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1. Sexuality: a feminist issue? 5

2. Abortion in Sri Lanka in the Context of Women's 10
Human Rights

3. Revisiting the debate on abortion law 21

4. Let Women Decide: some feminist perspectives on the 23
‘Abortion Debate’

5. Medical Paternalism: the price to pay for women’s 28
reproductive autonomy?

6. A Womb of One’s Own: life, abortion and motherhood 33
in Sri Lanka

7. Keeping our focus on the abortion bill 36

8. Why we need to bridge the gap between sex workers’ 40
movements and abortion rights activism

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1. Sexuality:
A Feminist Issue?
Exploring the reasons why many women
fear their own sexuality

The control of female sexuality is a critical element of patriarchy. In
primitive societies, once the connection between reproduction and
the male was discovered, the need to "own" and "control" the woman’s
reproductive capacity as well as the fruits of her womb became an
integral part of male "being."

At times one senses that there was also a fear, sometimes an awe, of
female sexuality and fertility, in many communities, through time. This
is obvious when one looks at a range of traditions, cultural practices,
customs and religious injunctions that address the need to keep women
under male control. The portrayal of woman as the Madonna and as the
whore created a dichotomy which we still see reflected in works of art,
literature, the cinema; the creation of stereotypes of the "good" woman
as opposed to the "bad" woman. The bad woman is usually the one who
is free with her sexuality, and sometimes with her "sexual favors"; she
is "sexy," while the "good" woman is chaste, virginal, and asexual.

In more recent times, the discussion about sexuality has become
focused on alternative sexual practices. In some fora, speaking about
sexuality has become synonymous with speaking about lesbians. Yet, in
actual fact, the concept of sexuality encompasses a wide range of sexual
behaviour and practice that is "alternative" to the dominant mode. It
could include homosexuals, gays and lesbians; but certainly also, from
the point of view of the struggle for sexual self-determination and
sexual autonomy of women, this category could include single women,
widows, celibates. Some of these women have been "prohibited" from
having sex by the state, by religion or by the community-on the basis
that they are too young, too old, married, unmarried, virgins who must


guard their hymen since it is the most valuable object they possess.
Some could be women who have decided not to have sex with men,
and others could be women who have decided not to have sex at all. All
of them are women who defy mainstream sexual codes and patterns
of behaviour and are therefore particularly vulnerable to punishment.
Sexual transgression is a heinous crime in most of our societies today.

I have recently been working on the issue of the reflection of female
sexuality in the Sinhala cinema. I am developing the thesis that in this
cinematic genre, there are only four alternatives open to a woman who
dares to transgress the boundaries of community taboos about sex:
She can go mad, she can commit suicide, she can be killed, or she can
join religious orders. In film after film, I watch endless women going
mad, killing themselves, being killed, or becoming a nun. The penalty
for expressing one’s sexuality is most severe.

What constitutes sexuality ? Sexual practice, certainly. Sexual
preference. Who you have sex with, and how. Sexual desire. Sexual
pleasure. How you derive sexual pleasure and what your sexual
fantasies are. What you dream of when you dream about sex. Who do
you find "sexy," and why.

The tension between pleasure and danger is a powerful one in women’s
lives. The exercise of our sexuality can be pleasurable, a joyous
exploration; it can also be fraught with guilt, repression and sanction.
The negative side of our sexuality is that which victimises us, which
makes us vulnerable to all forms of sexual exploitation and abuse,
such as rape and incest and bondage against our will. This vulnerability
makes us aware, sometimes too aware, of the potential dangers of
exercising our sexuality. The threat of sexual attack is one of the most
powerful tools of control of women in contemporary society.

This element of danger has terrible consequences for us as women.
We grow to fear our own sexuality. We learn to deny our own capacity
for pleasure. Why is the female orgasm so mysterious, and why is it
so elusive for some women? Why does it evade so many women for all
their life? Is it because our bodies have been so well trained and our
minds so well fettered that we simply cannot experience that moment
of climax, of absolute abandonment?
Because our sexual desires are so well hidden and so cleverly masked


by social norms and "acceptable" forms of behaviour, they lie deep in our
psyche, emerging only in our dreams. We fantasise about sex but most
of us would never admit it, not even to ourselves. Because "good" women
don’t do THAT! Oral sex was a taboo subject a century ago. Today it is
quite an accepted part of sexual practice. Anal sex is perhaps still a bit
dicey; after all, sodomy remains on many of our law books as a criminal
offense. Gay and lesbian sex is titillating to the nonhomosexual; the
numbers of so-called straight (heterosexual) people who enjoy gay and
lesbian erotica is revealing in itself. How many of us harbour a desire to
have sex with someone of our own sex, or to have sex in what would be
to us, in our own context, an unorthodox way? Most disturbing to many
of us is sadomasochism in sex. Hurt? Pain? We seem incredulous,
but indeed pain and pleasure are also quite intimately connected
sensations. Bondage, beating, tantalising, using "mild" forms of torture-
are these "allowed" forms of sexual behaviour? And what about that
most thorny question of all? What about pornography? Why has the
production and reproduction of images of sexual behaviour become a
globally marketable commodity? All these are issues related to our own
perception of sexuality.

The other critical area of discussion relating to sexuality is the way in
which certain types of sexual practice and behaviour are privileged over
others, by social and cultural norms that are based on the acceptance
of certain forms of social and economic stratification and hierarchy.
For example, sex within marriage is sanctioned by the law, therefore
by the state, and also by religion and by the community. Sex outside
marriage is still taboo in many societies; the nuclear family remains the
norm as does the belief that sex must of necessity be for procreation.
The idea of sex for pleasure, of sex unrelated to, and independent
from reproduction is still an outrageous one for many communities,
although the development of contraceptives in this century has for the
first time in human history created a space in the human existence for
nonprocreative sex. The premium placed on virginity, the condemnation
of premarital and extramarital sex, as well as the criminalising of
certain forms of sexual practice including homosexuality, all point to
the difficulties experienced by us and by our societies in accepting and
appreciating the variety of human sexualities that are around us and
are an integral part of those we live with and love.
Within the women’s movement, the issue of sexuality has been a
difficult area of discussion. Feminists who were ready to challenge


many stereotypes and to defy the norms of monogamous marriage and
the nuclear family, were, at least right up to the early 1980s, reluctant
to take on issues of sexuality as a part of our own agenda. Part of it
was, perhaps, self-interest. By the mid-1980s, we had achieved a certain
degree of acceptance and recognition that we didn’t want to endanger by
raising troublesome and controversial issues. We wanted some space in
which to enjoy the fruits of our labour. We feared the backlash from the
conservative and right-wing groups who viewed unfettered sexuality as
an aberration, as flying in the face of God. We didn’t want to be called
lesbians. We wanted to enter the mainstream as legitimate actors in
the male world. In our desire to break the glass ceiling, we forgot many
of our sisters-the one who were as oppressed by class differences, by
racism, or by compulsory heterosexuality as they were by patriarchy.
Our theoretical and conceptual understanding of patriarchy extended
to an understanding of the ways in which it interacted with other axes
of power such as capitalism and various ideologies of racial or ethnic
supremacy. However, it didn’t really include any deep understanding
of differences within and among women. Our belief in sisterhood and
solidarity proved to be very deceptive.

Our inability to really evolve feminist ways of dealing with difference,
whether it was between women and men, or between women and
women during this period of our history has created certain divisions
among us that are very visible and problematic even today.

In 1984, Carol Vance asked a series of questions:
• are male and female sexual natures essentially different or the
product of specific historical and cultural conditions?
• has women’s sexuality been muted by repression, or is it wholly
different from men’s?
• does the source of sexual danger to women lie in an intrinsically
aggressive or violent male nature, or in the patriarchal conditions
that socialise male sexuality to aggression and female sexuality to
compliance and submission ?
• how can male sexual violence be reduced or eliminated ?
• how does the procreative possibility of sex enter into women’s
experience of sexuality?

should feminism be promoting maximum or minimum differentiation
in the sexual sphere, and what shape should either vision take?


These questions remain valid even today, fifteen years after. In fact,
in a world in which we face the AIDS epidemic, the development of
movements for gay and lesbian rights, the visibility of homosexuals
in many modern societies, whether with sanction or without it, many
of our assumptions about sexuality and sexual practice are being
challenged in a very fundamental way. We are being pushed to consider
the issue of difference within the feminist movements worldwide, and
to deal with it. Our right to sexual autonomy has been recognised and
hotly debated in international fora such as the Fourth World Conference
on Women.

Today, we live in a world where it is accepted that there are various forms
of family; it is accepted that women and men have reproductive and
sexual RIGHTS to engage in sex free from discrimination, coercion and
violence; it is accepted that many diverse forms of sexual practice can
coexist harmoniously if there is tolerance and respect for the inherent
dignity of the human person.

It is in this spirit that the feminist movement must continue with its
dialogue on sexuality, building bridges with lesbians and other women
who live lives of sexual nonconformity and are marginalised and
ostracised because of their courageous choices.
SEXUALITY: "A technicolour spectrum of biology, experience, psychology, behaviour, so-
ciety, ideation. The spectrum starts with the more social, shades imperceptibly into the
psychological and lastly becomes biological; gender role, sexual activity, sensuality, sex-
ual orientation, fantasy, pleasure, desire, gender identity, reproduction. (Muriel Dimen
1981, 66) Source: Amazons, Bluestockings and Crones: A Feminist Dictionary, 1992.

LESBIANISM: is a woman’s choice to give women primacy in her life-emotionally, person-
ally, politically. (Rita Mae Brown 1976, 90) Source: Amazons, Bluestockings and Crones: A
Feminist Dictionary, 1992.
HETEROSEXUALITY: A sexual feeling for a person (or persons) of the opposite sex, a feeling
experienced and enjoyed by some women and some men. Source: Amazons, Bluestock-
ings and Crones: A Feminist Dictionary, 1992; sexual feeling or behavior directed toward
a person or persons of the opposite sex. Source: Random House Unabridged Dictionary,

HOMOSEXUALITY: A sexual feeling for a person (or persons) of the same sex, a feeling
experienced and enjoyed by some women and some men. Source: Amazons, Bluestock-
ings and Crone: A Feminist Dictionary, 1992s; sexual desire or behavior directed toward a
person or persons of one’s own sex. Source:Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 1996.

This article originally appeared in Women in Action (1:1999)


2. Abortion in Sri Lanka in
the Context of Women's
human rights

This paper analyses, from the perspective of women’s human rights,
an unsuccessful attempt to amend the abortion law in the Penal Code
of Sri Lanka in 1995. The Parliamentary debate brought to the surface a
number of contentious issues relating to women’s right to control their
sexuality and reproductive capacities, in which women were variously
assumed to be promiscuous and conniving, or vulnerable and needing
protection. Some members of parliament resorted to arguments based
on cultural, religious or traditional differences regarding the origin and
sanctity of life, to justify their opposition to abortion and support other
discriminatory practices in relation to women. Others spoke in favour of
gender equality and the need to address abortion as a public health and
social issue, but few addressed the human rights aspects of this issue.
The coming together of conservative religious and political opinions
against women’s right to control their sexuality and reproduction
in this debate, is of grave concern. This paper argues that a human
rights framework, with its emphasis on equality and universality, is
appropriate for conceptualising and working for women’s right to

Under the Penal Code of 1883, abortion in Sri Lanka is a criminal
offence except when performed to save the life of the woman.
Women's groups in Sri Lanka have been campaigning for a number of
reforms in existing laws on abortion, rape and divorce for more than
a decade. In 1991, the government began the process of drafting a
Women's Charter, largely based on the Convention on the Elimination
of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW). This process
involved consultations with a wide range of women's organisations,
who succeeded in having included in the section on health a reference
to women's right to control their reproductive function. The Charter

was presented to Parliament in March 1993, and was approved with
little debate. However, as late as March 1997, the Charter remained a
commitment on paper only.

CEDAW make it incumbent on the government to bring national law
in line with the principles set out in these instruments. As part of
this commitment, and in consultation with the Ministry for Women's
Affairs, the Ministry of Justice drafted a bill to amend relevant sections
of the Penal Code. A number of representatives of women's NGOs were
also involved in the initial discussions, but the bill as presented in
Parliament apparently did not reflect the views expressed in these

In September 1995, the Sri Lankan Minister of Justice, Professor GL
Peiris, moved the second reading of a bill to amend the Penal Code
in Parliament. This bill proposed the introduction of marital rape
and sexual harassment (including verbal harassment) as criminal
offences; expanded the penalties for rape; and brought incest, which
had previously been treated as an offence under the marriage laws,
under the Penal Code.

Although the original draft of this bill had contained a section relating to
the relaxation of restrictions on the medical termination of pregnancy,
in introducing the Bill the Minister stated that he had decided to delete
this section in its entirety. This move, he said, had been prompted by the
realisation that this was a very controversial matter. However, in spite
of this attempt to pre-empt any discussion on the issue of abortion,
many MPs did address it during the course of the Parliamentary debate,
although the amendment itself had been withdrawn.

The potential changes they were reacting to would have allowed
abortion in cases when conception takes place as a result of an act
of rape or incest, or in cases of fetal abnormality. Despite how limited
these changes would have been in terms of who was eligible for a legal
abortion, stringent safeguards to 'prevent misuse' of the law were also
included. For example, it was proposed that a certificate authorising
an abortion be issued only by a medical practitioner with postgraduate
qualifications in gynaecology and obstetrics, and that the abortion
itself be carried out by a different medical practitioner. The proposal
would also have required the abortion to be carried out in a government


hospital or registered nursing home.

The Parliamentary debate on abortion
The debate that took place in Parliament around the proposed
amendments to the Penal Code was a critical one. In Sri Lanka, legislative
enactment is the only available method of modifying the Penal Code.
The debate took place over two days, and lasted six hours. There were
no specific party positions on the issues being debated. Instead,
throughout the debate, MPs presented their own personal opinions,
coloured, of course, by their general attitudes towards women. These
attitudes ranged from seeing women as promiscuous, to conniving or

The debate reflected some of the most common perceptions and
misperceptions with regard to abortion and women's right to control
their bodies and their lives. One view was that women have a natural
tendency to be promiscuous and would 'run wild' given the opportunity,
a view that has been repeated time and again in abortion debates
around the world. John Amaratunga of the United National Party (UNP)
said, for example, that allowing any form of abortion would 'open the
floodgates' and that 'a mere certification from a medical officer which
entitles a person to resort to such an action would be made use of to
continue (it) in a bigger scale'.

Ms. Pulendran (UNP), said that the Hindu religion forbade the taking
of life, but her intervention focused mainly on male bias in society. For
example, she spoke of son preference and the problems created by tests
which revealed the sex of a fetus, and of male decision-making power
within the family. Liberalisation of abortion, in her view, would also
cause conflicts between men and women and weaken the institution
of the family, and was hence not desirable. She also said that relaxing
the controls on abortion would lead to promiscuity, especially among
the young.

Some of the Members conjured up images of women as conniving, sly
and deceitful. An example of this was Tyronne Fernando (UNP), who also
opposed the amendments. When questioned by Minister Peiris why
abortion should be denied to a woman who has been raped, his reply
was that any woman can get into the witness box in court and say she
has been raped. 'We know very well that half these stories are made up'.


Mr. Fernando also asked for the Evidence Ordinance to be amended,
so as to require allegations of sexual harassment to be supported by
corroborative testimony. Otherwise, he feared that women could use the
law to embarrass men and bring false charges against them. Another
UNP member, Mahinda Samarasinghe, argued for making some form
of medical evidence necessary as corroboration in cases of rape, to
prevent false accusations from being made (by women) in order to
victimise someone, or take revenge.

Even those who spoke in favour of the amendments tended to take
a paternalistic tone, portraying the amendments as meant to help
women who were weak and vulnerable, especially poor women. In
introducing the Bill, for instance, the Minister of Justice clearly stated
that the amendments being moved were proposed in order to protect
"'vulnerable" interests - namely women and children. He also spoke of
the need to respect 'the wishes, personality and self-esteem of women,
in the conditions of modern society'. The words 'protection', 'vulnerable'
and 'weak' recurred throughout the debate in references to women.

In his intervention, MP de Mel (UNP) also focused on women as a
weaker section of society and therefore in need of protection. He
spoke in favour of abortion, citing the large number of illegal and
unsafe abortions performed in Sri Lanka each year, and said that in
his opinion the legislation did not go far enough. Chamal Rajapakse,
of the People's Alliance, commented on the problems faced by poor
women with unwanted pregnancies and said that the laws regulating
abortion should be reviewed. MP Weerakoon, Lanka Sama Samaja Party
(LSSP) was also in favour of liberalising the abortion law. He pointed out
that poor women could not afford to wait - and risk death - while the
amendments were postponed.

Little support for abortion as a woman's right
There were a few voices in favour of abortion as important for women's
equality, but none claiming it as an unequivocal right. MP Tiruchelvam
(Tamil United Liberation Front) in his intervention referred to ‘new
and profound changes in contemporary mores and values relating
to gender equality, which must be reflected in the law'. He spoke of
four developments with regard to women's equality: a growing global
consciousness of the phenomenon of violence against women, the
growing sensitivity to reproductive rights, concern with the health


risks to which women are subjected due to unsafe abortions, and
discrimination on the basis of sexual preference. Speaking on the issue
of abortion, he mentioned the class biases of the present situation, in
which it is poor women who suffer the consequences of unsafe abortion,
and he urged a more humane and realistic regulatory framework.

Former Minister of Health and Women's Affairs, Renuka Herath (UNP), was
the only other woman MP who spoke on abortion. In her comments she
referred extensively to the Women's Charter, which was brought before
Parliament during her time. Overall, she sup-ported the amendments
to liberalise abortion, quoting a UN publication on the global abortion
situation. However, she noted that care should be taken to ensure that
such measures would not promote rape in society. In addition, she
defined the time limit during which abortion should be permitted as
'before the fetus was transformed from a collection of cells into a child'.
Ms Herath also supported stronger punitive measures against those
who commit violence against women, advocated sex education in
schools and measures to increase awareness that contraception was
essential if the problem of unwanted pregnancy was to be addressed.

Explicit mention of abortion as a human right of women was made by
only one Member, Mr. Perera (Sri Lanka Muslim Congress), who spoke
in favour of the proposed reforms and quoted Hillary Clinton that: 'The
rights that women are fighting for are none other than the rights that
are enjoyed by other human beings.' In his closing remarks, Mr. Perera
said that women's rights were taken for granted in rural areas and that
people in those areas would be receptive to the changes that had been

Anti-abortion views and respect for cultural difference
Many Parliamentarians also resorted to arguments based on cultural,
religious or traditional differences regarding the origin and sanctity
of life, to justify their opposition to abortion and support for other
discriminatory practices in relation to women. The Minister of Justice
himself, in his introduction of the amendments, spoke of the different
systems of personal law prevailing in the country and in particular, he
referred to the susceptibilities of the Muslim community. He observed

'It is difficult to conceive of absolute norms or principles which cut


across cultural distinctions. It sometimes becomes necessary to
recognise different standards and values applicable to different
sections of the community. That is a part and parcel of life in Sri
Lanka.... It is not possible to emulate uncritically legal development in
other countries. We have to take into account the cultural realities in
our own countries.... '

MP Azwer (UNP) invoked the Qur’an and the Bible in his opening
statement, and went on to affirm that: 'Life begins at conception. That
is God's work. We have no business to interfere.' In arguing against
abortion, Mr Azwer pointed out that many young men had died due to
violence and that there was a male-female imbalance in present day
Sri Lankan society. Any means used to restrict population growth, in
his view, would be negative. In passing, he also justified poly-gamy as
an Islamic response to any imbalance in the male-female population
ratios at particular points in history. He appealed to the House, and to
members of all religions, to remember that:

‘We have a culture. We have something called a decent upbringing.
When something like this happens in our villages we call them indecent
women, indecent girls. You must not give protection to that indecency.
That is against our traditions and our culture. All our religions are
opposed to this.'

Among other comments made by Mr Azwer were: 'What is rape in some
societies is not so in others.' With reference to rape in marriage, he said:
'The primary objective of marriage is procreation.'

John Amaratunga (UNP), said he was speaking as a representative
of the Catholic community, which constituted seven per cent of the
country's population. His contention was that any attempt to legalise
abortion 'will be strongly opposed by all sections of society' and would
affect 'the fundamentals of social life and cultural life of the people of
this country'. His argument was based on 'a belief in the sacredness
of life'. He said that 'not only Christians but also Buddhists, Muslims,
Hindus and all who believed in the supremacy of life' would oppose
such a proposal. Seconding Mr. Amaratunga's views, Tyronne Fernando
(IJNP) spoke of 'unborn children alive and kicking in sider the mother’s
womb’. Calling those who supported liberalising abortion legislation as
'Frankenstein monsters' he said that 'liberalising abortion legislation in


Sri Lanka would pave the way for euthanasia'. He argued that if abortion
is permitted, then suicide would have to be permitted too. According to
Ms. Pulendran (UNP), abortion was forbidden by the Hindu religion as

Minister CV Gooneratne (Sri Lanka Freedom Party), who pleaded for
viewing abortion as a social issue, nevertheless spoke of the need
to make changes in the law 'within the ambit of our culture...'. He
reassured the House that '...I am not for a moment suggesting to hurt
the susceptibilities of any particular religion or community.... We should
look at it as a social issue.'

Backing down in the face of pressure
The Sri Lankan government maintains a tenuous hold on power, with
the support of coalition partners from the minority religious and ethnic
communities. Consequently, there were clear political imperatives
which led the Minister of Justice to withdraw his proposal to amend
the law on abortion even before it came up on the floor. Even so, the
debate continued on abortion for a second day, along with proposals
to amend the law on marriage and divorce. In the course of the debate,
Minister Peiris commented that abortion reflected some 'intractable'
moral problems, and noted that the area of contention was 'between
those traditions that regard all life as being sacrosanct and those
voices that believed in the independence and autonomy of women and
of women's right to determine their own future.' The controversy had
made it clear to him that the matter required more attention. In spite of
a personal commitment to liberal principles of equality and justice, in
withdrawing the amendment, he said: 'We have tried to accommodate
different points of view, different religious convictions and different
cultural and moral traditions.' In the end, no one was willing to challenge
legal norms and values based on religious belief.

The coming together of conservative religious and political opinions
against women's right to control their sexuality and reproduction, as
reflected in this debate, is of grave concern for women in Sri Lanka. The
Muslim lobby, for example, were able to obtain many concessions from
the Minister in the course of the debate. It was agreed for example, to
maintain the existing age of marriage and consent for Muslim women
at 12 years of age. In addition, marital rape was not accepted as a
criminal offense except when a couple are judicially separated.


Abortion remains a criminal offence
In withdrawing the amendment to liberalise abortion, the Minister
of Justice expressed his personal commitment to decriminalising
abortion. In his view:

'Decriminalisation of abortion is a feature of evolving legal systems
in many parts of the world and I do not see any reason why Sri Lanka
should be out of step with that general development.'

Hence, he promised to introduce health legislation to address the issue
of abortion. This has not yet materialised. Since this sole Parliamentary
debate in 1995, abortion has continued to be a criminal offence in
Sri Lanka. In 1996, there were several cases in which women who had
obtained an abortion for themselves, as well as women who had helped
others to obtain an abortion, were prosecuted by the police. For example,
several people have been arrested for conducting abortions, including
two doctors in Kandy in February 1996 and one person in Gampaha in
December 1996. In September of 1996, UG Malkanthi of Kandy District
was sentenced to three months in prison (but given a suspended
sentence), and fined Rs 1000 for an attempted abortion. On the other
hand, in January 1997, the President of Sri Lanka set up a Special Task
Force on Health; women's groups are now investigating the possibility
of lobbying for abortion reform through this Task Force.

Biology and identity: abortion as a key area of women's rights
The discussion around the amendments to the Penal Code in Sri Lanka
brought to the surface a number of contentious matters relating to
women and their autonomy. Women's right to decide when and if they
have sexual relations with their spouse (in terms of the concept of
marital rape) and their right to control their reproductive capacities (in
terms of abortion) as well as their right to be recognised as individuals
and as members of a particular community, were all at issue in the
debates both inside and outside Parliament. These issues are relevant
not only to Sri Lankan women, but are manifest worldwide.

Abortion has always been an area of controversy in terms of the rights
discourse, especially when it has been posed as a conflict between
women's right to choose and the right to life of the fetus. Within most
legal frameworks, abortion is not conceived in terms of woman’s right
to self-determination. Instead, in many countries, including Sri Lanka,


it is viewed as a crime against the state. In the USA, where the women's
movement has fought many battles over issues around access to
abortion, arguments have often been based on the right to privacy. Thus,
in the USA women have been granted access to abortion as a privilege
accorded to each one of them as individuals, as the right to exercise
decision-making in private rather than the public and acknowledged
right of women to control their lives.

Looking at abortion in this way, as Catherine Mackinnon has pointed
out: '...has shielded the place of battery, marital rape and women's
exploited domestic labour. It has preserved the central institutions
whereby women are deprived of identity, autonomy, control and self-

The anomaly of applying different legal standards to public and private
life has been a part of South Asian existence since the colonial period,
when uniformity was ensured in terms of civil and criminal law, land
tenure, evidence and revenue. However, the colonial state refused to
intervene in matters relating to the family and to domestic disputes,
reinforcing the division between the public and private spheres. Today,
governments are technically bound by international human rights
laws and standards, which define equality as non- discrimination on
the basis of gender, among other factors, but in fact national laws,
like those of Sri Lanka, do not reflect the equality principle as regards
family relations.

Thus, in the public sphere, in the areas of political participation,
education and employment, minimum standards of equality are
prescribed and when these are not realised, can be challenged in the
courts. At the same time, with regard to other areas of life which require
litigation, including in the criminal law, no distinction is made on
the basis of religion or which ethnic community a person belongs to.
Murder is murder, regardless of creed.

The situation is still quite different from this, however, in the so-called
private sphere, with regard to matters pertaining to marriage, divorce,
maintenance, guardianship, custody, adoption and inheritance. The
legal norms that prevail from community to community, as Sara
Hossain points out, 'relegate the private sphere of home and the family
to an arena beyond Justice, regulated by a variable set of norms.' Thus,


as evidenced in the debate in Sri Lanka, religious and customary laws
may be invoked to impinge on women's rights and responsibilities
during marriage and its dissolution, and the right to abortion is rejected
out of hand.

In this context, finding the means in law to take women into account
in a way that acknowledges women's role as social and biological
reproducers of society, and respects women's bodily integrity and sexual
autonomy - and yet does not confine women because of their bodies -
remains a fundamental challenge to activism in this arena. The issue
is further complicated by the framework of religious and traditional (or
customary) norms and practices which endow patriarchal institutions
and social formations, in particular the family, with the ideological and
moral rationale for controlling and regulating women's sexuality and
for subordinating women at home, at work and in society at large.

Conceptualising abortion as a human right of women
The focus on women's sexual and reproductive rights is a development
in contemporary women's activism that has brought two major areas
of debate on women's human rights together. On the one hand, there is
a call to examine women's right to control their sexual and reproductive
functions, which challenges existing assumptions about the division
of the world into public and private spheres, with the private sphere
continuing to be viewed as the arena into which the state and law-
making cannot enter.

On the other hand, there are issues of identity, culture and minority
rights from a perspective of universality and the need to evolve
acceptable common standards for human behaviour. Here, the focus
is on the dynamic between universality and cultural specificity; on the
one hand, human rights activists argue against the use of ‘culture',
‘tradition' and 'custom' to justify blatant discrimination against women.
On the other hand, they also stand firmly for the rights of all minority
ethnic, religious and other communities to express their identities with
dignity and respect.

The linking of women's health issues to a human rights framework has
challenged many existing assumptions on issues such as abortion and
provided invaluable tools for challenging two forms of discrimination
at once. Within the framework of this debate, as the discussions in Sri


Lanka have illustrated, abortion continues to be a highly controversial
and contentious issue. It demands that a subject which has for
centuries been considered entirely private, immoral and shameful is
brought into public view and that public funds are spent to ensure that
women can have access to safe, inexpensive abortion procedures. It also
demands that respect for women as human beings overrides respect
for women as members of particular religious and cultural groups or
ethnic communities. The central dilemma is to encompass women's
unique ability to become pregnant within a framework in which women
are entitled to be treated as full and equal human beings. Centuries of
unequal treatment on the basis of our capacity to reproduce need to be
overcome as women stake this claim.

An earlier version of this paper was presented to the Fifth National
Convention on Women's Studies organised by the Centre for Women's
Research (CENWOR), Sri Lanka, March 1996.

i Hansard Sri Lanka, 19 and 20 September 1995.
ii Mackinnon CM, 1989. Towards a Feminist Theory of the State. Harvard University Press,
Cambridge (USA).
iii Hossain S, 1994. Equality in the home: women's rights and personal laws in South Asia.
Human Rights and Women. R Cook (ed). University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.


3. Revisiting the debate on
abortion law

In August this year, Sri Lanka’s Cabinet approved a draft Bill allowing
abortion under two circumstances — when the foetus is diagnosed with
a lethal congenital malformation or when the pregnancy is caused by

Seen by many as a potentially significant reform to the country’s
existing law, which permits abortion only to save a woman’s life, the
move sparked a spontaneous debate. Views were divided mostly along
the lines of religion, public and maternal health, and women’s sexual
and reproductive rights — in that order of visibility and prominence.
This is not the first time the country is trying to liberalise its existing
law under the Penal Code of 1883. While earlier efforts to broaden
the Colonial-era legislation failed, they triggered key debates around
abortion in Sri Lanka.

Referring to a parliamentary debate in the 1990s, Sri Lankan human
rights activist and scholar Sunila Abeysekera wrote in her paper titled
‘Abortion in Sri Lanka in the context of women’s human rights’ in 1997:
"The coming together of conservative religious and political opinions
against women’s right to control their sexuality and reproduction, as
reflected in this debate, is of grave concern for women in Sri Lanka."

The terms of the debate have barely shifted in the 20 years since,
going by Human Rights Commission Chairperson Deepika Udagama’s
recent observation that public policy on health matters should not be
allowed to be dictated by religious lobbyists. "The Commission respects
the religious views and freedom of speech of everybody, but these are
issues that ought not to be decided on the basis of religious beliefs,"
she said, according to a report in the State-run Daily News.
Days after the Cabinet decision, the Catholic Bishops Conference of Sri

Lanka voiced its opposition. Their counterparts among Buddhist and
Muslim organisations joined the chorus. As opposition grew louder,
doctors from the Health Ministry briefed a group of religious leaders
representing different faiths. The photograph of the meeting, which
appeared in newspapers, was heavily criticised on social media by
those who found a room full of men discussing the issue ironic. Not
surprisingly, the proposed Bill was put on hold.

Broader questions
However, the debate has raised some broader questions for those on
either side of it to consider. One pertains to the question of "choice" in
maternal and public health. What does choice mean when access to
safe abortions is limited to those who can afford them? Health Ministry
officials note that 658 illegal abortions are performed in the country
every day. Sri Lanka has the lowest maternal mortality ratio — the
number of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in a given period —
in the region. It was 32 in 2013. At the same time, 10% to 12% of maternal
deaths in Sri Lanka are reportedly due to unsafe abortion. Experts in
the field of community medicine note that while maternity services
are available for free in the public health sector, the legal implications
of abortion virtually prevent government hospitals from offering the
service. The private sector, however, offers it stealthily, public health
practitioners observe.

Another question is to do with how the woman, her health and her
choice figure in these debates? "Finding the means in law to take
women into account in a way that acknowledges women’s role as social
and biological reproducers of society, and respects women’s bodily
integrity and sexual autonomy — and yet does not confine women
because of their bodies — remains a fundamental challenge to activism
in this arena," Ms. Abeyesekera wrote in 1997. It still does.


4. Let Women Decide: Some
Feminist Perspectives on the
‘Abortion Debate’

At this moment in Sri Lanka, ‘the abortion debate’ has sprung up once
again; with the cabinet purportedly attempting to pass a bill which
would legalize abortions for women under two circumstances[1] – if the
woman is a victim of rape or if the foetus is detected to have ‘Lethal
Congenital Malformation’. The Sri Lankan Penal Code of 1883 (yes,
that’s right, that’s the year our criminal law is from: 1883) criminalizes
all attempts to abort a foetus, including assisting in an abortion –
other than when a physician performs an abortion to save the life of the
woman – which would of course have to be duly proven.

Sections 303-306 of the Penal Code of Sri Lanka detail this law, and
even goes so far as to say, ‘It is not essential to this offence that the
offender should know that the act is likely to cause death.’

This Penal Code – that part of our colonial inheritance – has seen
the rare amendment, but never in these sections. The ‘abortion
debate’ has risen and fallen multiple times over the last few decades,
most significantly in 1997 when there was a push similar to this for
amendment. There have been objections and blocks right along, often
arising from religious institutions. Just some weeks ago our ‘religious
leaders’ said, almost unanimously it would seem, ‘No’.[2]

Many positions on abortion have been re-established via media reports;
several opinion pieces have emerged (I speak only of the English) –
particularly interesting to me are the ones coming from those seemingly
pro-choice, all of which attempt to unpack the moral and philosophical
layers of the discourse around abortion and abortion law. Several of


these pieces provide traditional Liberal modes of analysis such as
offering up ‘better sex education’ or greater access to information
around sex and contraception, and greater access to contraceptives as
solutions to the ‘problem’ that is abortion.

None of the articles, of this recent spate, as far as I can tell, in the
mainstream press or otherwise, have addressed what I believe is the
elephant in the room: the patriarchal history of the criminalization
of abortion universally, as a method by which the institutions of
patriarchal power (the state, the church etc) asserted their control
over women’s bodies, sexualities, and sexual lives. Fundamentally, it
was a method to limit women’s autonomy and to trap women in these
systems – to enforce a reality in which women are reproductive vessels
who belong not to themselves but to their husbands, their families,
communities and finally, to the state.

Only one article in English that I have read so far attempts to frame the
‘abortion debate’ as a women’s rights issue at all.[3]

It seems strange – and yet revealing – to me that even in 2017, when we
talk about abortion law, a large part of the conversation is dedicated
to handwringing debates on the morality or immorality of abortion
itself, while wholly excluding a more critical and analytical look at the
historical, cultural and political circumstances which gave us abortion
law to begin with and which continue to fuel abortion law even now.

None of these articles as far as I can tell, attempt to set this discussion
against the wider context of the historic arc of a range of other laws
which all sought to control decisions related to women’s sexuality
and reproductive choices – laws around the dissemination of, or
dissemination of information on, various kinds of contraception; laws
around women’s ability to autonomously choose delivery methods, like
caesareans – some of which are even in practice today[4] . If they did,
it would be hard to ignore that abortion laws were not introduced in a
vacuum, and are not upheld even today solely out of concern for the life
of the foetus.

These laws have historically been tools of control and often arose
almost directly as a response to various surges in movements for
women’s liberation.


When we do not address these things, we do not address the reality: that
the criminalization of abortion has proven to be a crisis for women’s
rights, women’s autonomy and women’s health everywhere. We do not
address the larger context within which, in Sri Lanka, we are fighting
for amendments to abortion law at this moment: a global shift to the
far-right, with things such as the ‘Global Gag Rule’ imposed by Trump[5]
putting the lives of scores of women in the Global South at risk.

It’s useful to note that, in keeping with tradition, Trump’s gross
declaration came days after the historic Women’s March of 21st January
2017 brought around 5 million people on to the streets across the world.

It is important to do this groundwork and interrogate our histories and
contexts to really understand what it is we want now. What are we fighting
for, when we call for amendments to this harsh law? As feminists, many
of us consider the amendments themselves deeply problematic – an
inadequate measure at best to win women some manoeuvring space
in dire circumstances. The amendments themselves do not centre the
autonomy of the woman and her ability to make decisions about her
own body, her sexuality and her health.

Instead, the proposed amendments could reinforce the idea that
women should first be victims of terrible circumstances before she can
be afforded her full human rights – in this case, she should either be
proven a victim of rape (and/or incest, statutory rape etc.), or have a
foetus so tragically malformed that it may not have chance for survival.
This ‘victim’ is a ‘poor, innocent’ woman, a victim of crime or a victim
of tragedy.

The other ‘ideal’ candidate for legal abortion – this framing given even by
many who are sincerely pro-choice – is, of course, ‘the married woman’.
The Good Married Woman, Already a Mother. She seeks abortions
because she is already the loving mother of three children and she and
her legally wedded husband have arrived at the decision together that
it would be complicated for them to have a fourth child.
Dinesha Samararatne writes, "Research on abortion in Sri Lanka
suggests that most abortion seekers are married"[6] and many of us
in the pro-choice wing are quick to use these findings to bolster our
arguments, because The State likes to hear that it is married women


who are seeking this service, not young, unmarried strumpets. In
principle, however, we must stand by every woman’s right to abortion
– even the strumpet’s! – whether she is married, unmarried, a victim of
rape or someone simply struggling with the problem of an unwanted
pregnancy acquired out of a consensual, pleasurable encounter.

We are well aware of the widely held attitudes and beliefs about
women who seek abortions which prevail within government. In an
essay documenting the 1997 process which sought to bring similar
amendments to this section of the Penal Code, S. Abeysekera wrote of
the parliamentary debate on this issue, "…throughout the debate, the
MPs presented their own personal opinions, coloured, of course, by their
general attitudes towards women. These attitudes ranged from seeing
women as promiscuous, to conniving or vulnerable." Unfortunately, not
much has changed today.

The medicalization of abortion as a strictly ‘health’ issue is another
conflict we have to navigate; previous proposals for amendment, and
this one as well, have all been framed medically and spearheaded
by those in the medical profession; women’s rights and women’s
autonomy are not at the helm of this framing but it is at least concerned
about the risks involved in subjecting women to illegal and unregulated
abortions. Socio-economic arguments are also made in this way, to say
that it is often women from low-income social groups who are most
vulnerable to unsafe abortions, as a result of criminalization.

However, while none of these formulations are ideal for many of us,
sometimes they’re all we’ve got. We have to be realistic and we have
to be strategic. So how do we proceed, especially those of us who are
women’s rights activists and advocates?

In her landmark essay ‘Sexuality: A Feminist Issue?’[7], Abeysekera wrote,
"The control of female sexuality is a critical element of patriarchy." This
is what we must pay attention to, when we create and shape discourses
around the legitimacy of decriminalizing abortion.
What is important at this juncture is to be able to push the conversations
about amendments to the law forward, in the way that they are being
proposed now, but to also always be able to bring the conversation back
to what is easily invisiblized: patriarchal systems of control, which
determine the pushes and pulls; we have to be able to centre women’s


autonomy in the debate. We have to be able to articulate seemingly
contradictory things together – while pushing for amendments to
lighten existing abortion law, we must – and will – continue to articulate
our desire for full decriminalization.

Furthermore, what is interesting for us to ponder is the default
heteronormative framing of our campaigns and advocacy around
‘reproductive justice’. I think it is our responsibility to consistently link
‘the abortion debate’ to a larger discourse around women’s sexualities
and the historic, patriarchal crusade to control women’s sexualities
– whether women are ‘reproductive’ or not. The language around
‘reproductive rights’ often excludes queer women who may not choose
to bear children, and even heterosexual women who may not wish to
bear children, who are already done bearing children, who cannot bear
children etc.

We must always find the space to assert our right to sexuality, and bodily
and sexual autonomy, parallel to the assertions of our reproductive
rights. We must, at this time, continue to broaden and deepen
discourses around ‘sexuality’ itself, expanding our understanding of it
in a critical and inclusive way. Therefore, the ‘abortion debate’ even in
the present day, to me, remains deeply linked to what seem like very
traditional feminist concerns: the full autonomy of women – to which
sexual and reproductive autonomy is key – and finally, the full liberation
of all people from patriarchy.

[3]That elusive right to control your life and body – Abortion: Prabodini Munasinghe
(Daily FT, 2017)
[6] The Abortion Debate: Mismatched and Misplaced?: Dinesha Samararatne
(Groundviews, 2017)
[7] Sexuality: A Feminist Issue?: Sunila Abeysekera (Women in Action, 1999)


5. Medical Paternalism: The
Price to Pay for Women’s
Reproductive Autonomy?

Abortion reform is currently a topic du jour in Sri Lanka, with dynamic
discussions on why reforms are needed, feminist perspectives on the
ongoing debate, as well as the view that "public policy on health ought
to be made on the basis of strong medical and secular grounds and not
on religious beliefs".

While this final point made by the Chair of the Human Rights Council of
Sri Lanka is pertinent, it is imperative we recall that while abortion is a
public health concern, it is first and foremost a woman’s reproductive
right, and that the choice to have an abortion forms an integral part of
a woman’s reproductive autonomy, i.e. whether and when to continue
a pregnancy. This calls for a serious public debate on whether the
medicalization of abortion through the proposed abortion law reform,
the key proponents of which are doctors and the Ministry of Health, is
a price worth paying.

Proposed reform
Currently, abortion is criminalized in Sri Lanka with one exception; to
save the life of the woman. The proposed reform, if passed, will allow
abortions in two instances: in the case of a foetus with lethal congenital
malformation, and when a woman becomes pregnant as a result of
rape. Both exceptions are at the recommendation of consultant doctors
in state hospitals and in the case of rape there is involvement of law
enforcement too.

Breaking barriers
An argument in favour of the proposed reform would be to relax the law


in order to make safe and legal abortion accessible for more women
who need them in the context of the two added exceptions. Another
argument seems to be that such a reform would take away restrictions
imposed by the state and enable women to access safe and legal
abortion, albeit in very limited circumstances.

While these make the reforms sound promising, a closer look reveals
that they are deeply problematic, both in principle and in practice.

Interrogating choice
The key concern with the proposed reform is that it is not centered
around a woman’s choice. Instead of giving a woman the power and
the choice to make a decision asserting her reproductive autonomy
(whether and when to become pregnant and whether and when to
continue a pregnancy), the proposed reform hands this decision over
to medical professionals (and not just any medical professionals but
to consultant doctors).

Medical assistance may be needed for detection in the case of a foetus
with lethal congenital malformation or to detect any other issues with
a pregnancy as well as to consult for advice. Apart from that, there is
no reason why the final decision, whether to terminate a pregnancy,
should be made by a doctor (or in other words, medicalized), regardless
of what the reason for an abortion is. While the doctors who are backing
this reform insist that "it will be up to the mother", in the same breath
they state that it will be up to the decision of a woman only upon the
recommendation of two consultant doctors from state hospitals. This
shows that the proposed reform is rooted in medical paternalism.

Medical paternalism
Medical paternalism is not a new concept or experience for women.
Research shows that medical practitioners often discount the views
and opinions of women and other marginalized groups. Research also
reveals a gender bias in the medical treatment of women, especially in
the treatment of pain. While this situation might be changing for the
better, it is clear in this particular instant that instead of challenging
patriarchal attitudes that disregard women’s right to make decisions
about their bodies, this proposed abortion reform leaves the decision
in the hands of doctors who presumably know better than women do,
what to do about their bodies. The absence of any women at a recent


briefing on the abortion reforms by doctors to religious leaders is just a
foreshadowing of what is to come.

The personal beliefs and biases of medical doctors are another form
of medical paternalism and unjustified at that. The backlash to the
proposed reforms included not just statements by the Catholic Bishops
Conference of Sri Lanka but also the circulation of a statement by the
Catholic Doctors’ Guild of Sri Lanka that "vehemently opposes abortion
for any reason other than to save the life of the mother". Should a
woman choose to seek recommendations from consultant doctors
for terminating a pregnancy as envisaged by the proposed reform,
she’d also have to seek out doctors who would not allow unjustified
paternalism to affect their decision-making.

Setting worrisome precedents
The proposed reform, if passed, will set several precedents that will
impede the progress of women’s human rights. Firstly, it will establish
that the decision to have an abortion, and potentially the decision for
other medical procedures, as a decision that has to be made (or not
made) for women.

Another is that "the proposed amendments could reinforce the idea that
women should first be victims of terrible circumstances before she can
be afforded her full human rights". Yet another worrisome precedent
that could be an outcome of the proposed reform is that imposing
restrictions and requirements such as a time limit, recommendation
from consultant doctors and police reports would pave the way for
further restrictions, as it has in other parts of the world.

Are these reforms working elsewhere?
The proposed abortion reform in Sri Lanka is not a brand new proposal.
It has been proposed and implemented in other parts of the world,
leading to unsatisfactory results. In India, the Medical Termination of
Pregnancy (MTP) Act permits abortion up to 12 weeks after consultation
with one doctor and between 12 to 20 weeks, with the medical opinion
of at least two doctors (exceptions to the time limit being a threat to
the woman or the foetus by continuing the pregnancy but only with
court approval). These requirements have resulted in an extra burden
on women and girls seeking abortions and have led to court rulings on
individual cases. When combined with the stigma attached to rape and


related lack of reporting of rape, the reforms "might work as a stop-gap
arrangement, but is obviously not a feasible solution to the problem in
the long term."

In 2012, Rwanda introduced similar reforms to relax the abortion law.
It has been reported that "after Rwanda modified its abortion law and
included burdensome barriers to access, little has changed on the
ground; legal abortions remain inaccessible for most women and girls."
It is also reported that few women, especially those in rural areas, are
able to procure the required approvals to qualify for abortion under the
current law. This has led to repeated calls to reform and further relax
the abortion law in Rwanda.

With clear evidence that such reforms are not in the interest of the
women who need abortions, one wonders why Sri Lanka is not instead
taking up the examples of countries such as Nepal and Ethiopia
who have liberalized abortion law to a large extent . These countries
are showing that abortion law reform alone is insufficient, and that
real change can come about only with a comprehensive strategy that
protects women’s rights including the introduction and implementation
of Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) for young people in and
out of school as well as availability of quality sexual and reproductive
health services, including contraception, that are provided non-
judgmentally to anyone who wants them.

Who are these reforms for?
Let’s return to the argument made by proponents of the proposed
reforms, that they would make safe and legal abortion accessible for
more women who need them, i.e women who have been raped and those
with pregnancies with foetal malformation. While it is true that relaxing
the law would give access to more women in these cases, statistics and
research show that these are not the main reasons why women need
abortions in Sri Lanka.

It is estimated over 700 abortions happen in Sri Lanka each day. A
majority of them are performed on married women (94% by some
estimates) and are performed illegally and often unsafely. Their
main reasons for deciding to terminate pregnancies are economic
instability and not wanting more children. While women from higher
income households often have access and money to terminate their


pregnancies in safe (but illegal) ways, women from middle and lower
income households end up going to "backdoor abortionists", often
resulting in death or lifelong disabilities. Decriminalizing abortion
would mean the women who want to abort unwanted pregnancies, for
whatever reason(s), can access them legally, safely and in an affordable
and non-stigmatized way.

Nothing about us without us
This critique shows that the proposed abortion law reforms in Sri
Lanka are the perfect example of what happens when laws, policies,
regulations or any decisions (however well-intentioned they may be)
are proposed or passed without putting the people most affected at the
center of that process. The reforms not only ignore statistics, stories,
and reasons for women who want abortions in Sri Lanka but they are
also not cognizant of the challenges women face in trying to reach the
requirements of the reforms, whether it is reporting rape when many
incidents of sexual violence against women go unreported for various
reasons or gaining access to two consultant doctors when even one
may not be accessible for some women.

Therefore any attempt at reforming the country’s laws for the benefit
of women must be done in consultation with women themselves,
including women’s rights and sexual and reproductive rights activists.
While medicalization might remove certain restrictions that impede
women’s access to safe and legal abortion services, the long-term
adverse effect on women’s reproductive autonomy and rights as
articulated by this critique do not seem like a worthy tradeoff for women
in Sri Lanka. Regardless of whether these reforms are passed or not, we
must continue to call for full decriminalization of abortion which is the
only way women can gain full control of our bodies, sexuality, and lives.


6. A womb of one’s own:
Life, abortion and motherhood
in Sri Lanka

From well-intentioned comments about our weight and skin colour,
to the insidious experience of being followed as we walk on the street,
women are wearily aware that their bodies are public property. The pro-
posed change to the abortion law does little to address this, but at the
very least it offers some relief to the victims of rape – the ultimate vio-
lence that occupies the dark end of a spectrum of suggestions, unsolic-
ited remarks, straying hands and force.

Whether they acknowledge the patriarchy or not, opponents of abortion
ultimately seek to maintain a status quo that limits women’s bodily
autonomy and coerces them into permanent motherhood or life-threat-
ening illegal procedures. While people who are against abortion do not
need to have one, it is strange that they feel entitled to make this deci-
sion on behalf of every fertile woman in Sri Lanka, ignorant of context
and untouched by the consequences of their actions.

It is possible to lobby to make Sri Lanka a better place for unwed moth-
ers, to improve the quality of life of disabled people and demand that
resources be allocated to improve existing systems of social care for
children, but in doing so, you have to still accept that this debate hap-
pens in the gritty, unpleasant, cash-strapped version of Sri Lanka, not
the utopian version we sell in our civics books.

Opponents of abortion might believe that life is sacred, and must be
protected at all costs and to legalize abortion would violate the inalien-
able right to life. The consensus on when life begins is a murky area for
scientists and ethicists alike, perhaps because defining the character-
istics of life is a complicated endeavour. Whether it is at conception or

on the basis of possessing a consciousness, spine, capacity for pain, or
heartbeat, there is no clear or arbitrary basis by which we define when
life starts.

But let’s just assume that life begins at conception. Are we forced to
acknowledge that the foetus has the same moral standing as a human
female in society? Why should the state apparatus prioritize a bundle
of cells at the expense of the physical wellbeing, mental health, dreams
and aspirations of an established member of society?

The pro-life stance posits that the right to life of a foetus outweighs the
choice of the adult. But this choice severely impacts the quality of life
of that individual for the rest of their life. We recognize that mere exis-
tence is not living, and human beings should have the right to a quality
of life, which is why we try to combat poverty and envision a world with-
out traffic. We even support efforts to curtail potential lives on the basis
that quality is more important than quantity. When contraception and
family planning is promoted, it is done so on the principle that more
children is not always a good thing. We concede that children should
not be born into families that are unable and unwilling to support them.

The right to life is considered so inalienable, because life is sacred. Who
decides what is sacred and why, is a question which does not usually
have a secular answer. Furthermore, it is clear from the abundant death
and destruction around us, that not all permutations of life gain the
sacred stamp of approval. In many countries it is legal for terminally
ill patients to end their own lives, as tangible quality of life is more im-
portant than an abstract sacred concept of life. Moreover, an individual
can sign orders instructing doctors not to resuscitate him, underlining
the fact that people can choose in some way or form, to reject life. In
Sri Lanka, we accept and even glorify, the ending of lives in war and in
self-defense, where self-interest overrules sanctity. In instances where
people are on life support or in a coma, some states afford their next
of kin the choice to terminate care. These examples are not meant to
trivialize life or suggest that murder is a desirable hobby, but rather to
emphasize the fact that the blanket claim "life is sacred," is simplistic
and cruelly insulting to the individuals who have had to make these
difficult choices. It is not a zero sum game. These decisions are not
easy, but they are facilitated by state structures, thus entrusting those
who know the most about their situation, to make a decision suited


to them. It acknowledges the messy reality of life and trusts people to
weigh costs and benefits and make complex moral decisions in a grey
and confusing world.

The more interesting question though, is not if we are permitted to end
life, but if we are obliged to save one.

Consider an onlooker who chances upon a man drowning in a river. He
is not legally bound to jump in and save the drowning man, even if he is
an excellent swimmer and the only person in sight; essentially the best
and only candidate for the job. He may do so, based on his own moral
code and values, but we do not dictate that he must suffer risks or even
exert himself, to save the life of another. Scaling up this logic, the state
does not require that we become compulsory organ donors upon our
death, even if this would save multiple lives, at zero cost to our own for
obvious reasons. States cannot compel us to be superheroes, because
they realize these instances are so context dependent. Women are the
only exemption. The same onlooker has no obligation to stop a woman
getting raped, but once she is raped and pregnant, she is expected to
sustain the life of a foetus, despite the risks and effects of pregnancy.
Women are expected to bear the ordeal of pregnancy and the pain of
childbirth, and put their dreams on hold, so that they can sustain an-
other human.

They are forced to do so, because motherhood and pregnancy are still
extolled as things that all women, deep down in their shrewish hearts,
should want. We think that abortion is unacceptable because we do not
entertain the notion that women’s reasons for avoiding motherhood
are valid. It is worth considering that those who support abortion do
not abhor motherhood. Rather, they consider it a life-changing decision
that is too important to be left to whims of fate. Right now, motherhood
hovers over every fertile woman in Sri Lanka, and we can do nothing but
place our trust in the reliability of condoms and the goodness of men.


7. Keeping our focus on the
abortion bill
20 OCTOBER 2017

I am not a theologian nor a reproductive health expert. I am merely a lay
woman, a member of the Catholic church in Sri Lanka, responding to
recent articles published by members of my own religious community
regarding the bill to expand safe abortion provisions. This article is
written for the sake of balanced perspective and healthy, constructive
debate within our community. We must take a step back and look at
exactly whose lives we are protecting with our attitudes towards this

Currently, it is legal in Sri Lanka to terminate a pregnancy if a mother’s
life is at risk. The proposed bill extends safe abortion in two very
narrow, specific cases: (1) where the foetus has a lethal congenital
malformation and (2) where the mother is a victim of rape. These are
extremely limited cases. We need to focus our attention on these cases
instead of falling prey to slippery slope arguments that make broad-
sweeping claims about women’s reproductive health.

We are all aware that the Catholic church’s official position on abortion
is against it. Recently, due to the on-going debate on the proposed
bill, representatives of the Catholic church have come forward with
articles on the abortion issue. However, the members and leaders of
the church who are writing about it in public are not responding to
the issue at hand, that is, the extension of abortion provisions in two
limited cases. Instead, they have turned this debate into empty rhetoric
by lashing out at the reproductive rights of women whole-scale. In
doing so, they exemplify a knee-jerk reaction that – embarrassingly
for many members of the Catholic faith – depict the Catholic church
as reactionary and misogynist. There is no constructive debate on this


issue. Worse still, even though Catholics represent barely 6% of Sri
Lanka’s total population, the church has managed to put a massive
spanner in the progress of a bill that will affect all 22 million of us.

In an article widely circulated amongst the Catholic community, the
Catholic Doctors’ Guild claims that ‘the trauma of sexual assault is likely
to inhibit ovulation’. This is a false and dangerous myth. The Guild quotes
a rate of 0.1% but it provides no citation of medical studies or references
to support this claim. On the other hand, a widely-quoted publication in
the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology in 1996 showed that
32,101 pregnancies occurred annually through rape. This study shows
that pregnancy can vary up to 30% depending on proximity to date of
ovulation, averaging at 5% overall. This higher statistic is supported
by Rev. Fr. Icatlo in an article published in The Messenger on the 10th
September 2017 where he cites a 1982 study carried out on over 400
women. In this study, the rape-related pregnancy rate stands at just
over 6% overall. The Catholic community deserves information, facts,
and truth from the Guild rather than uncited statistics that perpetuate
false myths.

In another article entitled ‘How should we consider abortion?’ published
September 7th 2017 in The Island, Fr. Augustine Fernando of Badulla
Diocese completely evades talking about the narrow propositions
of the bill (i.e. safe pregnancy termination for rape victims and of
malformed foetuses) and instead fills 2000 words of an article with
vitriol against the whole idea that a woman should be able to choose
what she does with her body. Well, rape victims certainly did not have
the luxury of choosing what happened to their bodies at the hands
of their perpetrators. Fr. Fernando also does not bother responding
to the issue of rape and abnormal foetuses and instead continues
to talk about ‘immoral deviant sexual behaviour’ and ‘wanton sexual
escapades’ and how abortion is prevalent now because ‘pregnancy
has become "an inconvenience" to particular women’. Needless to say,
the wantonness, immorality and inconvenience he speaks of are not
related at all to the wanton, immoral, inconvenient, heinous act of rape.
He merely connects abortion to promiscuity, which is certainly not the
focus of the bill at hand.

Let us understand something fundamental: whether or not Sri Lanka
legalizes abortion, abortions will happen. The only difference legalization


makes is whether women have access to SAFE abortion or not. That is,
legalization will determine whether women can go to a hospital and
seek a medical intervention overseen by medical professionals that
will ensure her safe recovery. If it remains illegal, women will continue
seeking unsafe abortions which often leave them sterile, cause
irreversible medical complications, and in the worst cases, can lead to
death through excessive bleeding.

The Church’s ideology against abortion is based primarily on the
commandment ‘Thou shalt not kill’. Even through my rudimentary
understanding of Catholic dogma, I find that our stance against this
current bill is in contradiction with itself. In Sri Lanka, the Police
Department showed that in 2015, 80% of all rape victims were girls
under the age of 16. About 700 illegal abortions are performed every
day and in 2006, 2008, and 2010, it was the second leading cause of
maternal death, according to research by the Family Health Bureau
(FHB). It is not abortion itself that causes these deaths but rather the
unsafe conditions of operation and the lack of critical aftercare. The
FHB continues to note that ‘considering the…data, its legal status does
not prevent women from seeking abortions but does prevent women
from seeking immediate medical assistance when complications
occur’. Even in 2015, the FHB finds that ‘maternal death due to septic
abortion is the third highest cause for maternal death, at 13%.’ A
common argument in these anti-abortion articles is that abortion is
‘killing an innocent child’ for something he/she did not do. This is true
but in a different sense: unsafe abortions are indeed killing innocent
girls and women for something they did not choose to have done to
their bodies. If Catholics are truly committed to protecting life then we
need to address the actual, current violence and death that hundreds
of girls and women are facing. In reality, the current proposed bill will
actually save, not end, hundreds of lives.

The articles I have read written by Catholics on the current abortion
issue are written by men. It is true that our church has the problem
of letting celibate men have total control of sexual and reproductive
rights of its community. However, that is our problem to deal with. It is
unwarranted that Catholic men promote a view – which is dangerously
misleading and outright false at times – that will affect millions of
citizens that they will never see or have to support. As a professional, I
have worked with children’s homes, pregnant victims of sexual abuse,


and families with severely disabled offspring. Some of these people
were indeed supported by church outfits, largely by nuns and sisters.
However, never in all the years that I worked with those communities
did I see or hear of any of these male writers who are now suddenly so
impassioned about the sacredness of family. I appeal to them and to
all those who argue against abortion to substantiate your commitment
to ‘life’ by extending assistance to the existent homes that take care of
products of unwanted pregnancies. Do this instead of trying to turn the
tide against a progressive bill that will actually save, not end, hundreds
of lives.


8. Why We Need To Bridge The
Gap Between Sex Workers’
Movements And Abortion
Rights Activism


In an interview a few years back, Canadian feminist and pro-choice
activist Joyce Arthur drew a convincing parallel between the movement
for women’s right to access safe and legal abortion and sex workers’
movements for their rights and decriminalisation of sex work. Both
movements, at their core, are about women having control over their
own bodies, sexuality, and choices, unclipped and free from interference
by the State. 1 The comparison isn’t perfect, as Ms. Arthur cautioned, but
it is well worth exploring the complex, dynamic relationship shared by
these movements, especially when situated within the framework of
reproductive justice.

Ensuring bodily autonomy for all people, regardless of any "stipulations
and caveats"2 is the cornerstone of the reproductive justice framework.
Reproductive justice offers a critical paradigm shift from approaching
and thinking about abortion and reproductive health merely in terms
of "choice" to locating these issues within the broader context of "well-
being and health of women, families and communities" while also taking
into account "issues of population control, bodily self-determination,
immigrants’ rights, economic and environmental justice, sovereignty,
and militarism and criminal injustices that limit individual human
rights because of group or community oppressions". This intersectional
framework and movement enables a space for marginalised identities
and groups to fight collectively against reproductive oppression,
defined as "control and exploitation of women, girls, and individuals


through their bodies, sexuality, labour, and reproduction."3

The framework of reproductive justice, therefore, serves as an excellent
avenue to bring together the issue of abortion and sex work, in order
to explore the commonalities and intersections between these fields
of advocacy, which are geared towards challenging patriarchal norms
around (women’s) sexuality(/ies). Abortion and sex work also share the
distinction of being topics on which even feminist activists sometimes
find it difficult to remain non-judgmental, confronting feminists with
the question: to what lengths are we really willing to go to respect and
enable women’s choices and bodily autonomy? Though reproductive
justice encompasses all genders of sex workers, for the purpose of this
essay we’ll be focusing on female sex workers (FSWs) and abortion.
Similar barriers could be experienced by individuals with different
gender identities and gender expressions as well.

Barriers to sex workers’ reproductive freedom – including means and
access to prevent pregnancy, options to terminate pregnancy, and
the choice and resources to raise children – haven’t been thoroughly
explored because SRHR (Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights)
has been applied in a limited fashion to sex workers. It is telling that
the majority of studies concerning FSWs in the Global South address
their sexual health but narrowly, focusing on prevention and treatment
of HIV/AIDS. This assumption elides the fact that FSWs are not
responsible for the majority of the transmission of HIV, and are hence
wrongly characterised as vectors of disease to the extent that both Rs
in SRHR are often overlooked.4 Most outreach to sex workers does not
seriously consider their sexual autonomy or reproductive lives, part of
an implicit marginalising of FSWs even among activists, leading them
to classify FSWs as a separate category at arm’s length from "other"

Interesting things happen when we examine how FSWs approach
obtaining abortions. In many ways, FSWs in India, Brazil, Uganda, and
other locales where abortion is stigmatised and frequently difficult
to access, face the same barriers as abortion-seekers who are not
involved in sex work. Both face a possible breach of confidentiality or
judgmental attitude of medical providers (to the point of sometimes
refusing abortion or contraception services). Because of this, many
abortion-seekers end up availing private medical care, which is costlier


and thus harder for many to access.

Furthermore, for many women the ‘basket of choices’ isn’t realistically
available when it comes to contraception, meaning a lack of access
to resources that help them exercise their bodily integrity and sexual
autonomy in choosing when and if they want to become pregnant. There
is also a clear need for dual methods of contraception – not condoms
alone, which are only "medium effective" at preventing pregnancy.5
Like adolescents and unmarried women, FSWs are typically excluded
from so-called "family planning" initiatives. As Swati Ghosh notes in
her study of sex workers in Kolkata, their consistent exclusion from
contraceptive services leads many to believe modern contraceptive
methods don’t apply to them as these are designed for married
people within normative families.6 All of these groups face barriers
to non-stigmatised, affordable contraceptive care given underlying
assumptions that they either don’t have control over their own bodies
or shouldn’t be using them for sex of their own volition – whether for
income or for personal pleasure.

Another common barrier among abortion seekers has more to do with
exercising their reproductive freedom to decide on their own terms
when and with whom to have children. The stigma and risk associated
with having an abortion is still less than going through with an
unplanned pregnancy, especially if it happens outside of marriage. The
social barrier is such that even when a woman might otherwise want to
continue a pregnancy, she feels abortion is her only option – that is, if
she can access one.

These barriers to accessing safe and legal abortion are sometimes
intensified for FSWs because of their marginalised position in
society. However, research indicates that because of the relatively
high frequency of unplanned pregnancies FSWs face, they may differ
from other abortion seekers with regard to their own attitudes toward
termination of pregnancy, and how information, resources, and
support related to abortion circulate within sex worker communities.
Sex workers in Uganda report that because of the nature of their work,
abortion information is readily available within their communities, in
which women are an active support network for each other with regard
to unplanned pregnancies and other issues.7In Kolkata, Ghosh asserts
that having an abortion is such a common occurrence among FSWs


that it doesn’t carry the same "inhibition" as it does for women in a
"family setting".8

At the same time, it would be a mistake to assume that there’s a
homogeneous narrative around FSWs’ lived experiences of abortion.
In Laos for instance – where both sex work and abortion are illegal –
a more complicated ethical stance of FSWs emerges, challenging
the idea that sex workers lack an ethical and/or emotional response
to abortion and are merely annoyed by it as a work-related hazard.
Though many interviewees had experienced abortion before or after
entering sex work, about 70% thought that abortion should remain
illegal in Laos, should not be culturally accepted, and that women who
terminated pregnancies were immoral.[9] Yet, 70% also strongly agreed
that abortion is the best option they have when facing unintended
pregnancy. Instead of positioning FSWs as a separate category, the
authors of this study show that, of course, sex workers’ sense of morality
is affected by broader social mores, even as they might intentionally
or implicitly subvert norms by participating in a marginalised form of

This is a fascinating finding: in the majority of literature on FSWs
accessing abortion, their narratives are reduced to numbers. 70% of
Laotian sex workers seem to have a deep conflict about the morality of
abortion, but we have none of their statements telling how they really
feel and what challenges they faced in going ahead with termination. In
spite of the emphasis on storytelling in the abortion rights movement,
and the imperative for intersectional inclusivity on which reproductive
justice hinges, there is a troubling lack of dialogue with FSWs regarding
their experiences of abortion. As their experiences encapsulate (on one
hand, the multiple marginalisation of being abortion seekers involved
in sex work, and on the other the cultivation of communities where
women openly support each other and share resources about abortion
and other services) abortion rights activists stand to learn a lot from
how FSWs understand, address, and access abortion. In the Indian
context, moreover, given that our movement to expand safe abortion
access and secure abortion as a right for all women is still emerging and
growing, we can learn a lot from the strategies surrounding organising
and movement building that sex workers’ movements have developed
and advanced over the last two decades.


Despite histories of rifts in feminist movements over both abortion
rights and sex workers’ rights, it is our belief that reproductive justice
can help suture these rifts, because it aims to make ‘choice’ realistic for
everyone by addressing comprehensive intersecting inequalities. But
these efforts will work only if we apply the principles of reproductive
justice consistently and with healthy doses of self-critique. For abortion
rights activists, this means reaching out to sex workers to share their
experiences (of abortion, and otherwise) instead of assuming it’s
enough to implicitly include them in the category of ‘other marginalised
groups’. Only then can we ensure a mutual enabling of ownership and
space for diverse identities, stories and experiences around abortion
within the reproductive rights movement, and inch a step closer
towards our mutual goal of ending reproductive oppression for all.

[1] Smith, Charlie. Why Feminist Joyce Arthur Supports Sex Workers’ Rights. The Georgia
Straight. September 28, 2011.
[2] Kapp-Klote, H. Beyond Birth Control: Recent Reproductive Justice Stories That Fewer
People Are Talking About. Rewire. July 18, 2014.
[3] Ross, Loretta. Understanding Reproductive Justice. Trust Black Women. November
2006 (Updated March 2011).
[4] See for example: Madeiro, Alberto and Debora Diniz, "Induced Abortion Among Brazilian
Female Sex Workers", Ciência & Saúde Coletiva 20.2 (2015): 587-593.
Marlow, Heather M. et al, "Abortion Services for Sex Workers in Uganda: Successful
Strategies in an Urban clinic", Culture, Health & Sexuality 16.8 (2014): 931-943; Todd,
Catherine S. et al, "Contraceptive Utilization and Pregnancy Termination Among Female
Sex Workers in Afghanistan", Journal of Women’s Health 19.11 (2010): 2057-2062.
[5] Feldblum, Paul J. et al, "Pregnancy Among Sex Workers Participating in a Condom
Intervention Trial Highlights the Need for Dual Protection," Contraception 76 (2007): 105-
[6] Ghosh, "‘Professional’ Abortion Seekers: The Sex Workers of Kolkata," CEHAT (2003):
[7] Marlow Op Cit, p. 935.
[8] Ghosh, Op Cit, p. 2.
[9] Cleeve, Amanda et al, "Attitudes and Experiences Regarding Induced Abortion Among
Female Sex Workers, Savannakhet Province, Laos," Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare 5
(2014): 137-141.


wdrla‍Is; .íidj ms<sn|
f,aLk tl;=jla


1¡ ,;ajh( ia;%Sjd§ m%Yakhla o@
fndfyda ldka;djka Tjqkaf.a
,;ajh iïnkaOj olajk ìhg
fya;= úuiSu

iqks,d wfífialr

ldka;djkaf.a ,;ajh md,kh lsÍu mqreIdêm;Hfha b;d jeo.;a wx.hls'
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fidhd.;a miq˜ ldka;djkaf.a m%ckk Odß;djh whs;slr.ekSu g yd md,khg
we;s wjYH;djh fukau —wehf.a .¾NdIfha M,hka˜ mqreI j¾.hdg w;HdjYH
idOl njg m;aúh'

ld,hla mqrdjg, fndfyda m%cdjka ;=< ia;%S ,;ajh yd ireNdjh iïnkaOj
ìhla fukau hï wdldrhl Ns;sldjla o ;snqKq nj whl=g oeksh yel’ ldka;djka
mqreIhska hgf;a ;ndf.k md,kh lsÍfï wjYH;djh ms<sn|j idlÉPd lrk
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fõ' j¾;udkh jk úg wmf.a fndfyda iudchka ;=, ,;ajh w;sl%uKh
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,nd.ekSu hk ldrKh iïnkaOfhka ú,x.= oud we;s ksidh, iqr;dka;h
w;aoelSug fmr , ;Dma;sh ,nd.ekSug fmr wmj w;ayer oud we;s ksidh@

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thg fya;=j —hym;a˜ ldka;djka tf,i fkdlrk ksidh' j¾;udkfha§
, l%shdldrlïj, fldgila f,i ms<s.;a;o, ishjia .Kkdjlg fmr uqL
, ixi¾.h ;yxÑhlaj mej;=‚' .=o , ixi¾.h wo jk úg;a
ms<sl=,a uÜgfuys,d i,lhs' wog;a ì%;dkHhska úiska y÷kajd ÿka kS;s
fmd;aj, tlS p¾hdjka wmrdOldÍ yeisÍï f,i i,lh’' iußis mqreIhska
yd ldka;djkaf.a , p¾hdjka iu, j¾hdjka fkdjk wdldrhg
m;alsÍug n,lrk w;ru, úIu , hehs lshd.kakd msßi iu,
yeisÍï iys; o¾Yk keröug reÑl;ajhla olaj;’' wmf.ka lS fofkla kï ufkda f,dalh ;=< isg iudk ,sx.slfhl= iu. ,sx.slj yeisÍug
is;d we;ao, tfia;a ke;skï ikao¾Nhla ;=< wfkla wh ms<sfkd.
kakd uÜgulska wms leu;s wdldrh fuh hehs ujdf.k we;ao' ,
l%shdjkaf.ka iajhxmSvdj ,eîu fyda mrmSvdlduql;ajh wm fndfyda fokl=g
ms<s.ekSug wiSreh’ ßoùu@ fõokdj@ fõokdj iy ;Dma;sh b;d ,Õska ne£
we;s ixfõokhkah’ ne| oeóu” myr §u, ysßyer lsÍu, uDÿ wdldrj,ska ßoùu
hkq wkqu; lr we;s , yeisÍïo@ ldfudaoa§mk Ñ;%mg ms<sn|j we;s u;h
l=ulao@ , l%shdldrlï ms,sn| rpkd ksIamdokh lsÍu iy msgm;a lsÍu
f.da,Sh jYfhka fj<|fmd<la we;s ksIamdokhla ù we;af;a wehs@ fï ish,a,u
,;ajh ms<sn| wmf.a oelSu iu. iïnkaOj we;s .eg¨‍h'

,;ajh iu. ne÷kq wksla jeo.;a lreK jkqfha we;eï iudchSh
yd wd¾Ól ia:rdhkhka iy j¾.SlrKhka flfrys we;s ms<s.ekSu u;
mokïjQ iudchSh iy ixialD;sl u;hka úiska we;eï wdldrj, ,sx.
sl l%shdldrlïj,g iy yeisÍïj,g fjk;a wdldrj, yeisÍïj,g jvd
ms<s.ekSula ,nd§ ;sîuhs'


WodyrKhla f,i, újdyhla ;=, mj;sk ,;ajh kS;sh u.ska wkqu; lr
we;s w;r, tu ksidfjka th rch, wd.u iy m%cdj úiskao wkqu; lr ;sfí’
fndfyda iudchka ;=, újdyfhka msg; ,;ajh ;ykï l%shdjls¦ kHIaál
mjq,a jvd;a ms<s.;a ixl,amh f,i ;ju;a mj;sk w;r, ,;ajh mej;sh
hq;af;a m%ckkh i|yd muKla hk u;ho mj;s¡ furg Wm;amd,k l%uj,
ixj¾Okh udkj b;sydifha m%:u jrg m%ckkh i|yd fkdjk , l%shd
i|yd wjldY i,id we;s kuq;a, ika;=Iaáh i|yd , l%shd isÿ lsÍu iy
m%ckkfhka fjkajQ, m%ckkh i|yd fkdjk , l%shd isÿ lsÍu ;ju;a we;eï
m%cdjka ;=< fkdfydìkd ixl,amhla f,i i,lKq ,efí' lkHdNdjhg mkjd
we;s w.h, újdyhg fmr iy újdyfhka msg; , l%shd iy iußisNdjh
we;=¿ we;eï wdldrj, , l%shd wmrdëlrKh lsÍu wd§ lreKq ish,a,u
fhduq jkafka wm jgd mj;sk iy wm iu. Ôj;ajk yd wm wdorh lrk
whj¨‍kag w;sYh jeo.;a udkj ,;ajfha úúO;ajh ms,s.ekSu iy w.h
lsÍu iïnkaOfhka wm úiska iy wmf.a iudchka úiska uqyqKmdk wmyiq;d

ia;%Sjd§ jHdmdrh ;=< ,;ajh hk .eg¨‍j idlÉPd lsÍug wmyiq
ud;Dldjl’' iudc iïu;hkag wNsfhda. lsÍug iy tla whl=g iSud jQ újdy
yd kHIaál mjq,a ixl,amhg úreoaOj lghq;= lsÍug iqodkïj isá ldka;djd§ka
1980 uq,a Nd.h jk;=re Tjqkaf.a kHdh m;%fha fldgila f,i ,;ajhg
iïnkaO .eg¿ idlÉPd lsÍug miqng úh’ hï;dla ÿrlg ta wd;aud¾:h
ksid úh yel’ 1980 udOH Nd.h jk úg, wm úiska hï wdldrhl ms<s.ekSula
<Õd lrf.k ;snq w;r, lrorldÍ iy u;fNaod;aul .eg¿ y~ ke.Sug
hdfuka th wk;=frys fy<Sug wmg wjYH jqfha ke;' wmf.a Y%ufha m%;sM,
ú|.ekSug wmg hï wjldYla wjYH úh' ksoyia ,;ajh jrola f,i
ÿgq .;dkq.;sl iy olaIsKdxYsl lKavdhï j,ska u;=úh yels m%;sfrdaOhg
wm ìh úh¡ iußis ldka;djka f,i wmj y÷kd.ekSug tfrysj wms úreoaO
ùuQ¡ iïu;h ì| oeófï wNsm%dh yuqfõ mqreIdêm;Hh fukau mka;s mr;rh,
j¾.jdoh iy úIußisNdjh wdÈfhkao neglE wm ifydaoßhka fndfyduhla
wmg wu;l úh¡ mqreIdêm;Hh ms<sn| wm i;= kHdhd;aul iy ixl,amsl
wjfndaOh, Okjdoh iy j¾.jd§ fyda cd;sjd§ wdêm;H jeks n,fha wfkl=;a
wdldr flfrys n,mj;akd wdldrh ms<sn| jk wjfndaOhla olajd j¾Okh úh’
flfia kuq;a, ldka;djka ;=< iy ldka;djka w;r mj;sk fjkialï ms<sn|
.eUqre wjfndaOhla t;=< fkdùh’ ifydaor;ajh iy tluq;=j ms<sn| wmf.a
úYajdih b;d uq,d lrjk iq¿ nj ikd:j we;'

wm b;sydifha fï ld,mrdih ;=<, ldka;djka iy msßñka w;r fõjd, tfia;a
ke;akï ldka;djka iy ldka;djka w;r fõjd, fjkialï iu. .kqfokq lsÍfï
ia;%Sjd§ l%uúê mßkduh lsÍug we;s wmf.a fkdyelshdj wm w;r meyeÈ,sj
fmfkk iy wog;a m%YakldÍj mj;sk we;eï fn§ï ks¾udKh fldg we;'


1984 § lefrd,a jEkaia m%Yak fm<la wik ,§(

• msßñ iy ldka;d ,;ajfha iajNdjhka ieneúkau fjkiao, tfia;a
ke;akï th we;eï ft;sydisl iy ixialD;sl ;;a;ajhkaf.a m%;sM,hlao@

• ldka;djkaf.a ,;ajh mSvkh u.ska ksYaYío fldg we;ao, tfia;a
ke;akï th msßñkaf.a ,;ajfhka fjkiao@

• ldka;djka flfrys we;sjk , Wjÿrej, uq,dY%h mj;skafka wdl%uKYS,S
fyda m%pKavYS,S mqreI .;s.=K ;=< o, tfia;a ke;akï mqreI ,;ajh
wdl%uKYS,Snj iu.;a ldka;d ,;ajh wkqu; lsÍu yd hgy;amy;a
nj iu.;a iudc.; lrk mqreIuq,sl;ajh jd;djrKhka ;=< o@

• mqreI , m%pKav;ajh wvqlsÍu fyda uq,skqmqgd oeóu l< yelafla

• m%ckkh i|yd isÿlrk , l%shd, ,;ajh iïnkaOfhka ldka;djkaf.a
w;aoelSug we;=<;a jkafka flfiao@

• ia;%Sjdoh yryd ,;ajfha Wmßu fyda wju fjkafldg oelaùu m%p,s;
l< hq;=o, tu tla tla oelau l=uk wldrhla .; hq;=o@

jir myf<djlg miq wog;a fuu m%Yak j,x.= fõ'

i;H jYfhkau, taâia jix.;hg, iußis mqreIhskaf.a iy iußis
ldka;djkaf.a whs;sjdislï fjkqfjka isÿlrk jHdmdrj, ixj¾Okhg iy
kùk iudchka ;=< iußis whj¨‍kag újD;j fmksisàug we;s yelshdjg
uqyqKmEug isÿj we;s f,dalhla ;=< tlÕ ùula we;sj fyda fkdue;sj,
,;ajh iy , yeisÍï iïnkaOfhka wmf.a wkqudk lsÍï b;du;a
m%d:ñl wdldrhlska wNsfhda.hg ,laj ;sfí’ f.da,Sh ia;%Sjd§ jHdmdrh ;=< we;s
fjkialu hk .eg¨‍j i,ld ne,Sug iy th iïnkaOfhka lghq;= lsÍug
wmg n,flfrñka mj;S isõjeks f,dal ldka;d iuq¿j jeks cd;Hka;r iuq¿ka
j, wmf.a , iajdêm;H hk ud;Dldj ms<sf.k we;s w;r ta ms<sn|j
Wkkaÿfjka idlÉPd lrhs'

wo wm Ôj;a jkafka, úúO wdldrj, mjq,a we;s nj¦ msßñkag iy ldka;djkag
fjkialïj,ska, n,y;aldrlñka yd m%pKav;ajfhka f;drj ,sx.slj yeisÍu
i|yd m%ckk iy , whs;Ska we;s nj¦ ukqIHhkaf.a wNsudkh flfrys
f.!rjhla iy ms<s.ekSula we;akï úúO wdldrj, , yeisÍï tlg mej;sh
yels nj, ms<s.kakd f,dalhla ;=<h'


iußis ldka;djka iy ,;ajh ms<sn| tlÕ;djla fkdue;slu yd ;u
ffO¾hu;a ;SrK ksidfjka fjkafldg ie,lSug yd iudcfhka fldkalsÍug
,lajk wfkl=;a ldka;djka w;r iïnkaO;djla f.dvk.ñka, ia;%Sjd§ jHdmdrh
úiska ,;ajh ms<sn| ;u ixjdoh bÈßhg mj;ajdf.k hd hq;af;a fuu
wruqK fmroeßjhs'

jpk ud,dj(

,;ajh( —ÔjúoHdj, w;aoelSï, ufkdaúoHdj, p¾hdj, iudch, ixl,amkh
wd§ ish,af,au ffjj¾K j¾Kdj,shls’ fuh jvd;a iudchSh iajNdjhlska
wdrïN ù l%ufhka ufkdaúoHd;aul iy bka miq ÔjúoHd;aul f,i o
jHdma; fõ¦ ia;%S-mqreI iudcNdù N+ñldj, , l%shdldrlï, lduql nj,
, keUqre;djh, ika;=Iaáh, wdYdj, ia;%S-mqreI iudcNdù wkkH;djh,
m%ckkh’ ^ußh,a vhsfuka 1981, 66& uq,dY%h( weufidakaia, í¨‍iafgdalska.aia wekaâ
fl%dakaia( ia;%Sjd§ YíofldaIh, 1992˜

iußis ldka;dNdjh( Ñ;a;fõ.d;aul fm!oa.,sl iy foaYmd,ksl f,i ;u
Ôú;fha m%uqL;dj ldka;djla flfrys ,nd§ug ldka;djla .kakd ;SrKhhs’
^Ígd fï n%jqka 1976, 90& uq,dY%h( weufidakaia í¨‍iafgdalska.aia wekaâ fl%dakaia(
ia;%Sjd§ YíofldaIh, 1992

úIußisNdjh( úreoaO ,sx.hlg wh;a mqoa.,hl= ^fyda mqoa.,hska& flfrys
we;sjk , ye.Su, we;eï ldka;djka iy we;eï msßñka w;aolsk iy i;=gq
jk ye.Suls’ uq,dY%h( weufidakaia, í¨‍iafgdalska.aia wekaâ fl%dakaia( ia;%Sjd§
YíofldaIh, 1992¦ úreoaO ,sx.hlg wh;a mqoa.,hl= fyda mqoa.,hska flfrys
we;sjk , ye.Sï fyda p¾hd;aul wdl¾IKh’ uq,dY%h( /kavï yjqia
wixlaIsma; YíofldaIh, 1996

iußisNdjh( iudk ,sx.hlg wh;a mqoa.,hl= ^fyda mqoa.,hska& flfrys
we;sjk , ye.Su, we;eï ldka;djka iy we;eï msßñka w;aolsk iy i;=gq
jk ye.Suls’ uq,dY%h( weufidakaia, í¨‍iafgdalska.aia wekaâ fl%dakaia( ia;%Sjd§
YíofldaIh, 1992¦ iudk ,sx.hlg wh;a mqoa.,hl= fyda mqoa.,hska flfrys
we;sjk , wdYdj fyda p¾hd;aul wdl¾YKh’ uq,dY%h( /kavï yjqia
wixlaIsma; YíofldaIh 1996

46 yeúßÈ ;ks ujla jk iqks,d wfífialr jir 25la mqrd l,dmSh iy cd;Hka;r
uÜgñka ldka;d whs;Ska iy udkj whs;Ska fjkqfjka fmkS isá l%shdldßkshls’ 5,
chr;ak udj; fld<U 5 Y%S ,xldj hk ,smskfhka ^94-1& 584350 hk ÿrl:k
wxlfhka^94-1& 591314 hk *elaia wxlfhka fyda inform@slt’lk hk úoHq;a
,smskfhka wehj iïnkaO lr.; yel'


fuu ,smsh uq,skau m<jQfha úfuka bka welaIka ^1(1999& ysh'


fuu ,smsfhys uq,a msgm; ldka;d m¾fhaIK i|yd jk uOHia:dkh úiska
ixúOdkh lrk ,o ldka;d wOHhkh ms<sn| miajk cd;sl iïfï,kh fj;
bÈßm;a lrk ,§' ^CENWOR&" Y%S ,xldj" 1996 ud¾;=

yekaidâ Y%S ,xld" 1995 iema;eïn¾ 19 iy 20 Èk'

uelakskakka iStï" 1989 rdcHfha ia;%Sjd§ isoaOdka;hla ydj¾â úYaj úoHd,
uqøKd,h" flaïn%sÊ ^weußld tlai;a ckmoh&'

fydfiaka tia' 1994 ksji ;=< iudkd;au;djh( ol=Kq wdishdfõ ldka;d
whs;sjdislï iy fm!oa.,sl kS;’' udkj ysñlï iy ldka;djka’ wd¾ l=la ^ed'&
fmkais,afõkshd uqøKd,h" *s,fv,a*shd'


2¡ ldka;djkaf.a udkj whs;sjdislï
ikao¾Nh ;=< Y%S ,xldfõ .íid lsÍï

iqks,d wfífialr

1995 § ldka;d udkj whs;sjdislï ms<sn| oDIaáfldaKfhka Y%S ,xld oKav
kS;s ix.%yfha .íid lsÍfï kS;sh ixfYdaOkh lsÍug .;a wid¾:l m%h;akh
fuu m;%h uÕska ú.%y lrhs' ldka;djka wúNdyS$j.úNd.hla fkdue;sj
yeisfrk^promiscuous& iy jrog bv yßk" fyda wk;=rg Ndckh úh yels
iy wdrlaIdj wjeis wd§ f,i ldka;djka úúOdldrfhka Wml,amkh flreKq"
;ukaf.a ,;ajh yd m%ckk Odß;dj md,kh lsÍug we;s ldka;djkaf.a
whs;shg wod<j újdoYS,s .eg¿ .Kkdjla md¾,sfïka;=fõ újdo uÕska u;=msgg
f.k tk ,§' .íid lsÍu ms<sn|j we;s ish úreoaO;ajh idOdrK’hlrKh
lsÍug iy ldka;djka iïnkaOfhka mj;sk fjk;a fjkiafldg ie,lSfï
l%shdjkag iydh oelaùug Ôú;fha iïNjh iy Y=oaO;ajh iïnkaOfhka mj;sk
ixialD;sl" wd.ñl fyda idïm%odhsl fjkialï u; mokïj we;eï md¾,sfïka;=
uka;%Sjre ;¾lj,g fhduq jQy' wfkla wh uyck fi!LH yd iudc .eg¿jla
f,i .íid lsÍu wduka;%Kh lsÍfï wjYH;djhg iy ia;%S mqreI iudcNdjhg
mlaIj l;d l< kuq;a fuu .eg¿fõ udkj ysñlï oDIaáh wduka;%Kh lf<a
lsysm fofkl= muKs' ;ukaf.a ,;ajh yd m%ckk Odß;dj md,kh lsÍug
we;s ldka;djkaf.a whs;shg tfrys .;dkq.;sl wd.ñl iy foaYmd,ksl woyia
fuu újdofha § tlg tlaùu nrm;< lKiai,a,ls' ldka;djkaf.a whs;Skays
isg .íid lsÍu olajd ixl,amkh lsÍfï § yd ta fjkqfjka jev lsÍfï §
iudkd;au;djh iy i¾jidOdrK;ajh u; wjOdrKh fhduq flfrk udkj
ysñlï rduqj .e,fmk njg fuu ,smsh ;¾l lrhs'

1883 oKav kS;s ix.%yh hgf;a Y%S ,xldj ;=< .íidj hkq ia;%shf.a Ôú;h
fírd .ekSu i|yd isÿ l<fyd;a yereKq úg idmrdë wmrdOhls' oYlhlg
jeä ld,hla ;siafia .íidj" ia;%S ¥IKh yd Èlalidoh ms<sn| mj;akd kS;s
;=< m%;sixialrK rdYshla fjkqfjka Y%S ,xldfõ ldka;d lKavdhï úiska
Woaf>daIKh lr ;sfí' ldka;djkag tfrys ish¿ wdldrfha fjkiafldg ie<lSï
;=rka lsÍfï iïuq;sh (CEDAW) u; fndfyda fihska mokïj 1991 § rch úiska
ldka;d m%{ma;sh ieliSfï l%shdj,sh wdrïN lrk ,§' ;ukaf.a m%ckk ld¾hh
md,kh lsÍfï ldka;d whs;sjdislï ms<sn| ks¾foaYh fi!LH wxYhg
id¾:lj we;=<;a lr,Sug yels jQQ mq¿,a mrdihl jQQ ldka;d ixúOdkj,


Wmfoia ,nd .ekSu fuu l%shdj,shg wka;¾.; úh' 1993 ud¾;= udifha § fuu
m%{ma;sh md¾,sfïka;=jg bÈßm;a lrk ,o w;r" th l=vd újdohlska miqj
wkqu; úh' flfiafj;;a" 1997 ud¾;= udihg miqj o m%{ma;sh" ,shú,a,lg
muKla iSud jQ fohla f,iska mej;=Ks'

fuu m%{ma;sh iy Y%S ,xldj úiska CEDAW wkqu; lsÍu hk oaú;ajhu fuu
f,aLkhkays mj;sk uQ,O¾uj,g wkql+,j cd;sl jYfhkajk kS;s f.k tau
rchg mjrhs' fuu lemùfï fldgila f,i iy ldka;d lghq;= wud;HdxYfha
Wmfoia u;" wêlrK wud;HdxYh oKav kS;s ix.%yfha wod< fldgia
ixfYdaOkh lsÍu i|yd jQ mk;la flgqïm;a lf<a h' ldka;d rdcH fkdjk
ixúOdkj, ksfhdað;hska lsysm fofkl= uQ,sl idlÉPdj,g iïnkaO jQ kuq;a"
md¾,sfïka;=jg bÈßm;a lrk ,o mk;a flgqïm; meyeÈ,sju fuu idlÉPdj,
§ m%ldYs; woyia ms<sìUq fkdlrk ,§'

1995 iema;eïnrfha § Y%S ,xldfõ wêlrK wud;H uydpd¾h Ô't,a' mSßia
md¾,sfïka;=fõ § oKav kS;s ix.%yh ixfYdaOkh lsÍfï mk;la fojeks jr
lshùfuka bÈßm;a lf<a h' ffjjdysl ia;%S ¥IKh iy , wvkaf;aÜgï lsÍu
^jdÑl ysßyer lsÍï we;=¿j& idmrdë wmrdO f,i y÷kajd §u" ia;%S ¥IK i|yd
o`vqjï mq¿,a lsÍu" újdy kS;sh hgf;a jrola f,i ie,l+ jHdNspdrh oKav kS;s
ix.%yh hg;g f.k tau fuu mk; uÕska fhdackd flreKs' fuu mkf;a uq,a
flgqïmf;ys .eí.ekSï w;aysgqùfï ffjoH ueÈy;aùï u; jQ iSudjka ,sys,a
lsÍu iïnkaOfhka j.ka;shla wka;¾.; jQ kuq;a mk;a flgqïm; y÷kajd§fï
§ wud;Hjrhd úiska fuu fldgi iïmQ¾Kfhka uld oeóug ;SrKh lr we;s
nj m%ldY lrk ,§' fuh b;du u;fNaoldÍ lreKla nj jgyd .ekSfuka jQ
fm<Uùu u; lrk ,o l%shdjla nj Tyq lshd isáfha h' flfia fj;;a" .íid
lsÍfï m%Yakh ms<sn|j ljr fyda idlÉPdjla we;sùu je<elaùfï m%h;akh
fkd;ld fndfyda uka;%Sjre md¾,sfïka;= újdofha § th wduka;%Kh l< kuq;a
ixfYdaOkh uq¿ukskau bj;a lr ;snqKs'

Tjqka m%;sl%shd lrk ,o úNj fjkialï , ¥IKh fyda jHNspdr l%shdjl
m%;sM,hla f,i isÿjk ms<sis| .ekSï wjia:djl § fyda l,, widudkH;d
isÿùïj, § .íid lsÍïj,g wjir ,nd §ug bv Èh yelsj ;snqKs' kS;Hdkql+,
.íid lsÍu i|yd iqÿiqlï ,enqfõ ljqreka o hkak u; fuu fjkialï flfia
iSud úh yelsj ;snqK o kS;sfha zjerÈ Ndú;h je<elaùuZ i|yd oeä wdrlaIdjla
o we;=<;a úh' ksoiqkla f,i" m%ij yd kdßfõoh ms<sn| mYapd;a Wmdê iqÿiqlï
iys; ffjoHjrhl= úiska muKla .íidjlg wjir §fï iy;slhla ksl=;a l<
hq;= nj;a" fjk;a ffjoHjrhl= úiska .íidj isÿ l< hq;= nj;a bka fhdackd
úh' .íidj" rcfha frday,l fyda ,shdmÈxÑ id;a;= ksjdihl isÿ l< hq;= nj
o fhdackdfjka kshu lsÍug ;snqKs'


.íidj ms<sn| md¾,sfïka;= újdoh

oKav kS;s ix.%yhg fhdað; ixfYdaOk jgd md¾,sfïka;=fõ § yg.;a
újdoh ;SrKd;aul tlla úh' Y%S ,xldj ;=< oKav kS;s ix.%yh ixfYdaOkh
lsÍu i|yd mj;sk tlu l%uh kS;s.; lsÍu muKs' Èk folla meje;ajqKq
újdoh" meh yhla mqrd mej;sKs' újdohg Ndckh jQ lreKq iïnkaOfhka
ksYaÑ; md¾Yj ;k;=re fkdmej;sK1' ta fjkqjg" újdoh mqrdjg uka;%Sjre
we;a; jYfhkau" ldka;djka flfrys Tjqkaf.a fmdÿ wdl,am u.ska j¾Ks; jQ
ish fm!oa.,sl woyia bÈßm;a l<y' fuu wdl,am" ldka;djka j.úNd.hla
fkdue;sj yeisÍu hkafkys isg jrog bv yßk" fyda wk;=rg Ndckh úh yels
f,i olsk mrdihl úys§ ;snqKs'

.íid lsÍu yd ;ukaf.a YÍr iy ;ukaf.a Ôú; md,kh lsÍfï ldka;d whs;sh
ms<sn| jvd;a m%p,s; m%;HlaI yd jerÈ m%;HlaI újdoh ms<sìUq lr,S h' tys
tla;rd woyila jQfha ld,hla mqrd kej; kej; m< jQ iy f,dj mqrd .íidj
ms<sn| újdohkays § kej; jrla u;= jQ woyila jk ia;%Ska ;=< j.úNd.hla
fkdue;sj yeisÍfuys iajNdúl m%jk;djhla we;s nj;a wjia:djla ÿkafyd;a
zj,a jeÈhZ yels nj;a h' tlai;a cd;sl mlaIfha ^tcdm& fcdaka wur;=x. uy;d
mejiqfõ" ksoiqkla jYfhka" ´kEu wdldrhl .íidjla isÿlsÍug bv ie,iSu
zÈhfodrZ újD; lrkq we;s nj;a" tjeks l%shdjlg fhduqùug mqoa.,fhl=g
wjirh ,nd fok ffjoHjrfhl=f.ka ,nd.;a iy;slhla muKla ^th& úYd,
mßudKhlska isÿ lrf.k hdug Ndú;d lrkq we;s nj;a h'

yskaÿ wd.u Ôú;h ke;slr .ekSu ;ykï lr we;;a ;ukaf.a ueÈy;aùu
m%Odk jYfhkau iudcfha msßñ mlaImd;S;ajh flfrys fhduq ù we;s nj;a
mqf,kaoarka fufkúh ^tcdm& mejiqjd h' ksoiqkla f,i" mq;%fhl=g we;s
ukdmh iy l,,fhys ,sx.;ajh fy<sorõ flfrk mÍlaIK u.ska ks¾udKh
lrk ,o .eg¿ iy mjq, ;=< mqreIhskag ;SrK .ekSug we;s n,h ms<sn|j
weh l;d l<d h' .íidj ,sys,alrKh lsÍu" ia;%Ska yd mqreIhka w;r .egqï
we;s lsÍug o mjq,a ixia:dj ÿ¾j, lsÍug o fya;= úh yels neúka th fhda.H
fkdjk nj wehf.a woyi hs' .íidj ms<sn| md,kh ,sys,a lsÍu" úfYaIfhka
;reK ldKavh w;f¾ jHNs ixjdihg uQ,sl úh yels nj weh mejiqjd h'

iuyr uka;%Sjreka jrog bv yßk" jxpksl iy /já,sldr wh f,ig
ia;%Skaf.a rEm ujd oela jQy' fuu ixfYdaOkhg úreoaO jQfjla jk áfrdaka
m%kdkaÿ fuhg ksoiqkla fõ' ia;%S ¥IKhg ,lajQ ldka;djla i|yd .íidjla isÿ
lsÍu m%;slafIam l< hq;af;a wehsoehs mSßia wud;Hjrhd úuiQ úg" Tyqf.a ms<s;=r
jQfha ´kEu ldka;djlg Widúfha idlaIs l+vqjg keÕ weh ¥IKhg ,la jQ nj
mjid isáh yels nj hs' zfï l;dj,ska Nd.hla f.d;k ,o tajd nj wms fyd¢ka
okakjdZ' , wvkaf;aÜgï ms<sn| fpdaokd ikd: lsÍug idlaIs bÈßm;a lsÍu
wjYH njg idlaIH wd{d mk; ixfYdaOkh lrk f,i f*dkafiald uy;d

b,a,d isáfha h' wfkla w;g" mqreIhska wmyiq;djg m;a lsÍug iy Tjqkag
tfrysj fndre fpdaokd bÈßm;a lsÍug ldka;djka kS;sh Ndú;d lrkq we;ehs
Tyq ìh úh' hï wfhl= mSvkhg m;a lsÍug fyda Tyqf.ka m<s.ekSug ^ia;%shla
úiska& wi;H fpdaokd t,a, lsÍu je<elaùug ia;%S ¥IK isoaêhl § th ikd:
lsÍug lsishï wdldrhl ffjoHuh idlaIH w;HjYH njg m;a l< hq;= hehs
;j;a tcdm uka;%Sjrfhl= jk uyskao iurisxy ;¾l lf<a h'

ixfYdaOkhkag mlaIj l;d l< wh mjd ÿ¾j, iy wjodkug ,laúh yels
ldka;djkag" úfYaIfhkau ÿmam;a ldka;djkag msysg ùug ixfYdaOk uÕska
woyia flfrk nj ksrEmKh lrñka ms;D ioDY úldYkhlg keUqrejla
oelajQy' ksoiqkla f,i" mk;a 'flgqïm; y÷kajd§u iïnkaOfhka" wêlrK
wud;Hjrhd meyeÈ,sj lshd isáfha" zzwjodkï iys;ZZ wjYH;d - tkï
ldka;djka iy orejkaZ wdrlaId lsÍu i|yd ixfYdaOk fhdackd lrk ,o
njhs' kùk iudcfha ;;a;ajhka ;=< ldka;djkaf.a wNsm%dhhka" fm!reI;ajh
iy wd;au .re;ajhg .re lsÍfï wjYH;djh ms<sn|j o Tyq l;d lf<a h'
újdoh mqrdjgu ldka;djka ms<sn| i|yka lsÍfï § zwdrlaIdjZ" zwjodkuZ iy
zÿ¾j,Z hk jpk kej; kej; u;=jk ,§'

ldka;dj iudcfha ÿ¾j, wxYhla neúka Tjqkag wdrlaIdj i|yd we;s
wjYH;djh flfrys md¾,sfïka;= uka;%S o fu,a ^tcdm& Tyqf.a ueÈy;aùfï §
wjOdkh fhduq lr we;' Tyq .íidjg mlaIj l;d l< w;r iEu jirlu Y%S
,xldj ;=< isÿlrkq ,nk kS;s úfrdaë yd wkdrlaIs; .íid lsÍï .Kkdjla
i|yka lrñka iy ;ukaf.a woyig wkqj jHia:dj m%udKj;a fkdjQ nj o Tyq
m%ldY lf<a h' fmdÿck tlai;a fmruqfKys pu,a rdcmlaI uy;d" wkjYH
.eí.ekSï iys; È<s÷ ldka;djka uqyqKmdk .eg¿ ms<sn|j woyia olajñka
.íidj md,kh lsÍfï kS;s iudf,dapkh l< hq;= nj m%ldY lf<a h' ,xld
iuiudc mlaIfhys ^,iim& ùrfldaka uy;d o .íid lsÍfï kS;sh ,sys,a lsÍu
i|yd leue;a; m< lf<a h' Tyq fmkajd ÿkafka" ixfYdaOk l,a oefuoa§ ÿmam;a
ldka;djkag n,d isàug - iy urKhg wjodku - .ekSug yelshdjla fkdue;s
nj hs'

ldka;djlf.a whs;shla f,i .íid lsÍu i|yd we;s w,am iyfhda.h

ldka;djkaf.a iudkd;au;dj i|yd .íidj jeo.;a njg mlaIj y`v lsysmhla
mej;=Ks' kuq;a lsisfjl=;a th tald¾:s whs;shla hehs ysñlï lshd mEfõ ke;'
;srefp,ajï ^fou< tlai;a úuqla;s fmruqK& md¾,sfïka;= uka;%Sjrhd Tyqf.a
ueÈy;aùfï § kS;sfha ms<sônq úh hq;= ia;%S mqreI iudkd;au;djhg iïnkaO jQ
iuld,Sk jákdlï yd idrO¾uj, kj iy .eUqre fjkialï ms<sn| woyia
oelaù h' ldka;djkag tfrys m%pKav;ajfha ixisoaêfha j¾Okh jk f.da,Sh
iú{dkl;ajh" m%ckk whs;Ska i|yd j¾Okh jk ixfõ§;dj" wkdrlaIs;
.íid lsÍï fya;=fjka ldka;djka msg r|d mj;akd fi!LH wjodku ms<sn|

ie,ls,a, iy , leue;a; u; mokïj flfrk fjkiafldg ie,lSï
wd§ f,i ldka;djkaf.a iudkd;au;djh ms<sn|j lreKq y;rla ms<sn|
Tyq l;d lf<a h' .íid lsÍfï m%Yakh ms<sn|j l;d lrñka" wkdrlaIs;
.íidfõ m%;sM,hkaf.ka ÿmam;a ldka;djka ÿlaú¢kd j;auka ;;a;ajfha mka;s
mlaImd;S;ajh .ek i|yka lrñka Tyq jvd;a udkj yd h:d¾:jd§ kshduk
rduqjla b,a,d isáfha h'

.íidj ms<sn| l;d l< wfkla tlu ldka;dj jQfha ysgmq fi!LH yd ldka;d
wud;H f¾Kqld fyar;a h' wehf.a ld,h ;=< md¾,sfïka;=jg f.k tk ,o
ldka;d m%{ma;shg mq¿,a f,i fhduq fjñka weh woyia oelajQjd h' .íid
lsÍïys f.da,Sh ;;a;ajh ms<sn| tlai;a cd;Skaf.a m%ldYkhla f.k yer
olajñka" .íid lsÍï ,sys,a lsÍu i|yd jQ ixfYdaOkj,g iuia;hla f,i weh
wkqn, ÿkakd h' flfia fj;;a weh lshd isáfha tjeks kshuhka iudch ;=<
ia;%S ¥IKh m%j¾Okh fkdlrk njg j. n,d .; hq;= nj hs' óg wu;rj"
weh úiska .íidj i|yd wjirh ,nd Èh hq;= ld, iSudj l,,h" ffi,
tl;=jlska orejl= njg mßKdukh ùug fmr jYfhka kshu lrk ,§'
;j o fyar;a uy;añh ldka;djkag m%pKav;ajh isÿlrk whg tfrysj oeä
oKavkhg wkqn, ÿka w;r" mdi,a ;=< § , wOHdmkh ,nd fok f,i;a"
wkjYH .eí.ekSï ms<sn| .eg¿j úi£ug kï Wm;a md,k l%uhla wjYH
njg oekqj;a lsÍï by< kexfjk l%shdud¾. .kakd f,ig;a ks¾foaY l<d h'
zldka;djka igka lrkd whS;Ska hkq fjk lsisjla fkdj wfkla ñksiqka úiska
N=la;s ú¢kq ,nk whs;sjdislï hZ f,i ys,ß la,skagka Wmqgd olajñka fhdað;
m%;sixialrKj,g mlaIj l;d l< fmf¾rd uy;d ^Y%S ,xld uqia,sï fldx.%ih&
.íidj ldka;djkaf.a udkj whs;sjdislula f,i mq¿,aj i|yka l< tlu
uka;%Sjrhd úh' ;u wjidk m%ldYfha § fmf¾rd uy;d lshd isáfha .ïno
fmfoiaj, ldka;djkaf.a ldka;d whs;sjdislï i|yd úfYaI;ajhla fkdue;s
nj;a tu m%foaYj, ck;dj fhdað; fjkialï ms<s.kq we;s nj;a h'

.íid úfrdaë woyia yd ixialD;sl fjkialï j,g .re lsÍu

.íid lsÍu ms<sn|j we;s ish úreoaO;ajh idOdrK’hlrKh lsÍug iy
ldka;djka iïnkaOfhka mj;sk fjk;a fjkiafldg ie,lSfï l%shdjkag iydh
oelaùug Ôú;fha iïNjh iy Y=oaO;ajh iïnkaOfhka mj;sk ixialD;sl"
wd.ñl fyda idïm%odhsl fjkialï u; mokïj fndfyda md¾,sfïka;= uka;%Sjre
;¾lj,g fhduq jQy' wêlrK wud;H;=uka u Tyqf.a ixfYdaOk y÷kajd §fï
§ rfÜ mj;akd mqoa.,sl kS;sfha úúO moaO;s .ek l;d l< w;r" úfYaIfhkau
Tyq uqia,sï m%cdjf.a kuH;dj ms<sn| i|yka lf<a h'

zixialD;sl fjkialïj,g wkq.; jQ ksrfmalaI iïu;hka fyda uQ,O¾u jgyd
.ekSug wudrehs' úfgl m%cdfõ úúOdldr ldKavj,g .e<fmk úúO m%ñ;s iy
jákdlï y÷kd .ekSu wjYH hs' fuh Y%S ,xldfõ Ôú;fha fldgila'''' fjk;a

rgj, wúpdrj;a kS;s ixj¾Okh wkqlrKh lsÍug fkdyels hs' wm wfma rg
;=< ixialD;sl h:d¾:hka ie,ls,a,g .; hq;= hs'Z hehs Tyq ksÍlaIKh lf<a h'

wiaj¾ uka;%Sjrhd ^tcdm& ish wdrïNl m%ldYfha § l=rdkh iy nhsn,h he§ï
l< w;r zÔú;h wdrïN jkafka ms<sis| .ekSfuka' th foúhka jykafiaf.a
ld¾hhla' ueÈy;a fjkak wmsg lsisu whs;shla keye'Z hehs ;rfha lshd isáfha
h' .íidjg tfrysj ;¾l lsÍfuys § wiaj¾ uy;d fmkajd ÿkafka m%pKav;ajh
fya;=fjka fndfyda ;reKhka ñ nj;a j¾;udkfha Y%S ,dxlsl iudcfha
ia;%S - mqreI wiu;=,s;;djla we;s nj;a h' ck.yk j¾Okh iSud lsÍug
Ndú;d lrk ´kEu udOHhla" Tyqf.a u;h wkqj" RKd;aul jkq we;' ta
w;r;=f¾ §" b;sydifha iqúfYaIS ;ekaj, ia;%S - mqreI ck.yk wkqmd;fhys
´kEu wiu;=,s;;djhlg bia,dóh m%;spdrhla jYfhka jQ nyq újdyh Tyq
hqla;siy.; lf<a h' ish¿u wd.ïj, idudðlhskag iy iNdjg

zwmsg ixialD;shla ;sfhkjd' wmg YsIaG we;soeä lsÍï f,i ye¢kafjk hula
;sfnkjd' wfma .ïj, fï jf.a fohla jqKyu wms Tjqkag lshkafka wYsIaG
.eyeKq" wYsIaG .eyeKq <uhska lsh,d' Tn tu wYsIaG;ajhg wdrlaIdj fkdÈh
hq;= hs' th wfma iïm%odhhkag yd wfma ixialD;shg mgyeks hs' wfma ish¿u
wd.ï fuhg úreoaO hs'Z hkak u;l ;nd.kakd f,i Tyq wdhdpkh lf<a h'

wiaj¾ uy;d úiska lrk ,o fjk;a woyia w;r ziuyr iudcj, ¥IKh hkak
wfkla iudcj, tfia fkdie<flaZ hkak úh' ffjjdysl ¥IKh iïnkaOfhka
Tyq fufia mejiSS h( zújdyfha uQ,sl wruqK jkafka m%ckkh hs'Z

fcdaka wur;=x. uy;d ^tcdm& m%ldY lf<a" ;uka rfÜ ck.ykfhka ishhg y;l
m%;sY;hlska hqla; jQ lf;da,sl m%cdj ksfhdackh lrñka l;d lrk wfhl= nj
hs' Tyqf.a ;¾lh jQfha .íid lsÍu kS;Hdkql+, lsÍug ork ´kEu m%h;akhlg
ziudcfha iEu fldgilau oeä f,i úreoaO jkq we;s nj;aZ" tjekakla zfï rfÜ
ck;djf.a iudc Ôú;h yd ixialD;sl Ôú;fha uQ,O¾uj,g n,mdkq we;s
nj;a hZ' Tyqf.a ;¾lh zÔú;fha mßY=oaONdjh ms<sn| úYajdihlaZ u; mokï
úh' zls;=kqjka muKla fkdj" fn!oaOhka" uqia,sïjre" yskaÿ Nla;slhka iy
Ôú;fha W;a;Í;rNdjh úYajdi lrk ish,a,kauZ tjeks fhdackdjlg úreoaO
jkq we;s nj Tyq mejiSh'

wur;=x.f.a woyia ia:sr lrñka áfrdaka m%kdkaÿ ^tcdm&" zujf.a .¾NdIh
Ôj;afjñka mhska .ikd kQmka orejkaZ ms<sn| l;d lf<a h' .íid lsÍï mk;
,sys,alrKhg wkqn, ÿka wh z*a/kalSkaiaghska rdlaIhskaZ f,i weu;+ Tyq lshd
isáfha zY%S ,xldj ;=< .íid lsÍfï kS;s ,sys,alrKh iqL urKh i|yd ud¾.h
ilikq we;sZ nj hs' .íidjg wjir fokafka kï" ishÈú kid .ekSug o bv
Èh hq;= njg Tyq ;¾l lf<a h' mqf,akaoarka fufkúh ^tcdm& mjik mßÈ"
yskaÿ wd.u úiska o .íidj ;ykï lr we;'

.íidj iudchSh .eg¿jla f,i olsk fuka whÈñka iS' ù' .=Kr;ak uy;d
^Y%S ,xld ksoyia mlaIh& flfia jqj o" zwfma ixialD;sfha iSudj ;=< §''''Z
kS;sfha fjkialï isÿ lsÍfï wjYH;dj ms<sn| l;d lf<a h' z''''lsishï wd.ul
fyda m%cdjl kuH;djkag ydks muqKqjk f,i fudfyd;lgj;a uu fhdackd
fkdlrñ'''' wms th iudchSh m%Yakhla f,i ie;lsh hq;= hZ hkqfjka Tyq iNdj
ffO¾hu;a lf<a h'

mSvkh yuqfõ miqneiSu

iq¿;r wd.ñl yd ckjd¾.sl m%cdjkaf.a iNd.fha yjq,alrejkaf.a iyfhda.h
we;sj Y%S ,xld rch ishqï f,i n,h mj;ajd f.k hhs' tys m%;sM,hla jYfhka"
.íid lsÍfï kS;sh ixfYdaOkh lsÍu i|yd ;u fhdackdj iNdj bÈßhg
f.k taug;a fmr th bj;a lsÍug wêlrK wud;Hjrhdg isÿ jQ meyeÈ,s
foaYmd,ksl úOdkhka úh' tfia jqj o" újdyh yd Èlalidoh ms<sn| kS;sh
ixfYdaOkh lsÍfï fhdackd iuÕ .íidj ms<sn| újdoh o fojeks Èk olajd
È.gu meje;aúKs'

újdofha § mSßia wud;Hjrhd .íid lsÍu hï zmd,kh l< fkdyelsZ iodpdruh
.eg¿ ms<sìUq lrk nj m%ldY l< w;r ;¾lfha jmißh zish¿u Ôú; mßY=oaO
hehs ie<flk iïm%odhhka iy ldka;djkaf.a iajdëk;ajh yd iajdêm;H yd
; wkd.;h ;SrKh lsÍug ldka;djkaf.a whs;sh flfrys úYajdih
;enQ whf.a zy`vZ jk nj fmkajd ÿkafka h' fuu .eg¿j i|yd jeä wjOdkhla
wjYH nj fuu u;fNaoh Tyqg meyeÈ,s lr ÿkafka h' iudkd;au;djh yd
idOdrK;ajh ms<sn| ,snr,a uQ,O¾uhkag fm!oa.,slj lemùula l<;a"
ixfYdaOkh wfydais lsÍfï § zúúO oDIaá fldaKhka" úúO wd.ñl úYajdihka
iy úúO ixialD;sl yd iodpdr iïm%odhkag mlaIùug wms W;aidy lf<uqZ
hehs Tyq mejiS h' wjidkfha §" wd.ñl úYajdihka u; mokï jQ kS;suh Í;s
iy jákdlï wNsfhda.hg ,la lsÍug lsisfjl= leue;af;ka isáfha ke;'

fuu újdofha § ms<sìUq jQ mßÈ" ;ukaf.a ,;ajh iy m%ckkh md,kh
lsÍfï ldka;d whs;sjdislïj,g tfrys .;dkq.;sl wd.ñl yd foaYmd,ksl
wdl,am tla/ia ùu Y%S ,xldfõ ldka;djka flfrys oeä lKiai,a,la we;s
lrhss' WodyrK f,i" újdofha § wud;Hjrhdf.ka fndfyda iyk ,nd .ekSug
uqia,sï n,mEï lrkakkag yels úh' uqia,sï ldka;djkag újdyùug yd leue;a;
m< lsÍug yels f,i meje;s jhi wjqreÿ 12" tf,iu mj;ajdf.k hdug tlÕ
ùu óg ksoiqkls' óg wu;rj" hqj,la wêlrKuh jYfhka fjka jQ úg yer
ffjjdysl ia;%S ¥IKh idmrdë jrola f,i ms<s.kq fkd,eìKs'

.íid lsÍu idmrdë jrola f,i mj;S

.íidj ,sys,a lsÍu i|yd jQ ixfYdaOkh wfydais lsÍfï § wêlrK wud;Hjrhd

.íid lsÍu idmrdënúka f;dr lsÍu iïnkaOfhka ;u mqoa.,sl lemùu m%ldY
lf<a h' Tyqf.a woyi jQfha(

z.íid lsÍu idmrdënúka f;dr lsÍu" f,dalh mqrd úúO fldgiaj, mßKduh
jk kS;s moaO;Skaj, ,laIKhla jk w;r" Y%S ,xldj tjka fmdÿ ixj¾Okhl
msg; mshjr ;nkafka wehsoehs hkakg lsisu fya;=jla ug fmfkkafka ke;s
njZ hs'

tneúka" .íid lsÍfï .eg¿j úi£u i|yd fi!LH kS;s y÷kajd §ug Tyq
fmdfrdkaÿ úh' fuh ;ju;a isÿ ù fkdue;' 1995 fuu tlu md¾,sfïka;=
újdofha isg .íid lsÍu Y%S ,xldj ;=< idmrdë wmrdOhla f,i mej;=Ks'
1996 § ;uka úiskau .íidjka isÿlr.;a ldka;djka fukau .íidjla isÿlr
.ekSug wkqkag Woõ l< ldka;djkag wod< isoaê lsysmhlg fmd,Sish
úiska kvq mjrk ,§' ksoiqkla jYfhka" 1996 fmnrjdß udifha § uykqjr
ffjoHjreka fofofkl= we;=¿ .íid lsÍï isÿ l< mqoa.,hska lsysmfofkl=
o 1996 foieïn¾ udifha § .ïmy m%foaYfha tla mqoa.,fhl= o w;awvx.=jg
f.k we;' 1996 iema;eïn¾ udifha § uykqjr Èia;%slalfha hQ'Ô'u,aldka;sg
udi ;=kl isro`vqjula kshu flreKq w;r ^kuq;a w;aysg jQ isr o`vqjula kshu
flreKs& .íid lsÍu i|yd m%h;ak oeÍu fya;=fjka re'1000 l ovhla o kshu
flßKs' wfkla w;g 1997 ckjdß udifha § Y%S ,xldfõ ckdêm;s;=ud fi!LH
ms<sn| úfYaI ld¾h n,ldhla msysgqùh¦ fuu ld¾h idOl n,ldh yryd .íid
lsÍu ms<sn| m%;sixialrK i|yd n,mEï t,a, lsÍug we;s yelshdj ms<sn|
ldka;d lKavdhï oeka úu¾Ykh lrhs'

Ôj úoHdj iy wkkH;dj( ldka;d whs;sjdislï ms<sn| m%Odk lafIa;%hla f,i
.íid lsÍu

Y%S ,xldfõ oKav kS;s ix.%yfha ixfYdaOk jgd jQ idlÉPdj ia;%Ska yd Tjqkaf.a
iajdêm;Hhg iïnkaO újdoYS,S .eg¿ rdYshla u;=lr olajd we;' ;ukaf.a
l,;%hd iu. ^ffjjdysl ¥IKh ms<sn| ixl,amh wkqj& , in|;d
meje;aúh hq;= o l=uk úgl § o hkak ;SrKh lsÍug we;s ldka;djkaf.a
whs;sh yd ;ukaf.a m%ckk Odß;djka md,kh lsÍfï whs;shg ^.íid lsÍu
wkqj& fukau úfYaIs; m%cdjl ;ks mqoa.,hska iy idudðlhska f,i ms<s.
ekSug m;aùu i|yd Tjqkag we;s whs;sh hk ish,a,u md¾,sfïka;=j ;=< fukau
bka mßndysr újdoj, § o .eg¿ldÍ úh' fuu .eg¿ Y%S ,dxlsl ldka;djkag
muKla wod< fkdjk w;r f,dj mqrd úoHdudk fõ'

.íid lsÍu iEuúgu whs;sjdislï l;sldj ;=< u;fNaod;aul lafIa;%hla úh'
úfYaIfhka th f;dard .ekSfï ldka;d whs;sjdislï yd l,,hg Ôú;hg we;s
whs;sh w;r .egqula f,i u;= ù ;sfí' fndfyda kS;suh rduq ;=< .íid lsÍu
iajhx ks¾Khg ldka;djkag we;s whs;sh f,i jgyd fkd.efka' ta fjkqjg"

Y%S ,xldj we;=¿ fndfyda rgj, th rdcHhg tfrys wmrdOhla f,i i,lkq
,efí' .íidjkag m%fõY ùu jgd jQ .eg¿j,g tfrysj igka l< ldka;d
jHdmdr ;snQ weußldfõ" ;¾l lsÍï ks;ru mqoa.,sl;ajfha whs;sh u; mokï
ù ;sìKs' fï wkqj";u Ôú; md,kh lsÍug ldka;djkag we;s whs;sh ms<s.ekSu
iy fmdÿ jYfhka fjkqjg fm!oa.,slj ;SrK .ekSfï fh§ug we;s whs;sh
f,i;a tla tla mqoa.,hd jYfhka .íid lsÍu i|yd ldka;djkag ,nd § we;s
jrm%idohla f,i;a weußldfõ ldka;djkag .íidjg m%fõYh ,nd § we;'

le;ßka uelsfkdka fmkajd § we;s mßÈ .íidj foi ne,Sfï § th z'''wvkaf;aÜgï"
ffjjdysl ia;%S ¥IKh yd iQrdlEug ,lajQ ldka;d .Dyia: Y%ufhys ia:dkh
iqrlaIs; lr we;' ldka;djkag wkkH;dj" iajdëk;ajh" md,kh iy iajhx
ú.%yh wysñ lr we;s flakaøh ixia:d ixrlaIKh we;'2

isú,a yd idmrdë kS;sh" bvï n,;," idlaIs iy wdodhu wkqj talSh;ajh
;yjqre jQ hg;a úð; hq.fha isg fmdÿ yd fm!oa.,sl Ôú;hg úúOdldrfha
kS;s m%ñ;Ska wod< lrùfï wl%ñl;d ol=Kq wdishd;sl meje;afï fldgila
úh' flfia fj;;a" uyck iy fm!oa.,sl wxY w;r fn§ï Yla;su;a lrñka
hg;a úð; rdcH mjq,a yd .Dyia: wdrjq,a iïnkaO ldrKdj,g ueÈy;a ùu
m%;slafIam lrk ,§' wfkla idOl w;r ia;%S mqreI iudcNdjh u; mokïj
fjkiafldg fkdie,lSu hkak iudkd;au;djh f,i w¾: olajk cd;Hka;r
udkj ysñlï kS;s iy m%ñ;Ska úiska j¾;udkfha § wdKavq ne| ;nd we;s kuq;a
we;a; jYfhkau Y%S ,xldfõ fuka jQ cd;sl kS;s mjq,a in|;dj,g wod<j
iudkd;au;djfha uQ,O¾uh ms<sìUq fkdlrhs'

fï wkqj" uyck wxY ;=<" foaYmd,k iyNd.S;ajh" wOHdmkh iy /lshdj
hk lafIa;% ;=<" iudkd;au;djfha wju m%ñ;Ska kshu lr we;s w;r tajd bgq
fkdl<fyd;a wêlrKfha § wNsfhda.hg ,la l< yels h' ta iuÕu" idmrdë
kS;sh we;=,;aj kvq mejßh hq;= Ôú;h ms<sn| fjk;a lafIa;% iïnkaOfhka"
mqoa.,fhl= wh;a wd.u fyda ckjd¾.sl m%cdj u; mokïj lsis÷ fjkila
fkdolajhs' wd.u l=ula jqj;a ñkSueÍu ñkSueÍuls'

flfia fj;;a" újdyh" Èlalidoh" kv;a;= lsÍu" Ndrldr;ajh" /ljrKh"
orelug yod .ekSu iy Wreuh iïnkaO ldrKd iïnkaOfhka Bkshd
fm!oa.,sl lafIa;%h ;=< fuu ;;a;ajh ;ju;a fuhg jvd fnfyúka fjkia h'
idrd yqfiaka fmkajd fok mßÈ m%cdfjka m%cdj fj; me;sr hk kS;s iïu;hka
ksjfia yd mjqf,a fm!oa.,sl wxYh hqla;sh blaujd hk wx.khlg mjrd fohs3'
fï wkqj" Y%S ,xldfõ mej;s újdofha § fy<sorjq jQ mßÈ" újdyh yd tys
úiqrejd yeÍu w;r;=r ldka;djkaf.a whs;sjdislï yd j.lSï u; >Ügkh
ùug wd.ñl yd pdß;%dkql+, kS;s u;= l< yels w;r .íid lsÍfï whs;sh uev
meje;aúh fkdyels f,i m%;slafIam flf¾'


fuu ikao¾Nh ;=<" iudcfha iudchSh iy Ôj úoHd;aul m%ckk Ys,amSka
f,i ldka;djf.a N+ñldj ms<s.kakd iy ldka;djkaf.a YdÍßl hym;anj iy
, iajdêm;Hh .relrk - kuq;a Tjqkaf.a YÍr ksid ldka;djka iSud
fkdlrk wdldrfhka ldka;djka ie,ls,a,g .ekSu i|yd kS;suh ud¾. fidhd
.ekSu fuu lafIa;%fha l%shdldß;ajhg uQ,sl wNsfhda.hlaj mj;S' ksjfia §"
/lshdfõ § yd mq¿,a f,i iudcfha § ldka;djka hg;a lsÍug iy ia;%Skaf.a
,;ajh md,kh lsÍu iy kshdukh lsÍu i|yd oDIaájdod;aul yd
iodpdrd;aul ;d¾lsl;ajh iys; mS;DuQ,sl ixia:d iy iudc ieliSï"
úfYaIfhkau mjq,g mjrd fokq ,nk wd.ñl yd idïm%odhsl ^fyda pdß;%dkql+,&
iïu;hka yd Ndú;hkaf.a rduqj u.ska ;jÿrg;a .eg¿j ixlS¾K lr we;'

ldka;djkaf.a udkj whs;shla f,i .íid lsÍu ixl,amkh lsÍu

ldka;d , yd m%ckk whs;sjdislï flfrys wjOdkh fhduq lsÍu" ldka;d
udkj whs;sjdislï ms<sn| újdohkaf.a m%Odk lafIa;% folla tla lrk
,o iuld,Sk ldka;d l%shdjdofha ixj¾Okhls' tla w;lska" rdcH iy kS;s
iïmdokhg we;=,a úh fkdyels lafIa;%hla f,i È.gu fmfkk fm!oa.,sl
wxYh iys;j" fmdÿ yd fm!oa.,sl wxYh f,i f,dalh fn§hdu ms<sn|j
mj;akd Wml,amkhkag wNsfhda. lrk , yd m%ckk l%shdj,Ska md,kh
lsÍfï ldka;d whs;sjdislï úu¾Ykh lsÍu i|yd werhqula ;sfí'

wksla w;g" i¾jidOdrK;aj oDIaáfldaKhlska n,k l, wkkH;dj" ixialD;sh
yd iq¿;r whs;Ska ms<sn| .eg¿ mj;sk w;r udkj yeisÍï i|yd ms<s.; yels
fmdÿ iïu;hka j¾Okh lsÍfï wjYH;djh we;' fuys § wjOdkh fhduq
jkafka i¾jidOdrK;ajh iy ixialD;sl úfYaI;dj w;r .;slh u; h'
tla w;lska" ldka;djkag tfrys wfYdaNk fjkiafldg ie,lSï hqla;siy.;
lsÍu i|yd zixialD;shZ" ziïm%odhZ iy zpdß;% Z Ndú;hg tfrysj udkj
ysñlï l%shdldÍyq ;¾l lr;s' wksla w;g" ;u wkkH;dj .re;ajfhka iy
nyqudkfhka m%ldY lsÍug iq¿;r ckjd¾.sl" wd.ñl yd fjk;a m%cdjkag
we;s whs;sjdislï fjkqfjka o Tjqka iaÒr f,i fmkS isáhs'

ldka;djkaf.a fi!LH .eg¿ udkj ysñlï rduqjlg iïnkaO lsÍu" .íid lsÍï
jeks .eg¿ ms<sn|j oekg mj;akd Wml,amk wNsfhda.hg ,la lr we;s w;r"
fjkiafldg ie,lSfï wdldr follg tljr wNsfhda. lsÍu i|yd wñ, fuj,ï
imh hs' fuu újdofha rduqj ;=<" Y%S ,xldfõ idlÉPd kso¾Ykh lr we;s
mßÈ" .íid lsÍu w;sYhskau újdod;aul yd újdoYS,S .eg¿jla f,i È.gu
mj;S' Y;j¾I .Kkdjla ;siafia iïmQ¾Kfhkau fm!oa.,slj" ÿrdpdrj;aj yd
kskaÈ;j ie,l+ úIhhla uyck oDIaáhg f.k taug;a" ldka;djkag wdrlaIs;"
ñ, wêl fkdjk .íid lsÍfï l%ufõohka i|yd m%fõY úh yels nj iy;sl
lsÍu i|yd fmdÿ wruqo,a jeh lsÍug;a th n, lrhs' úfYaIs; wd.ñl iy
ixialD;sl lKavdhïj, fyda ckjd¾. m%cdjkays idudðlhka f,i ldka;djkag

we;s .re;ajh m%;slafIam lrñka" ukqIHhska f,i ldka;djkag we;s .re;ajh
o th b,a,d isà'

ia;%Ska mQ¾K yd iudk udkjhka f,i ie,lSug ysñlï we;s rduqjla ;=< .¾NK’
ùug ldka;djkag we;s iqúfYaIS yelshdj jg lsÍu flakaøSh WNf;dafldaál
m%Yakhls' m%ckkh i|yd jQ wmf.a Odß;djh mokï lr .ksñka ishjia
.Kkdjla mqrd jQ wiudk ie,lSu meroùu wjYH jkafka ia;%Ska fuu ysñlï
mEu u; TÜgq ;nd we;s fyhsks'


fuu ,smsfha uq,a msgm; 1996 ud¾;= udifha § Y%S ,xldfõ ldka;d m¾fhaIK
flakaøh (CENWOR) úiska ixúOdkh lrk ,o ldka;d wOHhk ms<sn| miajk
cd;sl iïfï,kh fj; bÈßm;a lrk ,§'

,sms yqjudrej
iqks,d wfífialr" bkaf*daï" 5 chr;ak udj;" fld<U 5" Y%S ,xldj
úoHq;a ;emE, (

1' yekaidâ Y%S ,xldj" 1995 iema;eïn¾ 19 iy 20'

2' uelsfkdka iStï" 1989' gqj¾âia w f*ñksiaÜ ;shß T*a o iafÜÜ' ydj¾â
úYaj úoHd, uqøKd,h" flaïn%sÊ ^weußld tlai;a ckmoh&'

3' yqfiaka tia" 1994' Blafjd,sá bka o fydaï( úfukaia rhsÜia wekaâ m¾ik,a
f,daõia bka ijq;a taIshd' yshquka rhsÜia wekaâ úfuka' wd¾'l=la ^tâ&'
fmkais,afõkshd uqøKd, úYaj úoHd,h" *s,fv,a*shd


3¡ .íid kS;sh ms<sn| újdoh kej;
i,ld n,uq

órd Y%Sksjdika úisk’

fï jif¾ wf.daia;= udifha Y%S ,xldfõ leìkÜ uKav,h wjia:d folla hgf;a,
tkï l<,h udrl ckau úlD;s;d iys; hehs ksYaph lrkq ,enQ úg fyda
.¾NkS Ndjh ia;%S ¥IKhla fya;=fjka we;s jQ úg .íidjg wjir ,ndfok
flgqïm;la iïu; lf<ah'

.íidjla l< yelafla ldka;djf.a Ôú;h fírd.ekSug muKla hkqfjka rfÜ
mj;sk kS;sh g isÿlrk iqúfYaIS m%;sixialrKhla f,ig fndfyda fokd úiska
ÿgq fuu mshjr, ksrdhdi újdohla wjq¿jd,Sh' ta iïnkaOfhka m< jQ u;hka
m%uqL;djh yd oDIHudk jQ wdldrhg m%Odk jYfhkau wd.u, fmdÿ iy ud;D
fi!LHh iy ldka;djf.a ,sx.sluh yd m%ckkSh whs;sjdislï w;r fn§
f.dia ;sì‚' ,xldj 1883 oKav kS;s ix.%yh hgf;a oekg mj;akd kS;sh
,snr,alrKhg ,lalsÍug W;aidy lrk m%:u wjia:dj fuh fkdfõ' hg;a
úð; hq.hg wh;a fuu kS;sh mq¿,a lsÍug w;S;fha oerE W;aidyhka wid¾:l
jk úg Y%S ,xldfõ .íidj ms<sn| m%Odk újdohka mek kexf.ah

1990 oYlfha fï iïnkaOfhka we;sjQ md¾,sfïka;= újdoh ms<sn|g wod<j
1997 jif¾§ Y%S ,xld udkj ysñlï l%shdldßkS iy Ydia;%Or iqks,d
wfífialr zia;%Skaf.a udkj ysñlï ikao¾Nh ;=< Y%S ,xldfõ .íidjZ
^'Abortion in Sri Lanka in the context of women’s human rights& kñka jQ
ish f,aLkfha§ fufia ,shhs —fï újdofha§ úoyd oelajqKq mßÈ ia;%Skaf.a
,;ajh iy m%ckkh ms<sn| whs;shg tfrysj w;smer‚ ^fldkaifõáõ&
wd.ñl yd foaYmd,ksl u;hka tlaùu Y%S ,xldfõ ldka;djkag we;s nrm;<

cd;sl udkj ysñlï fldñifï iNdm;skS §msld Wvq.u úiska olajk wef.a
uE;ld,Sk ksÍlaIKh jk fi!LHuh ldrKd ms<n| uyck m%;sm;a;sh wd.ñl
flaj,alrejka úiska fufyhjkq fkd,eìh hq;=h hkafkka meyeÈ,s jk mßÈ
jir 20lg miqj;a fuu újdofha fldkafoais fjkia ù ;sfnkqfha b;d uo
jYfhks —ieuf.a wd.ñl u; iy NdIKfha ksoyi fj; fldñIka iNdj .re
lrk kuq;a, fuu .eg¿ wd.ñl úYajdihka u; mokï j ;SrKh fkdl<


hq;=h˜ hehs, fâ,s ksõia mqj;amf;ys m< jQ jd¾;djlg wkqj weh mjid ;sfí'

leìkÜ ;SrKfhka Èk lsysmhlg miqj Y%S ,xld lf;da,sl ìfIdma iïfï,kh
ta iïnkaOfhka ish úfrdaOh oelaùh’ fn!oaO iy uqia,sï ixúOdkj, isák
Tjqkaf.a i.fhda o tu y~g u tlajQy’ úreoaO;ajh y~ .d jefv;au, fi!LH
wud;HdxYfha ffjoHjre, wd.ñl kdhlhka lKavdhula fj; ;;ajh meyeÈ,s

mq¿,a m%Yak

flfia fj;;a fuu újdoh úiska tys fome;af;au isájqka fj; mq¿,a m%Yak
lsysmhla yqjd olajd ;sì‚' wdrlaIs; .íidj i,id .; yels whg ta i|yd
m%fõY ùu iSud lrk úg f;dard.ekSu hkafkka woyia jkafka l=ulao@ fi!LH
wud;HdxYfha ks,OdÍka fmkajd fokafka rg ;=< iEu Èkhl§u kS;súfrdë
.íidjka 658 la isÿjk njh’' l,dmfha wvqu ud;D urK m%;sY;h we;af;a
Y%S ,xldfõ h’ tkï, hïlsis ld,hla ;=< isÿjk ore Wm;a 100,000l§ isÿjk
ud;D urK .Kk 2013 jif¾§ 32 l’' ta w;rjdrfhau, wkdrlaIs; .íidjka
fya;=fjka Y%S ,xldj ;=< 10] isg 12] olajd jQ ud;D urK m%;sY;hla jd¾;d
fõ’ m%cd ffjoH úoHdj ms<sn| úfYaI{hka fmkajd fokafka uyck fi!LH
wxYfha ud;D fiajdjka fkdñf,a ,nd.; yels w;r .íidjg tfrys kS;suh
wkqñ;Ska u.ska rcfha frday,aj,ska tlS fiajdj ,nd§u j<lajk njhs’ flfia
fj;;a mqoa.,sl wxYh u.ska th ryfiau ,ndfok nj o fi!LH jD;a;slfhda
ksÍlaIKh lr;s'

;j;a ie,lsh hq;= m%Yakhla jkafka fulS újdohka ;=< ia;%sh, wef.a fi!LHh
iy wef.a f;dard.ekSu isÿjkafka flfiao hkakhs' —fidhd.ekSïj,ska woyia
lrkafka iudchSh iy Ôj úoHd;aul j¾.hd fnda lrkakka jYfhka ia;%shf.a
N+ñldj kS;sh úiska hïlsis wdldrhlska ms<s.kakd njhs' kuq;a wef.a ldhsl
msßmqka nj yd ,;ajh ms<sn| iajhx ;SrK .ekSug .re lsÍu ia;%S YÍrh
fya;=fjka iSud fkdjk w;r th fï jdo ìfï l%shdldß;ajhg uQ,sl wNsfhda.
hla jYfhka b;sß j mj;shs'˜ hehs wfífialr 1997 § ,Sjdh’ th wog o
j,x.= h'

- fld<U isg udOHlrKfha kshef<k órd Y%S ksjdika zo yskaÿZ mqj;amf;a


4¡ ;SrK .ekSu ldka;djg fokak(
.íid újdoh .ek ia;%Sjd§

iqnd úfcAisßj¾Ok

Y%S ,xldfõ .íid újdoh fï fudfyd; jk úg kej; jrla mek keÕS we;’
ta wjia:d folla hgf;a1 ldka;djkag .íid isÿlr .ekSu kS;Hdkql+, lsÍug
bv fok flgqïm;la iïu; lsÍug leìkÜ uKav,h W;aidy .ekSu;a
iu." tu wjia:d oaú;ajh jkafka ldka;dj ia;%S ¥IKhl úkaÈ;fhla ùu iy
l<,h zudrl ckau úlD;s;d’ iys; ùuhs¡ 1883 Y%S ,xld oKav kS;s ix.%yh
mk; hgf;a ^Tõ¡ ,xldfõ oKav kS;s ix.%yh mkjkq ,enqfõ o 1883 § h&
úfYaI{ ffjoHjrfhl= úiska úêu;a f,i ;yjqre lrk mßÈ ldka;djf.a
Ôú;h fírd.ekSu i|yd .íidjla lsÍu yereKq úg l<, .íid lsÍug Woõ
lsÍu o we;=<;aj ta i|yd .kq ,nk ish¨‍ W;aidyhka idmrdë jrola fyj;a
wmrdOhla njg m;a lr we;¡’

Y%S ,xld oKav kS;s ix.%yfha 303-306 j.ka;s u.ska fuu kS;sh §¾> jYfhka
olajkqfha —fuu l%shdj u.ska urKh isÿjk nj oekisàu fuu jro i|yd
w;HdjYH fkdfõ˜ hkak mjd olajñks¡

wmf.a hg;a úð; Wreufha fldgila jk fuu oKav kS;s ix.%yh ixfYdaOkh
lr we;af;a b;d l,d;=rlska jk w;r fmr lS j.ka;s lsis úfgl ixfYdaOkh
lr ke;’ .;jQ oYl lsysmh ;=< z.íid újdoh’ wjia:d .Kkdjl§ biau;=
fjñka kej; hgm;a fjñka ;sfnk w;r jvd;au iqúfYaIS f,i 1997 jif¾§
th isÿjQfha fuu j.ka;s ixfYdaOkh lrk f,i oeä fia b,a,d isàu;a iu."
ta i|yd úfrdaO;d iy wjysr lsÍï ks;ru mek kexf.a wd.ñl wdh;kj,sks¡
fuhg i;s lsysmhlg fmr wfma wd.ñl kdhlhka talu;sl yçka fuka
mejiqfõ th fkdl< hq;= nj h'

.íidj ms<sn| ia:djrhka .Kkdjla udOH jd¾;d u.ska m%;sia:dmkh lr we;¡
tys§ biau;= jQ udf.a úfYaI wjOdkh Èkd.;a u; oelaùï lsysmhla ^ud l;d
lrkafka bx.%Sis udOHh .ek mu‚& u.ska oelajqfKa .íidj yd .íid kS;sh jgd
mj;sk l;sldfõ iodpdrd;aul iy od¾Yksl ia:rhka .<jd oeóug .kakd
W;aidyhka w;ßka" .íidj mQ¾j f;dard.ekSula úh hq;= njg m< ù ;snQ u;


oelaùuhs¡ thska we;eula ziqÿiq , wOHdmkh’ fyda ,;ajh yd .eí
.ekSu je<elaùu wdY%s; f;dr;=rej,g mq¿,a m%fõYhla ,nd§u iy .íidj
kue;s zm%Yakhg .eí .ekSu j<lajk Wml%u j,g mq¿,a m%fõYhla ,nd§u jeks
ms<s;=re jeks iïm%odhsl ,snr,a úYaf,aIK wdlD;s imhh’'

m%Odk Odrdfõ udOHhkaf.a m< jQ fïjdhska tlÿ ,smshlska fyda l;d lsÍug
wlue;s wiSre;u .eg¿j hehs ud úYajdi lrk ldrKh wduka;%Kh
lr fkd;snQ nj ug lsj yel¡ th kï" ia;%shf.a YÍrh" ,;ajh iy
, Ôú;h iïnkaOfhka ish md,kh ;rfha lshd isá mS;DuQ,sl n,fhka
hq;a wdh;k ^rdcHh, m,a,sh hkd§& úiska .íidj úYaùh jYfhka idmrdë
njg m;alsÍfï mS;DuQ,sl b;sydihhs¡ uQ,sl jYfhka .;a l," th ia;%shf.a
iajhx ;SrK .ekSfï n,h iSud lsÍfï iy ldka;dj fulS moaO;s ;=< isr.;
lsÍfï l%uhla úh tkï" ia;%Ska hkq ;ukag fkdj ;u iajdñmqreIhkag, Tjqkaf.a
mjq,aj,g" m%cdjkag iy wjidkfha rdcHhg whs;s W;amdok hka;%hka hkak
h:d¾:hla njg m;alsÍu ms‚i Ndú;d jQ l%uhla úh'

fï olajd ud lshjQ tla bx.%Sis ,smshla muKla .íid újdoh ldka;d whs;sjdislï
ms<sn| .eg¿jla jYfhka oelaùug jEhï lr ;sì‚3

2017 jif¾§ mjd wm .íid kS;sh ms<sn| l;d lrk úg" tu ixjdofhka
úYd, fldgila .íidj iodpdrd;aul o, fkdtfia kï iodpdr úfrdaë o hkak
iïnkaOfhka oeä fldg ñßld w,a,d.;a újdohka fjkqfjka lem ù isák
w;rjdrfha, tlS iuia;h úiska .íid kS;sh wdrïN ùug ;=vq ÿka iy oeka mjd
.íid kS;sh Èß.kajk ft;sydisl, ixialD;sluh iy foaYmd,kuh jgmsgdj
úfõpkd;aul iy úYaf,aIKd;aul f,i oelSfuka neyer jk wdldrh mqÿudldr
fukau wkdjrKd;aul o úh'

ia;%S ,;ajh iy m%ckkSh f;dard.ekSï ms<sn| ;SrK .ekSu md,kh lsÍug
ux fidhk fiiq kS;s mrdihkaf.a ft;sydisl jrke.Sïj, mq¿,a ikao¾Nh g
tfrys j fuh idlÉPd lrkakg fuu ,sms lsisjlska W;aidy lr fkd;snQ nj
lsj yelsh¡ tkï, .eí.ekSu j<lajk úúOdldr l%u, isfiaßhka ie;alï jeks
wo mjd Ndú;d jk m%iQ; l%u f;dard.ekSu iïnkaOfhka iajhx ;SrK .ekSug
ia;%shg we;s yelshdj iïnkaO f;dr;=re fyda tu f;dr;=re jHdma; lsÍug
wod< kS;s ms<sn| tys§ idlÉPd ù fkd;sì‚‘ Tjqka tfia l<d kï, .íid kS;s
y÷kajd ÿkafka ßla;lhla ;=< fkdjk nj iy, wo mjd tajd ms<s.efkkafka
l<,fha Ôjh ms<sn| yqfolau i,ld fkdn,ñka fkdjk nj fkd;ld isàu
wmyiq jkq we;'

fulS kS;s ft;sydisl jYfhka md,kh lsÍfï fuj,ï jk w;r, ia;%S úuqla;sh
i|yd jQ jHdmdr ;=< jk úúOdldrfha /<ske.Sïj,g m%;spdrhla jYfhka tl


t,af,au mdfya mek ke.s tajd h'

fulS ldrKd wm úiska wduka;%Kh fkdlrk úg wm h:d¾:h wduka;%Kh
fkdl<d fjhs¡ tlS h:d¾:h jkafka .íidj idmrdë lsÍu f,dfõ iEu
;ekl§u ia;%S whs;sjdislï, ia;%Skaf.a ;SrK .ekSfï whs;sh iy ia;%S fi!LHh
iïnkaO w¾nqohla jYfhka ikd: ù we;s njhs¡ wm Y%S ,xldj ;=< fuh mq¿,a
ikao¾Nhlska wduka;%Kh lrkafka ke;¡ tkï wm fï fudfydf;a wr., lrñka
isákafka .íid kS;sh ixfYdaOkh lsÍu i|yd¦ th, f.da,Sh ol=fKa ^f;jeks
f,dalfha& ia;%Skaf.a Ôú; wjodkug fy<ñka g%ïma úiska mekjQ,dan,a .e.a
rE,a ^Global Gag Rule& ^f.da,Sh .e.a Í;sh& fuka wka; olaIsKdxYsl;ajh fj;g
f,dalh f.da,Sh jYfhka ú;eka ùul’'

g%ïma úiska fï yqÿ i|yk lf<a 2017 ckjdß 21 jeksod f,dj mqrd ldka;djka
ñ,shk 5 la ùÈhg nisñka isÿl< ft;sydisl ldka;d /<sfhka Èk lsysmhlg
miqj nj o iïm%odhg tlÕj ksÍlaIKh lsÍu jáhs'

wmg oeka wjYHj ;sfnkafka l=ulaoehs ienúkau jgyd .ekSfï§ fulS uQ,sl
moku .fõIKh iy wmf.a b;sydihka m%Yak lsÍu jeo.;a h’ fï r¿ kS;sh
ixfYdaOkh lrkakehs mjik úg wm igka lrkafka l=ula i|ydo@ ia;%Sjd§ka
jYfhka wfmka jeäfokd fuu ixfYdaOk oeä fia m%YakldÍ hehs i,l;s¡ th
f>dar jgmsgdjla ;=< hï WmdhYS,S wjldYhla Èkd.ekSu i|yd m%udKj;a
fkdjk ñkquls¡ fulS ixfYdaOk" ia;%shg ish YÍrh, ish ,;ajh iy ish
fi!LHh ms<sn| iajhx ;SrK .ekSfï yelshdj iïnkaOfhka muKla flakaøSh

ta fjkqjg, ish mQ¾K udkj ysñlï oeÍug fmr ia;%sh ìhlre jd;djrKhl
úkaÈ;hd njg uq,ska m;aùu fhdað; ixfYdaOk u.ska n,d;aul úh yelsh¡ tkï
fï wjia:dfõ§ weh tlaflda ia;%S ¥IKhl úkaÈ;hd ^iy$fyda jHdNspdrhl
jHia:dms; ia;%S ¥IKhl jeks& úh hq;=h¡ tfia;a ke;skï Ôj;a ùug wjia:djla
ke;s, fÄokSh jQ úlD;s l<,hla ord isáh hq;=h¡ fulS úkaÈ;hd fyj;a zwirK,
wysxil’ ldka;dj" wmrdOhl úkaÈ;fhla fyda fÄojdplhl úkaÈ;fhla úh

fulS kS;Hdkql+, .íidj i|yd isák wfkla kshu wfmalaIsldj jkafka,
ienúkau zújdyl ia;%sh’hsZ kshu wfmalaIsldj hk fuu rduq.; lsÍu ys;du;du
mQ¾j f;aÍula jYfhka fndfyda fofkla úiska fokq ,nkakls' fulS hym;a
újdyl ldka;dj, oekgu;a ujl’ weh .íidjla lr .ekSug ux fidhkafka
weh oekgu;a ore ;sfofkl=f.a wdorŒh uj jk ksid iy, wef.a kS;Hdkql+,
iajdñmqreIhd iy weh hk fofokdu tla ù ;ukag isõjeks orefjla ;ekSu
wiSre yd ixlS¾K fohla hehs ;SrKhla f.k we;s ksid h'


ÈfkaId iurr;ak fufia ,shh’ —Y%S ,xldfõ .íidj ms<sn| m¾fhaIK úiska
fhdackd lrkafka .íidjka isÿlr .ekSug W;aidy lrk nyq;rh újdylhka
nj h’˜6 .íidj ms<sn| mQ¾j ffk;sl whs;sh ia;%shg ,ndÈh hq;= hehs
úYajdi lrk wfmka fndfyda fokd wmf.a ;¾lhkag rel=,a §u ms‚i fulS
fidhd.ekSï fkdmudj mdúÉÑ lrkafk, .íidj isÿlsÍug ux fidhkafka
újdyl ldka;djka ñi <dnd,, wújdyl ;re‚hka fkdjk nj weiSug rdcHh
yeuúgu leu;s fyhsks¡ kuq;a wm m%;sm;a;shla jYfhka iEu ldka;djlgu
.íidfõ whs;sh ;sìh hq;=h hkak iu. tlÕ úh hq;=h’- ffjYHdjkag mjd
tu whs;sh ;sìh hq;=hæ weh újdyl jqj;a, wújdyl jqj;a, ia;%S ÿIKhl
úkaÈ;fhla jqj;, wkque;sh u; i;=g i|yd isÿl< , tlaùulska wk;=rej
wkjYH .¾NkS njlska mSvd ú¢k ia;%shl jqj;a wehg tu whs;sh ;sìh hq;=h'

.íidjla lr .ekSug ux fidhk ia;%shla iïnkaOfhka wdKavqjla ;=< mq¿,a
jYfhka me;sr mj;sk .íid úfrdaë wdl,am iy úYajdi ms<sn| wms fyd¢ka
oksuq¡ oKav kS;s ix.%yfha fuu j.ka;sj,g ixfYdaOk f.k taug 1997 jif¾§
.;a fï yd iudk W;aidyh ;=< fï .eg¿j iïnkaOfhka we;s jQ md¾,sfïka;=
újdoh ms<sn| iqks,d wfífialr fufia ,shhs¡ újdoh mqrdu uka;%Sjreka úiska
úoyd oelajQfha ish mqoa.,sl u;s u;dka;rhka h¡ tkï, ienúkau tajd ia;%Ska
ms<sn| Tjqkaf.a idudkH wdl,am yryd olajk u;hka úh’ fulS wdl,am, ia;%shla
hkq j.úNd.hla ke;sj jrfoa nefËkafkah hkafka isg myiqfjka Wjÿrg
,lajk wh f,i oelSu olajd mrdihl úys§ ;sì‚¡˜ wjdikdjlg fuka wo jk
úg o tu u;fha jeä fjkila isÿù ke;'

.íidj iïnkaO ffjoHuh ldrKd oeä fiau zfi!LHZ .eg¿jla njg m;alsÍu
wmg uqyqK fokakg isÿù ;sfnk ;j;a .egquls¡ fuu fhdað; ixfYdaOkh
fukau fmr fhdackd l< ixfYdaOk o hk ish,a, ilia lr ;sfnkafka ffjoH
úoHd;aul fldaKhlska jk w;r tajd f.k taug fmruqK .;af;a o ffjoH
jD;a;slhka h' fuu l%shdj,sfha§ ia;%S whs;sjdislï iy ia;%Skaf.a iajhx ;SrK
.ekSfï yelshdjg ;ekla fkdÿka w;r, ta fjkqjg ia;%shla kS;súfrdaë iy
kshdukh fkdl< .íidjkag ,la lsÍfï we;s wjodku ms<sn| ,nd § ;snqfKa
wju wjodkuls' fï ud¾.fhau .uka .ksñka iudc wd¾Ól ;¾lhka o f.k
tkq ,eì‚' tajdhska lshkakg W;aidy flrefKa .íidj idmrdë lsÍfï
m%;sM,hla jYfhka wvq wdodhï ,dNS iudc lKavdhïj, ldka;djka wkdrlaIs;
.íidjkag ,laùug jeä wjodkula we;s njh’'

flfia kuq;a wfmka fndfyda fofkl=g fulS lsisÿ iQ;%lrKhla mrudo¾YS fkdjk
w;r, we;eïúg wmg tajdhska ,eìh yelafla o tmuKl' wm h:d¾:jd§ úh
hq;=h’ Wmdhud¾.sl úh hq;=h’ b;ska wm l%shd l< hq;af;a flfiao@ úfYaIfhkau,
ia;%S whs;sjdislï l%shdldßkshka iy ia;%S whs;sjdislï fjkqfjka l:d lrkakka
jYfhka wm l%shd l< hq;af;a flfiao@


ish m%uqL;r f,aLkhla jQ - Sexuality: A Feminist Issue@˜ ^,;ajh ia;%Sjd§
.eg¿jlao@& 7 ys§ wfífialr fufia ,shhs' —ia;%S ,;ajh md,kh lsÍu
mS;DuQ,sl;ajfha ;SrKd;aul Od;=jls˜ .íidj idmrdë fkdjk ;;ajhg m;a
lr .ekSfï kS;Hdkql+,Ndjh ms<sn| lÓldjka ks¾udKh lrk úg iy yev.
iajk úg wm wjOdkh fhduq l< hq;af;a fuhg h'

fï wjia:dfõ§ kS;s ixfYdaOkh ;=<, th oekg fhdackd ù we;s wdldrh
ms<sn| lÓldjka bÈßhg ;,a¨‍ lsÍug yelsùu muKla fkdj, f,fyisfhkau
woDIHudk jQfha fudkjdo hkak fidhd.ekSu ms‚i tu ixjdohka yeuúgu
wdmiaig f.k hdug yelsùu o jeo.;a h' tfia f,fyisfhkau woDIHudk jQfha
we§ï yd ;,a¨‍ lsÍï ksYaph lrk mqreI uQ,sl md,k moaO;Ska h' tys§ ia;%shf.a
iajhx ;SrK .ekSfï whs;sh ms<sn| újdoh ;=< flakaø.; lsÍug wmg yelsúh
hq;=h’ ;jo, oekg mj;akd .íid kS;sh ,sys,a lrk ixfYdaOk i|yd ;,a¨‍j
fok w;rjdrfhau, mriamr;djla fia fmfkk, mQ¾K jYfhka .íidj idmrdë
núka uqojd .ekSu i|yd jk wmf.a wNs,dIh ;jÿrg;a úoyd oelaùug o wmg
yelsúh hq;=h'

tmuKla fkdj, uekúka is;d ne,Sug WÑ; hehs wmg fmkS hk fohla jkafka
m%ckk hqla;sh jgd ìysj we;s wmf.a iudc jHdmdr iy ta fjkqfjka mlaIj
l;d lsÍu, úIu,sx.sluh rduq.; lsÍfuka úhqla; lr.ekSuhs' ud is;kafka
ia;%Ska m%ckkSh¡ jQj;a ke;;a ia;%shf.a ,;ajh iy ia;%Skaf.a ,;ajhka
md,kh lrk ft;sydisl mqreI uQ,sl l=rei hqoaOh iu. .íid újdoh’
ksrka;rfhka iïnkaO lsÍu wmf.a j.lSu njh’ m%ckk whs;sjdislï’ wdY%s;
NdIdj úiska, orejka je§u iy oeÍu f;dard fkd.kakd ia;%Ska fukau orejka
je§u iy oeÍug n,dfmdfrd;a;= fkdjk ia;%Ska, oekgu;a orejka isák ia;%Ska
iy orejka jeÈh fkdyels ia;%Ska hkd§ wh mjd ksrka;rfhkau neyer lrkq

wmf.a m%ckk whs;sjdislï ms<sn| isÿlrk wjOdrKh lsÍïj,g iudka;rj
,sx.l;ajh, ldhsl yd ,sx.sluh iajhx ks¾K yelshdjo wjOdrKh lsÍug wm
yeuúgu wjldYh fidhd.; hq;=h' wm fï wjia:dfõ§ z,;ajh’ ms<sn|
mq¿,a iy .eUqre ixjdohla È.ska È.gu mj;ajd .; hq;= jkafka b;d nrm;<
yd we;=<d;a;uh wdldrhlska ta ms<sn| wmf.a wjfndaOh m%idrKh lr .ksñks'
fï wkqj wo Èkfha mj;sk .íid újdoh’ mjd ud yg isysm;a lrkafka ia;%Skag
iajhx ;SrK .ekSug mQ¾K jYfhka yelshdj ,eîu kue;s w;sYh iïm%odhsl
fia fmfkk ia;%Sjd§ .eg¿j, ,;ajh iy m%ckk whs;sh ms<sn| iajhx
;SrK .ekSfï whs;sh m%Odk ldrKh jk iy wjidkfha ish¨‍ ñksiqka mqreI
uQ,sl;ajfhka mQ¾K úuqla;sh ,eîu iu. .eUqre f,i wE£ we;s fohla f,i h'



counts ^lreKq folla hgf;a l<,h .íid lsÍug wjir §u i|yd mk;a flgqïm;‍&

^.íidj ms<sn| ffjoHjreka úiska wd.ñl kdhlhskag Æyqçka úia;r lsÍu&

That elusive right to control your life and body – Abortion: Prabodini Munasinghe (Daily
%E2%80%93-Abortion/14-64064 ^Tnf.a Ôú;h iy YÍrh md,kh lsÍu i|yd w,a,d.;
fkdyels whs;sh - .íidj( m%fndaêkS uqKisxy&

caesarean-111220 ^isfiaßhka i|yd ldka;djkaf.a m%iQ; whe§ï&

blow-for-womens-rights/ ^ldka;djkaf.a whs;Ska i|yd g%ïmaf.a f.da,Sh .e.a kshuh&

The Abortion Debate: Mismatched and Misplaced?: Dinesha Samararatne
(Groundviews, 2017)
mismatched-and-misplaced/ ^.%jqkaâ úõia 2017&

Sexuality: A Feminist Issue?: Sunila Abeysekera (Women in Action, 1999) ^l%shdldÍ ldka;djla" 1999&


5¡ ffjoHuh mS;DuQ,slNdjh hkq
m%ckkh ms<sn| ia;%shf.a iajhx ;SrK
.ekSfï yelshdjg f.jk ñ, o@

iÑks fmf¾rd

.íid kS;sh m%;sixialrKh j¾;udkfha Y%S ,xldj ;=< uy;a Wkkaÿfjka l;d
nia lrk l=m%lg ud;Dldjls tys§ m%;sixialrK wjYH ukao iy isÿjk újdoh
ms<sn| ia;%Sjd§ oDIaáfldaKhka fukau —fi!LH ms<sn| uyck m%;sm;a;sh m%n,
ffjoHuh yd ksrd.ñl mokula u; ñi wd.ñl úYajdihka u; mokï fkdúh
hq;=h˜ hk u;h ms<sn| m%fõ.ldÍ idlÉPd isÿ flf¾'

Y%S ,xld udkj ysñlï fldñifï iNdm;sksh úiska olajk ,o fuys wjidkhg
lS lreK fuys§ idlÉPdjg WÑ; ldrKhla jk w;r th wjYHfhkau wm
úiska kej; fufkys l< hq;af;a, .íidj uyck fi!LH .eg¿jla jk w;r, th
ia;%shf.a m<uq iy m%Odk;u m%ckk whs;sjdislu jk fyhsks' ;jo .íidjla
isÿlr .ekSu i|yd whs;sh m%ckkh ms<sn| ;SrKh lsÍfï ia;%sh i;= whs;sfhys
wkq,x>kSh fldgila njg m;afjhs' tkï, .¾NkSNdjh mj;ajd.; hq;af;a o,
tfia kï ta l=uk wjia:dfõ§ o hkakhs' ffjoHjreka iy fi!LH wud;HdxYh
úiska fhdackd lrk ,o .íid kS;s m%;sixialrKh yryd .íidj ffjoHlrKh
ùu ^.íidj ffjoHuh ldrKhla fia w¾: oelaùu, m%;sldr lsÍu yd tkhska
th ffjoH úoHd;aul úIhla njg m;alsÍu&, ia;%shg f.jkakg isÿj ;sfnk
ñ,la njg m;aj ;sfío hkak nrm;< uyck újdohlg ;=vq fok ldrKhls'

fhdað; m%;sixialrKh

j¾;udkh jk úg ,xldfõ .íidj tla jHd;sf¾Lhla u; idmrdë jrols'
tu jHd;sf¾Lh jkafka ia;%shf.a Ôú;h fírd.ekSuhs' fhdað; m%;sixialrKh
iïu; jqjfyd;a tu.ska wjia:d foll§ .íidjg bv ,efnkq we;’ tkï,
l<,h nrm;< udrl ckau úlD;s;d iys; jQ úg iy ia;%shla ¥IKhl
m%;sM,hla jYfhka .eí.;a úg hk wjia:d fofla§ h' fuu jHd;sf¾L fol
isÿl< hq;af;a rcfha frday,aj, úfYaI{ ffjoHjrekaf.a ks¾foaYh u; jk
w;r, ia;%S ¥IKhla isÿ jQ úg kS;s idOk wdh;k o thg iïnkaO jkq we;'


ndOl ì£u

fhdað; m%;sixialrKhg mlaIj kef.k ;¾lhla jkqfha fulS w¨‍f;ka tla l<
;;aj fol hgf;a .íidj wjYH lrk ldka;djka yg wdrlaIs; iy kS;Hdkql+,
.íidjg m%fõY ùug yels mßÈ kS;sh ,sys,a ùuhs' ;j;a ;¾lhla f,i fmkS
hkafka w;sYh iSudldÍ ;;ajhka hgf;a jqj;a, tn÷ m%;sixialrKhla úiska
rdcHh úiska mkjd we;s iSudlrKhka bj;a lr wdrlaIs; iy kS;Hdkql+,
.íidj i|yd yelshdj ,nd§uhs'

fulS m%;sixialrK n,dfmdfrd;a;= we;s lrjkiq¨‍ tajd f,i fmkS .sh;a, iómj
n,k l, fmkS hkafka tajd uQ,Od¾ñl jYfhka fukau Ndú;h w;ska o .eUqre
f,i m%YakldÍ nj h'

f;dard.ekSu m%Yak lsÍu

fhdað; m%;sixialrKh ia;%shf.a f;dard.ekSu jgd flakaøSh ù ke;’ m%ckkh
ms<sn| iajhx ;SrK .ekSfï whs;sh wjOdrKh lsÍfï§ ;SrKhla .ekSug
^.¾NkS jkafkao iy ta l=uk wjia:dfõ§ o yd .¾NkSNdjh mj;ajdf.k
hkafkao iy ta l=uk wjia:dfõ§ o hkak ;SrKh lsÍug& n,h iy wjia:dj
,ndfokq fjkqjg, fhdað; m%;sixialrK u.ska fulS ;SrKh ffjoH jD;a;slhka
fj;g ^´kEu ffjoH jD;a;slfhl= w;g fkdj úfYaI{ ffjoHjreka w;g&
,nd§u fuys§ isÿ fõ'

l<,hl udrl ckau úlD;s;d ;sfío hkak fyda .¾NkSNdjfha lsishï .eg¿jla
;sfío hkak y÷kd .ekSug fukau Wmfoia ,nd.ekSug o ffjoH iydh wjYH
úh yelsh' fï yereKq úg .íidjla i|yd fya;=j l=ulao hkak fkdi,lñka
.¾NkSNdjhla wjika l< hq;=o hkak ms<sn| wjika ;SrKh ffjoHjrfhl=
úiska .; hq;af;a ukao ^fjk;a jpkj,ska mjikafka kï ffjoHlrKh ùu&
hkakg fya;=jla ke;' fï m%;sixialrKhg iydh m< lrk ffjoHjreka, —tu
;SrKh ujf. wf;a˜ hehs wjOdrKh lrk w;rjdrfha, ta yqiafukau Tjqka
i|yka lrkafka rcfha frday, úfYaI{ ffjoHjreka fofofkl=f.a ks¾foaYh
u; muKla tu ;SrKh ujg .; yels nj h' fuhska fmkS hkafka fhdað;
m%;sixialrKh ffjoH mS;DuQ,slNdjh ;=< uq,anei f.k we;s nj h'

ffjoHuh mS;DuQ,slNdjh

ffjoH mS;DuQ,slNdjh ia;%Ska w;aolsk kj ixl,amhla fkdfõ' m¾fhaIKj,ska
fmkajd fokafka ffjoH jD;a;slhka ksrka;rfhkau ia;%Ska iy fiiq wdka;sl
lKavdhï ms<sn| ish u;hka iy oelau m<lsÍfï§ úfYaI myiqjla ,nk
njhs' úfYaIfhkau fõokdkdYl m%;sldrj,§ ia;%S mqreINdjh u; mlaI.%dyS
ùu ffjoH m%;sldrj,§ oel.; yels nj o m¾fhaIK u.ska fmkajd foa' fuu

;;ajh hym;a w;g fjkia úh yels jqjo —fï iqúfYaIS WodyrKfha§ ish YÍr
ms<sn| ;SrK .ekSfï whs;sh fkd;ld yßk mS;DuQ,sl wdl,amj,g wNsfhda.
lrkq fjkqjg fï fhdað; .íid m%;sixialrKfha§ tu ;SrKh .ekSu˜‍ ia;%Skag
jvd ia;%Ska .ek okafka hehs mQ¾j ks.ukhl isák ffjoHjreka w;g m;afjhs'
miq.shod isÿjQ .íid kS;s m%;sixialrKh ffjoHjreka úiska wd.ñl kdhlhka
fj; meyeÈ,s lr §fï wjia:djg tlÿ ldka;djl fyda iyNd.s ù fkdisàu,
bÈßfha§ úh yels foa ms<sn| fmr ,l=Kla mu‚'

ffjoHjrekaf.a mqoa.,sl úYajdihka iy mlaI.%dySlï ffjoH mS;DuQ,sl Ndjfha
;j;a wdldrhla jk w;r tys§ th widOdrK o ke;' fhdað; m%;sixialrK
hg.eiSug lf;da,sl ìfIdma iïfï,kfha m%ldY muKla fkdj Y%S ,xld
lf;da,sl ffjoHjrekaf.a ixioh úiska —vehemently opposes abortion for any
reason other than to save the life of the mother˜‍ ^ujf.a Ôú;h wdrlaId lsÍu
yer wka lsisÿ fya;=jla u; .íidj isÿlsÍug ;rfha úreoaO jk nj&g l<
m%ldYhla o we;=<;a úh' fhdað; kS;s m%;sixialrKfhka fhdackd lrk mßÈ
ia;%shla .¾NkSNdjh wjika lsÍu i|yd úfYaI{ ffjoHjrekaf.a ks¾foaY
fiúh hq;=o@ fï ;SrKh .ekSfï§ wehg widOdrK ke;s mS;DuQ,sl Ndjhg bv
fkdfok ffjoHjreka o fidhd.ekSug isÿ fõ'

lKiai¿ iy.; mQ¾j ìys ùu

fhdað; m%;sixialrKh iïu; jqjfyd;a ia;%shf.a udkj ysñlïj, j¾Okhg
wl=,a fy<k mQ¾j kso¾Yk .Kkdjla o ìysjkq we;’ m<uqj, .íidjla l< hq;=
njg iy ta wdY%s; fiiq ffjoH ld¾hhka iïnkaOfhka ;SrKh .; hq;af;a,
ia;%sh fjkqfjka ^fyda ia;%sh fjkqfjka fkdjk& njg ia:dms; jkq we;'

;j;a ldrKhla jkafka —fhdað; m%;sixialrK u.ska ia;%shg wef.a mQ¾K udkj
ysñlï i,id .ekSug yels ùug fmr uq,ska tys úkaÈ;hka njg m;aúh hq;=h˜
hk mQ¾j ks.ukhhs¡ ;j;a lKiai¿ iy.; mQ¾j ks.ukhla úh yelafla
ld,iSudj, úfYaI{ ffjoHjrekaf.a ks¾foaYh iy fmd,sia jd¾;d u.ska,
f,dalfha fiiq ;ekaj,;a isÿjk wkaoug wef.a ;SrK .ekSfï yelshdjg
;jÿrg;a iSud mekùuhs

f,dalfha fujeks m%;sixialrKj,ska m,la ,eî ;sfío@

Y%S ,xldfõ fhdað; .íid m%;sixialrKh kj;u fhdackdjla fkdfõ' fuhg
iudk m%;sixialrK f,dalfha fiiq rgj, o fhdackd ù l%shdjg kexù ;sfnkafka
wi;=gqodhl m%;sM,j,g u. újr lrñks bkaÈhdfõ .¾NkSNdjh ffjoHjuh
jYfhka wjika lsÍfï mk; ^Medical Termination of Pregnancy 'MTP' Act&
u.ska l<,hg i;s 12 la olajd ld,h ;=< tla ffjoHjrfhl=f.a Wmfoia u;
.íidj isÿlsÍug o, wvqu .Kfka ffjoHjreka fofofkl=f.a Wmfoia u;

l<,hg i;s 12 ;a 20 ;a w;r ld,fha§ .íidj isÿlsÍug o bv ,ndfohs' fuys§
jHd;sf¾Lhla jYfhka ia;%shg fyda l<,hg ;¾ckhla iys; wjia:djl§
wêlrKfha wkque;sh u; muKla ld,iSudj fkd;ld th isÿlsÍug wjir fohs'
fulS wjYH;d úiska .íidj isÿlr .ekSug wjYH ia;%Ska iy .eyeKq <uqka yg
wu;r nrla we;s lr ;sfí' tfiau ;ks ;ks jYfhka kvq lSug fukau wêlrK
;Skaÿ ,nd.ekSug o isÿj ;sfí' ia;%S ¥IKh yd ine¢ wmlS¾;su;aNdjh yd ia;%S
¥IK jd¾;d jkafka wvqfjka ùu kue;s ldrKh iu. tlaj fulS m%;sixialrK
—mr;rh k;r lsßfï ieliqula jYfhka ie,lsh yels jqj;a, ksiel jYfhkau
th .eg¿jg §¾>ld,Sk jYfhka idOkSh ms<s;=rla fkdfõ'˜

.íid kS;sh ,sys,a lsÍu ms‚i 2012 jif¾§ rejkavdj o fï yd iudk
m%;sixialrK y÷kajd ÿkafkah’ tys§ jd¾;d jQfha —rejkavdj úiska .íid kS;sh
kùlrKh lr, m%fõYùug oeßh fkdyels ;rfï ndOl thg tla lsÍfuka
wk;=rej ìï uÜgfuka fjkia lï isÿjQfha b;d w,amhls' ldka;djka iy
.eyeKq <uqkaf.ka w;s nyq;rhlg kS;Hdkql+, .íidj fj; ;jÿrg;a m%fõY
ùug yels jqfKa ke;'˜ tys§ ;jÿrg;a jd¾;d jQfha úfYaIfhka .%dóh m<d;aj,
ldka;djka iaj,am fofkla muKla kj kS;sh hgf;a .íidjg iqÿiqlï ,eîu
i|yd wjYH l%shdmámdáh iïmQ¾K l< njhs' fuu.ska rejkavdfõ .íid kS;sh
m%;sixialrKh iy ;jÿrg;a th ,sys,a lrk f,ig b,a,Sï kej; kej;;a
.,d tkakg mgka .;af;ah'

fun÷ m%;sixialrK .íidj wjYH jk ia;%Skaf.a m%;s,dNh i|yd fkdjk njg
meyeÈ,s idlaIs ;sìh§, .íid kS;sh úYd, m%udKhlg ,snr,a l< fkamd,h
iy b;sfhdamshdj jeks rgj,a Y%S ,xldj úiska WodyrKhg .kafka ke;af;a
ukao hk m%Yakh hful=g we;súh yelsh’ fuu rgj,a fmkajd fokafka .íid
kS;s m%;sixialrKh muKla fï .eg¿j úi£ug m%udKj;a fkdjk njhs' ;jo
ienE fjki we;sjkafka mdi, ;=< yd mdif,ka msg; ;reK fldgia fj;
mq¿,a , wOHdmkhla ^Comprehensive Sexuality Education 'CSE'& y÷kajd
§u iy th l%shdjg kexùu we;=<;aj ia;%Skaf.a whs;sjdislï wdrlaId lrk
mq¿,a l%fudamdhlska muKla njhs' tfiau úksYaphkaf.ka f;drj wjYH ´kEu
wfhl=g Wm;a md,kh we;=¿ , yd m%ckk fi!LH fiajdjka .=Kd;aul
jYfhka ,nd.; yels ùu o tys fldgila jk njhs'

fï m%;sixialrK ldgo@

fhdað; m%;sixialrK fhdackd lrk wh úiska f.k tk ;¾lh fj; wdmiq
yefruq' Tjqkag wkqj wdrlaIs; yd kS;Hdkql+, .íidjka wjYH lrk jeä
ldka;djka msßilg ^Wod( ¥IKhg ,lajQ ldka;djka iy l<,fha udrl ckau
úlD;s;d ;sfnk ldka;djka& fhdað; m%;sixialrKh fj; m%fõY úh yels fõ'
.íid kS;sh ,sys,a lsÍu u.ska fujeks ldka;djkag ta fj; m%fõY ùfï yelshdj
jeä lrk nj i;Hhls' kuq;a ta w;rjdrfhau˜ ixLHdf,aLk iy m¾fhaIK

u.ska fmkajd fokafka Y%S ,xldfõ ldka;djkag .íidjla wjYH jk m%Odk fya;=
tajd fkdjk njhs'

Èklg Y%S ,xldj ;=< .íidjka 700 lg jvd isÿjk njg weia;fïka;=.;
lr we;' thska nyq;rh isÿlr .kafka újdyl ldka;djka úisks' fï m%;sY;h
we;eï jd¾;djlg wkqj 94] blaujhs' tfiau tajd isÿlr .kqfha kS;s úfrdaë
f,i iy ksrka;rfhkau wkdrlaIs;j h' .¾NkSNdjh wjika lr .ekSu i|yd
Tjqkag n,mdk m%Odk fya;= jkafka wd¾Ól wia:djr;ajh iy jeämqr orejka
wjYH fkdùuhs' by< wdodhula iys; ldka;djkag ish .¾NkSNdjh wjika lr
.ekSug ^kS;s úfrdaë f,i jqj;a& m%fõYh iy uqo,a ;sfí' kuq;a uOHu mdka;sl
iy wvq wdodhï,dNS ia;%Ska yg fuh isÿlr.ekSug isÿjkafka zf.dv fjolïZ
yryd h' thska fndfyda úg urKh fyda Ôú; ld,h i|ydu l,amj;akd ldhsl
wYlakql;d we;s fõ' .íidj idmrdë fkdjk ;;ajhg m;a lsÍfï w¾:h
hïlsis fya;=jla fyda fya;= ksid ;ukaf.a wkjYH .¾NkS nj wjika lsÍug
wjYH ia;%shg ta i|yd kS;Hdkql+, f,i oeßh yels mßÈ iy .¾yd;aul fkdjk
wdldrhlg th isÿlr .ekSug yelshdj ,nd§uhs'

wm ke;sj wm .ek ;SrK fkd.kq

fuu ú.%yh ‍,xldfõ kS;s yd m%;sm;a;s kshdukhka ks¾udKh lrk úg fyda ´kEu
;SrKhla .kakd úg tajd fld;rï wruqKq iy.; jqj;a‍ tajd fhdackd lsÍu fyda
iïu; lr .ekSu isÿjkafka thska jeämqru n,mEug m;ajk wh tu l%shdoduh
;=< flakaø.; fkdlrñka jk njhs' fun÷ m%;sixialrK úiska Y%S ,xldfõ
ia;%Ska yg .íidj wjYH jkafka ukao hkak ms<sn| ixLHdf,aLk wdLHdkhka
iy ta i|yd fya;= fkdi,ld yßkjd muKla fkdj m%;sixialrKj,ska olajk
wjYH;d bgqlsÍug W;aidy .ekSfï§ ldka;djka uqyqK mdk wNsfhda. o
fkdi,ld yßkq ,nhs' WodyrKhla jYfhka ia;%Skag tfrys , m%pKav;ajh
ms<sn| isÿùï fndfyda úg jd¾;d.; fkdjk úg fyda we;eïúg tla úfYaI{
ffjoHjrfhla fj; hd.; fkdyels ia;%shlg úfYaI{ ffjoHjreka fofofkl=
fj; m%fõY úh yelso jeks ldrKd fuys§ uq¿ukskau fkdi,ld yer ;sfí'

fï wkqj" ia;%Skag m%;s,dNhla ,efnk mßÈ rfÜ kS;s m%;sixialrKh lsÍug
.kq ,nk ´kEu W;aidyhla isÿl< hq;af;a ia;%S whs;sjdislï l%shdOrhka iy
, yd m%ckk whs;sjdislï l%shdOrhka we;=<;aj ia;%Skaf.a woyia úuiSu
u.sks' .íidj ffjoHlrKh ùu u.ska ia;%shg wdrlaIs; yd kS;Hdkql+, .íidj
fj; msúiSug tfrysj ;sfnk hï hï iSudjka bj;a úh yels kuq;a˜‍ m%ckkh
ms<sn| ia;%shf.a iajhx ;SrK .ekSfï yelshdj iy fuu ú.%yfhka úoyd oelajQ
ia;%S whs;sjdislïj,g thska §¾>ld,Skj isÿjkafka i;=reldÍ n,mEuls' fuu
m%;sixialrK iïu; jqj;a ke;;a wm úiska fkdkj;ajdu .íidfõ idmrdë
nj bj;a lrk f,ig b,a,d isáh hq;=h' ia;%shg ;u YÍrh˜‍ ,;ajh iy
Ôú;h ms<sn| mQ¾K md,khla ,nd.; yelafla túg mu‚'

6¡ ; .¾NdIh( Y%S ,xldfõ
Ôú;h" .íidj iy ud;D;ajh

wfma nr iy ifï meyeh .ek fyd| ys;ska lshk woyiaj, isg" wm mdf¾
weúÈk úg wfma miqmi tk wh iïnkaO .=ma; w;aoelSu olajd" ldka;dfjda
;ukaf.a YÍr hkq uyck foam, hehs tmd fjk ;rug oekqj;ah' fhdað;
.íid kS;sfhka fï ldrKh wduka;%Kh lsÍug .kafka iq¿ W;aidyhla jqj;a"
wvqu ;rfï th úiska - whq;= fhdackd" whq;= m%ldY" jer§fuka fuka isref¾
jÈk oE;a iy nf,ka lrk oE we;=¿j m%pKav;ajh kï j¾Kdj,sfha wjidk
wkaOldr fl<jr jk - ia;%S ¥IKfha úkaÈ;hkag lsishï iykhla ,ndfohs'

.íidjg úreoaO fjkakka mqreIdêm;Hh we;s neõ ms<.;af;a jqjo" ke;s jqjo"
wjidkfha n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkafka ldka;djkaf.a YdÍßl iajdêldrh iSud lrk"
Tjqkaj iaÓr ud;DNdjh flf¾ fyda Ôú;h wk;=f¾ fy,k kS;s úfrdaë l%u
i|yd n, lrk" mj;sk ;;ajh kv;a;= lsÍughs' .íidjg úreoaO fjk whg
tla fya;=jla ;sîu wjYH fkdjQjo" fï ;SrKh .ekSfï§ Y%S ,xldfõ ish¨‍ ire
ldka;djka fjkqfjka tfia lsÍug ;ukag ysñlula we;s neõ Tjqka lshd isáho"
we;a;gu ikao¾Nh ;=< isÿjkafka l=ulao hkak iïnkaOfhka fkdi,lk
Tjqyq" ;ukaf.a l%shdj, m%;sM,hka .ek o wixfõ§ fj;s'

újdy fkdjQ uõjrekag Y%S ,xldj hym;a ;ekla njg m;a lsÍug" wdndê;
whf.a Ôjk ;;ajh jeä ÈhqKq lsÍug" <uhska i|yd oekg mj;sk iudc /
ljrK moaO;s Wfoid iïm;a ,nd §ug b,a,d isàu i|yd wmg WoafoaYkh
lsÍu l< yelsh' tfia lsÍfï § wod< újdoh isÿjkafka ÿIalr" wm%ikak" ñ,
uqo,a wju Y%S ,dxlSh ixialrKh ;=< nj;a" wfma m%cdmd,k fmd;aj, i|yka
ufkdal,amsl ixialrKh ;=< fkdjk nj;a Tn ms<s.; hq;=h'

.íidjg úreoaO jkakka we;eïúg úYajdi lrkafka Ôú;h mQckSh nj;a" th
l=uk foa isÿ jqj;a wdrlaId l< hq;= nj;a" .íidj kS;s .; lsÍfuka Ôú;hg
we;s Wÿrd.; fkdyels whs;sh lv fjk nj;ah' ljod Ôú;h mgka .kafka
o hkak iïnkaOfhka úoHd{hka w;r fukau wdpdrO¾ufõ§ka w;r o fmdÿ
tlÕ;djhla ke;s w;r" Ôú;h iïnkaO ,laIK w¾:ksrEmKh ixlS¾K
ldrKhla jk neúka ta .ek we;af;a wmeyeÈ,s ;;ajhls' Ôú;h wdrïN
fjkafka .eí .ekSfuka o" ke;s kï flfkl=f.a iú{dkl;ajh we;s fjk
;efkka o" fld÷ weg fmf<ka o" fõokdj oekSfï Odß;djfhka o" ke;akï yo
.eiafuka o hkak iïnkaOfhka meyeÈ,s fyda w;a;fkdau;sl mokula ke;'


Ôú;h mgka .kafka .eí .ekSfuka hehs wms fudfyd;lg is;uq' tjeks
;;ajhl§" l,,hg iudcfha udkj ia;%shg iudk f,iskau wdpdr O¾óh
wdia:dkhla we;s njg ms<s .ekSug wmg n,lrkafkao@ iudcfha ia:dms;
idudðlhl=f.a ldhsl hymeje;au" udkisl fi!LHh" isysk iy n,dfmdfrd;a;=
jekfikakg bv § ir, iuQyhlg rdcH hdka;%Kh úiska uQ,sl;ajh Èh hq;=
jkafka wehs@

Ôú;hg mdlaIsl wdia:dkh úiska bÈßm;a lrkafka l,,hg Ôj;a ùug
we;s whs;sh jeäysáhl=f.a f;dard .ekSfï whs;shg jvd jeo.;a njhs' kuq;a
fï f;dard .ekSu mqoa.,hl=f.a bÈß Ôú;fha .=Kd;aulNdjhg ;on, fia
n,mEï lrhs' wms y÷kd .kakd wdldrhg yqfola meje;au hkq Ôú;h fkdfõ'
ukqIHhkag .=Kd;aul Ôú;hlg whs;shla we;' wms oßø;djh mrdch lsÍug
W;aidy lrkafka" ud¾. ;onoh ke;s f,dalhla .ek olskafka fï ksidh' wms
we;eïúg we;súh yels Ôú; k;r lr oeófï W;aidyhkag o iydh fokafka"
m%udKhg jvd .=Kd;aulNdjh jeo.;a hehs is;k ksidh' mjq,a ie,iqïlrKh"
Wm;a md,kh m%j¾Okh lrk úg" th mokï fjk m%;sm;a;sh jkafka jeä
orejka m%udKh hkq iEu úgu fyd| fohla fkdjk njhs' wms ms<s .kafka
orejkag wjYH iydh ,nd Èh fkdyels fyda" ,nd§ug wleue;s mjq,aj,g
orejka bmÈh hq;= ke;s njhs'

Ôú;hg we;s whs;sh Wÿrd .; fkdyels hehs ie,flkafka" Ôú;h hkq mQckSh
tlla fjk neúks' l=ula mQckSh jkafka oehs" thg fya;=j l=ulaoehs ljqreka
úiska ;SrKh lrkafka o hkakg idudkHfhka ksrd.ñl ms<s;=rla we;af;a ke;'
;jÿrg;a" wm jgd ksrka;rfhka isÿjk urK yd úkdYfhka meyeÈ,s jkafka"
Ôú;fha ish¨‍ wdldrhkag mQckSh ks,uqødj fkd,efnk njhs' fndfyda rgj,aj,
;on, f,i frda.S jQ mqoa.,hkag ;ukaf.a Ôú; wjidk lsÍug kS;Hdkql+, f,i
wjir we;' ula ksid o h;a" Ôú;fha m%;HlaI .=Kd;aulNdjh Ôú;h iïnkaO
idrdxY.; ixl,amhlg jvd jeo.;a neúks' ;jÿrg;a" mqoa.,fhl=g ;uka
kej; m%dKj;a lsÍu fkdlrk f,i b,a,ñka ,smsf,aLk w;aika l< yels w;r"
Bg wE;ska we;s ldrKh jkafka lsishï úê iy wdldrj,ska Ôú;h m%;slafIam
lsÍu ñksiqkag f;dard .; yels njhs' Y%S ,xldfõ wms iajleue;a; úiska Ôú;h
.ek we;s W;=ï jákdlu wìnjd hk wjia:djka- hqoaOh iy iajhxwdrlaIdj
i|yd Ôú; wjika lsÍu ms<s.kakd w;r" we;eï úg W;al¾Ihg o kxjuq'
Ôj;aùug Yajik WmlrK wdÈfha iydh wjYH fjk wh" fyda fldaud ;;ajfha
isákd wh iïnkaOfhka" Tjqkaf.a lsÜgqu {d;shdf.a f;dard .ekSu u; /
ljrKh wjidk lsÍug we;eï rdcHhka lghq;= i,ihs' fï WodyrK ;=<ska
Ôú;h yE,a¨‍ lsÍug fyda urd oeóu hkq wm leue;s úfkdaodxYhla hehs
lsisfia;au woyia fkdfõ' kuq;a fuhska wjOdrKh lsÍug n,dfmdfrd;a;=
jQfha —Ôú;h mQckSh tllah˜ hkak ir, wdldrfhka iy fï wudre ;SrKhka
.ekSug isÿ jQ mqoa.,hkag lDDr f,i wmydi lsÍug fhdod .ekSu iqÿiq fkdjk
njhs' th w.h Y=kH jk l%Svdjla fkdfõ' fufia Tjqka .kakd ;SrK f,fyis

myiq tajd fkdfõ' kuq;a tajdg rdcH jHqyhka úiska myiqlï imhkq ,nhs'
fuhska Tjqkaf.a ;;ajh .ek jeäfhkau okakd Tjqyq ;ukag .e,fmk jvd;au
.e,fmk ;SrKhla .ks;s' th úiska wjq,a ù we;s Ôjk h:d¾:hla ;sfnk
nj ms<s .kakd w;r" ñksiqkag ;ukag jk ,dN iy w,dN uek n,d" ixlS¾K
iodpdrd;aul ;SrKhka fyd| krl ñY% jQ" jHdl+, jQ f,dalhla ;=< .ekSug
mjrkq ,nhs'

jvd;a wdl¾IŒh ldrKh jkafka" wmg Ôú;h wjika lsÍug wjir fokjdo
hkak fkdj" Ôú;hla wdrlaId lsÍug wmg hq;=lula ;sfnkjdo hkakhs'

.Õl .sf,ñka isák ñksil= olsk mfil isákakl= .ek is;kak' ;uka úYsIag
msyskqïlrejl= jqj o" fmak udkfha isák tlu mqoa.,hd jqjo" ta i|yd
w;HjYHfhkau jvd fyd|u iy tlu iqÿiqlï,;a ;eke;a;d jqjo" Tyqg .Õg
mek .sf,k ñksid fírd .kakg kS;Hdkql+, ne£ula ke;' Tyq tfia lrkafka
Tyqf.a iodpdr moaO;sh iy jákdlï mokï lr f.k fjk w;r" Tyq wjodku
.; hq;= hehs o" wvqu .Kfka wfkldf.a Ôú;h fírd .ekSug W;aidyhla
oeßh hq;= hehs o wms wK lrkakg fkdhkafkuq' fï ;¾lh ;jÿrg;a mq¿,a
l< úg" wm wfma urKfhka miq wksjd¾hfhkau wjhj oka fokakka ùu"
thska Ôú; lsysmhla fírefka jqjo" meyeÈ,s fya;= u; wmg lsisÿ úhoula
orkakg isÿ fkdjQjo" rch kshu lrk ldrKhla fkdfõ' rchhkag wmg
iqmsß ùrhka ùug n, l, fkdyels jkafka" fuu WodyrK ikao¾Nh u; r|d
mj;sk foaj,a nj Tjqka f;areï .kakd neúks' fï jHjydr rgdfjka ksoyia l<
tlu ldrKh jkafka ldka;djkah' tu mfil isák ;eke;a;dgu" ldka;djla
¥IKh ùu je<elaùug lsisÿ j.lSula ke;" tfy;a weh ¥IKh jQ úg" .eínr
jQ úg" wehg isÿ fjk wjodkï iy .¾NkSNdjfha n,mEï fkdi,ld weh
úiska l<,fha Ôú;h wdrlaId lr .; hq;= njg ta wh n,d fmdfrd;a;= fõ'
.¾NkSNdjfha lïlfgd¿ iy oreWmf;a§ fõokdj ord .ekSug;a" ;ukaf.a
isyskj,g kej;=ula ;eîug;a" thska fjk;a ukqIHhl= fkdkeiS wdrlaId lr
.ekSug;a ldka;djkaf.ka n,dfmdfrd;a;= fõ'

ud;DNdjh iy .¾NkSNdjh hkq ;ukaf.a lroriys; yoj;aj, .eUqf¾ ish¨‍u
ldka;djka úiska n,dfmdfrd;a;= fjk foaj,a njg j¾Kkd lr we;s neúka"
Tjqkag tfia lsÍug n, lrkq ,en we;' wmg .íidj ms<s .; fkdyels neõ
is;kafka" ud;DNdjh uÕ yeÍug ldka;djla ork fya;= j,x.= hehs wms ms<s.
kafka ke;s neúks' .íidjg iydh fok wh" ud;DNdjh ms<sl=,a lrkafka ke;' Bg
jvd Tjqka i,lkafka Ôú;h iïnkaO fï ;SrKd;aul ;SrKh yqfola ffojhg
Ndr §ug jvd jeo.;a tlla jk nj i,lhs' j¾;udkfha" ud;DNdjh hkq Y%S
,xldfõ iEu ldka;djla jgdu lerflk tlla fjk w;r" wms úiska l< hq;af;a
Wm;amd,k fldmq flf¾ o" msßñkaf.a hym;alu flf¾ o úYajdih ;eîuh'


7¡ .íidj kS;s.; lsÍfï m;%sldjg
wmf.a wjOdkh fhduqlsÍu

wEkauÍ o is,ajd

uu kHdhdpd¾hjßhla fyda m%ckk fi!LHh iïnkaO úfYaI{jßhla fyda
fkdfõ' .íidj kS;s.; lsÍu iïnkaOj miq.shod bÈßm;a l< leìkÜ
m;%sldj iïnkaOfhka ud ksfhdackh lrk wd.ñl lKavdhï úiska m< lrk
,o yd yqjudre lr.kq ,enQ ,sms iïnkaO udf.a woyia oelaùug reÑ" idudkH
.eye‚hla f,i y÷kd.;a Y%S ,xldfõ lf;da,sl m,a,sfha idudðldjla fjñ'
fuu ,smsh u.ska ud W;aidy lrkafka wod< ud;Dldj iïnkaOfhka wmf.a m%cdj
úiska f.dvk.d we;s újdoh jvd;a iunr yd mßmQ¾K tlla njg m;alsÍuhs'

j¾;udkfha§ Y%S ,xldj ;=< .íidj kS;Hkql+, jkafka ore.en ksid ujf.a
Ôú;hg ;¾ckhla we;s lrkafka kï mu‚' miq.shod fhdackd lrk ,o
leìkÜ m;%ldjg wkqj ^1& l<,h .¾NdIh ;=< ksis wdldrhg msysgd fkdue;s
wjia:dj,§ yd ^2& ia;%S ¥IKhla fya;=fjka yg.;a ore.enla hk wjia:dfõ§
.íidjla lr.ekSug kS;Hkql+, whs;sh fhdackd lr we;' tfy;a fïjd b;d
w;sYhska iSudiys; isÿùïh' wm úiska isÿl< hq;af;a ldka;djf.a m%ckk
fi!LHh ms<sn| fnda, inka wdldrfha ;¾l bÈßm;a lrñka tajd iïnkaOj
mdßY=oaO me;slv úuid ne,Su fkdj we;a; jYfhkau .íidjla isÿlsÍug
ldka;dj fmd<Ujkq ,nk ienE isoaê ms<sn| wjOdkh fhduq lsÍuhs'

wm ish¨‍ fokdu okakd mßÈ lf;da,sl m,a,sh ks, jYfhkau .íidjg tfrys
u;hla orhs' ld, iSudj mqrd .íidj kS;Hkql+, lsÍu iïnkaOj mej;s
l;sld yd m%;s l;sldjka ;=< lf;da,sl m,a,sh ks;H jYfhkau ksfhdackh
flre‚' lf;da,sl m,a,sh ksfhdackh lrñka iuyre fï iïnkaO ,sms ,sùug
mjd bÈßm;a jQy' tfy;a .íidj iïnkaOfhka foúhka jykafiaf.a mdmhg
yiqùu iïnkaOj ,sms ,shQ lsisfjl= fyda lf;da,sl m,a,sh ksfhdackh lrk
kdhlhska fyda lsisfjl= m%isoaêfha ;uka .íidjg tfrys njg y~ keÕ=‍fõ
fyda bÈßm;a jQfha ke;' .íidj kS;s.; lsÍu iïnkaOfhka bÈßm;a jQ fya;=
fol ms<sn| is;d n,kjdg jvd ldka;djf.a m%ckk fi!LHh yd iïnkaO
Tjqka ;=< we;s u;jdoh biau;= lsÍug Tjqka jeämqr leue;a;la olajk nj
fmfkkakg ;snq‚' tu.ska .íidjg tfrysùu muKla fkdj Tjqka ;=<
we;s ia;%S úfrdaOho fmkakqï lsÍug iu;aúh' fuu.ska fmkShkafka lf;da,sl


m,a,sh yd th ksfhdackh lrk fndfyda mqoa.,hska wod< ud;Dldj iïnkaOj
úpdrd;aul l;sldjla we;s lsÍug wfmdfydi;aj we;s njhs' tfukau Y%S
,xldfõ ckyKfhka 6]la muK jk lf;da,sl m%cdj ksfhdackh lrk m,a,sh
úiska .íidj kS;s.; lsÍug wod<j bÈßm;a l< leìkÜ m;%ldjg wd.ñl
jYfhka isÿlrk tfrysùu ñ,shk 22 muK jQ ñksiqkaf.a Ôú;j,g n,mEï
lrk njo Tjqka wu;l lr oud we;'

lf;da,sl m%cdj w;r mq¿,a jYfhka ixirKh jqKq ,smshg wkqj lf;da,sl
ffjoHjrekaf.a ixioh mjikafka z, ¥IKhl§ ldka;djlg we;s lrjk
lïmkh ksid âñn fudapkh fkdù ;sîug bv we;s njhs’' fuh b;d Nhdkl yd
wi;H ñ;Hdjla jk w;r ffjoH ixioh tjeks isÿùï j,g wod<j 0'1] l muK
WodyrK i,ld n,kafka Tjqka úiska bÈßm;a lrk woyig iydh olajk lsisÿ
ffjoH wOHkhla fyda m¾fhaIK uQ,dY% u; msysgd isÿlrk Wmqgd oelaùïj,ska
fkdfõ' wfkla w;g 1996 § m%ij yd kdßfõoh iïnkaO wefußldkq c¾k,h
úiska wOHhkhla u.ska fmkajd fokafka ia;%S ¥IKhla ksid isÿjk .eí.
ekSï m%udKh j¾Ihlg 32101 la muK jk njhs' fuu wOHhkhg wkqj ia;%S
¥IKhla ksid .eí.ekSug we;s iïNdú;dj yd äïn fudapkh w;r mj;sk
iïnkaO;dj 30] l muK uÜgul mj;S' ta wkqj idukHfhka úkaÈ;hskaf.
ka 5]la muK fokd .eí.ekSug yelshdj mj;sk njhs' fuu wOHhkh u.ska
bÈßm;a lrk ixLHd o;a; 2017 iema;eïn¾ 10 jeks Èk uefikac¾ mqj;am;g
,smshla imhk bleÜf,da msh;=ud úiska olajk o;a;j,g iudklï olajhs'
msh;=ud úiska fuu ,smsh ,sùug mdol lr.kafka ¥IKhg ,lajQ ldka;djka 400
fofkl= fhdod.ksñka 1982 § isÿl< m¾fhaIKl fidhd.ekSïh' tu wOHhkhg
wkqj ia;%S ¥IKhlska miqj ldka;djla .eí.ekSfï iïNdú;dj 6] l m%udKhla
.kS' ta wkqj lf;da,sl m,a,sh ksfhdackh lrk ffjoHjreka úiska ,ndfok
jHdc f;dr;=rej,g jvd m¾fhaIK yd wOHhk u; mokï jQ i;H isoaê u;
mokï jQ f;dr;=re m%cdjg ,nd§u w;HjYH fõ'

2017 iema;eïn¾ ui 7 jeks Èk È whs,kaâ mqj;am;g z .íidj iïnkaOfhka
wm wjOdkh fhduql< hq;af;a flfiao@ uefhka ,smshla bÈßm;a lrk nÿ,a,
ÈfhdalSifha T.iaáka m%kdkaÿ msh;=udg wkqj .íidj kS;Hkql+, lsÍu flfrys
j¾;udkfha§ mj;sk W;aidyh wm.dó p¾hdjkays" fkdyslauqKq yd wYS,dpdr
p¾hdjkays ksr; ldka;djkag Wvf.ä §uls' wvqu ;rfï Tyq leìkÜ m;%sldj
u.ska fhdackd lr we;s lreKq fol ms<sn| lsisÿ ie,ls,a,la fyda olajd ke;'
l<,h ksis wdldrfhka msysgd fkdue;s ùu ksid wx.úl, fyda widudkH ore
Wm;la isÿùu yd ia;%S ¥IKhl m%;sM,hla jYfhka isÿjk .eí.ekSul§ hk
lreKq folg wod<j .íidj kS;s.; lsÍu iïnkaO idlÉPdj mej;sh§ Tyq
b;d ;on, f,i nek jÈkafka ldka;djkaf.a fkdukd yeisÍï iïnkaOfhks'
Tyqg wkqj ldka;djf.a YÍrh iïnkaO whs;sh wehg we;=jdla fukau th
mdúÉÑ lrkafka flfiao hkak f;dard.ekSfï whs;sh iïnkaOfhka weh j.lsj
hq;=h' tfy;a .re msh;=u‚" ia;%S ¥IKhla isÿùug Tkak fukak ;sìh§ ;ukaf.a

YÍrh iïnkaO whs;sh yd th mdúÉÑ lsÍu iïnkaO whs;sh mj;skafka wehgo
tfia;a ke;skï wehj ¥IKh lsÍu ms‚i hg;a lrf.k isák wmrdOlrejdgo
hkak is;d n,kak' msh;=ud olajk woyiaj,g wkqj whdf,a hdfuka fyda
wYS,dpdrfha yeiSÍfuka fyda ldka;djla .eí .;a;dg miqj .en ord isàu
wehg ndOdjla jk ksid thg ms<shula f,i ldka;djka .íid whs;sh b,a,d
isà' ienE jYfhkau .íidj kS;Hkql+, lsÍu iïnkaOj bÈßm;a l< woyia
fol ms<sn| lsisÿ ie,ls,a,la fkdolajd Tyq úiska ,smsh u.ska isÿlr we;af;a
wYs,dpdr yeisÍï"jHNspdrh" fkdyslauqKqlu hkd§ jpk u.ska ldka;djg pß;
iy;sl ,nd§u yd wod< m%ia;=;h iïnkaOj l;dlsÍfuka je<lSuhs'

oeka wms fuu m%Yakh iïnkaO uQ,Od¾ñl ;;a;ajh f;areï.ekSug W;aidy
lruq' Y%S ,xldj ;=< .íidj kS;Hkql+, lsÍu isÿl<o" fkdl<o .íid isÿlsÍu
kj;skafka ke;' .íid isÿlr.ekSu ta wdldrfhkau isÿfõ' .íidjla isÿlr.
ekSug kS;Hkql+, whs;sh ,nd§u u.ska isÿjkafka th ksis wdldrhg" ffjoH /
ljrKh yd uÕ fmkaùu hgf;a ksis m%ñ;sh yd ksis fi!LHuh rduqj we;=<;
isÿlr.ekSug yelsùuhs' tu.ska weh ms<s.;a ffjoHjrfhl= fj; m%fõY jk
w;r" .íidjla isÿlr .ekSfuka miq ;uka kej; ksis fi!LH ;;a;ajhlg
m;afõo hkak iïnkaOj ;lafiarejlg meñ‚h yelsh' tfia ke;s jqjfyd;a
isÿjkafka ldka;djka kS;Hkql+, fkdjk .íid uOHia:dkj,ska fyda úúO
m%dfoaYSh l%u u.ska .íid isÿlr.ekSug W;aidy lsÍuhs' th fkdkj;ajd f,a
.e,Sï ksid isÿjk urK wk;=rej,g mjd w; jekSula úh yelsh'

.íidjg tfrys m,a,sfha u;h fufyhjkq ,nkafka nhsn,fha i|yka iqm%isoaO
m%ldYhla jk z ñkS ueÍfuka j<lskak’ ^Thou shalt not kill& hkak u;
msysgd úh hq;=h' .íidj kS;Hkql+, lsÍu iïnkaOj lf;da,sl m,a,sh fï ;rï
wdodk.%dyS jkafka Tjqka úiska .íidjg tfrysj fmkS isák ia:djrh mjd
wjq,a iy.; ;;a;ajhl mej;sh§h' Y%S ,xld fmd,sish u.ska bÈßm;a lrk
ixLHd f,aLk j,g wkqj 2015 j¾Ifha§ ¥IKhg ,lajQ ldka;djka w;ßka 80]
la muK úkaÈ;hska jhi wjqreÿ 16 g wvq Èh‚hka fõ' 2006" 2008 yd 2010
hk j¾Ij, ms<sfj<ska i,ld n,k úg Èklg isÿjk kS;Hkql+, fkdjk .íid
m%udKh 700 la muK fõ' mjq,a fi!LH ld¾hdxYfha m¾fhaIK u.ska olajk
wdldrhg kS;Hkql+, fkdjk wdldrfhka wkdrlaIs; .íidjka isÿlr.ekSu Y%S
,xldfõ ud;D urKj,g n,mdk fojeks m%Odk;u fya;=j njg m;aù ;sfí' tu
urKj,g fya;=j .íidjla isÿlr.ekSuu muKla fkdfõ' ld¾hdxYh mjik
wdldrhg th .íidjkag wod< ie;alï lsÍfï§ isÿjk úúO w;miqùï yd
.íidjla isÿlr.ekSfuka miqj isÿjk úúO wid;añl;d yd wkdrlaIs;Ndjhka
ksid isÿjk tajd fõ' ld¾hdxYh úiska ;jÿrg;a olajk wdldrhg .íidj
iïnkaOfhka kS;suh me;slv u.ska wjOdrKh lrkafka ldka;djla .íidjla
isÿlr.ekSfï l%uhla fiùu je<elaùu fkdfõ" tu.ska ldka;djlg lsishï
wk;=rla isÿjQ miq läkï ffjoH ms<sirKla ,nd.ekSfï m%fõYh j<lajd,hs'


mjq,a fi!LH ld¾hdxYfha 2015 jd¾;dj,g wkqj ud;D urKj,g n,mdk
fya;= w;ßka 13] l m%;sY;hla fyj;a ;=kajeks fya;=j ù we;af;a jevqKq
l<,hla .íid lsÍug W;aidy lsÍu ksid isÿjQ ud;D urKhs' .íidj kS;s.;
lsÍu je<elaùug yd thg tfrys ùug fndfyda fokd mjik fmdÿ woyila
jkafka ;uka úiska fkdl< jrolg wysxil orefjla urdoeóu hk ldrKhhs'
fuh i;H kuq;a fjkia me;slvlska idlÉPd lrkafka kï" wjodkïldÍ yd
wkdrlaIs; .íid isÿlr.ekSug ork W;aidyh wysxil Èh‚lf.a fyda .eyeKq
<ufhl=f.a Ôú;ho wk;=f¾ fy<hs' ¥IKh ùula ksid we;sjQ .¾Nhla kï" th
weh úiska fyda wehf.a YÍrh úiska f;dardf.k isÿjQ fohla fkdfõ'lf;da,sl
m,a,sh we;a; jYfhkau ukqIH Ôú; úkdYùu je<elaùu iïnkaOfhka l;d
lrkafka kï we;a; jYfhkau l;d l< hq;af;a ish .Kkla jQ .eyeKq orejka
yd ldka;djkaf.a Ôú;j,g isÿjk wjodku .ekhs' ish .Kkla jQ .eyeKq
orejka yd ldka;djkaf.a Ôú; wk;=f¾ fy<sug m;alrk wdldrfha iudc
m%pKav;aj .ekhs' j¾;udkfha§ idlÉPdjg Ndckh jk .íidj kS;s.; lsÍu
iïnkaO leìkÜ m;%sldj u.ska lshd isákafka tjeks wdldrfha ukqIH Ôú;
wdrlaId lr.kakd wdldrh ms<sn|jhs'

.íidj kS;s.; lsÍu iïnkaO leìkÜ m;%sldjg tfrysj lf;da,sl
m,a,sfha wkq.%yh iys;j ,sheù ;snqKq ld,fha§ m< lrkakg fhÿKq
,sms ish,a, ,shd ;snqfKa msßñka úisks' ldka;djkaf.a m%ckk fi!LHh yd
,;ajh md,kh lsÍu iïnkaOfhka msßñkag whs;sh mejÍu yd th ieuÍug
msßñkag wjia:dj ,nd§u lf;da,sl m,a,sh úiska isÿlsÍu i;Hhls' tfy;a
fuu wjia:dfõ§ lf;da,sl msßñka úiska isÿlrkq ,nk fuu wdodk.%dyS wi;H
me;srùu yd ienE ;;a;ajh úlD;s lsÍu b;d Nhdkl yd iudch fkduÕ
hjk iq¿h' th ñ,shk .Kkdjla iïnkaO ñksiqkag jerÈ f;dr;=re iemhSula
jkjd muKla fkdj fï iïnkaOj Tjqkaf.a iyfhda.h ,nd§u wl¾uKH
lrkaklao fõ' jD;a;sfõÈkshla f,i uu <ud ksjdij, isák orejka iu.
jev lr we;af;ñ' , ¥IK yd wv;af;aÜgï ksid .¾NkS Ndjhg m;a
uõjreka iu. jev lr we;af;ñ' úúO YdÍßl úySk;d yd wx.úl,Ndjhg
m;ajQ orejka iu. Ôj;a jk mjq,a iu. jev lr we;af;ñ' tfukau fuu
ñksiqkaf.ka iuyrla fokd m,a,sfhka Wmldr ,nk wh fj;s' lkHd fidhqßhka
yd NslaIq‚hka úiska Tjqkag ksrka;r Wojq Wmldr lrñka isákq oel we;af;ñ'
flfia kuq;a jir lSmhla mqrd fujeks wjodkïldÍ m%cdjka iu. jev
lsÍfï§ lsisu Èfkl oeka tlajr u;=ù mjqf,a mdßY=oaO;ajh uefhka ,sms ,shk
msßñka ÿgqfõ ke;' Tjqkaf.a lsisÿ y~la wid ke;'

wkjYH .eí.ekSïj,ska ìysjk orejka /ln,d.ekSu i|yd oekg mj;sk
ksjdi j,g iydh ,nd§ —Ôú;˜ flfrys ;uka ;=< mj;sk lemùu ikd: lrk
f,i Tjqkaf.ka iy .íidjg tfrysj y~ kÕk whf.ka uu b,a,d isàug
leue;af;ñ' Ôú; wjika lsÍula fkdj ienE jYfhkau Ôú; ish .Kkla /
lSug yelshdjla we;s m%.;sYS,S mK;lg tfrys fkdù tjeks lemlsÍula lrk
f,i uu Tjqkaf.ka wdhdpkd lr isáñ' 83

8¡ , Y%ñlhkaf.a iy .íid
whs;sjdislï jHdmdr w;r mr;rh yd
l< hq;af;a wehs@

l%siaàka *%ekal=j¾ iy iqrNs Y%sjdia;djd

, Y%ñlhkaf.a iyfhda.S;djh iy Tjqkaf.a whs;sjdislï
iïnkaO wr.,fha ixfla;hla f,i r;= l=vh f,dj mqrd Ndú;d fõ'

jir lsysmhlg fmr iïuqL idlÉPdjl §" lefkaähdkq ia;%SjdÈkshla iy
.íidj iïnkaOfhka f;dard .ekSïj,g mlaI l%shdldßkshla jk fcdhsia
wd;¾ úiska wdrlaIs; iy kS;Hdkql+, .íid iïnkaO m%fõYhg we;s
ldka;d whs;sh iïnkaO jHdmdr iy , Y%ñlhkaf.a whs;sjdislï iy
, jD;a;sh wmrdOyrKh lsÍu i|yd we;s jHdmdr w;r we;s ta;a;=
.kajk iq¿ iudka;rnjla fmkajd fok ,§' fï jHdmdr fofla§u" tajdfha
idrh f,i we;af;a ldka;djkag ;ukaf.a YÍrh" ,;ajh iy f;dard .ekSï
iïnkaOfhka" rdcHfhka lrk ueÈy;aùfuka ksoyia" iy ne£fuka ksoyia
ùuhs' [1] wd;¾ ñh oelajQ mßÈu fï ii|dne,Sï mßiudma; fkdjk kuq;a"
fï fol w;r yqjudre jk ixlS¾K" .;sl iïnkaO;djh" úfYaIfhkau m%ckk
hqla;sh hk rduqj ;=< msysgd we;s úg .fõIKh lr ne,Su w;sYhska jákafkah'

—fldkafoais iy wjjdo" iSudlsÍï˜ lsisjla fkdi,ld" ish¨‍ ck;djg YdÍßl
iajhxmd,kh iy;sl lsÍu[2]" m%ckk hqla;s rduqjl Wr., jkafkah' m%ckk
hqla;sh úiska .íidj iy m%ckk fi!LHh iïnkaOfhka yqfola —f;dard.ekSula˜
f,i is;Sfuka Tíng hñka" fuu ldrKd mq¿,a ikao¾Nh ;=< ;nñka —ldka;djka"
mjq,aj, iy mqcdjkays hy-meje;au iy fi!LHh˜ f,i i,lñka" úpdrd;aul
iqiudo¾Y yerjqula imhhs' tfiau th —ck.yk md,kh" ldhsl iajhx ks¾Kh"
ixl%u‚l whs;sjdislï" wd¾Ól iy mdßißl hqla;sh" iaffjÍNdjh" iy
ñ,sgßlrKh iy wmrdO hqla;Ska úiska lKavdhï fyda m%cd mSvkh ksid udkj
ysñlï iSud lrk˜ nj;a wod< lr .kS' fuu wka;¾fþ§h rduqj iy jHdmdrh
úiska fldka lrk ,o wkkH;djhka lKavdhïj,g m%ckk mSä;Ndjhg
tfrysj tluq;=j igka lsÍug yelshdj imhhs" m%ckl mSä;Ndjh w¾:l:kh
flfrkafka —ldka;djka" .eyeKq <uqka" ;ks mqoa.,hka Tjqkaf.a YÍr" ,sx.
sl;ajh" Y%uh iy m%ckkh iïnkaOfhka md,kh lsÍu iy iQrdlEu˜ f,ihs'


tneúka m%ckk hqla;s rduqj" .íidj iy , jD;a;sh iïnkaO .eg¿
tlg f.k tafï úYsIag ud¾.hla f,i l%shd lrkafka" ^ldka;djkaf.a&
,;ajhka jgd we;s mqreIuQ,sl iïu;hkag wNsfhda. lsÍu flf¾ fhduqjqkq
fï lafIa;%j, WoafoaYkh iïnkaOfhka jk iudk;d iy wka;¾fþokhka
.fõIKh lsÍughs' .íidj iy , jev hkq we;eï úg ia;%Sjd§ l%shdldÍka
mjd úksYaph lsÍulska f;drj isàug ÿIalr nj jgyd .kakd" ldka;djkaf.a
f;dard .ekSï iy YdÍßl iajhx md,kh .ek wms fudk ;rï ÿrg hEug
n,dfmdfrd;a;= jkafka o@ hk .eg¿fjka ia;%Sjd§kag wNsfhda. lrkd ldrKd
fõ' m%ckk hqla;sh úiska , jD;a;slhkaf.a ish¨‍ ia;%SmqreIiudcNdj
wkkH;djhka iy m%ldYkhka y÷kd .kafka jqj;a" fï ,smsfha wruqK
fjkqfjka ud f;dard .kafka ia;%S , jD;a;slhka iy .íidj mu‚'

, Y%ñlhkaf.a m%ckk ksoyig we;s ndOd - .¾NkSNdjh je<elaùug"
.¾NkSNdjh wjika lsÍug" <uqka ye§ug iïm;a iy f;dard .ekSï iïnkaOfhka
we;s l%u iy tajdg we;s m%fõYh we;=¿j- uq¿ukskau .fõIKh lr ke;af;a"
, iy m%ckk fi!LH iy whs;sjdislï , Y%ñlhka
iïnkaOfhka fh§ we;af;a iSud iys; wdldrhlska jk ksidh' thska lshfjkafka
f.da,Sh ol=fKa ia;%S , Y%ñlhka iïnkaOfhka jk wOHhkj,ska nyq;rh
Tjqkaf.a , fi!LHh wduka;%Kh lrk kuq;a tfia lrkafka b;du mgq
wdldrhlg tÉwhsù$taâia ksjdrKh iy m%;sldr b,lal lr f.k njhs' fï
Wml,amkh úiska ia;%S , Y%ñlhka tÉwhsù iïfma%IKhka nyq;rhlg
j. fkdlshkafka hk ldrKh f,dma lrñks' tneúka idjoH f,i ia;%S
, Y%ñlhka frda. jdylhka f,i i,l=Kq lr we;af;a , iy m%ckk
fi!LHh whs;sjdislï hk jpkh ;=< we;s m%ckk iy whs;sjdislï hk jpk
fol fndfyda úg i,l=Kq lsÍug wiu;a ùu ;=<sks' [4] , Y%ñlhkag
jk fndfyda jevigyka úiska , iajhxmd,kh iy m%ckk Ôú; jeo.;a
ldrKdjla fia fkd,i,lk w;r" l%shdldßlhka w;r mjd ia;%S , Y%ñlhka
jl%ldrfhka fldka lrk l%uhl fldgila f,i" ia;%S , Y%ñlhka fjku
ldKavhla f,i j¾.SlrKh lr" —wfkla˜ ldka;djkaf.ka w;l ÿßka ;nhs'

is;a .kakd iq¿ foaj,a jkafka ia;%S , Y%ñlhka .íidlsÍï isÿ lrk .ekSug
<.d fjk wdldrh msßlaid n,k úgh' fndfyda wdldrj,ska" .íidj .íidj
yxjvqlrKhg ,lajQ" iy m%fõYùug ks;r ÿIalr jk bkaÈhdfõ" n%iS,fha"
W.kavdfõ iy wfkl=;a me;sj, §" , jD;a;slhka fkdjk" .íid lsÍug
n,dfmdfrd;a;= jk wfkl=;a wh fukau iudk ndOlj,g uyqK fo;s' fï fomsßiu
úYajdikSh;ajh ì|jeàu fyda ffjoH fiajd imhkakkaf.a úksYaÑ; wdl,amj,g
^.íidj fyda Wm;a md,k l%u we;eï úg m%;slafIam lrkq ,eîfï uÜgug&
uqyqK fo;s' fï ksid" fndfyda .íid lsÍug hkafkda jeä úhoï we;s" tneúka
fndfydafofkl=g m%fõY ùug ÿIalr fm!oa.,sl ffjoH fiajdj,g fhduq fj;s'

;jÿrg;a" fndfyda ldka;djkag Wm;a md,khg meñ‚ úg zf;dard .ekSï

l+vh’ h:d¾:jd§j fkdmj;skafka" Tjqkag .¾NkS ùug wjYH o" wjYH kï
fldhs ld,fha o hkak iïnkaO YdÍßl mQ¾KNdjh iy , iajhx ks¾Kh
Ndú;d lsÍug Woõ úh yels" iïm;a i|yd wvq m%fõYhla we;s ksidh'
tfiau Wm;amd,kfha oaú;aj l%u i|yd meyeÈ,s wjYH;djhla we;s w;r-
.¾NkSNdjh je<elaùug —uOH jYfhka ld¾hlaIu˜ jk Wm;a md,k fldmq
muKla fkdúh hq;=h' [5] .egjr úfha wh iy újdy fkdjQ ldka;djka
fukau" ia;%S , Y%ñlhkao fndfyda úg —mjq,a ie,iqï˜ jevigykaj,ska
idudkHfhka neyer lrkq ,nhs' iajd;s f>daIa wef.a l,algdfõ ,
jD;a;slhka .ek wOHhkfha i|yka lrk mßÈ" Wm;a md,k fiajdj,ska Tjqkaj
È.ska È.g neyer lsÍu ksid" fndfyda fofkla úYajdi lrkafka iïu; mjq,a
jHqyhka ;=< isák újdy jQ mqoa.,hkag ie,iqï lrk ,o kQ;k Wm;amd,k
l%u Tjqkag wod< fkdjk njhs' [6] fï ish¨‍u lKavdhïj,g fldka lsÍug
,la fkdlrk" ord .; yels ñ,lg mj;sk Wm;amd,k l%uhka i|yd ndOdjka
mj;sk w;r" Tjqkag tlaflda ;ukaf.a isrere iïnkaO md,khla ke;s w;r"

ke;akï wdodhu fyda fm!oa.,sl i;=g fjkqfjka - ;ukaf.a ;SrK .ekSula f,i
tajd , lghq;= i|yd mdúÉÑ fkdl< hq;= njg háka Èfjk Wml,amkhka fõ'

.íid lrkakg hkakka uqyqK mdk ;j;a fmdÿ ndOdjla fndfydaúg Tjqkaf.a
m%ckk ksoyi l%shd;aul lsÍu iu." tkï ld iu. fldhs ld,fha orejka
yokafkao hkak iïnkaOfhka fõ' .íidj yd neÿkq fldkalsÍu iy
wjodku" úfYaIfhkau th újdyfhka msg isÿ jQfha kï" ie,iqï fkdlrk
,o .¾NkSNdjhla ;=<ska hdug jvd" idfmalaIj wvqh' ldka;djlg
.¾NkSNdjh iu. isàug wjYH jqj;a" iudc ndOdj tf,i fjk neúka"
wehg .íidjlg m%fõY úh yelskï th tlu f;dard .ekSu f,i oefkhs'

wdrlaIs; iy kS;Hdkql+, .íidj,g m%fõYùug we;s fï ndOdjka we;eïúg ia;%S
, jD;a;slhkag ;Sj% jkafka Tjqkaj iudcfha fldka lr we;s ia:dkh ksidh'
flfia jqj;a" m¾fhaIK fj;ska olajkafka ia;%S , jD;a;slhka uqyqK mdk
idfmalaI jYfhka by< .Kk mj;sk ie,iqï fkdl< .eí.ekSï ksid" fjk;a
.íid lsÍug hkakka iu. ieiª l< .íidj wjika lsÍu iïnkaOfhka ;ukaf.a
wdl,am iy .íidj iïnkaO f;dr;=re" iïm;a iy iydh , jD;a;sl m%cdj
;=< fn§ hk wdldrh ksid" Tjqka wkawhf.ka fjkia jk njhs' W.kavdfõ
, jD;a;slhka jd¾;d lrkafka Tjqkaf.a jevj, iajNdjh ksid" m%cdj ;=<
.íidj iïnkaO f;dr;=re iQodkïj we;s w;r" ie,iqï fkdl< .eí.ekSï
iy wfkl=;a .eg¿ i|yd ldka;dfjda tlsfkldg il%sh iydhla olajk cd,hla
njg m;afj;s' [7] f.dIa m%ldY lrk mrÈ" l,algdfõ , jD;a;slhka
w;r .íidjla lsÍu hkq iq,n" idudkH fohla jk neúka" —mjq,a mßirhl˜
isák ldka;djlg we;s —ksfIaOkh˜ tf,iskau Tjqkag n,mdkafka ke;' [8]

ta w;ru" .íidj iïnkaO ia;%S , Y%ñlhkaf.a Ôú; w;aoelSï .;a l<

tl iucd;sh l;kaorhla we;ehs is;Su w;ajer§uls' WodyrKhla f,i
,d´ifha - , jD;a;sh fukau .íidj o kS;s úfrdaë jk ikao¾Nhl -
ia;%S , jD;a;slhka iïnkaOfhka jvd;a ixlS¾K wdpdrO¾óh wdia;dkhla
mek w;r" , jD;a;slhkag .íidj iïnkaOfhka wdpdr O¾óh
iy$fyda Ndjd;aul m%;spdrhla wvq hk woyi o g wNsfhda. lroa§" th /
lshdj iïnkaO Wmøjhla nj;a hk ldrKfhka yqfola m%fldam lrkq ,nhs'
fndfyda iïuqL idlÉPdjkag ,la jQjka" , jD;a;shg meñŒug fmr
fyda miq .íidj w;a oel we;;a" 70] la is;=fõ th ,d´ifha kS;s úfrdaë
f,i meje;sh hq;= nj;a" ixialD;sl f,i ms<s fkd.; hq;= nj;a" iy
.¾NkSNdjh wjidk l< ldka;djka iodpdrd;aul fkdjk nj;ah' [9] 

tfia jqj;a tu 70]u" ;uka n,dfmdfrd;a;= fkdjQ .¾NkSNdjhla we;s
jQ úg .íidj hkq fyd|u f;dard .ekSu njg ;Èkau tlÕ jQy' ia;%S
, jD;a;slhka fjku ldKavhla f,i wdia;dk.; lsÍu fjkqjg" wOHkfha
f,aLlhkag oekqfka , jD;a;slhkaf.a iodpdrh .ek we;s oekSu mq¿,a iudc
pdß;% O¾uj, n,mEug ,laj we;s nj;a" Tjqka fldka lrk ,o /lshd wdlD;shl
fh§u ksid ys;du;d fyda jl% wdldrfhka iudc iïu;hka le<öug ,la lr;s'

fuh w;sYhska is;a.kakd fidhd .ekSuls( nyq;rhla , jD;a;slhka
iïnkaO .íidj we.hSug ,lalrk idys;Hfha " Tjqkaf.a l;kaor wxlj,g
wvq lr we;' ,d´ishdkq , jD;a;slhkaf.ka 70]lg .íidfõ iodpdrh
iïnkaOfhka .eUqre w¾nqohla we;s nj fmfka' tfia jqj;a .¾NkSNdjh
wjika lsÍfï § we;a;gu Tjqkag oekqfka flfiao" Tjqkag uqyqK ÿka ndOl
fudkjdo hkak iïnkaOfhka m%ldY lsisjla wmfj; ke;' .íid whs;sjdislï
jHdmdrfha l;kaor lSu iïnkaO wjOdrKh yereKq l," m%ckk hqla;sh
iïnkaO jk wka;¾fþ§h wvx.=lsÍu ;SrKd;aul jeo.;alula jk w;r"
ia;%S , jD;a;slhkaf.a .íid w;aoelSï iïnkaOfhka .eg¿ iy.; wvq
idlÉPdjla we;' Tjqkaf.a w;aoelSï úiska w;jYH ldrKd .Kkdjla tlg
yiq lr .kakd neúka ^tla w;lska" , jD;a;sfha fhfok .íid lsÍug
hkakka f,i uqyqK fok nyq úO fldka lsÍu" wksla w;ska ldka;djka újD;j
tlsfkldg iyfhda.h ,nd fok" .íidj ms<sn|" iy fjk;a fiajdjka iunkaO
iïm;a fnodyod .kakd m%cdjka we;s lsÍu&" .íid l%shdldßlhkag ia;%S
, jD;a;slhkaf.ka .íidjg m%fõY ùu" wduka;%Kh lsÍu iy f;areï
.ekSu iïnkaOfhka fndfyda foa bf.kSug we;' bkaÈhdkq ikao¾Nfha§"
ish¨‍ ldka;djka i|yd wdrlaIs; .íidjkag m%fõY ùug we;s whs;sh ;ju;a
u;=fjñka iy l%ul%ufhka jefvñka ;sfnk w;r" , jD;a;slhka oYl
follg jeä ld,hla ;siafia isÿ l< ixúOdk .; ùï" jHdmdr f.dv
ke.Sï wdÈh jgd we;s Wmdh ud¾.j,ska wmg fndfyda foa bf.ksh yelsh'

, jD;a;slhkaf.a whs;sjdislï iy .íid whs;sjdislï hk folu
iïnkaOfhka ia;%Sjd§ jHdmdrfha we;s jQ u;fNaoj, b;sydihka ;sìh§ ;a"

wf.a úYajdih jkafka m%ckk hqla;shg fï u;fNaohka tl;= lsÍug Woõ úh
yels njhs' ula ksido h;a th úiska mßmQ¾K wka;¾fþokh jk wiudk;d
wduka;%Kh lsÍu ;=<ska" ish¨‍ fokdg m%dfhda.slj zf;dard .ekSu’ we;s lsÍug
b,lal lrhs' kuq;a fï jHdhduhka id¾:l jkq we;af;a m%ckk hqla;sfha
uQ,O¾u wLKav" iajhx úfõpkfha wjYH m%udKhka o iys;j fhÿj fyd;a
mu‚' .íid whs;sjdislï l%shdldÍkag fuhska woyia jkafka zwfkl=;a fldka
lsÍug ,lajQ lKavdhï’ hk ldKavh ;=< , jD;a;slhka jl% f,iska
wvx.= lsÍu m%udKj;a nj is;Su fjkqjg" , jD;a;slhka fj; <Õd ùu;a
;ukaf.a w;aoelSï ^.íidj iy wfkl=;a oE& fnod yod .ekSu;ah' wkkH
il%sh whs;sldÍ;ajh" úúO;ajfhka hq;= wkkH;djhka i|yd bvlv" m%ckk
whs;sjdislï jHdmdrh ;=< .íidj jgd w;aoelSï iy l;kaor we;=¿j ish¨‍u
fokd Wfoid m%ckk mSä;Ndjh wjidk lsÍu hk wkHkH b,lalh foig
;j;a tla wÕ,la fyda .uka lsÍu wmg iy;sl l< yelafla túg mu‚'

[1] Smith, Charlie. Why Feminist Joyce Arthur Supports Sex Workers’ Rights. The Georgia Straight. September 28,
[2] Kapp-Klote, H. Beyond Birth Control: Recent Reproductive Justice Stories That Fewer People Are Talking
About. Rewire. July 18, 2014.
[3] Ross, Loretta. Understanding Reproductive Justice. Trust Black Women. November 2006 (Updated March
[4] See for example: Madeiro, Alberto and Debora Diniz, “Induced Abortion Among Brazilian Female Sex
Workers”, Ciência & Saúde Coletiva 20.2 (2015): 587-593.
Marlow, Heather M. et al, “Abortion Services for Sex Workers in Uganda: Successful Strategies in an Urban
clinic”, Culture, Health & Sexuality 16.8 (2014): 931-943; Todd, Catherine S. et al, “Contraceptive Utilization
and Pregnancy Termination Among Female Sex Workers in Afghanistan”, Journal of Women’s Health 19.11
(2010): 2057-2062.

[5] Feldblum, Paul J. et al, “Pregnancy Among Sex Workers Participating in a Condom Intervention Trial
Highlights the Need for Dual Protection,” Contraception 76 (2007): 105-110.

[6] Ghosh, “‘Professional’ Abortion Seekers: The Sex Workers of Kolkata,” CEHAT (2003): 1-18.

[7] Marlow Op Cit, p. 935.

[8] Ghosh, Op Cit, p. 2.

[9] Cleeve, Amanda et al, “Attitudes and Experiences Regarding Induced Abortion Among Female Sex Workers,
Savannakhet Province, Laos,” Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare 5 (2014): 137-141.


ghJfhg;ghd fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd chpik
njhlh;ghd Mf;fq;fspd; njhFg;G


1. ghypay;G: xU
ngz;zpiythjpapd; gpur;rpid?
gy ngz;fs; jkJ nrhe;j ghypay;G
gw;wp Vd; mr;rg;gLfpd;wdh; vd;gjw;fhd
fhuzq;fisf; fz;lwpjy;

Rdpyh mNgNrfu

ngz;zpd; ghypay;gpidf; fl;Lg;gLj;JtJ vd;gJ Mzhjpf;fj;jpd;
Kf;fpakhd ghfkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ. Mjpfhy r%fq;fspy; kPSw;gj;jpf;Fk;>
MZf;Fk; ,ilapyhd njhlh;G fz;lwpag;gl;lJk;> ngz;zpd;
,dtpUj;jpj; jifikiaAk;> mtsJ fUg;igapd; ed;ikfisAk;>
nrhe;jk; nfhz;lhLtJk;> fl;Lg;gLj;JtJk; xU Mzhf \,Uj;jypd;|
mj;jpahtrpakhd gFjpahf MfpaJ.

gy r%fq;fspy; ngz;fsJ ghypay;G kw;Wk; fUf;fl;ly; njhlh;ghf mr;rKk;>
rpy NghJ xUtpjkhd gaKk;> fhye;NjhWk; ,Ue;J tUtjid czu
KbAk;. Mzpd; fl;Lg;ghl;bd; fPo; ngz;iz itj;jpUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w
Njitia G+h;j;jp nra;Ak; gy;tifahd ghuk;ghpak;> fyhrhu eilKiwfs;>
tof;fhWfs; kw;Wk; rkaj; jz;lidfs; vd;gtw;iw Nehf;Fk; NghJ
,J cz;ik vd;Nw Njhd;wf; $Lk;. ngz;iz NkhpahfNth my;yJ
ghypay; njhopyhspahfNth rpj;jhpg;gjhdJ ,U$whf;fp tpl;bUf;fpd;wJ.
,jd; gpujpgypg;ig ehk; ,d;Dk; fiy> ,yf;fpak;> rpdpkh vd;gtw;wpy;
fz;Lnfhz;bUf;fpNwhk; - ,it \ey;y| ngz; vd;gjw;Fk;> vjpuhf \nfl;l|
ngz; vd;gjw;Fk; r%f kdg;ghq;if tpijj;jpUf;fpwd. nfl;l ngz;
vd;gts; vg;NghJk; jdJ ghypay;gpy; Rje;jpukhf ,Ug;gts; vd;gJld;
rpyNtisfspy; mtsJ \ghypay; cjtpfSld;| vd;gJ kl;Lkd;wp mts;
\fth;r;rpahf| ,Ug;ghs;. mNjrkak; \ey;y| ngz; fw;Gs;s> fd;dpahf>
ghypay; ehl;lkw;wtshf ,Ug;ghs;.

kpf mz;ikf; fhyq;fspy;> khw;wPlhd ghypay; tof;fq;fspy; ghypay;G
njhlh;ghd fye;JiuahlYf;F ftdf;Ftpg;G vOe;Js;sJ. rpy ,lq;fspy;>
ghypay;G njhlh;ghf fijg;gJ vd;gJ ngz; Xhpdr; Nrh;f;ifahsh;fisg;
gw;wpf; fijg;gjw;F xg;ghff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. Mdhy;> cz;ik

epytug;gb> ghypay;G vd;w Nfhl;ghlhdJ gue;j gy;tifg;gl;l ghypay;
elj;ijfisfisAk;> eilKiwfisAk; cs;slf;Ffpd;wJ. ,J
Vw;fdNt Nkyhjpf;fk; nrYj;Jfpd;w Kiwf;F \khw;wPlhdJ.| ,J Xhpdr;
Nrh;f;ifahsh;fs;> Mz; Xhpdr; Nrh;f;ifahsh;fs; kw;Wk; ngz; Xhpdr;
Nrh;f;ifahsh;fs; MfpNahiu cs;slf;fyhk;. Mapd; epr;rakhf> ghypay;
Ra-eph;zaj;Jf;fhAk;> ngz;fSf;fhd ghypay; Rahjpf;fj;Jf;fhAk;
NghuhLk; epiyapypUe;J Nehf;Fifapy; ,e;j tifg;ghlhdJ jdpj;J thOk;
ngz;fisAk;> fztid ,oe;j ngz;fisAk;> jpUkzkhfhjth;fisAk;
cs;slf;ff; $Lk;. ,jpYs;s rpy ngz;fs; mth;fs; tajpy; kpf Fiwe;jth;fs;>
tajpy; kpf $bath;fs;> jpUkzkhdth;fs;> jpUkzkhfhjth;fs>
jq;fsplk; ,Ug;gjpNyNa kpf ngWkjp tha;e;j clikahd fd;dpr;
rt;tpid ghJfhf;f Ntz;ba fd;dpfs; vd ,th;fs; ghypaYwT
nfhs;tjid muR> rkak; my;yJ rKjhak; vd;gd \jil| nra;Js;sd.
rpyh; jhk; Mz;fSld; clYwT itj;Jf; nfhs;sg; Nghtjpy;iy vd;W
jPh;khdk; vLj;j ngz;fshf ,Uf;fyhk;. Vidath;fs; jhk; clYwNt
nfhs;sg; Nghtjpy;iy vd;W jPh;khdpj;j ngz;fshf ,Uf;fyhk;. ,e;j
midj;Jg; ngz;fSk; gpujhd ePNuhl;lj;jpYs;s ghypay; NfhitfisAk;>
elj;ij tbtq;fisAk; rthYf;Fl;gLj;Jgth;fs;. Mifapdhy; Fwpg;ghf
jz;lidf;F cs;shf;fg;glf;$ba epiyapypUg;gth;fs;. ghypay;
mj;JkPwyhdJ vkJ gy r%fq;fspy; ghuJ}ukhd Fw;wnkhd;whff;

mz;ikf; fhykhf ,t;tplak; njhlh;ghf rpq;fs rpdpkhtpy; ngz;zpd;
ghypay;G gw;wpa gpujpgypg;G gw;wp Ntiy nra;J tUfpNwd;. ,e;j
rpdpkhj;jdj;jpy;> ghYwT gw;wp r%fj;jpYs;s jilfisAk;> xJf;fq;fisAk;
jfh;j;njwpaj; JzpAk; ngz;Zf;F ehd;Nf khw;W topfs;jhk; cs;sd:
mts; igj;jpakhfyhk;> mts; jw;nfhiy nra;J nfhs;syhk;> mts;
nfhiy nra;ag;glyhk; my;yJ mts; Md;kpfj; Jiwapy; Nrh;e;J
nfhs;syhk; vd vdJ fw;ifia tpUj;jp nra;fpd;Nwd;. xU jpiug;glk;
Kba ,d;ndhU jpiug;glkhf> ehd; vz;zw;w ngz;fs; igj;jpakhtijAk;>
jq;fisj; jhq;fNs nfhy;tijAk;> nfhy;yg;gLtijAk;> my;yJ
xU fd;dpah];jphpahf khWtijAk; fz;Zw;Nwd;. jdJ ghypay;ig
ntspg;gLj;jpaikf;fhf xUj;jUf;F toq;fg;gLk; jz;lidahdJ kpfTk;
nfh^ukhdjhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

ghypaiy tiuaWg;gJ vJ? ghypay; elj;ij> epr;rakhf. ghypay; njhpT.
ePq;fs; ahUld;> vt;thW ghYwT nfhs;fpwPh;fs; vd;gJ. ghypay; tpUg;gk;.
ghypay; ,d;gk;. ePq;fs; vt;thW ghypay; ,d;gj;ij milfpwPh;fs; vd;gJk;
cq;fs; ghypay; fw;gidfs; vit vd;gJk;. ePq;fs; ghYwT gw;wpf; fdT
fhz;ifapy; vd;d fdT fhz;fpwPh;fs; vd;gJ. ePq;fs; ahiu \fth;r;rpahff;|
fhz;fpwPh;fs;> Vd; vd;gJk;.

,d;gj;Jf;Fk;> mghaj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapyhd jtpg;G ngz;fspd;
tho;f;ifapy; kpfTk; tYthdjhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. vkJ ghypaiy
eilKiwg;gLj;Jifapy; mJ kpfTk; ,d;gj;Jf;Fk;> kfpo;r;rpf;Fk; chpa
Njlyhf ,Uf;fyhk;: mJ Fw;wTzh;T> mlf;FKiw> kw;Wk; jz;lidahy;
epuk;gpajhfTk; ,Uf;fyhk;. vkJ ghypaypd; vjph;kiwahd gf;fkhdJ
vk;ik ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shf;FtJld;> ghypay; ty;YwT kw;Wk; ,uj;J cwT
Kiwapyhd ghypay; ty;YwT kw;Wk; vkJ tpUg;Gf;F vjpuhd gpiz
Nghd;w midj;J tifahd ghypay; Ruz;lYf;Fk;> J];gpuNahfj;jpw;Fk;
cs;shff; $bath;fshfTk;; Mf;fptpLfpd;wJ. ,e;j ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shff;
$ba jd;ikahdJ vkJ ghypaiy eilKiwg;gLj;Jifapy; vof; $ba
mghaq;fs; njhlh;ghf vk;ik Rjhhpg;Gld; rpyNtisfspy; mjpf Rjhhpg;Gld;
,Uf;f itf;fpwJ. ghypay; njhlh;ghd mr;RWj;jNy jw;Nghija r%fj;jpy;
xU ngz;izf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhfg; ghtpf;ff; $ba mjp gyk; tha;e;j
fUtpfspy; xd;whff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

,e;j mghakhdJ ngz;fs; vd;w tifapy; vq;fspy; gaq;fukhd
tpisTfisf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ehq;fs; vq;fsJ nrhe;j ghypay;ig gw;wpa
gaj;JlNdNa tsh;fpNwhk;. ehk; vk;khy; Ja;f;ff;$ba ,d;gj;jpd; msit
epuhfhpf;fg; gofpf; nfhs;fpNwhk;. Vd; rpy ngz;fSf;F ngz;fs; ,d;gj;jpy;
cr;rj;ij miltJ ngUk; kh;kkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ> Vd; rpy ngz;fSf;F
,J kOg;gyhf cs;sJ? Vd; ,J ngz;fis mth;fsJ MASf;Fk; js;sp
itf;fpd;wJ? ,J ,j;jifa cr;rfl;l ,d;gj;ij ngz;fs; mila KbahJ
vd;W vkJ cly;fs; kpf rpwg;ghf gapw;rpaspf;fg;gl;Lk;> vkJ rpe;jid
tpyq;fplg;gl;Lk; cs;sikahyh? Kw;whf iftpl;LtpLfpd;wikahyh?

vkJ ghypay; tpUg;Gfs; kpf mw;Gjkhf kiwj;J itf;fg;gl;bUg;gJld;>
r%f tpOkpaq;fshYk;> \Vw;fg;glf;$ba| elj;ij tbtq;fshYk;
Gj;jprhypj;jdkhf Kf%baplg;gl;bUf;fpd;wd. ,it vkJ Mo;kdjpy;
fple;J vkJ fdTfspy; kl;LNk ntspg;gLfpd;wd. ehk; ghypaYwT
nfhs;tjidg; gw;wp fw;gid nra;fpd;Nwhk; vdpDk; vk;kpy; mjpfkhNdhh;
ekf;Fs;NsNa $l ,jid Vw;Wf; nfhs;tjpy;iy. Vnddpy; \ey;y| ngz;fs;
mjidr; nra;tjpy;iy. tha;%ykhd ghypaYwT xU E}w;whz;Lf;F Kd;
tiuf;Fk; xJf;fg;gl;l xU tplakhfNt ,Ue;jJ. ,d;W ,J ghypay;
elj;ijapd; xU gFjpahf XusT Vw;fg;gl;l tplakhf cs;sJ. Fj top
%ykhd ghypaYwT xUNtis ,d;Dk; epr;rakw;wjhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ:
vkJ gy rl;lg; Gj;jfq;fspy; ,j;jifa Gzh;r;rpfs; ,d;Dk; xU Fw;wkhf
,Uf;fpd;wd. Mz;-Mz;> ngz;-ngz; ghypaYwT Xhpdr; Nrh;f;ifahsh;
my;yhjth;fSf;Ff; fpSfpSg;G+l;Lfpd;wJ vd;gjid gy vz;zpf;ifapyhd
jk;ik \vjph;ghw; Nrh;f;ifahsh;fs;| vd;W mioj;Jf; nfhs;gth;fs; Xhpdr;
Nrh;f;ifahsh;fspd; rpw;wpd;gj;ij ,urpg;gijf; nfhz;Nl $wyhk;. vk;kpy;
vj;jid Ngh; ekJ ghy; rhh;e;j egh;fSld; ghypaywT nfhs;tjw;fhd

tpUg;igf; nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;? my;yJ Mr;rhukhd Kiwapyd;wp vkf;Fhpa
gpd;dzpNahL> vkf;F ghypaYwT vd;why; vd;d vd;Dk; mh;j;jj;jpy;?
ghypaYwtpy; vk;kpy; mNefkhNdhiu mjpfk; njhe;juT nra;af; $baJ
Jd;GWj;Jtjd; Clhf ghypay; ,d;gk; fhZk; epiyahFk;. fhaKz;lhf;fy;?
typ nfhLj;jy;? vk;khy; ek;g KbahjpUf;fyhk;. MapDk; typAk;> ,d;gKk;
xd;Nwhnlhd;W neUf;fkhf gpize;j czh;r;rpfs;jhk;. gpizahjy;>
mbj;jy;> jdFjy;> \rpwpa| mstpy; rpj;jputijg;gLj;jy; - ,it vy;yhk;
\mDkjpf;fg;gl;l| ghypay; elj;ij Kiwfsh? Mghrg;glq;fs; gw;wp? Vd;
ghypay; eltbf;iffspd; jahhpg;Gk;> kPs;jahhpg;Gk; cyfshtpa hPjpapy;
re;ijg;gLj;jf;$ba nghUshf ,Uf;fpd;wJ? ,it midj;Jk; ghypay;
njhlh;ghf ehk; nfhz;Ls;s fz;Nzhl;lj;Jld; njhlh;GilaJ.

rpy tifahd r%f kw;Wk; nghUshjhu mLf;fikTfshYk;> gbepiyfshYk;
Vw;Wf;nfhs;sg;gl;ljd; mbg;gilapy; r%f kw;Wk; fyhrhu tpOkpaq;fshy;
vt;thW rpy ghypay; elj;ijfSk;> tof;fq;fSk; Vidatw;iw tpl rYif
tha;e;jitahf cs;sd vd;gJ ghypay; njhlh;ghd kw;WnkhU Kf;fpakhd
fye;JiuahlyhFk;;. jpUkzj;Jf;F ntspNa ghypaYwT nfhs;tnjd;gJ
,d;Dk; vj;jidNah r%fq;fspy; xJf;fj;Jf;Fhpajhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ:
xU Nrhbiaf; nfhz;;l FLk;gk; vd;gNj tpOkpak; vd;gJld; ghypaYwT
vd;gJ ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd xU Njit vd;w ek;gpf;ifAk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.
,e;j E}w;whz;by; fUj;jilfspd; mgptpUj;jpahdJ kdpj tuyhw;wpy;
Kjw; jlitahf ,dtpUj;jpf;fhf my;yhky; ghypaYwT nfhs;tjw;fhd
ntspia Vw;gLj;jp ,Uf;Fk; ,e;j re;jh;g;gj;jpYk;> ,dtpUj;jp vd;gjpypUe;J
tpLgl;L> mjDld; njhlh;GgLj;jhky; ,d;gj;Jf;fhf ghypaYwT vd;gJ
,d;Dk; vj;jidNah rKjhaq;fspy; mjph;r;rpf;Fhpa tplakhfNt cs;sJ.
fd;dpj; jd;ikf;F cs;s cah; ];jhdk;> jpUkzj;Jf;F Kd;dh; kw;Wk;
jpUkzj;Jf;F mg;ghyhd ghypaYwTf;fhd mq;fPfhukpd;ik> Xhpdr; Nrh;f;if
cs;slq;fyhf rpy tifahd ghypay; tof;fq;fis Fw;wkhf;fpAs;sik
Mfpa midj;Jk; vk;khYk;> vkJ r%fq;fshYk;> vk;ikr; #oTs;sJk;>
ehk; md;NghL tho;gth;fsJ tho;f;ifapd; Kf;fpakhd xU mq;fkhfTk;
cs;s gy;NtW tifahd kdpj ghypay;Gfis Vw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;Fk;>
mq;fPfhpg;gjw;Fk; cs;s rpf;fy;fisNa Rl;bf; fhl;Lfpd;wd.

ngz;fsJ ,af;fj;Jf;Fs;> ghypay; vd;gJ fye;JiuahlYf;fhd rpf;fyhd
tplakhff; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. gy;NtW kdg;ghq;Ffis rthYf;Fl;gLj;jp>
xU Jiziaf; nfhz;l jpUkzj;jpdJk;> xU NrhbAk;> gps;isfSk;
vd;w FLk;g mikg;gpdJk; tpOkpaq;fis epuhfhpf;f jahuhf ,Ue;j
ngz;zpiythjpfs; 1980 fspd; Kw;gFjpapNyNa ,Ue;jdh; vdpDk;
ghypay;G njhlh;ghd gpur;rpidfis vkJ nrhe;j epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lj;jpy;
itf;fj; jaq;fpdh;. ,jd; xU gFjpahf nrhe;j mf;fiw ,Ue;jpUf;fyhk;.
rh;r;iriaAk;> gpur;rpidfisAk; fpsg;gp mghaj;Jf;Fs; js;Stij

ehq;fs; tpUk;ghky; 1980fspd; eLg;gFjpastpy;> Fwpg;gplj;jf;f msT
mq;fPfhuj;ijAk;> Vw;igAk; ngw;Wf; nfhz;Nlhk;. vq;fsJ ciog;gpd;
gaid mDgtpf;ff; $ba rpy ntspfs; vkf;Fj; Njitahf ,Ue;jd.
kl;Lg;gLj;jg;glhj ghypay;gpid xU topNflhf> flTSf;F vjpuhdjhfg;
ghh;f;Fk; tyJrhhpf; FOf;fsplkpUe;Jk;> gioikthjpfsplkpUe;Jk;
jhf;Fjy;fs; tUk; vd ehk; mQ;rpNdhhk;. ehk; ngz; Xhpdr;Nrh;f;ifahsh;fs;
(ny];gpad;fs;) vd;W miof;fg;gLtjid tpUk;gtpy;iy. Mz;fspd;
cyfpy; ehq;fSk; newpKiwahd jug;gpdh; vd;w hPjpapy; gpujhd
ePNuhl;lj;jpy; Eiotij tpUk;gpNdhk;. vkJ jilia cilf;Fk; Kfkhf
Mzhjpf;fj;jpd; mlf;F Kiwiag; Nghd;W> tFg;G> ,dk; my;yJ
fl;lhakhd vjph;g;ghypdr; Nrh;f;if Nghd;wtw;why; mlf;FKiwf;Fs;shd
vkJ vj;jidNah rNfhjhpfis ehq;fs; kwe;Njhk;. Mzhjpf;fk; njhlh;ghd
vkJ fUj;jpay; kw;Wk; Nfhl;ghL rhh; GhpjyhdJ> ,t;thzhjpf;fkhdJ
Kjyhspj;Jtk; kw;Wk; gy;NtW ,dhPjpahd Nkyhjpf;fq;fs; Nghd;w Vida
mjpfhuf; fl;;likg;GfSld; vt;thW gpd;dpg; gpize;Js;sJ vd;gij
Ghpe;J nfhs;SksT tphptile;jJ. vt;thnwdpDk; ,J ngz;fSf;Fs;Sk;>
ngz;fSf;fpilNaAk; cs;s tpj;jpahrq;fs; gw;wp vj;jifa Mokhd
Ghpjy;fisAk; cs;slf;ftpy;iy. rNfhjuj;Jtk; kw;Wk; xw;Wik gw;wpa
vkJ ek;gpf;if Vkhw;wkspf;Fk; xd;W vd;W vkf;F ep&gpj;jJ.

MZf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;Fk; ,ilapy; my;yJ ngz;Zf;Fk;> ngz;Zf;Fk;
,ilapy; ,Ug;gpDk; $l> NtWghLfis mZFk; Kiwfspy; ngz;zpiythj
topfis cs;slf;f Kbahj vkJ jFjpapd;ikahdJ> vkJ ,e;j
tuyhw;Wf; fhyg;gFjpapy; vk;Ks; rpy gphptpidfis Vw;gLj;jpAs;sJ. ,J
,d;wsTk; gpur;rpidf;FhpajhfTk;> ntspg;gilahdjhfTk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

1984,y;> fNuhy; thd;]; njhlh;r;rpahd Nfs;tpfisf; Nfl;lhh;:

• Mz;fsJk;> ngz;fsJk; ghypay; ,ay;Gfs; fl;lhakhf NtWgl;litah
my;yJ mJ Fwpg;gpl;l tuyhw;W kw;Wk; fyhrhu epge;jidfSf;Fl;gl;ljh?

• mlf;FKiwapd; fhuzkhf ngz;fsJ ghypay;G Cikahf;fg;gl;L
tpl;ljh> my;yJ ,J Mz;fspy; ,Ue;Jk; Kw;wpYk; NtWgl;ljh?

• ngz;fSf;Fz;lhf;Fk; ghypay; mghaj;jpd; %ykhdJ mbg;gilapy;
Mf;Nuhrkhd my;yJ td;Kiwahd Mzpd; ,ay;gpyh> my;yJ Mz;fsJ
ghypay;ig Mf;NuhrkhfTk;> ngz;fsJ ghypay;ig gzpe;Jk;> mlq;fpAk;
Nghff; $bajhfTk; r%fkag;gLj;jpAs;s Mzhjpf;fj;jpd; epge;jidfspyh

• vt;thW Mz;fshy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;w ghypay; td;Kiwfisf;
Fiwf;fyhk; my;yJ ePf;fyhk;?

• vt;thW ghypaYwtpy;> ,dtpUj;jpapd; rhj;jpag;ghL ngz;fsJ
ghypay;gpd; mDgtj;jpy; EiofpwJ?

• ngz;zpiythjkhdJ ghypay; ntspapy; Mff; $ba my;yJ Mff;
Fiwe;j NtWghLfis Cf;Ftpf;f Ntz;Lkh?

15 tUlq;fs; fle;j epiyapYk; ,e;jf; Nfs;tpfshtd ,d;Wk;
typjhditahfNt cs;sd. cz;ikapy;;> vapl;]; njhw;WNehapid
vjph;nfhs;fpd;w ,e;;j cyFk;> Mz;> ngz; Xhpdr; Nrh;f;ifahsh;fspd;
chpikfSf;fhd ,af;fq;fs; Kd;NdwptUfpd;w> jilnra;ag;gl;bUe;jhYk;>
,y;yhtpl;lhYk; Xhpdr; Nrh;f;ifahsh;fspd; ,Ug;gpd; ntspg;ghL> vd;gd
ghypay;G kw;Wk; ghypay; elj;ijfs; gw;wpa vkJ mNef mDkhdq;fspd;
MzpNtiur; rthYf;Fl;gLj;Jfpd;wd.

,d;W ehk; gy;NtW tifahd FLk;g Kiwfs; cz;nld;gij Vw;Wf;
nfhz;Ls;s cyfpy; tho;fpd;Nwhk;. ghugl;rKk;> #o;r;rpAk;> td;KiwAk;
,y;yhj ghypaYwtpy; <LgLtjw;F Mz;fSf;Fk;> ngz;fSf;Fk;
,dtpUj;jpf;Fk;> ghypaYf;Fkhd chpikfs; cz;nld;gJ Vw;Wf;
nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ. NkYk;> kdpj caphpd; Ra nfsutj;Jf;fhd rfpg;Gj;
jd;ikAk;> khpahijAk; ,Uf;Fnkdpd; gy;NtW tifahd Kiwfisf;
nfhz;l ghypay; elj;ijfSk; rr;rutpd;wp xd;Wld; xd;W Nrh;e;jpUf;f
KbAk; vd;gJk; Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;Ls;sJ.

ngz; Xhpdr; Nrh;f;ifahsh;fs; kw;Wk; ghypay;gpid epr;rag;gLj;jhj> tpspk;G
epiyapYs;s> jkJ jPukhd KbTfspd; fhuzj;jhy; xJf;fg;gl;Ls;s
Vida ngz;fSf;fpilapyhd njhlh;gpid Vw;gLj;jp ,ilntspfisf;
Fiwg;gjhd caph;g;Gld;jhd; ngz;zpiythj ,af;fkhdJ ghypay;G
gw;wpa jdJ fye;Jiuahly;fisj; njhlu Ntz;Lk;.

nrhw;fsQ;rpak; :

ghypay;G: \caphpay;> mDgtk;> cstpay;> elj;ij> r%fk;> rpe;jidfs;
vd;git midj;Jk; Nrh;e;j xU th;zf; fyitapd; ntspg;ghL.| ,J
$Ljyhf ghy;epiy tfpgq;F> ghypay; nraw;ghL> ghypay; mDgtpg;G>

ghypay; ehl;lk;> fw;gid> ,d;gk; Ja;j;jy;> tpUg;G> ghy;epiy milahsk;>
kPSw;gj;jp vd;gjhf r%fj;jpy; Muk;gpj;J cstpaiy ClWj;J
caphpaypy; KbtilfpwJ. (KNuy;; ilkd; 1981> 66) %yk;: Amazons,
Bluestockings and Crones: A Feminist Dictionary,

ny];gpadp];k;: (ngz; Xhpdr; Nrh;f;if): jd;Dila tho;f;ifapy; czh;T
hPjpahf> jdpg;gl;l hPjpahf> murpay; hPjpahf ngz;fSf;F Kjd;ik
toq;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ xU ngz;Zila njhpT. (hPl;lh Nk gpuTz;
1976> 90) %yk;: Amazons, Bluestockings and Crones: A
Feminist Dictionary, 1992.

vjph;g;ghypdr; Nrh;f;if: vjph;g;ghiyr; Nrh;;e;j xU egUf;fhd (my;yJ
gyUf;fhd) ghypay; czh;T: rpy ngz;fshYk;> rpy Mz;fshYk;
czug;gl;l> mDgtpf;fg;gl;l czh;T. %yk;:

Xhpdr; Nrh;f;if: jdJ ghiyr; Nrh;e;j xU egUf;fhd (my;yJ gyUf;fhd)
ghypay; czh;T: rpy ngz;fshYk;> rpy Mz;fshYk; czug;gl;l>
mDgtpf;fg;gl;l czh;T. %yk;:,e;j Mf;fkhdJ Kjd; Kjyhf tpkd;
,d; vf;]d; (Women in Action) vd;gjpy; ntspahdJ (1:1999)


2. ngz;fsJ kdpj chpikfspd;
gpd;dzpapy; ,yq;ifapy;

Rdpyh mNgNrfu

ngz;fsJ kdpj chpikfspd; gpd;dzpapy; ,yq;ifapy; fUf;fiyg;G

,e;j Mf;fkhdJ ,yq;ifapd; Fw;wtpay; jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd;
fUf;fiyg;G njhlh;ghd rl;lj;ij 1995k; Mz;L jpUj;j Kad;W
Njhy;tpAw;w Kaw;rpia ngz;fsJ kdpj chpikfs; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpypUe;J
Ma;T nra;fpd;wJ. Kd; itf;fg;gl;l ghuhSkd;w tpthjkhdJ
ngz;fsJ ghypay; kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd jifikfisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;
tifapy; ngz;fsJ chpikfs; njhlh;gpy; gy rh;r;irf;Fhpa tplaq;fis
Kw;nfhzh;e;Js;sJ. ,jd;NghJ ngz;fs; elj;ij nfl;lth;fs;>
xOf;fkw;wth;fs;> ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shff;$bath;fs;> ghJfhf;fg;gl
Ntz;bath;fs; vd;w ntt;NtW mDkhdq;fs; ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. rpy
ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fs;; caphpd; Njhw;wk;> Gdpjk; gw;wpAk;> fUf;fiyg;G
njhlh;ghf jkJ fUj;ij epahag;gLj;jTk;> ngz;fs; njhlh;ghd Vida
ghugl;rkhd tof;fq;fis Mjhpf;fTk;> fyhrhu> rka kw;Wk; ghuk;ghpaq;fs;
kPjhd tpj;jpahrq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; tpthjj;ij Kd;itj;Js;sdh;.
VidNahh; ghy;epiy rkj;Jtk; vd;Wk; fUf;fiyg;ghdJ nghJ Rfhjhu
kw;Wk; r%fg; gpur;rpid vd;w Nehf;fpy; NgrpAs;sdh;. Mapd; kpfr; rpyNu
,g;gpur;rpidapd; kdpj chpik Nehf;fpidg; gw;wpf; fijj;Js;sdh;.
,e;j tpthjj;jpy; ngz;fsJ ghypay; kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jpapidf;
fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf ngz;fsJ chpikfSf;nfjpuhf gioikthj rkaf;
fUj;Jf;fSk;> murpay; fUj;Jf;fSk; xd;wpizfpd;wikahdJ ngUk;
fhpridf;Fhpanjhd;whFk;. ,e;j Mf;fk;> rkj;Jtk; kw;Wk; vt;tplj;Jf;Fk;
nghUj;jkhd jd;ik gw;wp mOj;jk; nfhLf;Fk; kdpj chpikfs; rl;lfj;Js;
fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd ngz;fsJ chpikfs; gw;wp fUj;jhf;fk; nra;jYk;>
nraw;glYk; nghUj;jkhdJ vd thjpLfpd;wJ.

1883k; Mz;bd; jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd; fPo; xU ngz;zpd; capiuf;
fhg;ghw;Wtjw;fhf md;wp fUf;fiyg;Gr; nra;jyhdJ ,yq;ifapd;


jz;lidf;Fhpa xU Fw;wkhFk;. xU jrhg;jj;jpw;Fk; Nkyhf> ,yq;ifapy;
ngz;fs; FOf;fs; eilKiwapYs;s fUf;fiyg;G> ghypay; ty;YwT>
tpthfuj;J njhlh;ghd vj;jidNah rl;lq;fspy; jpUj;jj;ij Ntz;b
Fuy; nfhLj;J tUfpd;wdh;. 1991k; Mz;L> ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd midj;J
tifahd ghuhgl;rq;fisAk; xopg;gjw;fhd rkthaj;ij (rPNlh) nghpJk;
mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L \ngz;fs; gl;lak;| vd;gjid murhq;fk;
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tpisTfisNa nfhz;L tUk; vd;gjhFk;. NkYk; tuyhw;wpd; Kf;fpa
jUzq;fspy; Mz;-ngz; mrkepiy fhzg;gLifapy; mjid epth;;j;jpf;f
,];yhkpa topKiwahf gyjhukzj;ijAk; epahag;gLj;jpdhh;. mth;
kd;wplKk;> midj;J cWg;gpdh;fsplKk; gpd;tUk; gpNuuiziz

\vkf;nfhU fyhrhuk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ. vk;kplk; xOq;fhd Kiwapy; tsh;j;jy;
vd;gnjhd;wpUf;fpd;wJ. ,g;gbnahd;W eilngWifapy; vkJ fpuhkq;fspy;
ehq;fs; mth;fis xOf;fkw;w ngz;fs;> xOf;fkw;w rpWkpfs; vd;Nghk;.
mj;jifa xOf;fkpd;ikf;F ePq;fs; ghJfhg;G toq;ff; $lhJ. mJ
vkJ fyhrhuj;Jf;Fk;> ghuk;ghpaj;Jf;Fk; vjpuhdjhFk;. vkJ midj;J
rkaq;fSk; ,jw;F vjpuhditahFk;.|

jpU.m];th; mth;fspdhy; $wg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fspy; xUrpy> \rpy
r%fq;fspy; ghypay; td;Kiw vd;wpUg;gJ Vida r%fq;fspy;
mt;thW fUjg;gLtjpy;iy.| jpUkzj;Jf;Fs; ,lk;ngWk; ghypay;
td;Gzh;T njhlh;gpy; $Wk;NghJ \jpUkzj;jpd; mbg;gil Nehf;fNk

N[hd; mkuJq;f (I.Nj.f) jhd; ehl;bd; 7 rjtpfpjkhd fj;Njhypf;f
r%fj;jpd; gpujpepjpahf NgRtjhff; Fwpg;gpl;lhh;. fUf;fiyg;gpid
rl;lhPjpahf;Fk; ve;j xU Kaw;rpAk; \r%fj;jpd; midj;J gphpTfshYk;
gykhf vjph;f;fg;gLk;| vd;gJld; \,e;ehl;L kf;fspd; r%f kw;Wk; fyhrhu
tho;tpd; mbg;gilfspy;| jhf;fk; nrYj;Jk; vd;gJ ,th; fUj;jhftpUe;jJ.
,tuJ thjk; \Gdpjkhd tho;T gw;wpa ek;gpf;ifapd;| kPJ mike;jpUe;jJ.
fpwp];jth;fs; kl;Lkd;wp ngsj;jh;fs;> K];ypk;fs;> ,e;Jf;fs; MfpNahUk;
caph; NkyhdJ vd;gjid ek;Ggth;fshifahy; ,e;j Kd;itg;ig
vjph;g;ghh;fs; vd;whh;.


mkuJq;ftpd; fUj;ij Mjhpj;Jg; Ngrpa bNuhd; ngh;zhd;Nlh (I.Nj.f) \
gpwf;fhj Foe;ijfs; capUld; jhapd; fUtiwapy; cijg;gijg;| gw;wpf;
Fwpg;gpl;lhh;. fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;jpid nefpo;thf;Ftjid Mjhpg;gth;fis
\gpuq;fd;];ilDila mRuh;fisg;| Nghd;wth;fs; vd;wioj;jJld; \
fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;ij jhuhskakhf;fyhdJ ,yq;ifapy; fUizf;
nfhiyf;F toprikf;Fk;| vd;whh;. ,th;; fUf;fiyg;gpw;F mDkjp toq;fpd;
jw;nfhiyf;Fk; mDkjp toq;fg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;whh;. kp];.GNye;jpud;
mth;fsJ fUj;Jg;gb (I.Nj.f) ,e;J rkaj;jpYk; fUf;fiyg;G jil
nra;ag;gl;ljhFk; vd;whh;.

mikr;rh;;d (R.f) fUf;fiyg;gpid xU r%fg; gpur;rpidahfg;
ghh;j;J rl;lj;ij khw;w Ntz;bdhh; vdpDk;> mJ \vkJ fyhrhuj;jpw;Fs;
nra;ag;gly; Ntz;Lk;| vd;whh;. ,th; \ehd; xU fzk; $l ve;jnthU
rkaj;ijNah> r%fj;;ijNah Nehfbf;Fk; fUj;jpy; nrhy;ytpy;iy. Mapd;
,jid ehk; xU r%fg; gpur;rpidahfg; ghh;f;f Ntz;Lk;.| vd;W rigapy;

mOj;jj;jpd; kj;jpapy; gpd;thq;fy;

,yq;if murhdJ rpWghd;ik kj kw;Wk; ,d hPjpahd r%fq;fis
gq;fhsh;fshff; nfhz;l cWjpaw;w mjpfhuj;jpid iftrk; itj;Js;sJ.
,jd; tpisthf> Kd;itf;fg;gl;l rl;;l efiyf; $l ePjpaikr;rh; gpd;
thq;f itf;FksT murpay; hPjpahf jtph;f;f KbahjpUf;Fk; vd;gJ mq;F
fz;$lhftpUe;jJ. ,Ue;Jk;> ,uz;lhtJ ehshfTk;> tpthfk;> tpthfuj;J
gw;wp rl;lj; jpUj;jk; gw;wpaJld; Nrh;e;J ,e;j tpthjKk; njhlh;e;jJ.

tpthjj;jpd; NghJ> mikr;rh; gPhp];> \fl;Lg;gLj;j Kbahj| xOf;fk; rhh;
gpur;rpidfs; njhlh;gpy; fUf;fiyg;G gpujpgypj;Js;sJld;> Kuz;gLk;
gpujhd tplak; capiug; Gdpjkhfg; ghh;f;Fk; ghuk;ghpaq;fSf;Fk;> kw;Wk;
ngz;fsJ RahjPdk;> Rje;jpuk; vd;gtw;wpy; ek;gpf;if nfhz;l jkJ
vjph;fhyj;ij jhNk jPh;khdpf;Fk; ngz;fsJ chpik gw;wpa Fuy;fSf;Fk;
,ilapyhdjhFk; vd;whh;. ,q;fpUe;j Kuz;gLjd;ikahdJ ,t;tplak;
mjpf fhpridf;Fhpanjhd;W vd;gjid mtUf;F njspT gLj;jpaJ.
rkj;Jtk; kw;Wk; ePjpf;fhd jhuhz;ikf; nfhs;iffspy; jdpg;gl;l
mh;g;gzpg;gpUg;gpDk;> rl;l efiy gpd;thq;Fifapy; mth;> \ehk; gy rka
jPh;g;GfisAk;> tpj;jpahrkhd fyhrhu> newpKiw rhh; ghuk;ghpaq;fs; kPjhd
gy;jug;gl;l Nehf;Ffis cs;thq;Ftjw;F Kaw;rpj;jpUe;Njhk| vd;whh;.
Kbtpy;> rka ek;gpf;iffSf;F vjpuhf vtUNk rl;l tpOkpaq;fis
rthy;gLj;j tpUk;gtpy;iy. ,t;tpthjj;jpy; njspthdgb> ngz;fSf;fhd
ghypay; kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jp chpikfSf;F vjpuhd gioikthj rka
kw;Wk; murpay; fUj;Jf;fspy; xd;wpize;jikahdJ ,yq;if ngz;fsJ

ghhpa fhpridf;FhpanjhU tplakhFk;. cjhuzkhf> tpthjj;jpd; NghJ
K];ypk;fs;> mikr;rhplkpUe;J gy rYiffisg; ngw;wdh;. ,jpy;> K];ypk;
kzkfs; jdJ tpUg;gpidj; njhptpf;Fk; tajhf njhlh;e;Jk; ,Uf;Fk;
vd;gJ Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl;lJ. NkYk; jpUkzj;Jf;Fs; ,lk;ngWk;
ghypay; ty;YwT ePjpKiwahd gphpT ,Uf;Fk; re;jh;g;gk; jtpu Vida
re;jh;g;gq;fspy; xU Fw;wkhf Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gltpy;iy.

fUf;fiyg;ghdJ njhlh;e;Jk; xU Fw;wkhf ,Uf;fpwJ

fUf;fiyg;gpid nefpo;thf;Ftjid gpd;thq;Fk;NghJ ePjpaikr;rh;
fUf;fiyg;gpid Fw;wkw;wjhf;Fk; jdJ jdpg;gl;l mh;g;gzpg;gpid
gpd;tUkhW $wpdhh;.

\fUf;fiyg;gpid Fw;wkw;wjhf;fy; mNef ehLfspy; tsh;r;rp fhZk;
rl;lKiwikapd; xU jd;ikahFk;. mj;Jld; mj;jifa nghJthd
mgptpUj;jpapypUe;J ,yq;if Vd; gpd;epw;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhd vj;jifa
fhuzj;;ijAk; ehd; fhztpy;iy.|

Mapd;> mth; fUf;fiyg;G rpf;fy;fisj; jPh;f;ff; $ba Rfhjhu
eyd;rhh; rl;lq;fis mwpKfk; nra;tjhf cWjpaspj;jhh;. ,J ,d;Dk;
eilngwtpy;iy. ,e;j 1995k; Mz;bd;> tpthjj;jpypUe;J ,d;Dk;
fUf;fiyg;ghdJ Fw;wkhfNt njhlh;fpd;wJ. 1996,y;> fUf;fiyg;gpid
nra;j ngz;fs;> gpw ngz;fSf;F fUf;fiyg;Gf;F cjtpa ngz;fs; vd gy
ngz;fis nghyprhh; tof;fpl;l gy tof;Ffs; ,Ue;jd. cjhuzkhf> gyh;
fUf;fiyg;G nra;jikf;fhf ifJ nra;ag;gl;ldh;. ,jpy; 1996> ngg;uthpapy;
fz;biar; Nrh;;e;j ,U itj;jpah;fs;> brk;ghpy; fk;g`htpypUe;J ,d;ndhU
egh; MfpNahh; mlq;Fth;. nrg;lk;gh; 1996 ,y;. A.[;fhe;jp vd;w
ngz;Zf;F fUitf; fiyf;f Kaw;rpj;jikf;fhf 3 khj xj;jp itf;fg;gl;l
rpiwj;jz;lidAk;> 1000 &gha; mguhjKk; toq;fg;gl;lJ. mNj rkak;>
1997 [dthpapy;> ,yq;if [dhjpgjp Rfhjhuj;Jf;nfd ,yf;Ff; FOtpid
epakpj;jhh;. ,e;j FOtpd; Clhf fUf;fiyg;Gj; jpUj;jj;Jf;fhf thjhl
KbAkhntd ngz;fs; FOf;fs; jw;NghJ Muha;e;J tUfpd;wdh;.

caphpay; kw;Wk; milahsk;: ngz;fs; chpikfspy; gpujhd tplaq;fspy;
xd;whd fUf;fiyg;G

,yq;ifapy; Fw;wtpay; jz;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitiaj; jpUj;Jtjw;fhd
fye;JiuahlyhdJ ngz;fsJk;> mth;fsJ RahjPdk; njhlh;gpYk;
rk;ge;jKWk; vj;jidNah jtph;f;f ,ayhj tplaq;fis Kd;
nfhzh;e;Js;sJ. jkJ JizAld; ghypay; cwtpid itj;Jf; nfhs;tjh>
,y;iyah> (jpUkzj;Jf;Fs;shd ghypay; ty;YwT njhlh;gpy;) vg;NghJ>


vd;gjidj; jPh;khdpf;Fk; chpik> mth;fsJ ,dtpUj;jp jifikfisf;
fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;Fs;s chpik (fUf;fiyg;G njhlh;gpy;) kw;Wk;
jdpegh;fshf> Fwpj;j r%fj;jpd; cWg;gpdh;fshf mth;fs; milahsk;
fhzg;gLtjw;fhd chpik Nghd;w midj;JNk ghuhSkd;wj;jpd; cs;Sk;>
ntspAk; gpur;rpidf;Fhpa tplaq;fshfNt ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,J ,yq;ifg;
ngz;fSf;F kl;Lkd;wp cynfq;Fk; cs;s ngz;fSf;Fk; ,JNt
epiyahf cs;sJ.

chpik mbg;gilapy; fUf;fiyg;ghdJ vg;NghJNk rpf;fYf;Fhpa gug;ghfNt
,Ue;J te;Js;sJ. Fwpg;ghf ,J ngz;fsJ njhpTf;fhd chpik my;yJ
fUtpdJ capUf;fhd chpik vd;w mbg;gilapyhdJ. mNef rl;;l
Kiwikfspy; fUf;fiyg;ghdJ ngz;fsJ RajPh;khdj;Jf;fhd chpik
vd;w mbg;gilapy; vOe;jjy;y. ,yq;if cl;gl gy ehLfspy; ,J
muRf;nfjpuhd Fw;wkhff; fzpg;gplg;gLfpd;wJ. mnkhpf;fhtpy;> fUf;fiyg;G
njhlh;gpy; vj;jidNah Nghuhl;lq;fs; ngz;fs; ,af;fq;fshy; ,lk;ngw;w
NghJk; ,e;j thjq;fs; vg;NghJk; me;;juq;fj;Jf;fhd chpik vd;w
mbg;gilapNyNa mjpfk; ,Ue;;jd. Mapd;> mnkhpf;fhtpy; jPh;khdk; vLj;J
mKyhf;fiy xU nghJtplakhf md;wp jdpg;gl;l tplakhf Nehf;fp
ngz;fSf;F jkJ tho;it fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; chpik cz;L vd;w rYif
mbg;gilapy; fUf;fiyg;Gf;F mDkjp mspf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

fUf;fiyg;gpid ,e;j tpjj;jpy; Nehf;Fk; NghJ> nfj;jhpd; nkf;fpDd;
Rl;bf;fhl;LtJ Nghd;W. ngz;fis mbg;gJ> jpUkzj;Js; ,lk;ngWk;
ghypay; ty;YwT> kw;Wk; Ruz;lg;gLk; ngz;fsJ Copak; vd;gtw;iw
ghJfhf;fpd;wJ. ,J ngz;fsJ milahsj;ij> RahjPdj;ij>
fl;Lg;ghLfis> Ratpsf;fj;ij kWg;gjd; Clhf kj;jpa mikg;Gfis

fhydpj;Jt fhyj;jpypUe;J fhzp Fj;jif> rhd;whjhuk;> tUkhdthp Nghd;W
rptpy;> Fw;wtpay; rl;lq;fspy; xUrPh;j;jd;ik cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl;lJk;> nghJ
kw;Wk; jdpg;gl;l tho;f;iff;F tpj;jpahrkhd rl;l juhjuq;fis tpjpf;Fk;
xOq;fPdk; njd;dhrpaTf;Fhpanjhd;wha; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ. vt;thwhapDk;
fhydpj;Jt murhdJ nghJ ntsp kw;Wk; jdp ntsp vd;w NtWghl;il
tYg;gLj;jntd FLk;g> jdpg;gl;l gpzf;Ffspy; jiyapLtjw;F kWj;J
te;jJ. ,d;W> murhq;fq;fs; rh;tNjr kdpj chpik rl;lq;fs; kw;Wk;
juq;fshy; gpzpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,J Vida tplaq;fNshL> ghy;epiy
mbg;gilapy; ghugl;rk; fhl;lhik> vd;gij cs;slf;Fk;. Mapd;
,yq;if Nghd;w Njrpa rl;lq;fs; FLk;g cwntd;W tUifapy; rkj;Jt
nfhs;ifapid gpujpgypg;gjpy;iy.

Mapd; nghJntspapy;> murpay; gpujpepjpj;Jtk;> fy;tp kw;Wk; njhopy;>

vd;gtw;wpy; rkj;Jtk; gw;wpa Mff; Fiwe;j Vw;ghLfs; cs;sdntdpDk;
,it mKyhf;fg;glhtpbd; ePjpkd;wpy; tof;fplTk; KbAk;. mNj
rkak; tho;tpd; Vida mk;rq;fspy; rl;;lthf;fk; Njitg;gLk; Vida
,lq;fspy;> xU nfhiyfhuid nfhiyfhud; vd;gjw;F rka my;yJ
,dhPjpahd mbg;gilapy; Fw;wtpay; rl;lk; $l ve;jnthU NtWghl;ilAk;

Mapd;> nrhy;yg;gLk; jdpntspapy;> jpUkzk;> guhkhpg;G> ghJfhtyh;>
ghJfhty;> jj;njLj;jy; kw;Wk; topAhpik Nghd;wtw;wpy; epiyikahdJ
,jpypUe;Jk; ,d;Dk; NtWgl;lJ. xt;nthU r%fj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapyhd rl;l
tpOkpaq;fs; rhuh `_ird; Fwpg;gpLtJ Nghy> \gy;NtW tpOkpaq;fspd;
mbg;gilapy;> ePjpf;F mg;ghy; tPL> FLk;gk; vd;Dk; jdp ntspia
tpl;Ltply;|vd;gJ Nghd;wjhFk;. ,yq;if tpthjj;jpd; mbg;gil rhd;whtJ
Nghy> rka> tof;fhw;W rl;lq;fs; jpUkzk; kw;Wk; jpUkzf; Fiytpd;NghJ
ngz;fsJ chpikfs; kw;Wk; nghWg;Gfs; njhlh;gpy; cs;thq;fg;glf; $Lk;
vd;gJld; fUf;fiyg;G vd;gJ Kw;whf epuhfhpf;fg;glf; $Lk;.

,e;jg; gpd;dzpapy;> rKjhaj;jpid r%f kw;Wk caphpay; hPjpahf
cUthf;Ftjpy; ngz;fSf;Fs;s tfpgq;ifAk;> ngz;fSf;F jkJ
cly; kw;Wk; ghypaYf;fhd RahjPdj;ijAk; mq;fPfhpf;Fk; tifapy;
rl;lk; ngz;fsJ tplaq;fis cs;thq;Fk; toptiffisf; fhz;gjhdJ
mNjrkak; mth;fsJ cly;fspd; fhuzkhf fUTw itf;fhkypUg;gJk;-
,t;tplak; njhlh;gpy; ghhpa rthYf;Fhpajhf ,Uf;fpd;wd. ,t;tplakhdJ
NkYk; Mzhjpf;f mikg;GfisAk;> r%f fl;likg;igAk; - Fwpg;ghf
FLk;g mikg;ig jdJ fUj;jpay;> xOf;f newpKiw gw;wp ngz;fsJ
ghypaiy fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; my;yJ newpg;gLj;jp ,jd; %yk; ngz;fis
tPLfspy;> Ntiyj;jsq;fspy;> r%fj;jpy; mlf;fpahs typAWj;Jk;
,j;jifa rka> ghuk;ghpa (my;yJ tof;fhw;W) tpOkpaq;fs; my;yJ
eilKiwfs; vd;gtw;why; ,d;Dk; rpf;fYf;Fs;shfpAs;sJ.

fUf;fiyg;gpid xU kdpj chpikahf Nehf;fy;

ngz;fsJ ghypay; kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd chpikfs; kPjhd ftdkhdJ
jw;Nghija ngz;fsJ nray;thjj;jpd; Kf;fpakhd Kd;Ndw;wkhFk;.
,J kdpj chpikfs; kPJ ,uz;L Kf;fpakhd tpthjj;jpidf;
nfhz;L te;Js;sJ. xUGwk;> ngz;fsJ ghypay; kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jp
nraw;ghLfspyhd kl;Lg;ghLfis ghprPypf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w Fuy;
vOe;Js;sJ. ,J Vw;fdNtAs;s jdpntsp> nghJntsp vd;w gphptpidapy;>
,d;Dk; $l jdpntspapy; muNrh> rl;lthf;fNkh Eioa KbahJ vd;w
mDkhdq;fis rthYf;Fl;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.


kWGwk;> milahsk;> fyhrhuk; kw;Wk; rpWghd;ik chpikfs; gw;wpa
gpur;rpidfs; \midtUf;FkhdJ| vd;w fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; cs;sJld;
kdpj elj;ijfSf;fhd Vw;Wf; nfhs;sj;jf;f nghJ juhjuq;fis
cUthf;Ftij Nehf;fp tsu Ntz;bAs;sJ. ,q;F midtUf;FkhdJ
vd;gjw;Fk; fyhrhuj;Jf;FhpaJ vd;gjw;Fk; ,ilapy; ftdf;Ftpg;igr;
nra;a Ntz;bAs;sJ. xU Gwk; kdpj chpikfSf;fhd Mh;tyh;fs; \
fyhrhuk|> \ghuk;ghpak;|> \tof;fhW| vd;git ngz;fSf;nfjpuhd
fz;%bj;jdkhd ghugl;rj;jpid epahag;gLj;jYf;fhfg; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wd
vd;gjdhy; mtw;iw vjph;f;fpd;wdh;. kWGwk;> mth;fs; midj;J rpWghd;ik
,d> kj Vida rKjhaq;fs; jkJ milahsj;ijAk;> khpahijiaAk;>
nfsutj;ijAk; ntspg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd chpikfSf;fhf cWjpNahL

ngz;fsJ Rfhjhuj;Jf;fhd tplaj;jpid kdpj chpik rl;lfj;NjhL
njhlh;GWj;jpaikahdJ fUf;fiyg;G cl;gl gy mDkhdq;fis
rthy;gLj;jpAs;sJld;> ,uz;L tifahd ghugl;rq;fis xUkpf;f
rthy;gLj;j topaikj;Js;sJ. ,t;tpthjj;jpd; rl;lfj;Js;> ,yq;ifapy;
fijahlypd;gb> fUf;fiyg;ghdJ njhlh;e;Jk; kpf;f rpf;fYf;Fhpa>
Gwf;fzpf;f Kbahj tplakhf ,Ue;J tUfpd;wJ. ,J njhlh;r;rpahf
jdpg;gl;lJ> xOf;fkw;wJ> Nftyj;Jf;FhpaJ vd;W jrhg;jq;fshff;
fUjg;gl;L te;j xU tplak; nghJg; ghh;itf;Ff; nfhz;L tug;gl;L ngz;fs;
ghJfhg;ghd> nryT Fiwe;j fUf;fiyg;G elgbfSf;F mZFjy; cz;L
vd;gJ nghJepjpapypUe;J toq;fg;gLtjd; Clhf cWjpg;gLj;jg;gl
Ntz;Lk; vd;gij NfhUfpd;wJ. ,J NkYk; kdpjh;fshf elj;jg;gLtjw;fhd
ngz;fSf;fhd khpahijia> Fwpj;j rka> my;yJ fyhrhu FO
my;yJ ,df; FOf;fs; vd;gjw;fhd khpahij NkNyhq;Ffpd;wJ. gpujhd
rpf;fy; vJntdpy; ngz;fs; G+uz> rkj;Jt kdpjh;fs; vd;w rl;lfj;Js;
ngz;fSf;NfAhpa jdpj;Jt jifikapd; gb mth;fs; fUTWtjid
cWjpg;gLj;jyhFk;. ,dtpUj;jpf;nfd vkf;Fs;s jifikapd; mbg;gilapy;
jrhg;jq;fSf;F Nkw;gl;l ghugl;rkhd elj;JifahdJ ngz;fs;
NfhUfpd;whh;fs; vd;w mbg;gilapy; KbTWj;jg;gly; Ntz;Lk;.


,t;thf;fk; ngz;fsJ fw;iffs; gw;wpa 5tJ Njrpa khehl;bd;
NghJ ,yq;ifapy; khh;r;> 1996,y; (nrd;Nthh; mikg;gplk;) Vw;fdNt


1. ,yq;if> `d;]hl;> nrg;lk;gh; 19> 20- 1995

2. nkf;fpDd; rpvk;> 1989 xU murpdJ ngz;zpiyrhh; Nfhl;ghl;il Nehf;fp>
`hh;thl; gy;fiyf;fof gpuRuk;> Nfk;gphp[; (A.v];.V)

3. n`hird; v];> 1994. tPl;by; rkj;Jtk;: njd;dhrpahtpy; jdpahh;
rl;lq;fSk;> ngz;fs; chpikfSk;. kdpj chpikfSk; ngz;fSk;.Mh;.
$f;> ngd;rpy;Ntdpah gy;fiyf; fof gpuRuk;> gpnynly;gpah


3. fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; kPjhd
tpthjj;ij kPs;Nehf;fy;

kPuh =epthrd;

fle;j Mf];l; khjk;> ,yq;ifapd; mikr;ruitahdJ fUthdJ
Fzg;gLj;j Kbahj tsh;r;rpailahj epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJk;>
fUthdJ ghypay; gyhj;fhuj;jpd; tpisthf cUthdjhf ,Uf;Fk;
NghJk; Mfpa ,uz;L re;jh;g;gq;fspy; fUf;fiyg;Gf;F mDkjpf;Fk; rl;l
efYf;F mq;fPfhuk; toq;fpaJ. ngz;zpd; capUf;F Mgj;J Vw;gLk;
re;jh;g;gj;jpy; kl;LNk fUf;fiyg;ig mDkjpj;Js;s jw;NghJ mKypy;
,Uf;Fk; ehl;bd; rl;lj;Jf;F Fwpg;gplj;jf;f jpUj;jj;ij ,J nfhz;L
tUk; vd mNefkhNdhuhy; fUjg;gLk; mNj re;jh;g;gj;jpy; ,e;j efh;thdJ
jplPnud;W gy tpthjq;fisf; fpsg;gpAs;sJ. ,f;fUj;Jf;fshtd
ntspg;gilahfj; njhpAk; mstpy; nghpJk; rkak;> nghJ kw;Wk; kfg;Ngw;W
Rfhjhuk; vd;gJld; ngz;fspd; ghypay; kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jp chpikfs;
rhh;e;jitahf cs;sd. 1883k; Fw;wtpay; rl;lj;;jpd; fPOs;s jw;Nghija
rl;lj;ijj; jsh;j;Jtjw;F ehL Kaw;rpg;gJ ,J Kjw; jlit my;y.
fhydpj;Jt fhyj;J rl;lj;ij tphpthf;Ftjw;F vLf;fg;gl;l Kaw;rpfs;
Njhy;tp fz;ldthapDk;> mit ,yq;ifapy; fUf;fiyg;G njhlh;ghd
tpthjq;fis cRg;gp tpl;bUe;jd.

1990 fspy; ,lk;ngw;wNjhh; ghuhSkd;w tpthjj;ij kPl;bg; ghh;f;Fk;NghJ>
,yq;ifapd; kdpj chpikfSf;fhd Mh;tyUk;> Gj;jp[PtpAkhd Rdpyh
mNgNrfu 1997,y; jdJ Mf;fkhd \ ngz;fspd; kdpj chpikfs;
vd;gjd; gpd;dzpapy; ,yq;ifapy; fUf;fiyg;G| vd;gjpy;: \jw;NghJ
tpthjq;fspy; gpujpgypf;fpd;wgb> ngz;fsJ ghypaiyAk;> ,dtpUj;jpiaAk;
fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf gioikthj rka kw;Wk; murpay; fUj;Jf;fs;
ngz;fSf;F vjpuhf xd;wpiztjhdJ> ,yq;ifg; ngz;fsJ kpfg;ngUk;

20 tUlq;fspd; gpd;dh; ,t;tpthjj;Jf;fhd epiy mhpjhfNt khwpAs;sJ.
kdpj chpikfs; Mizf;FOtpd; jiytuhd jPgpfh clfk mth;fsJ
mz;ikf;fhy mtjhdpg;ghdJ Rfhjhuk; njhlh;ghd nghJf; nfhs;iffs;
rka rhh;ghdth;fshy; jPh;khdpf;fg;gLtjid mDkjpf;ff; $lhJ
vd;gjhFk;. \Mizf;FOthdJ rka Nehf;fpidAk;> xt;nthUtuJ Ngr;Rf;


Rje;jpuj;ijAk; kjpf;fpd;wJ. Mapd; rka ek;gpf;ifapd; mbg;gilapy;
jPh;khdk; vLf;fg;glj; Njitapy;yhj rpy gpur;rpidfSk; ,Uf;fpd;wd|
vd mth; njhptpj;jjhf murhy; ntspaplg;gLk; nla;yp epA+]; gj;jphpif

mikr;ruitapd; jPh;khdj;jpd; gy ehl;fspd; gpd;dh;> ,yq;ifapd; fj;Njhypf;f
Mah;fs; khehlhdJ jd; vjph;g;igj; njhptpj;jJ. mth;fSld; mth;fsJ
K];ypk;> ngsj;j Mjuthsh;fSk; ,ize;J nfhz;ldh;. vjph;g;G tYf;fj;
njhlq;fpaJk; ntt;NtW ek;gpf;iffisf; nfhz;l rkaj; jiyth;fs;
FOnthd;wpw;F Rfhjhu mikr;rpypUe;J itj;jpah;fs; ,J njhlh;gpy;
tpsf;fkspj;jdh;. ,e;jf; $l;lk; njhlh;ghf gj;jphpifapy; ntspahd
Gifg;glkhdJ> Kuz;ghlhf> xU miw KOf;f Mz;fisf; nfhz;ljhf
,t;tplak; njhlh;gpy; fye;Jiuahbaik r%f tiyj;jsq;fspy; ghhpa
fz;ldj;Jf;Fs;shdJ. Mr;rhpakpd;wp> rl;l efyhdJ fplg;gpy; Nghlg;gl;lJ.

gue;j tpdhMdhYk;> ,t;tpthjq;fshtd ,U jug;gpYk; gue;j gy tpdhf;fis
vOg;gpAs;sd. mjpnyhd;W kfg;NgW kw;Wk; nghJ Rfhjhuk; njhlh;gpyhd
\njhpT| gw;wpajhFk;. jq;fshy; nrytspf;f KbAkhapUf;fpd;wth;fSf;F
ghJfhg;ghd fUf;fiyg;ig kl;Lg;gLj;Jtjd; Clhf njhpT vd;gjd;
mh;j;jk; vd;dthf ,Uf;ff; $Lk;? Rfhjhu mikr;rpd; mjpfhhpfs; jpdKk;
,yq;ifapy; Rkhh; 658 fUf;fiyg;Gfs; ,lk;ngWtjhff; Fwpg;gpLfpd;wdh;.
,yq;if Mff; Fiwthd kfg;Ngw;W ,wg;G tpfpjj;ijf; nfhz;Ls;sJ. ,J
Fwpj;j fhyj;jpy; xU gpuNjrj;jpy; 100>000 kfg;NgWf;F vd;w fzf;fpyhFk;.
2013k; Mz;L ,J 32 Mf ,Ue;jJ. mNj rkak;> 10-12 rjtpfpjkhd
kfg;Ngw;wpd;Nghjhd ,wg;G tpfpjkhdJ ghJfhg;gw;w fUf;fiyg;gpdhy;
Vw;gLfpd;wJ. r%f kUj;Jtj; JiwapYs;s epGzh;fspd; mtjhdpg;gpd;
gb nghJ Rfhjhug; gphptpy; kfg;Ngw;Wf;fhd Nritfs; toq;fg;gLk; mNj
Neuk;> fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd rl;l kl;Lg;ghLfs; murhq;f itj;jparhiyfis
jkJ Nritfis toq;f tplhky; jLf;fpd;wd. Mapd; jdpahh; JiwahdJ>
fs;skhf ,tw;iw nra;fpd;wd vd nghJ Rfhjhu cj;jpNahfj;jh;fs;

,d;DnkhU Nfs;tp> vt;thW ,e;j tpthjj;jpy; xU ngz;> mtsJ cly;>
mtsJ njhpT vd;gd fhl;lg;gLfpd;wd vd;gjhFk;. \rKjhaj;jpy; ngz;fs;
r%f kw;Wk; ngsjpfhPjpahd kPs; cw;gj;jp nra;gth;fs; vd;w mbg;gilapy;
ngz;fis mq;fPfhpj;J> ngz;fsJ cly;rhh; nfsutj;ijAk;;> ghypay;
Rahjpf;fj;ijAk; kjpj;J> mNjrkak; mth;fsJ cly;fSf;fhf mth;fis
$z;byplhjgb ngz;fisf; fUj;jpy; vLj;J rl;lkhf;Fk; toptifiaf;
fz;lwpjy; Ntz;Lk; - NkYk; ,J ,e;jg; gug;gpy; nray;thjj;Jf;F
mbg;gilahd xU rthyhf ,Ue;J nfhz;bUf;fpd;wJ>| vd mNgNrfu
1997,y; vOjpapUe;;jhh;. ,J ,d;wsTk; ,t;thNw ,Uf;fpd;wJ.

4. ngz;fisj; jPh;khdpf;f tpLf:
\fUf;fiyg;G tpthjj;jpd;| kPjhd
ngz;zpepiythj Nehf;F

Rgh tpN[rphpth;j;jd

ngz;zhdts; ghypay; ty;Ywtpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;bUg;gpd; my;yJ
fUthdJ \,we;Jtplf; $ba tsh;r;rpailahj epiyapy;| ,Uj;jy;
Mfpa ,U re;jh;g;gq;fspy; ngz;fSf;F fUf;fiyg;igr; rl;lG+h;tkhf;f
mikr;ruit xU rl;l efiy mq;fPfhpf;f Kide;jjpypUe;J ,yq;ifapy;
jw;NghJ> \fUf;fiyg;G tpthjkhdJ| kPz;Lk; jiyJ}f;fpAs;sJ>
1,yq;ifapd; 1883k; Mz;bd; Fw;wtpay; jz;lidr; rl;lf; NfhitahdJ
(Mk;> ,J rhpahdJjhd;> vkJ Fw;wtpay; rl;lk; Mf;fg;gl;lJ 1883,y;)
fUitf; fiyf;Fk; ve;jnthU Kaw;rpiaAk; Fw;wkhf;fpAs;sJ. ,J
fUf;fiyg;Gf;F cjtpaha; ,Uj;jiyAk; cs;slf;Fk;. Mf ngz;zpd;
capiuf; fhg;ghw;Wtjw;fhf fUf;fiyg;G nra;ag;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;W
ep&gpf;fg;gLk; re;jh;g;gj;jpy; kl;Lk; xU kUj;Jthpdhy; fUf;fiyg;igr;
nra;a mDkjpAz;L.

Fw;wtpay; jz;;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitapd; gphpT 303-306 ,r;rl;lk; njhlh;ghd
tpguq;fisf; nfhz;Ls;sJld; |,r;nrayhdJ kuzj;ij Vw;gLj;jf;
$Lk; vd;w mwpit Fw;wj;ijr; nra;gth; nfhz;bUj;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ
,f;Fw;wj;;jpw;fhd Njitg;ghlhf ,Uf;fj; Njitapy;iy| vd;Wk; $Wfpd;wJ.

,e;jf; Fw;wtpay; jz;;lidr; rl;lf; NfhitahdJ> vkJ fhydpj;Jtj;jpd;
topAhpikahf ,Ug;gJld; kpfTk; mhpjhfNt jpUj;jq;fisf;
nfhz;Ls;sJld; ,g;gphpTfs; njhlh;gpy; xU NghJk; khw;wk; te;jjpy;iy.
fle;j rpy jrhg;jq;fshf ,e;j \fUf;fiyg;G njhlh;ghd tpthjkhdJ|
gy jlitfs; vOtJk;> tPo;tJkhf cs;sJ. Kf;fpakhf 1997y;
fpl;lj;jl;l ,Nj Nghd;wnjhU mOj;jk; fhzg;gl;lJ. mbf;fb rka
epWtdq;fspypUe;J cs;slq;fyhf njhlh;r;rpahf vjph;g;GfSk;> jilfSk;
te;j tz;zNkAs;sd. rpy thuq;fSf;F Kd;dh; vkJ \rkaj; jiyth;fs;|
midtUk; Nrh;e;J xd;whf fpl;lj;jl;l \,y;iy| vd;W njhptpj;Js;sdh;.2

fUf;fiyg;Gj; njhlh;ghf gy epiyg;ghLfs; kPz;Lk; Clf mwpf;iffspdhy;


epWtg;gl;Ls;sd. gy mgpg;gpuha Mf;fq;fs; ntspte;Js;sd. (ehd;
Mq;fpyj;ij kl;Lk; $WfpNwd;) \ Kf;fpakhf njhpTf;F Mjuthf
vOg;gg;gLk; Fuy;fs; vdf;F kpfTk; Mh;tj;ijA+l;Lfpd;wd. ,it
midj;Jk; fUf;fiyg;G kw;Wk; fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lk; njhlh;ghf fl;b
vOg;gg;gl;Ls;s xOf;fk;> jj;Jthh;j;j Rth;fisj; jfh;f;f Kaw;rpf;Fk;
tifapy; vOjg;gLfpd;wd. ,tw;Ws; gy \rpwe;j ghypay; fy;tpia|
toq;Fjy; my;yJ clYwT kw;Wk; fUj;jil njhlh;ghf jfty;fis
rpwe;j Kiwapy; mZFtjw;fhd Vw;ghLfs; vd;gNjhL fUf;fiyg;G \
gpur;rpidf;fhd| jPh;thf fUj;jilfSf;fhd mZFjiy Vw;gLj;jy; Nghd;w
ghuk;ghpa jhuhsthj Kiwfspyhd gFg;gha;tpid Kd;itj;Js;sd.

gpujhd gj;jphpiffspy; mz;ikf; fhyq;fspy; ntspte;j ,e;j Mf;fq;fspy;
vJTk; vdf;Fj; njhpe;j tifapy; cz;ikahd G+jhfukhf cs;s
gpur;rpidiaf; fhzNtapy;iy vd;Nw ehd; fUJfpNwd;. rh;tNjr hPjpahf
fUf;fiyg;ig Fw;wkhf;fpa Mzhjpf;f tuyhwhdJ> ngz;fsJ cly;fs;>
ghypay;G kw;Wk; ghypay; tho;f;if vd;gtw;wpd; kPjhd fl;Lg;ghl;il
cWjpg;gLj;Jk; Nehf;fpy; Mzhjpf;f mjpfhuKila epWtdq;fs;
(muR> jpUr;rigfs;> Vidad..) gpuNahfpj;j xU mZFKiwahFk;.
mbg;gilapy;> ,J ngz;fsJ Rahjpf;fj;ij kl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;Fk;> ,e;j
Kiwikf;Fs; ngz;fis mfg;gLj;jp itg;gjw;Fkhd xU top. ,jd;%yk;
ngz;fshdth;fs; jhk; jkf;Nf nrhe;jkhdth;fs; md;wp ,dtpUj;jp nra;Ak;
fyq;fshf mth;fsJ fzth;fSf;Fk;> FLk;gq;fSf;Fk;> rKjhaj;Jf;Fk;>
,Wjpahf muRf;Fk; nrhe;jkhdth;fs; vd;w ajhh;j;jj;ij mKyhf;fthFk;.

,Jtiu ehd; thrpj;j Mq;fpyj;jpy; ntspte;j Mf;fq;fspy; xd;Nwnahd;W
kl;LNk \fUf;fiyg;G tpthjj;ij| xU ngz;fsJ chpikfSf;fhd
tplakhff; fhz Kaw;rpj;Js;sJ.3

,e;j 2017,Yk; $l fUf;fiyg;G gw;wp ehk; NgRk;NghJ> tpthjj;jpd;
ngUk;ghyhd ciuahlyhdJ fUf;fiyg;gpd; newpKiw my;yJ
newpKiwaw;w jd;ik gw;wpajhfNth ,Ug;gJld;> fUf;fiyg;G rl;lj;ij
vkf;Fj; je;jjd; tuyhw;W> fyhrhu kw;Wk; murpay; gpd;Gyk; gw;wpNah
,d;Wk; fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;ij fpswptpLtd gw;wpNah xU tpkh;rd>
gFg;gha;Tf; fz;Nzhl;lj;jpy; Nehf;fhikahdJ vdf;F Mr;rhpaj;ijAk;
mNjrkak; ntspg;gLj;jyhfTk; ,Uf;fpwJ.

,e;j ve;jnthU Mf;fKk;> vd;idg; nghWj;jstpy; ngz;fsJ
ghypay;G kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd njhpT njhlh;ghd KbTfisf;
fl;Lg;gLj;Jk; gue;j tuyhw;Wg; gpd;dzp nfhz;l Vida vj;jidNah
ntt;NtW fUj;jilfs; njhlh;ghd jfty;fis toq;Fjy; njhlh;ghd>
jfty;fSf;fhd rl;lq;fs;> ceasareans Nghd;W kfg;Ngw;W Kiwia

jdf;F tpUk;gpathW Rakhf njhpT nra;af; $ba rl;lk;> Nghd;wtw;Wf;F
vjpuhf jkJ fye;Jiuahliyj; njhlq;f Kidtjhfj; njhpatpy;iy.
,tw;Ws; rpy ,d;Wk; eilKiwapYs;sd.4 mth;fs; mt;thW nra;apd;>
fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lkhdJ xU ntw;wplj;jpy; mwpKfg;gLj;jg;gltpy;iy
vd;gjid Gwf;fzpg;gJ fbdkhf ,Uf;Fk; vd;gJld; ,d;Wtiu Kw;wpYk;
fUtpd; capUf;fhd fhpridahf J}f;fpg;gpbj;Jf; nfhz;bUf;f Neu;e;jpuhJ.

,e;jr; rl;lq;fshtd tuyhw;W hPjpahf ngz;fisf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jk;
fUtpfshf gpuNahfpf;fg;gl;ld vd;gJld;> mbf;fb gy;NtW ngz;fsJ
tpLjiy ,af;fq;fspd; vOr;rpapd; NghJ NeubahfNt gjpybahf

ehk; ,e;j tplaq;fSf;Fj; jPh;T fhzhky; tpl;lhy;> ajhh;j;jj;ij ehk;
iftpl;ljhfp tpLk;. mjhtJ fUf;fiyg;gpid Fw;wkhf;fpaikahdJ
vq;fpYk; ngz;fsJ chpikfSf;fhd> ngz;fsJ Rahjpf;fj;Jf;fhd>
ngz;fsJ Rfhjhuj;Jf;fhd gpur;rpid vd;gjid ep&gpj;Js;sJ.
,yq;ifapy; ehk; gpur;rpidapd; ghhpa gpd;Gyj;ij ftdpf;;fhky;
fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;jpd; jpUj;jj;Jf;fhf ,g;NghJ NghuhLfpd;Nwhk;. l;uk;g;
5 mwpKfg;gLj;jpa \Global gag rule| vd;gJ Nghd;wtw;wpd; gpd; G+Nfhsk;
tyJ rhhpfspd; gf;fk; rha;e;Js;sJ. ,J cyfpd; njd; KidapYs;s
ngz;fspd; caph;fis tpiyahff; nfhs;Sk; mghaj;Jf;F js;spAs;sJ.

ghuk;ghpaj;ijg; NgZk; tifapy; l;uk;gpDila NfLnfl;l gpufldkhdJ
Rkhh; 5 kpy;ypad; kf;fis cyfk; G+uhfTk; njUf;fspy; xd;W Nrh;j;j
tuyhw;Wg; Gfoile;j> 21 [dthp 2017,d; ngz;fsJ mzptFg;gpd;
rpy ehl;fspd; gpd;dh; ntspaplg;gl;lJ vd;gijAk; ftdj;jpy; nfhs;tJ

vkJ tuyhw;iwAk;> gpd;dzpiaAk; Nfs;tpfs; Nfl;gjd; ClhfTk;>
fsj;jpy; Ntiy nra;tjD}lhfTk; vkf;F vd;d Njitahf ,Uf;fpd;wJ
vd;gjid ehk; Ghpe;J nfhs;tJ Kf;fpakhf cs;sJ. ngz;zpiythjpfshf>
Kd;itf;fg;gl;Ls;s jpUj;jq;fs; jk;kstpNyNa ghhpa gpur;rpidahf
,Ug;;gijapl;L fhprid nfhz;Ls;Nshk; - ,J jd;dstpy; nfhLikahd
#o;epiyfspy;> ngz;fSf;F jpl;lkpl;l xU ,ilntspia toq;Ftjw;fhf
cUthf;fg;gl;l G+uzkw;w xU mstPL. ,j;jpUj;jk; ngz;fsJ
Rahjpf;fj;ijNah> jd; cly;> ghypay; kw;Wk; Rfhjhuk; njhlh;ghf
ngz; jPh;khdk; vLf;ff; $ba jFjpAilats; vd;gijNah ikakhff;

khwhf> Kd;itf;fg;gl;l jpUj;jkhdJ ngz;fs; jkJ KOikahd
kdpj chpikfisg; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjhapd; Kjyhtjhf nfh^ukhd

#o;epiyf;F Ml;gl;L mjdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;w fUj;ij
kPs typAWj;Jtjhf mikaf; $Lk;. ,q;Fs;s re;jh;g;gj;jpy; ghypay;
ty;YwTf;Fs;shdij ep&gpf;f Ntz;Lk;> (kw;Wk; - my;yJ ,uj;j
cwtpd; my;yJ epajpr;rl;l ghypay; ty;YwT) my;yJ Jujp];ltrkhf
ghhpa Fiwghl;Lld; cUthfp caph; tho Kbahj epiyapYs;s fU
vd;gdthFk;. ,e;j \ghjpf;fg;gl;l| ngz; xU \mg;ghtp|> \Vio| vd;gJ
Fw;wnkhd;why; ghjpf;fg;gl;l my;yJ Jaunkhd;why; ghjpf;fg;gl;;l

rl;lhPjpahd fUf;fiyg;Gf;F nghUj;jkhf chpj;jhff; $ba
kw;WnkhUth;jhd; \jpUkzkhd ngz;|. ,J mNefkhd njhpTf;fhf
thjpLgth;fshy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. jpUkzkhd ey;y ngz;> Vw;fdNt
jhahf ,Ug;gth;. ,g;ngz; Vw;fdNt 3 gps;isfSf;F md;ghd jhahf
,Ug;gjhy;> mg;ngz;Zk;> mtsJ rl;lg;gb jpUkzk; nra;J nfhz;l
fztUk; Nrhe;J 4tJ Foe;ij gpwe;jhy; jq;fSf;Fr; rpf;fyhFk; vd;W
xd;whf jPh;khdk; vLj;jy;.

jpNd]; rkuul;d vOJifapy;> \,yq;ifapy; fUf;fiyg;Gj; njhlh;ghd
Ma;thdJ mNefkhf fUf;fiyg;ig ehLgth;fs; jpUkzkhdth;fs; vd
Kd;itf;fpd;wJ.6 NkYk; njhpTf;fhf Mjutspf;Fk; vk;kpy; gyh; ,e;j
fz;Lgpbg;ig vkJ thjj;jpw;F tYr; Nrh;f;f Kd;itg;gjpy; Kd;epw;fpd;Nwhk;.
Vnddpy; AtjpfSk;> jpUkzkhfhj ghypay; njhopyhspfSk; md;wp
jpUkzkhdth;fNs mjpfk; ,r;Nritia ehLfpd;wdh; vd;gjidf; Nfl;f
muRk; MtyhAs;sJ. nfhs;ifg;gb> vt;thwpUg;gpDk;> ehk; ve;j xU
ngz;Zf;FKs;s fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd chpikNahL ehk; epw;f Ntz;Lk;.
mJ ghypay; njhopyhspahapDk; rhpNa| ngz; jpUkzkhdtsh>
jpUkzkhfhjtsh> ghypay; ty;Ywthy; ghjpf;fg;gl;ltsh my;yJ
rhjhuzkhf rk;kj;Jldhd> ,d;gj;Jf;fhd clYwtpd; tpisthd
Njitaw;w fh;g;gj;jpd; gpur;rpidfshy; jtpf;fpd;wtshf ,Uf;fyhk;.

fUf;fiyg;ig ehLk; ngz;fs; njhlh;ghf murhq;fj;Jf;Fs; gutyhf
,Uf;Fk; ek;gpf;iffisAk;> elj;ijfisAk; ehk; ed;F mwpe;jpUf;fpd;Nwhk;.
1997k; Mz;L Fw;wtpay; jz;;lidr; rl;lf; Nfhitf;F ,Nj Nghd;wnjhU
jpUj;jj;ij Kd;itf;ifapy; v];.mNgNrfu ,t;tplak; njhlh;ghd
ghuhSkd;w tpthjj;Jf;F \tpthjk; KOtJk;> ghuhSkd;w cWg;gpdh;fs;
jhk; nghJthf ngz;fis elj;Jk; tpjj;jpy; rhak; G+rg;gl;l jkJ
jdpg;gl;l fUj;Jf;fisNa Kd;itj;jdh;. ,e;j elj;ijfs; ngz;fis
xOf;fkw;wth;fs; vd;gjpypUe;J je;jpukhd my;yJ ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shff;
$bath;fs; vd;gJ tiu gue;Jgl;bUe;jJ vd;W vOjpapUe;jhh;.
Jujp];ltrkhf ,d;W tiu ,e;epiy nghpJk; khwtpy;iy.


fUf;fiyg;ghdJ ,Wf;fkhf \Rfhjhuk| gw;wpa fhprid vd;W
mjid kUj;Jt kakhf;fy; vd;gJ ehk; tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;ba
kw;WnkhU Kuz;ghL. Kd;dh; itf;fg;gl;l jpUj;jq;fs; cl;gl jw;NghJ
Kd;itf;fg;gl;lJk; kUj;Jt hPjpahfNt ,aw;wg;gl;Ls;sJld;> kUj;Jtj;
JiwapYs;sth;fshNyNa Kd;ndLf;fg;gl;Lk; tUfpd;wd. ngz;fsJ
chpikfSk;> ngz;fsJ Rahjpf;fKk; ,e;j fl;likg;Gr; rl;lfj;jpy;
,y;iy vdpDk; Mff; Fiwe;jJ ngz;fs; rl;lKuzhd> newpg;gLj;jg;glhj
fUf;fiyg;Gf;F cs;shtjpYs;s mghaq;fspy; fhprid nfhz;Ls;sJ.
r%f> nghUshjhu thjq;fs; $l ,t;tifapy; nra;ag;gLfpd;wd. mjhtJ
fUf;fiyg;G Fw;wkhf cs;sikahdJ ghJfhg;gw;w fUf;fiyg;Gfshy;
Fiwe;j tUkhdKila ngz;fisNa mjpfk; ghjpf;fpd;wJ.

vt;thwhapDk;> ,e;j ve;j xU jpl;lKk; vk;kpy; gyUf;F xj;Jtuhj NghJk;>
rpyNtis mJ kl;Lk;jhd; vkf;F fpl;LtjhAs;sJ. ehk; ajhh;j;jthjpfshf
,Uj;jy; Ntz;;Lk; vd;gJld; xOq;fhfj; jpl;lkplTk; Ntz;Lk;. vdNt ehk;
vg;gb Kd; efh;tJ - tpNrlkhf vk;kpy; gyh; ngz;fs; chpikfSf;fhd
Mh;tyh;fshAk;> ghpe;Jiug;gth;fshAk; ,Uf;ifapy;?

gpugy;akhd jdJ \ghypay;G: xU ngz;zpiythj fhprid?|7 vd;w
fl;Liuapy; mNgNrfu vOJifapy;> \ngz;zpd; ghypay;ig fl;Lg;gLj;Jjy;
vd;gJ Mzhjpf;fj;jpd; Kf;fpakhd xU ghfkhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ| vd;fpwhh;.
fUf;fiyg;gpd; newpKiw gw;wpa fye;Jiuahly;fspy; vy;yhk; ehk; ftdk;
nrYj;j Ntz;baJ ,e;j tplaj;ijj;jhd;.

,e;jf; fhyfl;lj;jpy; vJ Kf;fpak; vdpy;> jw;NghJ Kd;itf;fg;gl;l
mbg;gilapy; rl;lj;Jf;fhd jpUj;jj;ij Kd;efh;j;Jk; tifapy;
ciuahly;fis Nkw;nfhs;tJk;> mNj rkak; Kd;Df;Fk;> gpd;Df;Fk;
,Of;Fk; fl;Lg;ghl;il tpjpf;Fk; Mzhjpf;f Kiwikfs;> ngz;zpd;
Rahjpf;fj;ij tpthjj;jpy; ikag;gLj;jy; Mfpa fz;Zf;Fj; njhpahjpUf;Fk;
tplaq;fspy; ciuahlYf;F kPz;Lk; mioj;J tUtJkhFk;. Kuz;ghlhd
tplaq;fis xd;whf ntspg;gLj;j vk;khy; KbAkhapUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;.
jw;NghJs;s fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;jpw;F xspA+l;l jpUj;jj;jpw;F Kd;Df;F
js;Sk; mNjNtis ehq;fs; fUf;fiyg;ig Kw;whf Fw;wkw;wjhf;Fk; vkJ
tpUg;ig njhlh;e;Jk; ntspg;gLj;j Ntz;Lk;;. ntspg;gLj;JNthk;.

Nkyjpfkhf> \,dtpUj;jpf;fhd ePjp|ia vd;gjd; gpur;rhuq;fSk;>
ghpe;JiufSk; vt;thW vjph;ghw;Nrh;f;if vd;gjidr; Rw;wpajhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ
vd;gjid mwptJ Mh;t%l;lf; $bajhf cs;sJ. \fUf;fiyg;G tpthjk;|
vd;gjid ngz;fs; ,dtpUj;jpia nra;af; $bath;fshfNth> ,y;yhkNyh
,Ue;jhYk;> ngz;fspd; ghypay;GlDk;> mjidf; fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhd
Mzhjpf;f tuyhw;W rkh;fSlDk; njhlh;GWj;jp gue;j mstpy; vkJ

fye;Jiuahly;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. \,dtpUj;jpf;fhd
chpikfs;| vd;gijr; Rw;wpAs;s gjq;fs; nghJthf gy;tif ghypay;
ehl;lKila> gps;isfis ngwj; Njitapy;iy vd;w njhpitAila
ngz;fis tpyf;Ffpd;wJld;> Vw;fdNt gps;isfisAila> gps;isfis
ngw;Wf; nfhs;s Kbahj> gps;isfis ngwj; Njitapy;iy vd;w
njhpitAila vjph;ghw; Nrh;f;ifAila ngz;fisAk; tpyf;fp itf;fpd;wJ.

ehk; vkJ ghypay;> cly;rhh;> ghypay; Rahjpf;fj;Jf;fhd chpikia cWjp
nra;af; $ba ntspfisf; fz;lwpjy; Ntz;Lk;. ehk; ,e;j re;jh;g;gj;jpy;>
\ghypay;G| njhlh;ghf tphpthfTk;> MokhfTk; fye;Jiuahly;fis
tphpthf;fy; Ntz;Lk;. NkYk; ,J gw;wpa vkJ Ghpjiy EZf;fkhAk;>
tpkh;rpg;NghLk; tphpthf;fy; Ntz;Lk;. MfNtjhd; \fUf;fiyg;G tpthjk|
,d;iwa fhyfl;lj;jpYk; vd;idg; nghWj;jstpy;> kpf Mokhf
ngz;zpiythjpfspd; ghuk;ghpa fhpridahd ngz;fspd; G+uz Rahjpf;fk;
- ,r;Rahjpf;fj;jpd; ikakhf ghypaYk;> ,dtpUj;jpAk; ,Uf;fpd;wJ -
,d;Dk; ,Wjpahf> Mzhjpf;fj;jpypUe;J midj;J kf;fSf;Fk; G+uz
tpLjiy vd;gJld; njhlh;GgLfpd;wJ.

[3]That elusive right to control your life and body – Abortion: Prabodini Munasinghe (Daily FT,
[6] The Abortion Debate: Mismatched and Misplaced?: Dinesha Samararatne (Groundviews, 2017)
[7] Sexuality: A Feminist Issue?: Sunila Abeysekera (Women in Action, 1999)


5. kUj;Jt Nkyhjpf;fk;: ngz;fsJ
,dtpUj;jp Rahjpf;fj;Jf;fhd

rr;rpdp ngNuuh

fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj; jpUj;jk; vd;gJ jw;NghJ> ,yq;ifapy; Vd;
jpUj;jk; Njitg;gLfpd;wJ> ngz;zpepiythj Nehf;F Nghd;w gyjug;gl;l
tpthjq;fSld;> nghJ Rfhjhuf; nfhs;ifahdJ gykhd kUj;Jt kw;Wk;
kjrhh;gw;w mbg;gilfspy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl Ntz;LNknahopa rka
ek;gpf;iffs; rhh;e;J my;y vd;w Nehf;fpYk; gutyhf Ngrg;gLk; jiyg;ghf

,Wjpf; fUj;jhdJ ,yq;ifapd; kdpj chpikfs; Mizf;FOtpd;
jiyikaplkpUe;J ntspg;gLj;jg;gl;ljha; ,Uf;Fk; mNjNtis>
fUf;fiyg;ghdJ nghJ Rfhjuj;Jf;fhd xU fhprid vd;gJ kl;Lkd;wp
Kjypy; mJ xU ngz;zpd; ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd chpik vd;gijAk;>
cjhuzkhff; fh;g;gj;ijj; njhlh;tjh? vg;NghJ Kjy;? Nghd;W
fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd njhpThpikiaf; nfhz;bUj;jyhdJ> xU ngz;zpd;
,dtpUj;jp Rahjpf;fj;jpd; MzpNth; vd;gijAk; epidTWj;JtJ

Kd;itf;fg;gl;Ls;s jpUj;jk;

,yq;ifapy; jw;Nghija rl;lg;gb jhapd; capiuf; fhg;ghw;Wk;
xNunahU tpjptpyf;Fj; jtph;e;j Vida re;jh;g;gq;fspy; fUf;fiyg;ghdJ
rl;ltpNuhjkhdjhFk;. Kd;itf;fg;gl;l jpUj;jkhdJ> rl;lkhapd;>
tsh;r;rpailahj kuzkilaf; $ba fUit Rkj;jy; kw;Wk; ghypay;
gyhj;fhuj;jpd; Clhf fh;g;gkiljy; Mfpa ,U re;jh;g;gq;fspYk;
mf;fUtpidf; fiyf;f ,lkspf;Fk;. ,t;tpU re;jh;g;gq;fSk; murhq;f
itj;jparhiyapYs;s MNyhrid toq;Fk; kUj;Jth;fspdhy;
ghpe;Jiu nra;ag;gl;lJld;> ghypay; ty;YwT vd;ifapy; rl;lj;ij
mKyhf;Fgth;fspd; <LghLk; cz;L.


jilfisj; jfh;j;jy;

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Njitahf ,Uf;Fk; ngz;fSf;F ghJfhg;ghd> rl;lG+h;tkhd
fUf;fiyg;gpidr; nra;tjw;fhf rl;lj;ijj; jsh;j;jy; Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ
Kd;itf;fg;gl;l jpUj;jj;Jf;F Mjuthd thjkhf ,Uf;f KbAk;.
kw;WnkhU thjk;> kl;Lg;ghLfs; ,Ue;jhYk; $l> ,e;j jpUj;jkhdJ
murhy; tpjpf;fg;gl;l jilfis ePf;Ftjd; %yk; ngz;fs; ghJfhg;ghd
kw;Wk; rl;lhPjpahd fUf;fiyg;gpid mZf KbAk; vd;gjhFk;.

,it jpUj;jkhdJ vg;gbAk; ,lk;ngWk; vd;w ek;gpf;ifiaj; jUfpd;wNghJk;
cw;W Nehf;Fifapy; ,it fUj;J hPjpahf kl;Lkd;wp eilKiwapYk;
kpfTk; rpf;fYf;Fs;shdit vd;gJ njspthFk;.

njhpitf; Nfs;tpf;Fs;shf;fy;

Kd;itf;fg;gl;Ls;s jpUj;jk; njhlh;ghd Kf;fpakhd fhprid ahnjdpy;
,J xU ngz;zpd; njhptpid ikag;gLj;jpajhf ,y;yhikahFk;. xU
ngz;Zf;F jdJ ,dtpUj;jp Rahjpf;fj;Jf;fhd mjpfhuj;ijAk;> njhpitAk;(
fh;g;gkhjy; Ntz;Lkh? vg;NghJ vd;gJld; fh;g;gj;ij njhlh;tjh? vg;NghJ
vd;gJ njhlh;ghf) toq;Ftij tpl;Ltpl;L> Kd;itf;fg;gl;l jpUj;jkhdJ
,jid kUj;Jt epGzh;fspd; ifapy; toq;Ffpd;wJ. (mJTk; rhjhuz
kUj;Jt epGzh;fs; my;y. khwhf kUj;Jt MNyhrfh;fs;).

fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd fhuzk; vd;dthf ,Ue;jhYk;> xU fUthdJ
tsh;r;rpailahj ,we;J tplf;$ba epiyapyh ,Uf;fpd;wJ my;yJ
fh;g;gj;jpy; NtNwJk; rpf;fy;fs; cs;sjh vd;gjid milahsk; fhzTk;>
MNyhrid ngwTk; kUj;Jt cjtp Njitg;glf; $Lk;. ,jw;fg;ghy;>
fUf;fiyg;igr; nra;a Ntz;Lkh vd;gjw;fhd ,Wjp Kbit kUj;Jth;
(my;yJ kUj;JthPjpahf) vLf;f Ntz;Lk; vd;gjw;fhd vJtpj fhuzKk;
,y;iy. jpUj;jj;ijf; NfhUk; kUj;Jth;fs; \,J jhapd; KbthfNt
,Uf;Fk;| vd;W mOj;jpr; nrhy;fpd;wNghJk;> ,J mur itj;jparhiyapd;
,uz;L kUj;Jt MNyhrfh;fspd; ghpe;Jiuapd; Nghpy; jhapd; Kbathf
,Uf;Fk; vd;Wk; Nrh;j;Nj nrhy;Yfpwhh;fs;. ,J ,j;jpUj;jkhdJ kUj;Jt
Nkyhjpf;fj;jpNyNa jq;fpAs;sJ vd;gjidf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

kUj;Jt Nkyhjpf;fk;

kUj;Jt Nkyhjpf;fk; vd;gJ ngz;fisg; nghWj;jstpy; xU Gjpa
fUj;Njh my;yJ mDgtNkh my;y. kUj;Jth;fs; mbf;fb ngz;fsJk;>
tpspk;GepiyapYs;s FOf;fspdJk; Nehf;fpidAk;> mgpg;gpuhaj;jpidAk;


Gwe;js;Stjhf Ma;Tfs; fhl;Lfpd;wd. Ma;Tfs; NkYk;> kUj;Jt
rpfpr;irapd; Nghjhd> Fwpg;ghf typf;F epthuzkspf;ifapyhd ghy;epiy
ghugl;rj;jpidAk; ntspr;rk; Nghl;Lf; fhl;bAs;sd. ,e;epiyikahdJ
Kd;Ndw;wkilaf;$Lk; vd;wNghJk;> ngz;fs; jk; cly; rhh;e;J jPh;khdk;
vLf;Fk; chpikia kWf;Fk; Mzhjpf;f elj;ijia rthYf;Fs;shf;Ftjid
tpLj;J> jq;fs; cly;rhh;e;J jhk; vd;d nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W mg;ngz;iz
tpl itj;jpaNu ed;F mwpe;jth; vd;w A+fj;ijf; nfhz;L itj;jpah;fsplk;
jPh;khdk; vLf;Fk; mjpfhuj;ij ,r;rl;lj; jpUj;j efy; tpl;LtpLfpd;wjid
,q;F fhzKbAk;.

kUj;Jth;fspd; jdpg;gl;l ek;gpf;ifAk;> ghugl;rq;fSk; ,d;DnkhU
tifahd kUj;Jt Nkyhjpf;fkhFk; vd;gJld; epahag;gLj;jTk; KbahjJ.
jpUj;jj;Jf;fhd vjph;g;G fj;Njhypf;f Mah;fs; kfhehl;lhy; ntspaplg;gl;l
mwpf;if kl;Lkd;wp ,yq;if fj;Njhypf;f itj;jpah;fs; rq;fj;jpypUe;J
ntspg;gl;l mwpf;ifapYk; fhzg;gl;lJ. ,J \jhapd; capiuf;
fhg;ghw;Wtjw;fhf md;wp nra;ag;gLk; ve;jnthU fUf;fiyg;gpidAk; kpfTk;
jPtpukhf vjph;g;gjhf| Fwpg;gpl;bUe;jJ. jpUj;jj;jpy; Kd;nkhopag;gl;lgb
fh;g;gj;ij KbTWj;j kUj;Jt MNyhrfhpd; ghpe;Jiuia xU ngz; ngw;Wf;
nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;gJ kl;Lkd;wp mg;ngz;> epahakw;w Nkyhjpf;fk;
jdJ Kbitg; ghjpf;fhjgb ele;J nfhs;sf; $ba kUj;Jth;fisAk;
Njbf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

ftiyf;Fhpa Kd;khjphpfis epWTjy;

rl;l efyhdJ> rl;lkhfpd;> ngz;fsJ kdpj chpikfis Kd;Ndw;Wtij
jhkjg;gLj;jf; $ba gy Kd;khjphpfis epWtp tpLk;. Kjyhtjhf>
fUf;fiyg;igr; nra;tjw;fhd jPh;khdk; kw;Wk; Vida kUj;Jt
elgbfSf;fhd jPh;khdkhdq;fs; vd;gd xU ngz;Zf;fhf nra;ag;gl
(my;yJ nra;ahjpUf;f) Ntz;bait vd;w epiy cUthFk;.

kw;iwaJ ahnjdpy;> ‘Kd;itf;fg;gl;l jpUj;jkhdJ xU ngz; jdJ
KOikahd kdpj chpikfis mile;J nfhs;tjhapd; mjw;F mg;ngz;
nfh^ukhd #o;epiyfSf;F Kfk; nfhLj;J ghjpf;fg;gl;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;’
vd;w vz;zj;ij kPs;tYT+l;lf; $Lk;. ,d;Dnkhd;W ,r;rl;l efypd;
tpisthf fhy kl;Lg;ghL> kUj;Jt MNyhrfhpd; ghpe;Jiu> nghyp];
mwpf;if Nghd;w kl;Lg;ghLfisAk;> Njitg;ghLfisAk; tpjpg;gjhdJ
cyfpd; Vida ghfq;fisg; Nghd;W NkYk; kl;Lg;ghLfSf;Nf ,l;Lr;
nry;yf; $Lk;.

,j;jpUj;jkhdJ NtW vq;NfDk; eilKiwapYz;lh?


,e;jf; fUf;fiyg;Gj; jpUj;jkhdJ xd;Wk; Gj;jk; Gjpa tiuG my;y.
,J cyfpd; Vida gFjpfspy; Kd;itf;fg;gl;L eilKiwg;gLj;jg;gl;L
tUtJld; jpUg;jpfukhd tpisTfisf; nfhz;lJky;y. ,e;jpahtpy;>
kUj;JthPjpahf fh;g;gj;ij KbTWj;jy; rl;lkhdJ 12 thuq;fSf;Fs; xU
kUj;Jthpd; MNyhridapd; NghpYk;> 12 -20 thuq;fshapd; Mff; Fiwe;jJ
,uz;Lf;F Nkw;gl;l kUj;Jth;fspd; kUj;Jt mgpg;gpuhaj;jpd;gbAk;
(,e;j fhyf;nfL ngz;zpd; my;yJ fUtpd; capUf;F Mgj;J vdpd;
ePjpkd;w cj;juNthLk;) fh;g;gj;ij KbTWj;j mDkjpf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j
Njitg;ghLfshtd fUf;fiyg;ig ehLk; ngz;fs; kw;Wk; rpWkpfs; kPJ
Nkyjpf Rikiar; Rkj;jpAs;sJld; jdpg;gl;l tof;Ffshf ePjpkd;wk;
tof;ifj; jPh;f;f ,lkspj;Js;sJ. ghypay; ty;YwT njhlh;ghf
fhzg;gLk; r%f fz;Nzhl;lj;jpd; tpisTk;> mjid nghypRf;F
Kiwg;ghL nra;tjpYs;s gpd;jq;fy;fSk;> ,j;jpUj;jkhdJ \,ilntspia
epug;Gtjw;fhdjhf ,Uf;FNknahopa gpur;rpidf;F ePz;l fhyj;Jf;fhd
,Wf;fkhd xU jPh;thf ,Uf;fhJ.|

2012,y;> fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;ijj; jsh;j;j Uthz;lhTk; ,Nj
khjphpahdnjhU jpUj;jj;ij mwpKfg;gLj;jpaJ. Uthz;lh ,t;thW jpUj;jp
mjid mZFtjw;F RikfSldhd kl;Lg;ghLfis tpjpj;jikahy;
fsj;jpy; rpwpjsT khw;wNk epfo;e;jJ: rl;lhPjpahd fUf;fiyg;ghdJ
mNef ngz;fSf;Fk;> rpWkpfSf;Fk; vl;lKbajhnjhd;whfNt ,Uf;fpd;wJ
vd;W mwpf;ifaplg;gl;Ls;sJ. NkYk;> rpy ngz;fs;> tpNrlkhf
fpuhkg;Gwq;fspy; ,Ug;gth;fs;> eilKiwr; rl;lj; Njitg;ghl;bd;gb
fUf;fiyg;Gf;F jFjp ngWtjw;fhd mDkjpfis thq;Ffpd;wdh; vd;gJk;
mwpf;ifaplg;gl;Ls;sJld;> Uthz;lh ehl;by; fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;ij
jsh;j;Jk; tifapy; jpUj;Jk; gb njhlh;r;rpahd Nfhhpf;iffs; tpLf;fg;gl;L

njspthd rhl;rpaq;fspd; mbg;gilapy; ,j;jpUj;jq;fshtd cz;ikapy;
fUf;fiyg;G NjitAilajhf ,Uf;Fk; ngz;fspy; mf;fiw nfhz;ljhf
,y;iy. Vd; ,yq;ifahdJ ghhpa mstpy; fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;ij
jhuhskag;gLj;jpa Neghs; my;yJ vj;jpNahg;gpah Nghd;w ehLfis
cjhuzkhff; nfhs;sf; $lhJ vd;W ahUk; Mr;rhpag;glf; $Lk;.
,e;ehLfs; fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj; jpUj;jk; kl;Lk; NghjhJ vd;gjidf;
fhl;Lfpd;wd. ngz;fsJ chpikfis xOq;fhd Kiwapy; NgZtjw;fhd
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fj;Njhypf;f r%fk; jFjpahdJ.

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fhuzkhf kuzj;Jf;Fk; ,l;Lr; nry;Yk;.

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fh;g;ge;jhpj;jth;fSlDk;> kpff; fLikahf tyJ FiwitAila
gps;isfisAila FLk;gq;fSlDk; ehd; Ntiy nra;jpUf;fpd;Nwd;.
,th;fspy; rpyUf;F epr;rakhf jpUr;rigfSila rpy mDruizfs;
fpilf;fpd;wd. Fwpg;ghf nghpJk; mUl;rNfhjhpfspdhy;. vt;thnwdpDk;
,e;j r%fq;fNshL ehd; Ntiy nra;j ,j;jid Mz;L fhyq;fspYk;
jplPnud;W FLk;gq;fspd; Gdpjk; gw;wp rpyhfpj;Jg; NgRk; ,e;j Mz;
vOj;jhsh;fsplkpUe;J ehd; vijAk; ghh;j;jNjh Nfl;lNjh ,y;iy.
mth;fsplKk;> fUf;fiyg;Gf;F vjpuhf thjpf;Fk; midthplKk; ehd;
nra;Ak; Nkd;KiwaPlhtJ> Vw;fdNt Njitaw;w fh;g;gq;fspd; tpisthf
cUthd tPLfspy; cs;stw;iw guhkhpg;gjd; Clhf \caph;;| vd;gjw;fhd
cq;fsJ mh;g;gzpg;gpid ep&gpAq;fs;. E}w;Wf;fzf;fhd caph;fis
rhfbf;fhky; ghJfhf;ff; $ba Kd;Ndw;wfukhd xU rl;lefYf;F vjpuhf
miyiaf; fpsg;Gtij tpLj;J ,jidr; nra;f.


7. jdf;Fr; nrhe;jkhd xU fUg;ig:
,yq;ifapy; caph;> fUf;fiyg;G
kw;Wk; jha;ik

nkfy; ngNuuh

vq;fsJ epiw> epwk; njhlh;ghf mf;fiwahf ntspg;gLj;jg;gLk;
fUj;Jf;fspypUe;J> ehq;fs; njUtpy; elf;Fk; NghJ gpd;njhlu;e;J te;J
jUk; kpf mt];ijahd mDgtq;fs; tiu ngz;fspd; clyhdJ
nghJr; nrhj;J vd;gJ ngUk; Nrhh;NthL ngz;fs; mwpe;jnjhU tplak;.
fUf;fiyg;Gr; rl;lj;jpw;F Kd;itf;fg;gl;Ls;s jpUj;jkhdJ ,jid
kpf nrhw;gkhfNt ftdj;jpy; nfhs;fpwJ - vt;thwhapDk; Mff;Fiwe;j
gl;rk; ghypay; ty;Ywtpdhy; ghjpf;fg;gl;l ngz;fSf;F VNjhnthU
epthuzj;ij mspf;fpd;wJ ,Wjp td;KiwahdJ ghpe;Jiufs;> type;J
GFj;jpa fUj;Jf;fs;> %f;if Eiof;Fk; mjpfhuk; vd;gtw;why; ,Ushd
xU njhq;fypd; Kbit Ml;nfhs;fpwJ.

Mzhjpf;fj;ij mq;fPfhpf;fpwhh;fNsh> ,y;iyNah fUf;fiyg;Gf;F
vjpuhdth;fs; ngz;fSf;F jkJ cly; kPJs;s Rahjpf;fj;ij
kl;Lg;gLj;JtJld;> gyte;jkhf mth;fis epue;jukhd jha;ikia mila
my;yJ caph; Mgj;ij tpistpf;ff; $ba rl;l Kuzhd elgbfSf;F
cs;shf mOj;jkspg;gjd; Clhf jw;NghJs;s epiyikia mt;thNw
itj;Jf;nfhs;sNt ehLfpd;wdh;. fUf;fiyg;Gf;F vjpuhdth;fSf;F ,J
Njitg;glhj NghJk;> epiyikapd; mwpahikAk;> jkJ nra;ifapd;
tpisTfs; gw;wpa mf;fiwapd;wpAk;> ,yq;ifapYs;s fUitr; Rkf;ff;
$ba xt;nthU ngz;zpd; rhh;ghfTk; Kbtpid vLf;f jkf;F chpj;Jz;L
vd;W ,th;fs; czh;tJ kpfTk; tpag;Gf;FhpaJ.

,yq;ifia> jpUkzkhfhj jha;khh;fSf;;Fr; rpwe;jnjhU ,lkhf khw;wTk;>
khw;Wj; jpwdhspfspd; tho;f;ifj; juj;ij cah;j;jTk;> jw;NghJs;s
rpWth;fSf;fhd r%f eyj; jpl;lq;fis Nkk;gLj;j tsq;fis xJf;ff;
NfhuTk; gug;Giu nra;a tha;g;Gz;L. Mapd; ,t;thW nra;ifapy;> vkJ
Fbikg; Gj;jfq;fspy; cs;sthwhd fw;gid cyfpy; md;wp JUg; gbe;j>
re;Njhrkw;w> gzg; gw;whf;FiwAs;s xU ,yq;ifapy;jhd; ,e;j thjk;


nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ vd;gjidAk; ePq;fs; Vw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;.

fUf;fiyg;ig vjph;g;gth;fs; capuhdJ GdpjkhdJ vd;gJld; vd;d
tpiy nfhLj;jhtJ fhg;ghw;wg;gl Ntz;Lk; vd;Wk; fUf;fiyg;igr;
rl;lG+h;tkhf;FtjhdJ caph; tho;tjw;fhd kWf;fg;gl Kbahj chpikapid
kPWtjhf mikAk; vd;Wk; ek;gf;$Lk;. caph; vg;NghJ Muk;gpf;fpd;wJ
vd;gjd; xUkpj;j fUj;jhdJ tpQ;QhdpfSf;Fk;> newpKiwthjpfSf;Fk;
,d;Dk; Gyg;glhj xU gug;Gf;Fs; ,l;Lr; nry;fpwJ. xU Ntis ,J
caphpd; gz;Gfis tiuaWg;gJ rpf;fYf;Fhpa xU Kaw;rp vd;gjdhyhf
,Uf;fyhk;. caph; vg;NghJ Muk;gpf;fpd;wJ vd;gjw;Ff; fUf;fl;ly;
kl;lj;jpNyh my;yJ Ks;se;jz;L> typia czh;jYf;fhd jifik>
my;yJ ,jaj; Jbg;G> Nghd;wtw;iw czUk; jd;ikiaf; nfhz;l
mbg;gilapNyh vd;gjw;F njspthd mbg;gil my;yJ jd;dpr;irahd
mbg;gil vJTk; ,y;iy.

MapDk;> ehq;fs; fUf;fl;lypd; NghJ vd;W A+fpj;Jf; nfhs;Nthk;. xU
fUthdJ> xU ngz;Zf;F rkkhf r%fj;jpy; me;j];ij cilaJ
vd;gjid ehq;fs; mq;fPfhpf;f gyte;jg;gLj;jg;gLfpNwhkh? mur
mikg;ghdJ r%fj;jpd; xU mq;fj;jtuhf cs;stuJ cly;> cs
eyd;fisAk;> fdTfisAk;;> tpUg;gq;fisAk; mlF itj;J xU njhFjp
nry;fSf;F Kd;Dhpik nfhLg;gNjd;?

fUf;fiyg;Gf;F vjpuhd epiyahdJ xU tsh;e;j eghpdJ njhpTf;fhd
chpikia tpl xU fUtpd; caph;thOk; chpikahdJ NkyhdJ vd;Dk;
mDkhdj;ij Kd;itf;fpd;wJ. Mapd; ,e;jj; njhpthdJ me;j jdpegUila
tho;f;ifapd; juj;ij filrp tiu fLikahd ghjpg;Gf;Fs;shf;Ffpd;wJ.
ntWkNd capUld; ,Uj;jy; vd;gJ tho;jyhfhJ vd;gjid ehq;fs;
mq;fPfhpf;fpNwhk;. mj;NjhL kdpjh;fs; jukhd tho;f;iff;fhd chpj;ijf;
nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. Mifapdhy;jhd; ehq;fs; tWik xopg;Gf;F vjpuhfg;
NghuhLtJld; nehpryw;w tho;f;ifia fdT fhz;fpNwhk;. ehq;fs;
vz;zpf;ifia tpl juj;jpw;F Kf;fpaj;Jtk; nfhLj;J rpy capuhff;
$batw;iw Fiwf;fpd;Nwhk;. fUj;jilfSk;> FLk;gj; jpl;lq;fSk;
Kd;Ndw;wg;gLk;NghJ> mJ mjpf gps;isfisf; nfhz;bUg;gJ vg;NghJk;
ed;ikahdjy;y vd;w nfhs;ifapd; mbg;gilapyhdjhf ,Uf;fpd;wJ.
gps;isfisg; guhkhpf;f Kbahj kw;Wk; tpUk;ghj FLk;gq;fspy; gps;isfs;
gpwf;ff; $lhJ vd;gjid ehq;fs; Vw;Wf; nfhz;bUf;fpNwhk;.

caph; tho;tjw;fhd chpikahdJ kWjypf;fg;gl KbahjJ vd;W
fUjg;gLfpd;wJ> Vnddpy; caph; GdpjkhdJ vd;gjdhyhFk;. vJ Gdpjk;?
Vd; Gdpjk;? vd;gjidj; jPh;khdpg;gJ ahh; vd;Dk; tpdhTf;F nghJthf
kjr;rhh;gw;w gjpy; ,y;iy. NkYk;> vk;ikr; #oTs;s vz;zpf;ifaw;w

,wg;Gk;> mopTk; tho;f;ifapd; midj;J xOq;fikg;GfSk; Gdpjk; vd;w
Kj;jpiuia mile;J nfhs;tjpy;iy vd;gjid njspTgLj;Jfpd;wJ.
ntw;whd Gdpjk; vd;w epiyapy; caph; tho;tjid tpl cWjpahd
tho;f;ifj;juk; Kf;fpakhdJ vd;w mbg;gilapy; Rfg;gLj;j Kbahj
,Wjpf;fl;lj;jpypUf;Fk; Nehahspfs; jkJ capiu kha;j;Jf; nfhs;sy;
gy ehLfspy; rl;lG+h;tkhdjhf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. NkYk; xU jdpegh; jd;id
caph;g;gpf;ff; $lhJ vd;gjw;fhd cj;jutpid itj;jpah;fSf;F toq;f
KbAk;. ,J VNjh xU tifapy; kf;fs; jhk; capNuhbUg;gjid kWg;gjw;fhd
xU tbtkhf my;yJ Kiwahfj; njhpT nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ vd;gJ
ftdpf;fj;jf;fJ. ,yq;ifapy;> Aj;jj;jpYk;> jw;fhg;Gf;fhAk; caph;fisf;
nfhd;wikia ehq;fs; Vw;Wf; nfhs;tJ kl;Lkd;wp nfhz;lhLfpd;Nwhk;.
,r;re;jh;g;gj;jpy; Raeyd; Gdpjj;ij Gwe;js;sptpLfpd;wJ. kf;fs;
caph;;tho VJk; mDruizAld; my;yJ Nfhkh epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk;
NghJ mth;fs; njhlh;e;Jk; ftdpg;gpy; ,Ug;gjid KbTWj;Jk; njhpit
rpyehLfs; mth;fsJ neUq;fpa nrhe;jf;fhuh;fSf;F toq;fpAs;sJ.
,e;j cjhuzq;fshdit caph;fis Kf;fpaj;Jtkw;wit vd;Nwh
my;yJ nfhiy nra;jy; xU tpUg;Gf;Fhpa nghOJNghf;F vd;Nwh
fhl;Ltjw;fhdit my;y. khwhf \caph; GdpjkhdJ| vd;w fz;%bj;jdkhd
Nfhhpf;ifahdJ rpy;yiwj;jdkhdJ vd;gJ kl;Lkd;wp ,j;jifa kpfTk;
,f;fl;lhd jPh;khdj;ij vLf;f Ntz;ba #o;epiyapYs;s jdpegh;fis
nfh^ukhf mtkjpg;gjhfTk; cs;sJ. ,J xU ,og;gpy;;yhj Ml;lk;
my;;y. ,e;j jPh;khdq;fs; ,yFthditAk; my;y. MdhYk; ahUf;F
,r;#o;epiy gw;wpa $Ljy; mwptpUf;fpwNjh mth;fspy; ek;gpf;if nfhz;L
mth;fSf;Fg; nghUj;jkhd Kbit mth;fNs vLj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;fhf
mit mur fl;likg;gpdhy; ,yFgLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. ,J tho;tpd; rpf;fyhd
ajhh;j;jj;ij mq;fPfhpg;gJld; kf;fs; nryitAk;> ed;ikfisAk; epWit
nra;J njsptpy;yhj Fog;gfukhd cyfpy;> rpf;fyhd newpKiwahd
KbTfis vLg;ghh;fs; vd;W ek;gpf;if nfhs;fpwJ.

,q;F Rthu];akhd tpdh vd;dntdpy; ehq;fs; caph; tho;tij KbTWj;j
mDkjpAz;lh vd;gjid tpl vq;fSf;F xU capiuf; fhg;ghw;Wk; flg;ghL
,Uf;fpd;wjh vd;gjhFk;.

jhd; NghFk; topapy; Mw;wpy; %o;fpf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; xU kdpjidf;
fz;ZWk; xU egiu fUj;jpy; nfhs;f. me;egh; kpfr; rpwe;jnjhU
ePr;ry; tPuuhf ,Ue;jhYNkh my;yJ me;j Neuj;jpy; mt;tplj;jpy; mth;
kl;Lk;jhd; ,Uf;fpd;whh; vd;whYNkh $l me;egUf;F Mw;Wf;Fs; gha;e;J
%o;Fk; egiuf; fhg;ghw;Wk; rl;lf; flg;ghL fpilahJ. Fwpg;ghf me;;j
Neuj;jpy; mq;fpUf;ff; $ba kpfr; rpwe;j eguhf mth; ,Ue;jhYNk $l.
me;egh; jdJ nrhe;j newpKiwfsJk;> tpOkpaq;fsJk; mbg;gilapy;
jhdhff; fhg;ghw;wf; $Lk;. Mapd; ,d;Ndhh; capiuf; fhg;ghw;w me;egh;

mghaj;ij vjph;nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; my;yJ jhNd Kd;tu Ntz;Lk; vd;W
ehk; cj;jutpLtjpy;iy. ,e;jj; jh;f;fj;ij mstpl;lhy;> ve;j nryTk;
,y;yhky; vj;jidNah caph;fisf; fhg;ghw;wf; $bajhf ,Uf;Fk;
re;jh;g;gk; MapDk; $l ekJ ,wg;gpd; NghJ vkJ clw;ghfq;fisf;
fl;lhakhfj; jUkk; nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W muR Njitg;gLj;jtpy;iy.
,J vkJ nrhe;j epahaq;fSf;fhdJ. ,j;jifa epfo;Tfs; re;jh;g;g
#o;epiyfisg; nghWj;jJ vd;gjdhy; ek;ik #g;gh;`PNuhf;fshf ,Uf;Fk;
gb eph;g;ge;jpf;f KbahJ. ngz;fs; kl;LNk ,jw;F tpjptpyf;F. mNj jhd;
NghFk; topapy; xU ngz; ghypay; ty;YwTf;F cs;shf;fg;gLtjidf;
fhZk; xU egUf;F mjidj; jLj;J epWj;j vJtpj rl;lf; flg;ghLk;
,y;iy. Mdhy; me;jg; ngz; mjd; tpisthf fUitr; Rkf;f Nehpbd;
mjd; tpisTfisAk;> Mgj;Jf;fspidAk; Gwk;js;sp tpl;L> me;jf;
fUtpd; capiuj; jf;f itj;Jf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd me;jg; ngz;
vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpd;whs;. ,d;ndhU capiuj; jf;f itg;gjw;fhfg; ngz;fs;
jkJ fdTfis xJf;fp tpl;L fh;g;gj;jpd; Jauj;ijAk;> kfg;Ngw;wpd;
typiaAk; jhq;fpf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk; vd;W vjph;ghh;f;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

midj;Jg; ngz;fSk; jha;ikiaAk;> fh;g;gj;ijANk ngUikf;Fhpa
tplankhd;whf gpbthjkhf tpUk;g Ntz;Lk; vd;gjdhy; ngz;fs;
,t;thW nra;a Ntz;Lk; vd;W eph;g;ge;jpf;fg;gLfpd;whh;fs;. ngz;fs;
jha;ik miltjidj; jtph;f;f Kd;itf;Fk; fhuzq;fs; typjhdit
vd;Dk; fUj;ij ehk; Cf;fg;gLj;Jtjpy;iy vd;gjdhy; fUf;fiyg;ghdJ
Vw;Wf; nfhs;sg;gl KbahjJ vd;W ehk; epidf;fpd;Nwhk;. fUf;fiyg;Gf;F
Mjuthdth;fs; jha;ikf;F vjpuhdth;fs; my;y vd;gjidf; fUj;jpy;
nfhs;sy; Ntz;Lk;. khwhf> mth;fs; ,J xU tho;f;ifiaj; jpUg;gpg;
NghLk; jPh;khdk; vd;gjdhy; tpjpapd; tpisahl;Lf;F tpl;LtpLtjid
tplTk; kpfTk; Kf;fpaj;Jtk; tha;e;jJ. ,g;NghNj jha;ik vd;Dk; tplak;
,yq;ifapd; xt;nthU jha;ik milaf; $ba ngz;zpd; tplaj;jpYk;
jiyapLfpd;wJ vd;gJld; Mz;fspd; ew;Fzj;jpYk;> MZiwfspd;
ek;gfj; jd;ikapYk; tpRthrk; nfhs;tijj; jtpu vk;khy; nra;af; $baJ
vJTk; ,y;iy.


8. ghypay; njhopyhspfs;
,af;fj;Jf;Fk;> fUf;fiyg;G
chpikf;fhd nray;thjj;Jf;Fk;
,ilapyhd ,ilntspia ehk; Vd;
epug;gy; Ntz;Lk;

fpwp];bd; gpuhd;Fthh; kw;Wk; Ruhgp rpwpt];jhth

cynfq;fpYk; rpfg;G epwf; FilahdJ ghypay; njhopyhsUf;fhd
xd;wpizjiyAk;> mth;fsJ chpikfSf;fhd Nghuhl;lq;fisAk; Fwpf;Fk;
rpd;dkhfg; ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

rpy Mz;LfSf;F Kd;dh;> fdlhitr; Nrh;e;j xU ngz;zpiythjpAk;>
njhpTf;fhd chpikf;fhd nray;thjpAkhd n[ha;]; Mh;jh;>
rl;lhPjpahdJk;> ghJfhg;ghdJkhd fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd mZFjYf;fhd
ngz;fs; chpikfSf;fhd ,af;fj;Jf;Fk;> jq;fsJ chpikfSf;Fk;>
ghypay; njhopiy Fw;wkw;wjhf;Ftjw;Fkhd ghypay; njhopyhspfsJ
,af;fj;Jf;Fk; ,ilapyhd neUf;fkhd njhlh;gpid Rl;bf; fhl;bdhh;.
,uz;L ,af;fq;fSk;> mjd; mbg;gilapy;> murpdJ jiyaPNlh>
njhe;juNth ,d;wp ngz;fs; jq;fsJ nrhe;j cly;> ghypay;G kw;Wk;
njhptpd; kPJ jhNk fl;Lg;ghl;bidf; nfhz;bUj;jy; gw;wpajhFk;.[1]
,e;j xg;gPlhdJ kpfr; rhpahdnjhd;wy;y vd kp];.Mh;jh; Kd;ndr;rhpf;if
tpLf;fpd;wNghJk;> ,e;j ,af;fq;fSf;F kj;jpapyhd rpf;fyhd> khWgLfpd;w
cwtpid Muha;jyhdJ> Fwpg;ghf ,dtpUj;jp ePjpapd; rl;lfj;Jf;Fs;
mike;jpUf;fpd;w re;jh;g;gj;jpNy gadspf;ff;$bajhFk;.

ve;jnthU epge;jidfSk;> Kd;ndr;rhpf;iffSk; ,d;wp midj;J
kf;fSf;Fk; cly;rhh;e;j RahjPdj;ij cWjpg;gLj;jyhdJ ,dtpUj;jp
ePjpf;fhd rl;lfj;jpd; mj;jpthukhFk;.[2] FOf;fs; my;yJ r%fq;fspd;
xLf;FKiwapdhy; jdpkdpj chpikfis kl;Lg;gLj;Jk; \tplaq;fshd
rdj;njhiff; fl;Lg;ghL> cly;rhh;e;j RajPh;khdq;fs;> FbNaw;wthrpfspd;
chpikfs;> nghUshjhu kw;Wk; #oy; ePjp> ,iwik> ,uhZtthjk;> kw;Wk;


Fw;wtpay; mePjpfs;| Mfpatw;iwf; fUj;jpy; nfhs;Sk; mNjNtis
ntWkNd \njhpT| vd;w hPjpapy; ,Ue;J tpLgl;L xU gue;j mbg;gilapy;
ngz;fsJk;> FLk;gq;fsJk;> rKjhaq;fsJk; MNuhf;fpak; kw;Wk; eyd;
vd;w hPjpapy; fUf;fiyg;G kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jp Rfhjhuk; njhlh;gpy;
mZFtjw;Fk;> rpe;jpg;gjw;Fk; ,dtpUj;jp ePjpahdJ xU tpkh;rpdhPjpahd
Kd;Djhuzkhd efh;it Kd;itf;fpd;wJ. ,e;j xd;Wld; xd;W njhlh;GWk;
rl;lfk; kw;Wk; ,af;fkhdJ tpspk;G epiyapYs;s milahsq;fSk;>
FOf;fSk; xd;wpize;J \ngz;fs;> rpWkpfs; kw;Wk; jdpegh;fis mth;fspd;
cly;> ghypay;G> Copak; kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jpapd; Clhf fl;Lg;gLj;jYk;>
Ruz;lYk;| tiuaWf;fg;gl;lgb ,dtpUj;jp xLf;FKiwf;F vjpuhfg;
NghuhLtjw;fhd xU ntspia Vw;gLj;jpf; nfhLf;fpd;wJ.[3]

,dtpUj;jp ePjpf;fhd rl;lfkhdJ> ,jd; fhuzkhf> ,e;jj; Jiwfspy;
gug;Giu nra;tjw;fhf> nghJthd tplaq;fs; gw;wpAk;> xd;Wld; xd;W
njhlh;GWk; tplaq;fs; gw;wpAk; fz;lwptjd; Clhf fUf;fiyg;G kw;Wk;
ghypay; njhopy; rhh;e;j tplaq;fis xd;whf Nehf;Ftjw;fhd rpwe;jnjhU
topiaf; fhl;LfpwJ. ,it (ngz;fsJ) ghypay;G(fs;) gw;wpa Mzhjpf;f
tpOkpaq;fis rthYf;Fl;gLj;Jtjid Nehf;fpr; nry;Yk;. fUf;fiyg;G
kw;Wk; ghypay; njhopy; Mfpad ngz;zpiythj nraw;ghl;lhsh;fs; $l
rpy rkaq;fspy; Kd;$l;ba jPh;khdq;fs; ,d;wp ,Uf;f rpukg;gLfpd;w>
ngz;zpiythjpfSf;Fs; \ve;jsT J}uj;Jf;F ehq;fs; ngz;fsJ
njhpTfisAk;> cly;rhh;e;j RahjPdq;fisAk; khpahijg;gLj;jg; Nghfpd;Nwhk;
vd;w Nfs;tpia vOg;gp Kuz;gl;Lf; nfhs;fpd;w jiyg;GfSf;Fs;
,uz;lhFk;. ,dtpUj;jp ePjpahdJ midj;J ghypdj;ijAk; Nrh;e;j ghypay;
njhopyhspfisf; nfhz;bUf;fpd;wNghJk;> ,f;fl;Liuapd; epkpj;jk; ehk;
ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfisAk;> fUf;fiyg;igAk; fUj;jpy; nfhs;Nthk;.
,jidnahj;j jilfis tpj;jpahrkhd ghy;epiy milahsq;fisAk;>
ntspg;ghLfisAk; nfhz;l jdpegh;fSk; vjph;nfhs;sf; $Lk;. ghypay;
njhopyhspfspd; ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd Rje;jpuj;jpidj; jilnra;jyhdJ|
fUf;fl;liy jilnra;tjw;fhdtw;iw mZFtjpypUe;J> fUtpid
KbTWj;Jtjw;fhd njhpTfs; kw;Wk; gps;isfis tsh;g;gjw;fhd tsq;fs;
kw;Wk; mjw;fhd njhpTfs; - vd;gd Kw;whf Muha;e;jwpag;gltpy;iy.
Vnddpy; ghypay; kw;Wk; ,dtpUj;jp Rfhjhuk;>(SRHR) kw;Wk; chpikfs;
ghypay; njhopyhspfisg;; nghWj;jstpy; kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l xU tbtpNyNa

njd; G+Nfhsj;jpYs;s ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfis ikakhff; nfhz;l
fw;iffs; mth;fsJ ghypay; Rfhjhuk; gw;wp NgRfpd;wNghJk; mit
kpfTk; FWfpaitahfNtAs;sd. ,J HIV/AIDS ,id jilnra;tJk;>
rpfpr;iraspg;gJk; njhlh;ghditahFk;. ,e;j mDkhdkhdJ HIV
apd; mjpfsthd njhw;Wf;F ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfs; nghWg;gy;y

vd;gjid vLj;Jf; fhl;Ltij Gwe;js;Sfpd;wJld; mth;fNs Nehiag;
gug;Gfpd;wth;fs; vd;W gpioahf gug;gg;gLtJld; mth;fsJ chpikfSk;>
SRHR ck; mjpfkhf ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;gLtjpy;iy. [4] ghypay;
njhopyhspfSf;fhf nra;ag;gLtd mth;fsJ ghypay; RahjPdj;ijNah
my;yJ ,dtpUj;jp tho;f;ifapidNah> fUj;jpy; nfhs;tjpy;iy.
nray;thjpfs; kj;jpapy; $l> ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfis cl;fpilahf
tpspk;G epiyf;Fj; js;Sk; epiyAk;> \Vida| ngz;fs; vd;w gue;j
milahsj;Js; ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfs; xU jdpahd tifapdh;
vd;W gphpf;fpd;w msTf;F ,e;epiy ,l;Lr; nrd;wpUf;fpd;wJ.

ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfs; vt;thW fUf;fiyg;gpid nra;tjw;fhf
mZFfpd;wdh; vd;gjid ehk; ftdpf;ifapy; Mh;tj;ijA+l;lf; $ba
gy tplaq;fs; elf;fpd;wd. gy topfspy;> ,e;jpah> gpNurpy;> cfz;lh>
,d;Dk; gy ,lq;fspy; fUf;fiyg;ghdJ ghtj;Jf;FhpajhfTk;>
mNefkhf fUf;fiyg;gpidr; nra;tJ nghpJk; fbdkhdjhfTk;> ghypay;
njhopypy; <Lglhjth;fs; fUf;fiyg;ig ehLifapy; mDgtpf;fpd;w mNj
,d;dy;fis ,e;j ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfSk; mDgtpf;fpd;wdh;. ,q;F
kUj;Jtj;ij toq;Fgth;fs; ,ufrpaj;ij kPWgth;fshf my;yJ Kw;$l;ba
jPh;khdq;fis cilath;fshf (rpyNtisfspy; fUf;fiyg;gpid my;yJ
fUj;jilapid toq;f KbahJ vd;Dk; msTf;F) ,Uf;Fk; rpf;fiy
,UtUk; vjph;nfhs;s NehpLfpwJ. ,jd; fhuzkhf> fUf;fiyg;gpid ehLk;
gyh; jdpahh; kUj;Jt rpfpr;ir epiyaq;fis ehLk; epiy cUthfpd;wJ.
,J tpiy$baJk;> gyUf;F mZf KbahjjhAk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

NkYk;> mNef ngz;fSf;F fUj;jil vd;ifapy; \njhpTfs; mlq;fpa
$il| eilKiwapy; fpilg;gjpy;iy. ,jd; mh;j;jk; jhq;fs; fh;g;gkila
Ntz;Lkh> Mapd; vg;NghJ vd;W jq;fsJ cly;rhh;e;j nfsutk; kw;Wk;
ghypay; RahjPdk; vd;gjid njhpT nra;tjpy; mth;fSf;Fs;s tsq;fis
mth;fshy; mZf KbahJs;sJ. mj;Jld; fUj;jil vd;ifapy;
\XusT ghJfhg;ghd| MZiwfs; vd;gJ kl;Lkd;wp ,uz;L tifahd
KiwfSf;fhd njspthd Njit vOe;Js;sJ.[5] gUt taJila
kw;Wk; jpUkzkhfhj ngz;fisg; Nghd;W ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfSk;
\FLk;gj; jpl;lkply;| vd;W nrhy;yg;gLfpd;w Kaw;rpfspy; nghJthf tpyf;fp
itf;fg;gLfpd;wdh;. ];thjp Nfh\; fy;fj;jhtpy; ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfs;
gw;wpa jdJ fw;ifapy; Fwpg;gpLtJ Nghd;W> fUj;jilf;fhd Nrit
toq;Fjypy; ,Ue;J ,g;ngz;fis njhlh;r;rpahf tpyf;fp itg;gjhdJ etPd
fUj;jil Kiwfs; Kiwahf jpUkzkhd FLk;gj;jth;fSf;Nf md;wp
,j;jifath;fSf;F chpajy;y vd;W gyiuAk; ek;g itf;fpd;wJ.[6]
,e;j midj;J FOf;fSk; Kw;fw;gpjq;fs; mw;w> kypthd fUj;jilf;fhd
Nritfisg; ngWtjpy; ghhpa jilfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd. ,q;Fs;s
mDkhdk; ahnjdpy;> mth;fSf;F xd;wpy; jq;fsJ cly;; kPJ vJtpj

fl;Lg;ghLk; fpilahJ my;yJ jhkhfNt ghYwT nfhs;fpd;wikahy;
,j;jifatw;iwg; ghtpf;ff; $lhJ- mJ tUkhdj;Jf;fhf ,Ue;jhYk; rhp>
jdpg;gl;l ,d;gj;Jf;fhdjhf ,Ue;jhYk; rhpNa.

jq;fsJ ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd Rje;jpuj;;ij vg;NghJ> ahUld; Nrh;e;J
gps;is ngw;Wf; nfhs;tJ vd;W nraw;ghl;by; fhl;l rpukkpUg;gJ
fUf;fiyg;gpid ehLgth;fspilNa nghJthff; fhzg;gLk; kw;WnkhU
jilahFk;. fUf;fiyg;G vd;gjpy; eilKiwapy; ,ize;Js;s \fsq;fk;|
vd;gJk;> rpf;fy;jd;ikAk;> jpl;lkplg;glhj fh;g;gj;jpid mDgtpg;gjid
tpl FiwthdjhFk;. mjpYk; Fwpg;ghf jpUkzkhfhj re;jh;g;gj;jpy;
fUTWtjid tplTk; Fiwe;j gOthFk;. xU ngz; jhd; fh;g;gj;jpid
Rkf;f tpUk;gpdhYk; $l> mtSf;F ,Uf;Fk; xNu jPh;T fUf;fiyg;G
kl;LNk vd;gJld;> mJTk; mtSf;F mjw;fhd mZFjy; ,Uf;Fk; NghJ
vd;DksTf;F r%fj; jilfs; fhzg;gLfpd;wd.

ghJfhg;ghd> rl;lG+h;tkhd fUf;fiyg;gpid mZFtjpYs;s ,j;jifa
jilfs; rpy Ntisfspy; ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfisg; nghWj;jstpy;
r%fj;jpy; mth;fSf;F toq;fg;gl;Ls;s tpspk;G epiy ];jhdj;jpdhy;
jPtpukhfTs;sJ. vt;thnwdpDk;> ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfs;
Kfq;nfhLf;fpd;w jpl;lkplg;glhj fUf;fl;lypd; mjp$ba tpfpjj;jpd;
fhuzkhf> fUit KbTWj;Jk; jq;fsJ nrhe;j kdg;ghq;fpypUf;Fk;
Vida fUf;fiyg;ig ehLgth;fsplkpUe;Jk; ,th;fs; NtWgLfpwhh;fs;.
mj;Jld; ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfs; r%fj;jpy; jfty;fs;> tsq;fs;>
kw;Wk; fUf;fiyg;Gf;Fs;s MjuT vd;gd ve;jsT cs;sd vd;gJk;
jhf;fk; nrYj;Jfpd;w vd Ma;T njhptpf;fpd;wJ. cfz;lhtpypUf;Fk;
ghypay; njhopyhspfs; jq;fsJ Ntiyapd; jd;ik fhuzkhf> jq;fs;
r%fj;Js; fUf;fiyg;G gw;wpa jfty;fs; jahh;epiyapy; ,Ug;gjhAk;>
,jdhy; jpl;lkplg;glhj fUf;fl;lypYk;> Vida tplaq;fspYk; ngz;fs;
xUtUf;nfhUth; Mjuthd tiyaikg;gpidf; nfhz;bUg;gjhdTk;
mwptpf;fpd;wdh;.[7] fy;fj;jhtpy;> fUf;fiyg;gpidr; nra;tjhdJ ngz;
ghypay; njhopyhspfs; kj;jpapy; rh;t rhjhuzkhd xd;nwdTk;> mJ
xU \FLk;g fl;likg;gpDs;| thOk; ngz;fSf;Fs;sJ Nghd;w jiliaf;
nfhz;ljy;y vd Nfh\; cWjpg;gLj;Jfpwhh;.[8]

mNjNtis> ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfsJ fUf;fiyg;G njhlh;ghd
mDgtq;fs; midj;Jk; xNu khjphpahditahf ,Uf;Fk; vd;W
mDkhdpj;jy; jtwhFk;. cjhuzkhf yhX]; ehl;by;> ghypay; njhopy;>
fUf;fiyg;G ,uz;LNk Fw;wkhFk;- ,q;F ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfs;
gw;wp newpKiwrhh; Nghf;F gw;wp Nfs;tp vOfpwJ. ,J ghypay;
njhopyhspfs; newpKiw Fiwe;jth;fs; vd;gij my;yJ kw;Wk;
fUf;fiyg;Gf;F czh;ThPjpahd gjpyspg;Nghhpid rthy;gLj;Jfpd;wJ.

NkYk; ,J ,th;fsJ Ntiyapd; jd;ikapdhy;jhd; ,j;jifa epiy
vd;Dk; thjk; vhpr;riyA+l;Ltjha; cs;sJ. Neh;fhzg;gl;lth;fspy; gyh;
ghypay; njhopYf;F tUtjw;F Kd;dh; my;yJ gpd;dh; fUf;fiyg;gpw;F
cl;gl;lth;fshf ,Ug;gpDk; Rkhh; 70 tPjkhNdhh; fUf;fiyg;ghdJ yhX]
pNy Fw;wkhfNt ,Uj;jy; Ntz;Lk;> fyhrhuhPjpahf ,jid Vw;ff; $lhJ>
fUf;fiyg;ig nra;Ak; ngz;fs; xOf;fkw;wth;fs; vdf; fUJfpd;wdh;. [9]
MapDk; 70 tPjkhNdhh; Njitaw;w fUtpid KbTWj;Jtjw;fhd mjprpwe;j
top fUf;fiyg;Ng vd;gjid kpfTk; cWjpahf Vw;Wf;nfhs;fpd;wdh;.
ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfis jdpnahU tifahf itj;J Nehf;fhky;>
,e;j Mf;fj;jpd; Mrphpah;fs; gue;j r%f newpKiwapd; mbg;gilapy;
ghypay; njhopyhspfspd; newpKiw ghjpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,Ue;Jk; tpspk;G
epiyapYs;s xU njhopiy nra;tjpy; gq;nfLg;gjd; Clhf mth;fs;
epide;J my;yJ cl;fpilahf ,t;tpOkpaq;fis Gul;bg; Nghlf; $Lk;.

,J xU mw;Gjkhd fz;Lgpbg;G: ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfs;
fUf;fiyg;gpid ehbaJ gw;wpa Mf;fq;fspy; mjpfkhdit> mth;fsJ
fijfs; ,yf;fq;fSf;Fs; kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;Ls;sd. 70 tPjkhd yhXi]
r; Nrh;e;j ghypay; njhopyhspfs; fUf;fiyg;G njhlh;ghd newpKiw
njhlh;ghf MokhdnjhU Kuz;ghl;ilf; nfhz;Ls;sdh;. Mdhy; mth;fs;
fUf;fiyg;gpid Kd;ndLf;ifapy; vd;d epidf;fpwhh;fs;> vj;jifa
rthy;fSf;F Kfq;nfhLf;fpd;wdh; vd;gJ gw;wpa mth;fsJ ve;jnthU
$w;Wf;fSk; ,y;;iy. fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd chpikfs; ,af;fj;jpd; fij$Wk;
gFjpAk;> ,dtpUj;jp ePjp njhlh;GWk; tplaq;fspy; cs;slf;fg;gLk;
tplaq;fs; jtpu ngz; ghypay; njhopyhspfsJ fUf;fiyg;G mDgtq;fs;
njhlh;ghf gpur;rpidf;FhpasT Fiwthd ciuahly;fNs cs;sd.

,th;fsJ mDgtq;fs; Kf;fpakhdjhFk; mNjNtis (xU gf;fk;>
ghypay; njhopypy; <LgLk; fUf;fiyg;ig ehLifapyhd gy;tifahd
tpspk;G epiyf;Fs;shf;fg;gly;> kW gf;fk; fUf;fiyg;G njhlh;ghd
tsq;fisAk;> NritfisAk; gfph;tjd; Clhf xUj;jUf;nfhUj;jh;
ntspg;gilahf> cWJizahf epw;Fk; ngz;fisf; nfhz;l r%fq;fspd;
cw;gj;jp) fUf;fiyg;G chpikf;fhd nray;thjpfs;> ngz; ghypay;
njhopyhspfs; vt;thW GhpjYld;> gpur;rpidf;F Kfq;nfhLj;J> jPh;Tf;fhf>
fUf;fiyg;Gf;fhd mZFjYf;fhf xUj;jUf;nfhUj;jh; cWJizahf
epw;fpd;wdh; vd;gjid fw;Wf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. ,e;jpa gp;d;dzpAld;
Nehf;fpd;> ,jDld; Nrh;j;J> vq;fsJ ,af;fkhdJ ghJfhg;ghd
fUf;fiyg;gpid mZFtijAk;> ghJfhg;ghd fUf;fiyg;gpid nra;J
nfhs;tijAk;> midj;J ngz;fSf;Fk; xU chpik vd;gJ ,d;Dk;
tsh;e;J tUifapy; vkJ ,af;fkhdJ ,d;Dk; tphptiljy; Ntz;Lk;. ,q;F
fle;j ,U jrhg;jq;fshf ghypay; njhopyhspfs; ,af;fkhdJ mgptpUj;jp
nra;J itj;Js;sgb> ,af;fj;jpid xOq;FgLj;jTk;> fl;bnaOg;gTk;

Njitahd %Nyhghaq;fis ehk; mjpfk; mth;fsplkpUe;J fw;Wf; nfhs;s

ngz;zpiythj ,af;fq;fSf;Fs; fUf;fiyg;G chpik kw;Wk;
ghypay; njhopyhspfsJ chpikfs; Mfpa ,uz;bd; kPjhd gpsTfs;
gw;wpa tuyhWfs; xUGwkpUe;jhYk;> ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd ePjpahdJ
,g;gpsTfis rhpfhz cjTk;. Vnddpy; ,J xd;Wld; xd;W njhlh;GWk;
mrkj;Jtq;fSf;nfjpuhf Fuy; nfhLg;gjd; Clhf \njhpT| vd;gjid
midtUf;Fk; eilKiw rhj;jpakhd xd;whf;Ftij ,yf;fhff;
nfhz;Ls;sJ. Mdhy; ,k;Kaw;rpfs;> ,dtpUj;jpf;fhd ePjpf; nfhs;iffis
ehk; rPuhfg; gpuNahfpj;jy;>

MNuhf;fpakhd Ra tpkh;rdq;fs; %ykhf khj;jpuNk mile;J nfhs;s
KbAk;. fUf;fiyg;G chpikf;fhd nray;thjpfisg; nghWj;jstpy;>
\Vida tpspk;G epiyapYs;s FOf;fs;| vd cl;fpilahf mth;fis
cs;slf;fpdhy; NghJkhdJ vd;W mDkhdpg;gij tpLj;J ghypay;
njhopyhspfis mth;fsJ mDgtq;fis (fUf;fiyg;G> kw;Wk; ,d;dgpw)
gfpu;tjw;fhf mZFjiyf; Fwpf;Fk;. mg;gbahapd; kl;LNk> ehk;
,dtpUj;jpf;fhd chpikfSf;fhd ,af;fj;jpy;> fUf;fiyg;G njhlh;ghf
gd;ikj;Jtkhd milahsq;fisAk;> fijfisAk;> mDgtq;fisAk;
nfhz;bUf;f gu];gukhf xU ntspapid cWjpg;gLj;j KbAk;.
mj;Jld; ,dtpUj;jpapd; kPjhd xLf;FKiwapid midtUf;Fkhf
,y;yhnjhopg;gjw;fhd vkJ gu];gu ,yf;fpy; xU mq;Fyk; Kd;Ndw

khw;Wj; jpwdhspfspd; tho;f;ifj; juj;ij cah;j;jTk;> jw;NghJs;s
rpWth;fSf;fhd r%f eyj; jpl;lq;fis Nkk;gLj;j tsq;fis xJf;ff;
NfhuTk; gug;Giu nra;a tha;g;Gz;L. Mapd; ,t;thW nra;ifapy;> vkJ
Fbikg; Gj;jfq;fspy; cs;sthwhd fw;gid cyfpy; md;wp JUg; gbe;j>
re;Njhrkw;w> gzg; gw;whf;FiwAs;s xU ,yq;ifapy;jhd; ,e;j thjk;


[1] Smith, Charlie. Why Feminist Joyce Arthur Supports Sex Workers’ Rights. The Georgia
Straight.September 28, 2011.

[2] Kapp-Klote, H. Beyond Birth Control: Recent Reproductive Justice Stories That Fewer
People Are Talking About. Rewire. July 18, 2014.

[3] Ross, Loretta. Understanding Reproductive Justice. Trust Black Women. November
2006 (Updated March 2011).

[4] See for example: Madeiro, Alberto and Debora Diniz, “Induced Abortion Among
Brazilian Female Sex Workers”, Ciência & Saúde Coletiva 20.2 (2015): 587-593.

Marlow, Heather M. et al, “Abortion Services for Sex Workers in Uganda: Successful
Strategies in an Urban clinic”, Culture, Health & Sexuality 16.8 (2014): 931-943; Todd,
Catherine S. et al, “Contraceptive Utilization and Pregnancy Termination Among Female
Sex Workers in Afghanistan”, Journal of Women’s Health 19.11 (2010): 2057-2062.

[5] Feldblum, Paul J. et al, “Pregnancy Among Sex Workers Participating in a Condom
Intervention Trial Highlights the Need for Dual Protection,” Contraception 76 (2007):

[6] Ghosh, “‘Professional’ Abortion Seekers: The Sex Workers of Kolkata,” CEHAT (2003):

[7] Marlow Op Cit, p. 935.

[8] Ghosh, Op Cit, p. 2.

[9] Cleeve, Amanda et al, “Attitudes and Experiences Regarding Induced Abortion
Among Female Sex Workers, Savannakhet Province, Laos,” Sexual & Reproductive
Healthcare 5 (2014): 137-141.