue '(6'9) sepuroJ olut pelnlqsqns aq ppoqs suorsserdxa epgdordde eql 'seleurp-rooc relod ur ue.l,r8sr BarB eq] Surpunoq e^rnc eq] 3o uonenba eql uerl \ posn eq pForls c yed Jo tuetuele pedeqs-erd '8Id ur euop ueeq a{} jsluaruala 3o sad,(t uoruruoc aarq} roJ 6I'9 seq srql 's[EpuareJJrp alegdordde eq] pue lurod leql yo seleuro-rooc eql eq Jo suue] ur pesse-rdxe ppor{s yp }uauele eq} Jo eere e{+ 'oslv_'uoll"Japlsuocrepun €aJBaql Surpunoq e^rnJ erp uo pel€col lurod e Jo seleulprooc aq+Jo srurol ur passerdxaaq pporls Vp EarB Jo +uatualaarll Jo plorluoc orll Jo I"fi pue l'r seleurproocaql 'sluatuele aserF ruor; palndruoc eq os[B rrec ]r '<u,&\orDl fpee;p ]ou $ V eaJ€ arp JI


veP! v!: nd I:


uouo.rOetul sp;olue] Jo uorrouluJerec ,(q 9'g

elu 4,e1\4.'yp 4 ]uetrrele eq+Jo proJluec erl+Jo seleurprooc e\t 1" pue lux Aqfiunoue C


ond Centers Forces: Centroids Distributed of Grovity

The differential length dL shouldbe replacedby one of the following depending upon which coordinate,x: U, 2r ^0,is chosen expressions, as the inde'oendentvariable in the equation used to define the line theorem): (thesee"prissionscan be derived using the Pythagorean dL:

dL: dL:


After the equation of the line has been used to expressone-of the coordinatesin terms of the other, the integration can be performed, and Eqs. (5.4) canbe solved for the coordinatesi and y of the centroid of the line.

Thesetheorems,which were first formulated by the Greek geometer Pappusduring the third century e.o. and later restatedby-the Swiss mathematiciunG,tldittrrs,or Guldin, (7577-1643)deal with surfaces and bodies of revolution. A surfaceof reaolution is a surfacewhich can be generatedby rotating a plane curve about a fixed axis.For example(Fig. 5.f3), the

Photo 5.2 The storogetonks shown ore oll Thus, their surfoce oreos bodiesof revolulion. usingthe con be determined ond volumes of theorems Poppus-Guldinus.

C Sphere

'.}A Cone

C '.-jA C Torus

Fis.5.13 surfaceof a spherecan be obtainedby rotating a semicirculararcABC about the diameter AC, the surface of a cone can be produced by rotating a straightline AB about an axisAC, and the surfaceof a torus or ring can be generatedby rotating the circumference of a circle axis.Abody of reoolutionis a body which can about a nonintersecting rotating a plane area about a ffxed axis.As shown in be generatedby Fig. 5.f4, a sphere, a cone, and a torus can each be generatedby rotating the appropriateshapeabout the indicated axis.

i_ffifl"\ _ ,) Mi r \



A f f i 1


Fig.5.14 T'HsORHM t. The area of a surface of reaolution i's equal to the length of the generating curae times the distance traueled by the centroid of the curae while the surface is bei'nggenerated. Proof. Consider an element dt of the line L (Fig. 5.15), which is revolved about the r axis.The area dA generatedby the element


'(g'q 'qora eldures ees)urvrorqsI perp arp lq palr:a'cg ,l''o.l -.r, retunlol orl+uory\{ eare aueld € plor}uoc erp outtura}ep ol Jo rr \orDI Jo sI o^Jnc e{+ lq pelenaa? eceynJ aq+ Ber€ aT+ o"q ,-." ,.r"1d Jo eJo pro4uec aw euluua+apol pasn eq osF rlr.,c ,{eql .flesranuo3 .uou -nlo er se.poqJo_ saumlo orB pus uoqnlo oJJo socBJJns SBOJB Jo erD J0 elnduroc ol lezv'elduns€ re#o im4ppg-snddedJo^sureroerl+ aql 'eare buperauaEaql slcesJeluT uoll -elor J: strB aq] I lldde lou seop {rreroerf+erp leql pe+ou eq ppoqs 'uIBBv 'v q ku6'ir"rq Jo plorlusc eql .,(qpelezterlecuelsrp ",{r


, el"q e \ ,(g.g.ces) VA ot pnba sr yp n I pr8elur oql aculs prra 'vp ku,6 I : ,y sI V lq pepreua8 aumlo^ orrlue erl+ 'srr-q.;.Vp fru6'o1 1".r1" rt .(gl'g '3rg) sure eql lueurela eql lq pelereue8 r Ap eurnlo eql ln pe^lo er sl qcFI.,lA Eere eql Jo yp luaurele ue replsuoD v looJd 'palotaua? Bu1,aq hpoq aq+a1lqm v aq+ s"utxt oato 3up1oaql to p?oquac aq+ hq palaaDr+aiuolw


aq+o+Tonba uo?tnloaar fipoq o to auryoaaq1 .ll n {o

dldde 1ou p1norA uarooql aql pu€ 'su8rsellsoddoSurz'uq seerealereua8ppozn spreelrll rerl}Ie uo suoncas01\ eql 'prp ll JI :pelElor sr I qJrq \ ]noqB + Jo aPIS sDre arp ssoJc1ou lsnru a.trnc Suuereue8 erp leq] palou eq ppoqs ]I '(gf 'S 'Bf.{) TJo prorluec aql lq pelo €r} ecu€}srparn,sr hu6 ereq^


74sz: v

el"q eroJareql eM'I& o1 pnba q :fp n I prFelul eql teql g'g 'ces uI punoJ e \ lBrF SuqJeceg'W fruZ t : V sI Z lq peleraue8 BerB erqua eql 'snqJ '.Ip nL6 o1 pnba sr s1'9'6H


snulp;ngrsnddo; suaroaql l'9 Jo

Determine by direct integration the location of the centroid of a parabolic spandrel.

k$ermilttion d the Consfoat k fhe value of /c is determined by substituting^r : a artdy : b lnto tlle grven equation. We have b ='kaz or k : b/a'. The equatiorr of the curve is tlus ,A: b1*', o .uz or *: fuA''"

Varticcl Oiffurerdiol Element We choosethe differential element shor.n and.find the total area of the ftgure.

d:[ae:l ,o.:[5r :13:1",: +
The ffrst moment of the differential element with respect to the y axis is i"1 ilAi hence, the ffrst moment of the entire area with respect to this axis is



t u 1 1* n i l t t 7 : V

( z\l(' - \ r : I )161116




7xrt6 : v
16: r






L I'b /

.plorl o^eq o,\\ ,Sg.S .Bl.{ o1 Euu"reSag -ua: sll ,{q pa1a,te4 acuetsrpeqt pup cre arll 3o qfual o1 1".pora "q1 3o ".p pnbe sr pale-reue8 Bare eqt ,snurpp3-snddea 3b 1 -"rb"q1 o1 B.rroro""y









'srxe e Iecruo e lnoq€ cr€ relncrrc_rapenb Buqelor .(q rw\\orlsuolln[o^Jt pJur€lqosr rlJrr{1!\ Jo JJe#ns Jw Jo eerBJrl] JulrurJ]ec

?"8 W3?808d 3?dtfifvs

n- =0

o uys,-t6 : (nr.6)x. elrra a,tr '7r : hfl ecurg n uls : z16 : ";lg urs]u-r o-r o-r r o"0 -_ 0p0soc | tep"i.)(psoc'l) | : lp, | : oJ oJ J "t sr srn 6 eql ol lcedser {}-r.ll. orp Jo lueurour lsrL} aql c.re


- n r 6 : 0 'pl r : e p " l : W l | t " : pJ oJ J
'uope,r8elur .{q peuru;alep sr crt aqt 3o qrBual eq} pu€ 'u,\\oqs sB uasoqc sr }uaurola '0 : 6 'srr"e eql o1 r lcadser qll.^ IBJulru[u,{s sr cre arll JruIS V IelluereJJrp


'rr \or{s olcrrc Jo cre ar{l Jo plol}uec orl} Jo uoqecol eq} eulurJelec

$"9 $t:nTgsud 3?dwvt

400m 20 rnm

The outside diameter of a pulley is 0.8 m, and the crosssection of its rim is as shown. Knowins that the pulley is made of steel and that the density of steel is p : 7.35 x io3 kgm3, ieteimine the massand the weight of the rim'

---f-] l-*l* oo 20 mm

60 mm


The volume of the rim can be found by applFng Theorem II of PappusGuldinus, which states that the volume equals the product of the given areaand the distancetraveledby its centroid in one complete cross-sectional revolution. However, the volume can be more easily determined if we observethat the cross section can be formed from rectangle I, whose area is positive, and rectangle II, whose area is negative'
Distance Traveled by C, mm

-*ltoo'"* lr roT"'ir.;---'=lT--





375 mm
365 mm

-i' ,:

I t


Area, mme

Volume, mm3

= (5000)(2356) 11.78x 106 2n(375) : 2356 : 2n(365) : 2293 (-1800x229s) -4.13 x 106 Volumeof rirn : 7.65 x 106 : Since 1 mm : 10-3 m, we have I mm3 : (10-3 m)3 10-e m3, and rye ob7 : ( 7 . 6 5x 1 0 6 ) ( 1 0 - e m i:) . 6 5 x l 0 - 3 m 3 . ,5''v-: i.os x 106mm3 x m : 60,0kg 4 m : pv: (7.85x 103kg/m3)(7,65 10-3m3) : : trtr/ 5iJ9N 'q : mg: (60.0kgXo.SirrVs'9) 589 kg ' m/s2 w


Using the theorems of Pappus-Guldinus,determine (a) the centroid of a semi;ircular area,(b) the centroid of a semicircular arc. We recall that the volume and the surfacearea of a sphere ate tnra and 4nf , respectively'
-,. . : . , . j . ) . . . . . . : : :. : . : t : ; : 1 1 , : . ..:

The volume of a sphere is equal to the -product of the area of a semicircle and the distance traveled by the centroid of the semicircle in one revolution about the r axis.


3rrr3:2rryrlnr2) ":* i


Likewise, the area of a sphereis equal to the product of the length of the generatinq semicircle and the distancetraveled by its centroid in one revolution. A : 2nAL 4nra : 2rg(trr)




Suqereue8 So.q+Bual al€lnrlec o] e^eq lou op nor( :yf rc eql eql 7li'".rr.ur"1"p A1uo peou noA 'acteqs uoururocauo ueql erou EoJE Jo s+srsrroc Jo auu Buqereuag ,1yl\ vete uE puu aqt qclq.ttroJ suralqord.esoqt .snqJ die,rqcadsar roJ (?4) au{ E Jo s+ua[IollllsrlJ a_q+ .{ldrutsary qrlq,{\ 'satlrlurnb esoq} slcnpordeq} riieluoj Jo 'sbg] suopenbeSuqpsar aq] 'Bar€Surjr:"raua8 ot ro e^rnc eqt l(tt'g) Pry (oi'g) Suqereua8 Jo llBue1 eqt o] pu€ prortuaceip Iq pele^Ertacu€lsrp eql aqt ol raJar sureroaq] e{r.q8noql1y sarrnloA ,tonelr-,doior ol tplorl.t"ryo put seer€yo aql -i^\ou>l ,eldurrs .g.g "iip" rno{,(dde o1no(.{\olle srreroaq}InJasn ,(ra.t1a,{ as-eqt q;"oiqr g'g'sqord aldureS u^\oqssv'$nu,ptfiff-rndd*6 swar*aqt aqisurr{y}dv .g ur *s 'sp"r8aqur llncrilrp alunlt^a ol porllaur ,es-rnoc .sped,{q uoqe-rEa1u, aql s1sp"r8alur lsalsuJ ro uoqnlqs Jo alq€l e Sursn a6 'sanbruqJal -qns crJleurouo8ul r1,rns se erour esn ol ,(ressecau (eur 1r paJu€^pB aq setur]]B 'p.re,trropqSlerls uosselsFil q suoqer8eluleql lsour q8noqlly .p ore Jo
salEurprooJ relod asn o1 snoeSelue^pp eq,{1ensn IIi.u }t'os1y 'seuo pcrue^Jo p€e}sur sluatrlale repbuelcer lEluozuori esn o+ elq€JeJerdaq,{uur qgserlrqallros'aldurexarog 'asn IFA no^ ]Erl] ]ueurrle IErluJr+JIp aql Sulugep eroJaq aurl ro earu ua,tr8 eql 3o " 'suoqelrlduoc jno,{ adeqs aql eurrrexe s.{e,n1u eziurrurur -ro,{Srtdurrs.{1q1ssod "r o1 '1utod ,Brg .{pn1s luepodurr srql puulsrepun.{1ry no,'( i11ryamcp1norls 1pun 6T.g notr uorleJaprsuoc repun EaJBeql burcunoq aarnc eql uo pelEcol lurod e Jo salEu -lpJooc eq] ol IEnDe ]orr oJtsVp Jo proJluoc aql Jo salBurpJoocaql }rq} azluboce;ro1 '7p plE lu€uodrlrr q ]r vp slrreurale IErluerelJlp eLIlJo plor+Ltacaq+{o sa+DLtlprooc eql luase;dar suoqenba e^oqc eql ur f aqt pue rt aq+ 'g.g .res ur peureldxe sy :q 'ploJluJJ slr ol sJ.)uplsrp Jql pul, ?f Jo yp JoJ dJrorlJ.rno,{;rrr1 l2rrc rro.nr8 ro aq+ eA\ .sulnurroJ pl8alur elqecudcle Jo qcle{s -rno.{uo ,r\orls o+ no,{ a8e.rnocuer(13uor1s aql ul LLIrel LIcEeEurururralap ro Surur3ep ,{gn3arec ,{q uoqnlos rno,{ ur8ag ,n 'slurod 3ur,to11o3 aql ol uoquol]€ -re1ncr1.red plnoqs no,i .uorlrppe u1 .{ed 'plorluec arllJo seluulprooc eq] roJ (l'g) ro (Cg) 'sbg r^los prru .ourl eql ro EarB '-l aq] ro V elnduroc :g'g puu L'g .sqord aldureg lo sluauroLulsrrJ aql eururrelap 'edt slq} ur rlr\oqs uoilnlos Jo poqleur rqt ^\olloJ plnoqs no,{ Jo surelqo.id 8uu.1os uaq6 's*url pup swar* a*ax.p &Effian*zttsta,;*ff "t ** sfw.t&u* ar..i{{rsl{sJffie1l'fi
ilrletuLll,\s J€lncJrc sEq EOJEuB ro euq B ueq \

SurlEtJuJB dql Jo d,\ln,)

s.er€ Jo,secp,+rns ro ".,".'o.,"!$:ffjJ:fii1"'l'i;;3T':H",".ul"offij:""tllij:;
.{1dde osp il1.{\ no1 dle,trlcadse-r 'selrrl pil€ sr:e,ruaurld Jo sprorluor aql aleJol o}


, p o l : , ,p,: u l
,1r, [ : ,l
'uossels}q}roJ surelclord rrg suorlenba erl] asn prn r-ro,{ aqr

i.._.....:.._...:.:;,_-:_::.., .,.. ".*


# {rt tr\{effi w|{.{K\ffi{*?{ q6

g,{ 4 ^{ b * s ; ; * 4 :K, , €,"& " a T { *{a g 3 a#{* {

..... ..: ..

5.34 threugh 5,36

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Express your answer in terms of a and h.



Fig. P5.35


,/ ;:,:


Fig. P5.34

Fig. P5.36

5.37 fhrough 5"Sg Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown.

a + r a2 b2




Fig. P5.39

Fig. P5.37

5,4O crnd 5.4I

Determine by direct integration the centroid of the

area shown Express your answerin terms of a andb.



", -




Fig. P5.41

6r'9d '6!t

grsa'6u q 9
, 7 , ' I



-SOJD=h xlI

'ulAoqs eoJB

eIIl Jo plorluoc eql uorlerSolur]cerrp lq euruueleq

6?'g* pus


lq aururreleq 'u. Aoqsadeqseql olul ]ueq sr orr.&\ snoeueSouroq /t.g* y

rno.,( sserdxg

slr Jo o]€urprooc

r eql

JO StrrJAJ Ur Je,r\Sue uoqer8elur lcelp

9r'9d '6:t


Qsrllso=ft 9gso) o = x

0 l

'plorluoc str Jo el€urprooc r eql uorle,r8elur narrp lq oururreleq 'u,^Aoqs adeqs eql olur ]ueq sr arr.4\snoaueSoruoq gf.g puo g?.g y

6 -+-D ,


zr'gd '6!l




_ " " - 'A - " 6-"t

,.-, I
t"-" 1
$VC suetqord

'qpve o 'u^\oqs eere Jo sruJal uI ro,^sue .rno.{sse.rdxg aqt Jo plorluec eqt uorl€r8alur lcarrp lq euruualaq vtr'g ?rtrl g?.g 'u.t\or{s€arp eql Jo plorluec aql uoper8e}ul lcerrp ,,{qeurur;eleq gj'g


Forces: Centroids ond Cenlers Distributed of Grovify


Determine the centroid of the area shown when a : 2 in. is 9.

5.51 Determine the value of a for which the ratio ili

5.52 Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the area of Prob. 5.1 about (a) the line x : 240 mm, (b) the y axis. 5.53 Determine the volume and the surface area of the solid obtained by rotating the area of Prob. 5.2 about (a) the line y : 60 mm, (b) the y axis.

Fig. P5.50 ond P5.5I

5.54 Determine the volume and the surfaceareaof the solid obtainedby rotating the area of Prob. 5.8 about (a) the x axis, (b) the y axis. 5.55 Determine the volume of the solid generatedby rotating the parabolic area shown about (a) the r axis, (b) the axis AA'. 5.56 Determine the volume and the surface area of the chain link shown, which is made from a 6-mm-diameter bar, if R : 10 mrn andL:30mm.


Fig. P5.56

for 5.57 Verify that the expressions the volumes of the first four shapes in Fig. 5.21 on page 260 are correct. 5.58 A f-in.-diameterhole is drilled in a piece of 1-in.-thicksteel;the hole is then countersunkas shown. Determine the volume of steel removed during the countersinking process. 5,59 Determine the capacity, in liters, of the punch bowl shown if R : 250 mm.

Fig. P5.58

Fig. P5.59


'u^\or{s uoqcosssorccrloqeredeql seq I leq} 8uI^\oDI .epuqs oqlJo eplslnooqlJo eore aceJrns aulturaleq 'crlse1d eqt Juacnlsuer] \ Jo laoqs uql € Luo$ paurroJsl tqd{ p3}unour-llB B roJ op€qsarlJ gg.f * 'els?,r\seluocaq lBql lo^\op eql .3uo1.ur Jo erunlo^ Frtrq aq] 3o a8rluacred oql aurruroloq 7 puB relelllerp q 'ul I Ie.Aope urorJ peurnl sr u,^^oqs 8ed uepoo,nr, arlJ ?g.s

aulruro}ecl 'u,r\oqsedeqseq] ?Qplnoqs lured 3o suolle8,{ueu .,ra,oq Suraeqs8eduepoo,n000'06 acnpord o1Suruueldsrrarnlc€Jnueur V Cg.S 'uoaqclncsa t9:9d puD e9.9d .6!t 'ut 0g'0 oq] Jo ssetu er{l aurrurelep 'eu/8{ g/fg sr sserq 3o lgrsuep arll leql iur.4\ou) 'sserq uro$ lsEc sr u,ro,oqs € (1p.rn rrrou slrxa edrd eql ereq.r,r adrd e uo peceld e1e1d e.trlerocep uoeqclncsaeqJ e)

luredsl"oc ""'s'yfr?l^'?j3'.ilJ:tJi,TH:fr" so o.^A1 in fT:


19'9d '6!t
urru 8 u t 9 1 . 80 = " r 1

w _ l






'epeqs eql Jo ss€tuoq] eururelep '"u/3{ 00gZ sr urnu -rurnle llrsuep oq] leq] Sup,rou;1 urur I Jo sienlcgql urroJrune Jo s€q u,&oqsdurel llrsuelutq8q purs eqt roJ apeqstrrnururnp er{I tg.g

f f i t l H - l (tutu # K 3 i




' uie
'uI c., 'uI

& G-r
80'0 /
/\\ ^r-t1 owv


A I 'w--r

,,riMI -f7\\

ffiJ 1 *r@: "i"



'u8rsep qceero3le11nd aI{} puE iloq oqf uoo,4Aleq oaro lcoluoc oq} ouuralap ,4,e11nd 3o slr ecuereJuncrrc eql Jo Jlsr{-euoqlla }celuoc se{eur lleq rlcee alurl ue,u8lue l€JI 'palpn$ aq o] ere selSordtloq a^rrp tuareJJrp oarqJ 09'9


Cenhoidsond Centers Forces: Distributed of Grovity

The concept of the centroid of an area can be used to solve other thosedealing*ith the weightsoJ fl?t plaGs.conproblemsbesides 'sider, for example,a beam t.rppottittg a distributed load; this load may consistof the *"igftt of materialssJpported directly or indirectly by be the beam, or it rn"ay causedby wrnd or hydrostaticpressure.The distributed load can be representedby plotting the load u, supported in per unit leneth (Fie. 5.17);this load is-expressed N/m or in lb/ft' 'the on an element of beam of length masnit;de of tf,e force exerted d.xis dfr : u dx, and the total load supportedby the beam is





u; dx

We observethat the product u; dx is equal i1 magnitude to the element of areadA sho*n in Fig. 5.I7a.the load W is thus equal in magnitude to the total area A under the load curye:

(b) Fig. 5.17

loadW, of trre We now determine where a single concentrated W as the total distributed load, should be applied same magnitude on the bJam if it is to produce the samereactionsat the supports load W, which represents,the (Flg. 5.I7b). However,tlis concentrated the given distributed loa&ng, is equivalentto the loading of resrll1xnt the only when considering free-bodydiagramof the entire beam.The loadW is obtained point of upplicationP of the equivalentconcentrated that the moment of W about P91"t O is^equalto the fy "*pt"rtitg rnrn of the ioments of the elementalloadsdW about O:

: (oP)w


. I

or, since dW : w dx : dA andW : A,

( oP) A_ J; o x d A


shown Photo 5.3 The roofsof the buildings mustbe oble to supportnot only the totol weight disiributed of the snow but olso lhe nonsymmefric from driftingof lhe snow. loods resulting

Since the integral representsthe first moment with respectto-the u; axis of the area ,rnder the load curve, it can be replaced by the oroduct rA. We therefore have OP : r, where r is the distance irom the r,rlaxisto the centroid C of the areaA (thls is nof the centroid of the beam). A distributed load on a beam can thus be replaced by a conof centrated load; the magni,tude thl's si'ngleload is equal to the area through the cenund.erthe load curne, and lts li,neof action passes area.It should be noted, however,that the concentrated troid of that load is equivalent to the given loading only as far as external forces .on""ired. It can be used to determine reactionsbut should not "r" used to compute internal forces and deflections. be

dq peuielqoeq u€r U Jo epqluSeiu eq+'snql 'a+o1d jo Eoft eql selouapV erarla arp Vzd = 17q1tfl: 1sd4) = 77o, : td

'uluel*sar .sreruec ernsse;d aqr su i?;"^;:r'{^i#'#,:3"t{iffiil:fi"J re

ollr.^A a^\ '(tI g) 'bg Surqeca: irec pue 'e1e1d Jo A raluoc orll le ql8ua1lrun eq] .redpeol erp s1aor ercqr 'Is(n o1pnbe sI e^rnc p€ol o{r repun EorEeqt teqi 8ur-lo5l '(eA) ."rJlcli locs0de peflEcs] zrulN tlun IS pa,ruepeqJ, 'd u1pesse;dxe '€erellun .redpuol r s1ulsarder sI 5q11 qc1q,r,r, a.rnsserd ur ro zrulN


'O 'deqC ur peurrrretep eq ilI^aqlpp,r elqeFs^Jo seJ€Fnspe8raru -qns uo secroJJo sluellnseJaqJ 'seu€Apue sale8 rqn8uepe; pue surBpJosecelns eql uo PeuexesecJoJ cnelsorp^qeqlJo luEllnsorerF euruJelep 01 pesn oq uBc uoqces sql ur peullno spoqlerueqJ 'ULq $ pe^Jnc Jo esueseql burs.re.rer peuretqouer{+ ec€3rns eq] uo peuexe secroJcrJelsorp&{ Jo U }uellnser eql '?6I'9 '8ld erp 3o ,(poq aa4 eql ro3 runuqmnbe3o suonenbeaql Surqos,{q paurelqo sr U- ecroJeq+'punoJuaeq e Bq senlBn rreq] relp :spoqleru preprrels lq paururralep eq uBc zU pue 'IU 'Al secroJeqJ 'am{-mspaurn aq+ uo p?nbnaq+nq peuoxe secroJ Jo U lu€]Fser aq+'se uooc€Jo eurr ern errres s€qpue 'o1elrsoddo eq+ pue pnbe srU- luel1nsar er{I 'p?nb7aUl uo aco{-tns paemc aq+fr,qpouoxo sacroJoq} Jo U- }u€}Fsar aq+prre 'Oguo e{+Jo 6g }ue}pser aW'OV uo pouoxasacroJ pepexa sacJoJ eq} 'p1nbllJoerunlol peqc€tepeW tg oW 3o luelpser eqi Jo A\ 1q31ezr,r ere ae{ er1 uo SupcesarroJeql 'q6l'g '8ld ul u aorlsgO pul OgV trpog, eueld oz'r1 {q pve €IV ec€Fns pa rnc eq} Xq papunoq eq] CV seceJuns lq SuFIcB}ep peuprqo.{poqeeg eqt reprsuoc CgyprnbrlJo eulnlol er{+ en 'Asee lou ppo.4, uorl€Jbalurperro-{q secroJasarfl aq Jo U }tre{nser eql Jo uon€ulrurelepeqt ecurs '(ogt'g'bt.{) rpp}e }u€}suoc ace#ns Jo '1xeN pe^rnc € uo pFbll u lq pepaxe socroJerp reprsuoce.,ur sr eql l'atnssa-td raluac er{+sEu,r\ou>l paudde sr U areq \ e1e1d 3o to '€or€1€rl1 uoncBJo eurr d +ulodeqJ Jo C plortuec eqr q8norql sessed sll lerll pue e rnc peol aql rapun €eff pplozade4 eW ol eprq1u8eru ur pnba sr e1e1d Jo epls euo uo peuexa secroJc!€lsorplq aqt erp 'B'g 'ces s}Fser,eqlBurnecaH 3o U luelpser er{r}Br{}e^resqoe,lr Jo 'r seuB^'snq} {}la AIJ€OuIT qclq U o1puonrodord sr ar qrFual lrun red pBol eq] teql s.AAoqs \ 'pve



tlL7: dq : m

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6Vl, secol.rng uo peO.retuqns se3rol6 g

ql9urwgns s])uoJ 6'9* st)vJuns No

rf \= 1500N/ill

S A ' $ P L EP R S B L T & I . ? 5
A beam supports a distributed load as shown. (a) Determine the equivalent at concentrated load. (b) Determine the reactions the supporls.

;- / 4.5kN/m

c. Squivalent Co*centrafed Lcad" The magnitude of the resultant of the load is equal to the area under the load cuwe, and the line of action of the resuJtant-passes through the centroid of the samearea.We divide the area under the load curve into two triangles and construct the table below. To simplif' the computations and tabulation. the given loads per unit length have been convertedinlo kN/m. A, KN
Triangle I Triangle II

r A ,k N ' m I ZiA : 63

4.5 r3.5 )A : 18.0



Thus, X)a :ZiA:

X(tA t N) : 63kN ' m

W : 1fi ]<;'r" J

The equivalent concentrated load is

and its line of action is located at a distance

7 : :].8 rn ta the riS-* at A
4.5kN 13.5 iiN




t f 8--

* E - - wY - - '

af by b, Reccfions. The reaction A is r erticaland is denoted A: the reacfion at B is representedby its componentsB, and Br. Ihe given load can be consideredto be the sum of two triangular loads as shown.The resultant of triangleand actsat its centroid, eachtriangular load is equalto the area-ofthe We write the following equilibrium equations for the free body shown:

+\ )Ma : 0: +\ xM, : s.

s':0 -(4.5 kNX2m) - (13.5 kNXam) + By(6m) : 0 3" : l8'5 i<Ni' +(4.5kNX4m) + (13.5 kNX2m) - 4(6 m) : 0 A:7.5kN?


A.lt*rszre*ic.e The given distributed load can be replaced by its Stsluti,*sEz" resultant, which was found in part a. The reactionscan be determined by writing the equilibrium equations )f, : O, 2Ma: 0, and )Ms : 0. We a{ain obtain

&, =,'tJ

: Sry l{1.5kN'l




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.i : i

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I i I

{ 6 8 0 ru: '.qt 096'o6s : p .qlJ!*
urrl^\ .VJo lq8p eq1ol p rJuelsrpn el8urse .,(qpaurelqo -"1rlr'"1d',o'"-.i":.J di;id;;;; 1eSuqce acroS "1a ?; ! 1i " {ll {i9ti'{}El : }ai



" t - -/, i

I ti

0: tN+ (I g)(ql 01 ) (U06xqt ) ( +J 60I' + 8sr/ / lxqt0006) (u s rTxqt 00e'er) (rrs)(q098'7r)- ,0: vruK !+
'; til {}f! -l * .X



0: ql 88VL qI0006 ql009'9T qt0g8'7I A 0 : 9160I'0I - 1l
+ tl 0ll'0t : *{

: 0: ' c K a

srr,*y$)nt';{ ww*qVym&t,;g

qt60r'0r: (ru/qt r'6e)(}J 8r)(rJ r)(USrx : qt 88rr : (eUlQI ($ i ) (U 8T (+toi )€ : i'6e) ) ql 0006: (ei.I/91 ) (U I ) (U 8I )(U 0I ): : oeI qt00s'er (cJ/qtOsr)(u : g) i)(u 66)(u : qr0eB'71 (eu/qr )(u r )(u 66) 6)t : : (u Oer

' I) a (cU/ql us)(I8IXr.I = ot dr1= u,.lt e,4t u,.n r,,!r


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Cr .- .i' ! L! -:.1


ol's wITSoUd EldWVg



problems.in ]essoninvolve two_commonand very important g,pes ot' T|" loading: fis I distributed loads on beamsand forces on s.tb*eiged^surfaces tf stantwidth. As we discussed Secs. and 5.9 and illustratedIn Sampleprobs-5.g "orrin 5.8 5 19,determining the singleequivalentforce for eachof theseload'ings r"q"rr", iidknowledge a ol' centroids. l. Anclyzing heoms rubiected |o dis*ibuied locds. In sec. 5.8, we showed that a distributed load on a beam can be replaced by a single equivalent force. The magnitude of this force is equal to the aiea ,rndei the d[tributed load curve and its line of action passesthrough the centroid of that area. Thus, yo" ,r.o"rJ begin your solution by replacing th'e various distributed loads on a grven beam by their.respective singleeqtti"aletitforces.The reactions the supports the beam at of can then be determinedby using the methodsof Chap. 4. possible, complex distributed loads should be divided into the commonfvhen shapeareasshownin Fig. 5.BA fsample prob. 5.9]. Each of theseareascan then be replaced by a single-equivalent force. If required, the system of equivalent forces can be reduced fu.rtter to a singleequivient force. As you study Sample Prob. 5.9, note how we have used the"analogy betrveenforce'und t'h" "r"u "rrd techniques for locating the centroid of a com"posite area to analyzea beam subjected to a distributed load.

points and techniquesshould be rememberedwhen rJ,ritrg problems of this tlpe: o. The pressurep ^t,^ depth h below the free surfaceof a liquid is equarto , yh or pgh, where 7 and p are the speci{ic weight and the density of the iiquid, respectively. The load per unit length-toacting oi a submergedsurfaceof "onr'tuni width b is then u:bp:byh:bpgh

2" sclring proLlerns jnr:l"i*s forceson-suhmerged bedies.The following

b" the line of action of the resultant force R acting on a submerged plane surfaceis pelpendicular to the surface. c. For a vertical or inclined plane rectangular surfaceof width b,the loading on the surfacecan be rep:esentedby a linearly distributed load which is trapezoil dal in shape(Fig. 5.18).Further, the magnitudeof R is given by

n : lh"e
where hu is the vertical distance to the center of the surface and A is the area of the surface.



'uosselslql ul pacnporlur seapl eql asn ol .{lrunpoddo aldruu e^€rl il$\ no,,('(scrueqcaupln6 pu€ sFIJal€u Jo sJrutrlcaurtelncrlred ur) sasJnoc scrueqcauluanbasqnsu1 '0I'g 'qord eldureg g sr pa,{rnc 3o ued ur u,r\oqs socuJrns 8u^1o,tursuralqo"rd uoqnlos Jo poqlaur aql 'OV aueld aql e.toqe3ur{1 prnbrr roJ eql Jo tq81a.u aql ol lunba sr 6I'9 '31,{3o tg acro3er{++€q}a^resqo '(Ot S '31.{) saueldl€cruo^ pue Ieluozrroq{q pue ec€Jrns pe^rnc eq} .{q pepunoq prnbu 3o atunlo^ al{l Jo urnrrqrynbaeqt Sulraplsuoc paurclqo^sr ,{q oc€Jrns aq} uo 8ur1ce acroJlu€]FSeJeql 'pe^rnJ sI qlpl,\A peireurqns eq+ueq^\ 'l lu€lsuoJjo ec€Jrns 'papeausI u Jo apntruts€tu eq] (luo ueq.{\ pesn eq ppoqs c qder8ered uI U roJ uanr8 uoqunbe eqt 'es.rnor 'palelnclec ,,(psee uoqecrldde3o slurod asoq,{\'secroJlu€lFser luapnrnbe a.re JO o,r\l aql esn u€c no,( 'g Sursnueql Jer{}€J'snr{J 'U o1 luap,trnba sr sacJoJ eseq} eql aqt qBno;ql sessed Surpuodse"rroc Jo plor]_uac Jo tuns eql l€ql pue e13uerr1 ecroJluBllnsarqcEaJo uorlcEJo aurl 3r{} }Br{le+oN('a}€lo eql Jo r{}p!ry\ seulp aql e13uer4er{} Jo Bar€ aq} o1 pnba s epnlruBeuraql) 'peo1;ep8uer4 qc€a Jo lue} 'se18uerrl -lnsar erll o.r\l olur p€ol pelnqFlsip 3o apnlru8eureql elndruoc uaql pu€ pprozade.rl ophrp tsrl.{ '6'9 'qo"r4aldureg g uud ur pa}EcrpupoqtatrlaLI} aqt esn 3o nol e.tr 'prozaderle 8urz.,(pu€ ueql ror{lur 'asucpreue8 ar{l rod 's leql 1se33ns 'peo[pr]nqt4stptop7 'peurtu;elep -uD?r+ v lpsee sl U J9 uorlceJo lr Jo plorluec eqt q8norq+sessed roJ eutt eq] 'as€csrq] Jod 'oJazsr oceJrns ae-t;aql }E plnbq eq1Jo arnssarct acurs aq} 'pnbl ar{l Jo aceJrnsaag aql qlp\ saplculoc accJrnsrep8uelce-r eueld u 3o a8pa dol aq+ uaq.rn(pplozede4 ueql raqter) reln8ueul eq IIla\ e^rnc peol eql 'p


o'nd 5,67 For the beam and loading shown, determine (a) the magnitudeand locationof the result*ntoi th" distributedload. (b) the reactions at the beam supports.

Parabola 7"'

-rf1a1\ott\,1, f00\'n,_+_++_j"

l__+_ ____!
Fig. P5.66 Fig. P5.67


tlrrough Determine 5.73 for the given loading.

the reactions at the beam supports

'1E0 ]b/fi

A [in -

{ {\,-t-tire* I { { I i : _:*: D "* cs' I I u*
t t t f.-rr,_-l.-6ft_#



Fis. P5.68

Fig. P5.69


1200 N/rn

Fig. P5.7O

Fig. P5.71

Fig. P5.72

Fig. P5.73


l8'9d '6!t

o8'9d '6!t

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v31 v

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t u'dH w

ly(il 09r

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g4.gd pun tZ.ga.6U



uiiN 008I

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Cenhoidsond Centers Forces: Distributed ot (,rovrry

5.82 The 3 x 4-m side AB of a tank is hinged at its bottom A and is
held in place by a thin rod BC. The maximum tensile force the rod can'withstand without breaking is 200 kN, and the design specificationsrequire the force in the rod not to exceed20 percent ol this value. If the tank is slowly {illed with water, determine the maximum allowable depth of water d in the tank.


s.83 The 3

Fig. P5.82 ond P5.83

x 4-m side of an open tank is hinged at its bottom A and is held in place by a thin rod BC. The tank is to be filled with glycerine,whose density is 1263 kg/m'. Determine the force T in the rod and the reactions at the hinge after the tank is filled to a depth of 2.9 m.

5.84 The friction force between a 6 X 6-ft square sluice gate AB and
its guides is equal to l0 percent of the resultant of the pressure forces exertedby the water on the face of the gate. Determine the initial force needed to Iift the gate if it weighs 1000 Ib. 5.85 A freshwater marsh is drained to the ocean through an automatic tide gate that is 4 ft wide and 3 ft high. the gate is held by hinges located along its top edge at A and bears on a sill at B. If the water level in the marsh is h : 6 ft, determine the ocean Ievel d for which the gate will open. (Specific weight of salt water : 64 lb/ft'.) Fig. P5.84 5.86 The dam for a lake is designedto withstand the additional force causedby silt that has settledon the lake bottom. Assumingthat silt is equivalent to a liquid of density p, : 1.76 X I0" kg/m' and considering a 1-m-wide section of dam, determine the percentage increasein the force acting on the dam face for a silt accumulation of depth 2 m.

Fig. P5.85 lig. P5.86 and P5.87 5.87 'the baseof a dam for a lake is designedto resist up to 120 percent of the horizontal force of the water. After construction,it is found that silt (that is equivalentto a liquid of densityp, : 116 x 103kg/m3) is settling on the lake bottom at the rate of 12 mm/year.Considering a l-m-wide section of dam, determine the number of years until the dam becomesunsafe.


I 0.45


A l

5.88 A 0.5 X 0.8-m gateAB is located at the bottom of a tank filled with water. The gate is hinged along its top edge A and rests on a frictionless stoD at B. Determine the reactions at A and B when cable BCD is slack. 5.89 A 0.5 x 0.8-m gateAB is located at the bottom of a tank filled with water. The gate is hinged along its top edge A and rests on a frictionless stop at B. Determine the minimum tension required in cable BCD to open the gate.

Fig. P5.88 qnd P5.89


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Forces: Centroids Centers ond 3i.3|o1i,i

The,center of graoity G ol a three-dimensional body is obtained by divlding the body into small elements and by then expressing that the weight W of the body acting at G is equivalent to the system of distributed forces AW representing the weights of the small elements. Choosing the y aris to be vertical with positive sense upward (Fig. 5.20) and denoting by i the position vector of G, we write that
Photo 5.4 To predictthe flightchorocferistics of the modified Boeing 747 when used to tronsport spoceshutile. centerof grovityof o the eoch croft hod to be determined.



A1'\ -


7 z

Fig. 5.2O W is equal to the sum of the elemental weights AW and that its moment about O is equal to the sum of the mornents about O of the elemental weights:


-wj : >(-Arvj)

(-AWj)] )Me: Fx (-Wj) :)[rx Rewritingthe last equation the form in iW x (-jl : ()r Aw) x (-j)



we observethat the weight W of the body is equivalentto the system of the elementalweightsAW if the following conditionsare satisfied: W:>LW iW:)rAW Increasingthe number of elementsand simultaneously decreasing the sizeof each element,we obtain in the limit

w:Iaw iw:l,o*


We note that the reiations obtained are independent of the orientation of the body. For example,if the body and the coordinate axes were rotated so that the e axis pointed upward, the unit vector -j would be replacedby -k in Eqs. (5.14)and (5.15),but the relations (5.16)would remain unchanged. Resolving vectorsi and r into the rectangularcomponents, note that the secondof the relations we (5.16)is equivalentto the three scalarequations


iw = ) a d w





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3a B




Semiellipsoid of revolution


2 " , ifieLn


Paraboloid of revolution






L /





Fig. 5.21

Cenhoids commonshopesond volumes. of


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"- : : - " " "; ; : ' : ' :
. a ' '


: " " :

J ' :

Determine the location of_the center of gravity of the homogeneousbody of revolution shown, which was obtained by joining a hemiiphere and a cylinder and carving out a cone.

Becalse of symmetry tle center of gravity lies on the r axis.As shown in the ffgure below, the body can be obtained by adding a hemisphere to a cylinder and then subtracting a cone. The volume and the absdssaof the centroid of each of these componentsare obtained from Fig. 5.21 and are entered in the table below. The total volume of the bodv and the first moment of its volume with respectto the y.:,plane are then determined,.



j { O O m - t= 2 2 . 5 m m

50 mm

Co Hemisphere Cylinder Cone

Volume, mm3
I /,+

i, mm iV, mma
-Y.v 5

0.4524x106 i;roor3: : 1.1310x106+50 ?-(60)'z(r00) - , ( 0 o r - r r o o r - 0 . 3 7 7x t 0 6 0 :
)V= 1.206x106

- 1 0 . 1 8x 1 0 6 +56.55x 106 -28.28 x 106 )iV:+18.09x106


X>v: >;v

X(I.ZOOx 106mm3) - 18.09 X 106mma X-15rnni 4


'r1I 8I9"I
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* ; _ " -_; ,\

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r/9'r : (s'\rlar\ 9'r : (9'0x6xg'7)


Arc,rlrc.rc -T




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png**-Ffvl 5"13

Determine the location of the centroid of ihe half right circular cone snown.

- - j : : : : : - . . . . . : . : . . . j . . : . - : : : " : . . : : . . : : : . . . : . . ' . . . : . . . j . . . . . : : . . : . . . : . : . . : : . . . . - - .


Since the xg plane is a plane of symmetry the centroid lies in this plane and a : 0. A slab of thicknessdr is chosen as a differential element. The volume of this element is 4y : )rr2 dx -y"i The coordinates i,1_and ol the centroidol'the elementare obtained from Fig. 5.8 (semicirculararea). rot : x
- 3 !/"t



4r ^i

We obserye that r is proportional to x and write r a

;: i
The volume of tJrebody is
| , h r h

a ': i*
r : -

v : I dv--I' f,,' tr : l" i,(?r\ or: T6 ' Jr Jo' \h / J
The moment of the differential element with respect to the ya plane is ia d.V; the total moment of the bodywith respect to this plane is lh /o \r, : lh : o o. r h t ) : I 7x I x " t d v J o x ( ! r r 2 d r J or ( j z ) ( n / I d x I d \ J I Thus.


' i

:l *v *",av ,+: +
plane is g"1dV: the lolal moment is f-

c* j* .,1

Likewise. the moment of the differential element with respect to the ar

lirdv L


o lh4r, e\, : 2lh/o\'. : - -3 ' I n 3o 'T r 2 r r ' ) t l x 3 J | (1;, x / l d r 7 o \ 6 L

iv : Ii",av


na'h 6


oth '

{i , ? i


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A\4K :,4\KI

,4\IK : A\KX

.{tr f %ttrf }ffi{*:r{4 ffi{ f 6 ,3ff*%


Determine the location of the centroid of the composite bodv shown when (a) h : 2b, (b) h : 2.5b.




Fig. P5.96 5.97 Determine the y coordinate of the centroid of the body shown.

Fig. p5.97 ond p5.98 5"98 Determine the a coordinateof the centroid of the bodv shown. (Hint: IJsethe result of Sampleprob. 5.13.) 5.99 The compositebody shown is formed by removing a semieilipsoid of revoiution of semimajor axis h and semiminoiaxis a/2 fim a hemisphere of radius a. Determine (a) the r7 coordinate of the centroid when h : a/2, (b) the ratio h/a for -hi"h 7 : -0.4a.

Fig. P5.99

'u^\oqs urroJ or{t l€taur-leeqs Jollr.rer8Joratueceql etecoT tOL,g pug ggl.g

rol'gd '6!r


'llr,ter8 tOt'gd puo ggl'96 '6;1

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Jo reluec



'6;1 lOt'gd puo gg1'94

(lrur 09


fir,ter8 Jo reluec eql Jo a]€up -rcoc fi oql attcol'u^\oqs ]uourolo aurrlcuuroql rod e01"9 puo lAl'9 ,{1r,te.r8 yo _ 'u.^eoqs le{cBrq do}s eql lo.f 1ol'g reluec eql Jo aleurprooc z eql elBcol .,(1r,rer8 3o roluoc oqlJo eleurprooc I arll ot€col'u1(oqs le{cerq dop aq} ro,f 001'9




Forces: Centroids centers ond 31.3|of#

5"!Og A wastebasket,designed to fit in the corner of a room, is 16 in. high and has a basein the shapeof a quarter circle of radius l0 in. Locate the center of gravity of the wastebasket, knowing that it is made of sheet metal of uniform thickness.

Fig. P5.r08 $-lQg A mounting bracket for electronic components is formed from sheet metal of uniform thickness. Locate the center of gravity of the bracket.

",rffi. o.ruK..
5"?lC A thin sheetofplastic ofuniform thickness bent to form a desk is organizer. Locate the center of gravity of the organizer.


(' ';i:' ')t;,J,,-.-r\
3 30mm / \ r=6mm r=6mm r=6mm Fig. P5.lI0

eO ^rf,




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dlquresse eql;o


raluac eql elr?col


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'8uru.Lre erl] Jo .{lr^€r8Jo raluec aql elecoT 'sseu -{clql urroJlun lelaur }aoqs luo41paleclrqeJsr Suru.tte ^\opurl\ V 111'g Jo

Distributed 270 or (,rovrry Forces:Centroidsond Centers

5.114 A thin steelwire of uniform crosssection is bent into the shape shown. Locate its center of gravity.

Fig. P5.lt4 5.1t5 ond 5,116 Locate the center of gravity of the figure shown, knowing that it is made of thin brass rods of uniform diameter.





Fig. P5.ll5

Fig. P5.tt6




ru ,w#^
7 x

,l ffi

5.117 The frame of a greenhouseis constructed from uniform aluminum channels.Locate the center of gravity of the portion of the frame shown.

5.118 A scratch awl has a plastic handle and a steel blade and shank. Knowing that the density of plastic is 1030 kg/m3 and of steel is 7860 kg/m", locate the center of gravity of the awl.

-l['o*80 ____J mm
3.5 mm

Fig. P5.l1


Fis. P5.ll8




lZl'gd '6!t





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rutu 086 = r.

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ozt'gd '6tt





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00 I







Forces: Cenlroids ond Centers Dishibuted of Grovity


Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area about the line K : h.

tig. P5.127 *5.128 Locate the centroid of the volume generatedby revolving the portion of the sine curve shown about the r axis.

u=bsnF "// za






Fig. P5.128qnd P5.129 '5.129

Locate the centroid ofthe volume generatedby revolving the portion of the sine curve shown about the y axis. (Hint: Use a thin cylindrical shell of radius r and thickness dr as the element of volume.)

*5,130 Show that for a regular pyramid of height h and n sides (n = 3, 4, . . . ) the centroid of the volume of the pyramid is located at a distance h/4 abovethe base. 5.131 Determine by direct integration the location of the centroid of one-half of a thin, uniform hemisphericalshell of radius R. 5.132 The sidesand the baseof a punch bowl are of uniform thicknesst. If t << R and R : 250 mm, determine the location of the center of gravity of (a) the bowl, (b) the punch.

Fig. P5.t3l

Fig. P5.132

get'ga '6ll

tr.. t \



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eel'gd '6H



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This chapter was devoted chiefly to the determination of the center of grar:i,tyof a rigid body, i.e., to the determination of the point G where a singleforce W, called the weight of the body, can be applied to represent the effect of the earth's attraction on the body.

eenterof gravity nf c In the first part of the chapter, we considered ttao-dimensional two-dimemsioncl b*dy b2!les, such as flat plates and wires contained in the xy plane. By
adding force components in the vertical z direction and moments about the horizontal y and r axes [Sec. 5.2], we derived the relations

w : I a w iw:l.o*



which define the weight of the body and the coordinatesi and y of its center of gravity. f;enfrold o$ nn #res sr l;ne In the caseof ahomogeneous plateof unifurm thickness fSec.5.3], flat the center of gravity G of the plate coincideswith the centroid C of the area A of the plate, the coordinatesof which are defined bv the relations

.e:[.ae ae:laae


Similarly, the determination of the center of gravity of a homngeneousu;ire of unifunn crosssection contained in a plane reducesto the determination of the centroicJC of the line L iepresenting the wire; we have

.r : f.ar or:laar


Finst ffimmenfs The integrals in Eqs. (5.3) are referred to as the first mamznts of the area A with respect to the y an! x axesand are denoted by Qo and Q,, respectively [Sec.5.4]. We have

Qr: iA

Q": YA


The ftrst moments of a line can be defined in a similar wav. Fropertier cf symm*fry The determination of the centroid C of an area or line is simplified when the area or line possesses certain properties of symmetry. lf the area or line is symmetric with respect to an axis, its centroid C


'ftr'g 'qora apueg] V eere eq] eulurretep o1 pasn oq osl€ uuc ]uotualo oruuseql :"fl pue hfl slueurour1srrJ Jo arp rpoq elndruoc ol €eJeJo lueurele errresar1 esn ol snoe8eluerrpe 11 sr

G's) vpt"li w:,o l:

v.p.! vz: no l:

uolpr$qry ,Q PpJ|ue3 uopsu!ililst3{ ro

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vfrK: vKz : "d

WK : VK4: nd

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IY\LK: tvt<l



'8tg eq {poq eysoduror 'sedeqseserllJolure^esorq pep1,r1p uec alqd pgn uer{z\A.'s'g o to ,t!^or6 p ralua3 ur pelelnqe] arc sadnqsuanmnc movna{o sp?oqun a#pw noJD arl1-

elsr{ e \ 'fte'S'^L) llenncadser'sexer pue f aq++noqe etlrJo' ' ' '6'f)]C fir,re-r8 slueruour Suuenbg '[g'g'ceS] qred snope,r ' ' ' '6!'rr saleulProocoql uro{ ' %&'rh PtJcJo sroluac el[+"}o peulurrelep eq u"c p fir,mr8 5o rsluec srl Jo tr pIrB X sel€urprooc etp


fuoru'rng /,.or^€d puo

'o qll a seplculoc p '6 raluec e o1 pedsa; rl}1 A clJleuruls sr 1l fl :serruo q etp Jo uoqcesrelq eql 13 pe]€Jol sr C 'sexe o ^+ ol pedser rFI/\ cpleuur{s sr U JI :strE l€{l uo sett



relatethe determination the of The theorems Pappus-Culdlrus of areaof a surface revolution the volumeof a bodyof revolution of or Theorennc Pcppus-suidinus the determination the centroidof the generating of to of curve0I AI0A
[Sec. 5.7]. The area A of tb.e surface 6-tt.it"d by 'i,tatirtg a cuNe

Forces: cenhoids centers ond

of lengthL abouta fixedaxrs (Fig.5,250) rs
A: 2riL (5.r0)


l \ -\-l- l
z"i \,,i


where y representsthe distancefrom the centroid C ofthe curve to the fixed axis. Similarly, the volume V of the body generated by rotating an area A about a fixed axis (Fig. 5.25b) is

V :2rryA



where y representsthe distancefrom the centroid C of the area to the fixed axis. The conceptof centroid of an areacan alsobe usedto solveproblems other than those dealingwith the weight of flat plates. For example, to determine the reactionsat the supportsof a beam [Sec.5,8],we can replace a distributed Loadw by a concentratedload W equal in magnitude to the areaA under the load curve and passingthrough the centroid C of that area (Fig. 5.26). The same approachcan be used to determine the resultantof the hydrostaticforces exertedon a rectangularplate submerged a liquid [Sec.5.9]. in

Fig. 5.25


Fig.5.26 Cenler o* grcvity of s threedirnensionol bodv The last part of the chapter was devoted to the determination of the center of graai,ty G of a three-di,m,ensi,onal body. The coordinatesr, Z of G were defined by the relations a,

iw:l.o* iw:Jro* vw:l^o* (s.r7)
In the caseof a homngeneous body, the center of gravity G coincides Cenlroid nf s volunne with the centroid C ol the oolumi V of the body;1he coor&nates of C are defined by the relations

* v : l . a v v v : Ia a v z v : I z d , v


If the volume possesses plane of sym:rnntry, centroid C will lie a its in that plane; if it possesses planesof symmetry C \l'ill be located two on the line of intersection of the two planes; if it possesses three planesof symmetrywhich intersect at only one point, C will coincide with that point [Sec.5.10].

82.9 .6lJ

'g6'9 '31.{ur ue^r8q eunlo^ rreql pu€ r€lncrrcer€ sq€F osetl+ 'uonn1o.r.er lpoq e ro.f 'ltl'g 'qo.r4aldureg]uo,t1o-fiagp yo ayBugsr4W e


^pI"! ^t I:

uec 'eue1d arp p11ercd"t"T:1:lT"t-T15S zfi oq c eur.,,rarap o.1v\
-lo^ eql Bu1p1,rlp euITleqi Suop er1ot sx€ r eql Sursoor{C 'uoll pu€ 'fuTaututks -cesrelur Jo euII rlar{} uo pelecol $ C pror}uac s4 {o sauo1d oo4 sessessod aurnloz' ori] JI 'slur8alur alqnop lpo e,r.1o,rul qc1q \


t Ap t"z | : tz

^ t ^ Lp t'h | : t4

| APt'x | : t1x

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9 =r,z,k=rali,x=rax



uollo"r$e4ug {q
Pro4ua] lG us4ourutja{a{l

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n4<: t<t



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5.137 ond 5.138

Locate the centroid of the plane area shown.


48 mm

54 mm


Fig. P5.137

Fig. P5.138

5.139 The frame for a sign is fabricated from thin, flat steel bar stock of massper unit length 4.73 kg/m. The frame is supported by a pin at C and by a cable AB. Determine (a) the tension in the ca6le (b) the reaction at C.

Fig. P5.t39 5.140 Determine by direct integration the centroid of the area shown. Expressyour answer in terms of a and h.


Fig. P5.l4O



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tvt'ga '6lt

aclor oI0 oulul'o+op unl:r]*ilt



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'3urpeo1 ue.r.r8aql ro3 s1-roddns ureoq eql le suorlceor eql ourruroloq e?l.g


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surelqoid era1 ^

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Distributed Forces: Centroids ond Centers of Grovity


(b) when = LtZ, tk ratioh/L whrch = L. h for t

Consider the compositebodv shown. Determine (a) the value of r

Fig. P5.146 5.147 Locate the center of gravity of the sheet-metalform shown.

Fig. P5.147

5.148 Locate the centroid of the volume obtained by rotating the shaded area about the r axis.


Fig. P5.148

e)'gd '6!l

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"relnduroc 1."urp4.61 rel€^\ flrsueporll) "ralu.^.r, po[U.{pr,rop ol sr{r€} uedouy "g1.g rFr^A eq Jo



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1)'9d '6!l
(r) \q)



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Distributed Forces: Centroids ond Ceniers OI \rrovlry

5.c4 Appronmate the curve shown using to srraightrine segments,and -determine"the then write a computer program that can be used to location of the centroid of the line. use this program to determine the ]ocationof the (n c e n t r o i d w h e a )a : I i n . , L : I I i n . , h : 2 i n . ; ( b ) a : 2 i n . . L : 17in.. h = 4 in; (c) a : 5 in, L : 12 in., h : I in.

Fig. P5.C4

5.C5 Approximate the general spandrel shown using a series of n rectangles, each of width Aa and of the form bcc'b', and then write a compurer program that can be used to calculate the coordinates of the centroid o-f the area. Use this program to locate the centroid when (a) m : 2, a : 80 mrn, h : 80mm; (b)m : 2,a : 80 mm, h : 500mm; (c)m :5, a : 80 mrn, h : 80mm; (d) m : 5, a : 80mm, h : 500 mm. In each case. comDare the answers obtained to the exact values of - and I computed fromthe formulas given in Fig, 5.8A and determine the percent"g" 6rror.

Fig. P5.C5

5.C6 SolveProb. 5.C5, using rectangles the form bdrJ'b'. of

*5.C7 A farmer asks a group of engineering students to determine the volume of water in a small pond. using cord, the students first establisha 2 x. z-ft grid acrossthe pond and then record the depth of the water, in feet, at each interseciion point of the grid (see the accompanyingtable). Write a computer program that can be used to determine (a) the volume

0 O

0 I

0 O

0 I

OI 6 8

9 o

0 0 0

9 L 8 9

9 B 8 9


I T 8 t I 0 "

V L 9 9 8 0 0

t I 0

t O 0
9 proc

0 I t 9 9 9 8 r 0

0 0 8 V 8 8 I 0 0

0 8 8 r I 0 0

0 0 0 0 0 0 "'


6 I



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