You are on page 1of 22

Acknowledgement

We would like to thank a number of people who greatly helped us and shared their knowledge and
experiences to complete this project. First we would like to thank faculty members, who were generous
enough to take time to answer our questions; and also we wish to express our profound gratitude and
indebtedness to ZINABU HAILU for introducing the present topic and for his inspiring guidance,
constructive criticism and valuable suggestions throughout this project work. We would also express our
gratitude to all the 5th year students of the department of chemical engineering & mechanical
engineering for their guidance and the support they have provided us.

Last but not least, our sincere thanks to all our friends & seniors who have patiently extended all sorts of
help for accomplishing this undertaking.
ABSTRACT
A table fan is a small, portable type of fan that is used in various rooms of a home or office. It is more
convenient compared to other types, like kitchen exhaust, window, and pedestal fans because of its
portability. It serves a number of functions for home owners and office workers such as conservation of
energy compared to using air conditioners, removal of heat and unwanted fumes from indoor areas,
cooling a room and generation of mechanical noise that helps to distract a person's attention from
undesirable background noise so he could focus on his task. an electric table fan is a powered machine
used to create flow within a fluid, typically a gas such as air. A fan consists of a rotating arrangement of
vanes or blades which act on the air. The rotating assembly of blades and hub is known as an impeller, a
rotor, or a runner. Usually, it is contained within some form of housing or case. Mechanically, a fan can
be any revolving vane or vanes used for producing currents of air. Fans produce air flows with high
volume and low pressure (although higher than ambient pressure), as opposed to compressors which
produce high pressures at a comparatively low volume. A fan blade will often rotate when exposed to an
air fluid stream, and devices that take advantage of this, such as anemometers and wind turbines, often
have designs similar to that of a fan. In this project the increasing heat transfer rate and removing dust
and fume from the working space by using our developed electric fan have been discussed. By
surveying on the customer needs we think about the increasing of heat transfer rate which makes our
product more appreciable to the customer. It provides comfort and fresh breathable environment for the
user. This developed electric table fan can be made by various materials. We have discussed all the steps
and the purpose for developing the fan. We have also calculated the economic analysis. So we hope that
our product will take a better position in the market competition of the existing product.

Table of content
Table of content

Title page no.


ABSTRACT………………………………………………………………………………
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT…………………………………………………………………

CHAPTER ONE…………………………………………………………………………
INTRODUCTION……………………………………………………………………….
1.1 BACKGROUND……………………………………………………………………
1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM……………………………………………
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM………………………………………………
1.4 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT……………………………………………………
1.4.1 GENERAL OBJECTIVE…………………………………………………………
1.4.2 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES……………………………………………………..
1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT……………………………………………………………..
1.6 SUBJECT OF THE PROJECT …………………………………………………………

CHAPTER TWO……………………………………………………………………………….
LITERATURE REVIEW……………………………………………………………………
2.1 INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………….
2.2 THE DEFFINATION OF PLASTIC …………………………………………………
2.3 HISTORY OF PLASTIC………………………………………………………..
2.3.1 WHAT IS POLYMER…………………………………………………….
2.4 FEATURES OF PLASTICS……………………………………………………
2.5 TYPES OF PLASTIC WASTES……………………………………………………..
2.5.1 MUNICIPAL PLASTIC WASTE………………………………………………..
2.5.2 INDUSTRIAL PLASTIC WASTE……………………………………………….
2.6 PREVIOS STUDIES RELATED TO USING RECYCLED PLASTIC WASTE AS ELECTRIC TABLE FAN
2.7 REASONS FOR USING PLASTIC WASTES…………………………………………..
2.8 CONCLUDING REMARKS……………………………………………………………

CHAPTER THREE………………………………………………………………..
MATERIALS AND METHADES …………………………………………………………
3.1 INTRODUCTION ……………………………………………………………………………………
3.2 MATERIALS………………………………………………………………………………………..
3.2.1 CONNECTING WIRE …………………………………………………………………………
3.2.2 DYNAMMO……………………………………………………………………………………….
3.2.3 BATTERY………………………………………………………………………………………..
3.2.3 PLASSTIC WASTE…………………………………………………………………………….
3.2.4 SCISSOR OR KNIFE…………………………………………………………………………
3.3 PREPARATION TECHNIQUES OF ETF……………………………………………………
3.4 WORKING PRINCIPLE OF ETF……………………………………………………………..
CHAPTER- ONE

INTRODUCTION
1.1BACKGROUND
Electric table fan is one of the most common electric appliances used in houses, offices, shops and
business establishments to provide air circulation and to cool down temperature. Fan circulates the air,
which enhances the evaporation rate of sweet from body, due to which body is cooled. Electric fans are
used to regulate interior temperatures. People commonly use them during hot and humid summer
days to increase air movement throughout a home. Some electric fans are movable and can
be put on a desk or on the floor. Electric table fan is an efficient product for recycling
plastic bottles and turning them in to more useful objects. The purpose of this project is to
introduce our group’s design of an electric table fan from plastic wastes that are available
in our surrounding. With a rise with global warming and increasing pollution levels, it is
becoming essential to find viable alternatives on recycling plastics. The fans should be
suitable for home/portable use. Electric fans made their first appearance in the 1880s.these
early fans were made primarily of brass. Over the ensuring decades, fans were constructed
out of a large number of materials including steel, copper, and aluminum. In the 21 st
century, most domestic fans made out of plastic.

T yp i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n o f f a n s i n c l u d e c l i m a t e c o n t r o l , v e h i c l e a n d m a c h i n e r y
c o o l i n g s ys t e m s , p e r s o n a l c o m f o r t ( e . g . a n e l e c t r i c t a b l e f a n ) , v e n t i l a t i o n , f u m e
extraction, winnowing(e.g. separating ch aff cereals grains),removing
d u s t ( e . g . i n a v a c u u m c l e a n e r ) , d r yi n g ( u s u a l l y i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h h e a t ) a n d t o
provide a draft for fire. It is also common to use electrical table fans as air
fresheners, by attaching softener sheets to the protective housing. T his causes
the fragrance to be carried in to the surrounding. A fan is a machine used to create air
flow, typically a gas such as air. The fan consists of a rotating arrangement of vanes or blades which act
on the fluid. The rotating assembly of blades and hub is known as an impeller, a rotor, or a runner.
Usually, it is contained within some form of housing or case. This may direct the airflow or increase
safety by preventing objects from contacting the fan blades. Most fans are powered by electric motors,
but other sources of power may be used, including hydraulic motors and internal combustion engines.
Fans produce flows with high volume and low pressure (although higher than ambient pressure), as
opposed to compressors which produce high pressures at a comparatively low volume. A fan blade will
often rotate when exposed to a fluid stream, and devices that take advantage of this, such as
anemometers and wind turbines, often have designs similar to that of a fan. An electric table fan is a
small, portable type of fan that is used in various rooms of a home or office. It is more convenient
compared to other types, like kitchen exhaust, window, and pedestal fans because of its portability. It
serves a number of functions for home owners and office workers such as conservation of energy
compared to using air conditioners, removal of heat and unwanted fumes from indoor areas, cooling a
room and generation of mechanical noise that helps to distract a person's attention from undesirable
background noise so he could focus on his task.

1.2 JUSTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM


Electric table fans have a limited market in humera. We wish for electric table fan in their product range
that would be successful in Ethiopia. Because of the differences in culture we want someone who
understands the humera market to design the product. Most we are in contradiction to humera people,
brought up with a fan in their homes. We are interested in how the humera people use a fan and what
needs and requirements they have. A wish from us is also that the design of the fan will be possible to
translate to other rural areas of humera city. Location factors are crucial for the wealth maximization of
the firm and development of the fan in good quality. The following factors are mandatory to select when
someone wants to design electric table fan.

1. Availability of raw material: raw materials play a vital role to achieve quality improvement the fan
and cost reduction in production. Urban areas are the best to get raw materials easily because they
are attached with highland water industries. Materials like plastic bottles, wires, and dynamo are
easily available at near to the town. so this location is suitable for someone who wants to design
electric table fan.
2. Availability of power and water: electric table fan could not work without power. Therefore
adequate electricity and regular flow of electricity allows greater freedom of choice for location.
3. Nearness to markets: quickness in marketing action can be ensured by the being close to the market
4. Availability of labors: workers or labors are the most imported person in developing electric table
fan. If labor gets easily then we can control or reduce the cost of production.
1.3 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM
Plastic waste is one of the most problematic garbage of this country. This study aims to give another
solution in decreasing the volume of plastic bottle waste. Using the application of science, we have
proposed a product that would help in plastic bottle re-usage. This study aims to answer these questions;

 Would this be project be effective in solving waste problems?


 What benefits would this project bring?
 Is the product of the project cost-effective?

The limitation of this activity is whether this product would be effective in terms of material durability.
Also, one of the project’s limitations is that whether it would be effective in terms of numbers of people
would one product benefit. This project is conducted for the purpose of finding out solutions on how to
minimize plastic wastes. Our project constructs a simple circuit using plastic bottles, turning them in to
usable and efficient table fans. This project may help in the world’s problem on minimizing plastic
bottle wastes. Using a battery and a plastic bottle we will produce an electric table fan.

1.4 OBJECTIVES OF THIS PROJECT

1.4.1 General objective: The main objective of this project is to provide design improvements to the
electric table fan from plastic wastes. The primary goal is to improve the nature of the generated air flow
but considerations would also be made for durability and structural integrity by evaluating and
modifying if necessary, the critical structural components that are prone to damaging loading conditions.

1.4.2 Specific objectives: the specific objectives of this work are to;
 Reduce the amount of temperature or to cool down homes, offices etc
 Remove moisture and pollutants at their source is far more effective than
allowing them to dissipate over time.
 Control moisture reduces the cause of many molds and protects the finishes of
your home.
 Control odors and chemical by products reduces health hazards that may be
associated with these substances.
 Provides healthy atmosphere to animals and workers.
 Removes bad odor from the houses.
 Prevent spread of infections.
 To reuse the plastic wastes those are available in our environment.
1.5 SCOPE OF THE PROJECT: The scopes of this project are:
I. Detail material used and the orientation of the waste plastic bottle in the
electric table fan ii. Sample preparation on the designing of electric table fan
iii. Technical analysis of electric table fan

1.6 SUBJECT OF THE PROJECT


Our group is composed of ten members. We searched about a project that would imply the science of
physics that is about electronics application and a product that would be helpful in a community. We
came up of the product recycled “electric table fan”. The design of the product is a simple series circuit
that involves a switch, battery, dynamo, plastic blades that were cut off a plastic bottle. Through the
project on ourselves, we came up with this project.
CHAPTER-TWO

LITERATURE REVIEW
This chapter provides an overview of previous studies related to the subject of this project work. This is
done in order to scope out the electric table fans made from plastic waste requirements for the primary
project to be conducted, and it formed part of the emergent project design process. The industrial
revolution in the late 19th century introduced belt-drivenfans powered by factory water wheels.
Attaching wooden or metal blades to shafts over head that were used to drive the machinary, the first
industrial fans were developed. One of the first workable mechanical fans was built by omar in 1832. He
called his invention a kind of centrifugal fan, an “air pump”. Centrifugal fans were the industrial
revolution in the late 19th century introduced belt driven fans powered successfully tested inside coal
mines and factories in 1832-1834. When thomas edson and nicola tesla introduced electrical power in
the late 19th and early 20th century for puplic,the personal electrical fans was introduced. Between the
years 1882 and 1886, new orelean resident Schuyler Wheeler invented the firest electric fan.it was
commercially marketed by the American firm crocker and curtis electric motor campany. In 1882,Phillip
Diehl introduced the electric table fan. Heat convection fans fueled by alcohol, oil, kerosine were
common around the turn of the 20th century.the first American fans were made from around the late
1890s to the early 1920s, w h e n d o m e s t i c e l e c t r i c f a n s w e r e f i r s t s o l d i n A m e r i c a . They
had brass blades, many of them also had brass cages, and though they were built very well internally,
they were far from finger safe, as thecage openings were often so big that one could put In the 1920s,
industrial advances allowed steel to be mass produced in an entire hand or arm through it. Many
children had hands and fingers severely injured by those fans.In the 1920s, industrial advances
allowed steel to be mass produced in different shapes,bringing fans prices down and
allowing more home owners to affored them. The basic design of electric air fans has not
changed significantly since their beginning in 1890.Coandaeffect bladeless fans introduced in the early
twenty first centuryhad not as of 2012 become a significant proportion of fans in use. In prosperous regionswith a hot
climate electric fans for personal comfort had been largely replaced by air conditioners.
2.1 Introduction
Plastics are polymers, a very large molecule made up of smaller units called monomers which are joined
together in a chain by a process called polymerization. The polymers generally contain carbon and
hydrogen with, sometimes, other elements such as oxygen, nitrogen, chlorine or fluorine. Plastics have
become an integral part of our lives. The amount of plastics consumed annually has been growing
steadily. Its low density, strength, user-friendly designs, fabrication capabilities, long life, lightweight,
and low cost are the factors behind such phenomenal growth. Plastics have been used in packaging,
automotive and industrial applications, medical delivery systems, artificial implants, other healthcare
applications, water desalination, land/soil conservation, flood prevention, preservation and distribution
of food, housing, communication materials, security systems, and other uses. With such large and
varying applications, plastics contribute to an ever increasing volume in the solid waste stream. The
world’s annual consumption of plastic materials has increased from around 5 million tons in the 1950s
to nearly100 million tons in 2001. Quantities of waste plastic have been rising rapidly during the recent
decades due to the high increase in industrialization and the considerable improvement in the standards
of living, but unfortunately, the majority of these waste quantities are not being recycled but rather
abandoned causing certain serious problems such as the waste of natural resources and environmental
pollution. In Modern age, plastic is one of the great miracle material. It is playing a very important role
in this era. In fact, plastic has made possible to take aeronautics technology to further forwarded giant
steps over past 60 years including the advancements in satellites, aircraft, shuttles, missiles and so on. It
now a day plays an important role not only in earth but also for the space exploration. Moreover, plastics
are benefitting the constructions works, electronics, the transportation, the packaging and the industries,
actually everywhere in our daily life. Modern Plastic has been first introduced to the world in middle of
last century during world war two. During the war, this material was slowly being used as the alternative
of other materials such as rubber, iron and woods. Eventually it became the most preferable material on
the top than of those materials too. It had been used in airborne radar systems and made a great result as
a significant technology because it allowed the waves to pass without creating a big loss. Plastic is one
of the most significant innovations of 20th century material. The amount of plastic consumed annually
has been growing steadily and becomes a serious environmental problem. For solving the disposal of
large amount of recycled plastic material, use of plastic in making of electric table fans is considered as
feasible application. Quantities of waste plastic have been rising rapidly during the recent decades due to
the high increase in industrialization and the considerable improvement in the standards of living, but
unfortunately, the majority of these waste quantities are not being recycled but rather abandoned causing
certain serious problems such as the waste of natural resources and environmental pollution.
2.2 The definition of Plastic
“Plastic” word is generally being used as a common term for mentioning the wide range of synthetic or
semi synthetic materials used and their range of applications. It is one of the most usable products now a
day in this modern era. It play a very important vital role everywhere in our daily life. It’s unimaginable
to life a single day without plastic, that’s how, plastic has got engaged with our modern civilization.
Plastics are the materials for today and also the choice for the future because they have made it possible
to create a balance a modern day needs with the environment concerns. Plastics are organic. The raw
materials of plastics are mainly natural products such as cellulose, coal, natural gas, salt, and of course,
the crude oil. Most of the industrial plastics are being mad of petrochemical. The term’ Plastic’ has
derived from two Greek words‘Plastikos’and‘Plastos’.Plastikos means ‘fit for molding’ and Plastos
means ‘to remain molded’. The derived words of plastics refer to the material’s malleability and
plasticity during the manufacturing of it that allows be pressing, casting, or extruding into a variety of
shapes such as fibers, plates, tubes, boxes, bottles, films and so on. Generally plastic can be describes as
materials that consists of polymers which contain long chain of carbon and other chemical elements
such as Hydrogen, nitrogen, Oxygen, Chlorine and so on. In that sense, plastic is a specific subset of
Polymers. So, it is necessary to know about polymers before plastics. Polymer is a molecule of a large
number of small repeating same or complicated subunits. Polymer is derived from two Greek words
‘Poly’ & ‘Mer’. Poly means many and mer mean parts. So polymer means a large molecule or
macromolecule consisting of many repeated subunits. A polymer’s subunit is called monomer.
For Example: Ethylene is the monomer of Polyethylene where the symbol of Ethylene is (CH2=CH2).
On the other hand, the symbol of polyethylene is - (-CH2-CH2-) –. In the polymerization process,
Monomers bonds always break down process and then an open bond is created in the monomer. So,
after breaking down, the monomer can join with other to make a new bond or can repeat the same unite
to form long chain of the monomers.

2.2.1 What is a polymer? There are mainly two types of polymers;

1. Natural Polymers
2. Synthetic polymers
Natural polymers are the Bio-polymers where the backbones of the polymers are made of Carbone-
carbon bonds where the heterochain polymers have other elements such as Oxygen, sulfur, Nitrogen and
so on. Glycogen, Cellulose, DNA, RNA, Polypeptides and Proteins etc. are the examples of natural
organic Bio polymers. Natural polymers as well as synthetic polymers can also be divided into two more
categories such as; Organic polymers and Inorganic polymers. On the other hand, Synthetic polymers
are the human made polymers which can be classified into four main categories. They are;
1. Thermoplastics
2. Thermosets
3. Elastomers
4. Synthetic fibers
Here, Thermoplastics and thermosets are considered as the main two classifications of Plastics.

2.3 History of Plastic


The years between 1920s and 1930s, are very remarkably known for the development of plastics. The
major today’s known plastics were invented and designed during that time including nylon,
polytetrafluoroethylene known as Teflon, Methyl methacrylate known as Plexiglas and so on. Wallace
H. Carothers of DuPont was the inventor of Nylon and it was developed later on by a chemist named
Chemist Julian Hill. In 1938, Teflon was discovered by Roy Plunkett by chance. Also manes of the
synthetic materials were developed during the World War II including synthetic rubber. After the war,
the advancement of Plastics industries continued their development. In 1953 Polyethylene was
developed by a German Chemist Karl Ziegler and the following next year, polypropylene was developed
by an Italian chemist Giulio Natta. They were awarded Nobel Prize together in 1963 because of their
researches. Polyethylene and Polypropylene are the most commonly used plastics now days. World has
been reached in today’s position because of the efforts and achievements of 3rd generation during the
period of 1978 till 2000. Still the plastics are being continuously developed and being replaced
continuously with the other materials likes wood and glass to find out the more advanced plastics and
products. Today we are living at the age of polymers and plastics as the new era of modern civilization.

2.4 Features of Plastics


Now day, Different types of plastic have made our life much easier in different ways than before and
even day by day, people are becoming dependent more and more on Plastics. By characteristics, Plastic
has durability, versatility, flexibility, inert and so on. Some of the main facts about plastics are;

 Plastic has high heat combustion


 Plastics are a very good abrasion resistance
 Plastic can remain without absorbing much moisture
 Plastic contains very minimum water than the water content in the biomass
 Plastics are available in the local community with attractive colors
 Plastics are very cheap comparing with other products
 They can be molded in any shape
 They very light in weight
 Plastics are not affected by insects or they do not undergo corrosion
2.5 Types of plastic wastes:
The types of the waste plastics are LDPE, HDPE, PP, PS, and PVC. The problems of waste plastics
can‘t be solved by land filling or incineration, because the safety deposits are expensive and incineration
stimulates the growing emission of harmful greenhouse gases like COx, NOx, SOx and etc. These types
of disposal of the waste plastics release toxic gas which has negative impact on environment. Plastic
wastes can also classified as industrial and municipal plastic wastes according to their origins, these
groups have different qualities and properties and are subjected to different management strategies.
Plastic wastes represent a considerable part of municipal wastes furthermore huge amounts of plastic
waste arise as a by-product or faulty product in industry and agriculture. The total plastic waste, over
78% weight of this total corresponds to thermoplastics and the remaining to thermosets. Thermoplastics
are composed of polyolefin’s such as polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene and polyvinyl chloride
and can be recycled. On the other hand thermosets mainly include epoxy resins and polyurethanes and
cannot be recycled.

2.5.1Municipal Plastic wastes: Wastes Municipal plastic wastes (MPW) normally remain a part of
municipal solid wastes as they are discarded and collected a household wastes. The various sources of
MPW plastics includes domestic items (food containers, milk covers, water bottles, packaging foam,
disposable cups, plates, cutlery, CD and cassette boxes. fridge liners, vending cups, electronic
equipment cases, drainage pipe, carbonated drinks bottles, plumbing pipes and guttering, flooring.
cushioning foams, thermal insulation foams, surface coatings, etc.), agricultural (mulch films, feed bags,
fertilizer bags, and in temporary tarpaulin-like uses such as covers for hay, silage, etc.), wire and cable,
automobile wrecking, etc. Thus, the MPW collected plastics waste is mixed one with major components
of polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride, polyethylene terephthalate, etc. The
percentage of plastics in MPW has increased significantly.
2.5.2 Industrial Plastic Wastes: Industrial plastic wastes are those arising from the large plastics
manufacturing, processing and packaging industry. The industrial waste plastic mainly constitute
plastics from construction and demolition companies (e.g. polyvinylchloride pipes and fittings, tiles and
sheets) electrical and electronics industries (e.g. switch boxes, cable sheaths, cassette boxes, TV screens,
etc.) and the automotive industries spare-parts for cars, such as fan blades, seat coverings, battery
containers and front grills). Most of the industrial plastic waste has relatively well physical
characteristics i.e. they are sufficiently clean and free of contamination and are available in fairly large
quantities.
2.6 Previous studies related to using recycled plastic waste as electric table fan
Electric table fans used in many studies prepared from plastic wastes obtained from different sources.
As an example plastic bottles were cuted in the laboratory by using cutting machines such as scissors
and sieved to get the suitable size fraction. In 1882, the first electric fan was invented by Dr.Schuyler
wheeler. His first model consisted two blades and had no protective cage surrounding the blades. There
are three types of electric fan: axial flow fan, centrifugal fan, cross flow or tangential fan. A table fan is
an axial fan and of a smaller size to have on a desk, table or other similar areas. It is portable and easy to
carry everywhere.

2.7Reasons for using plastic wastes: although plastic waste is not good for the environment and is
creating tons of trash around the world, it still plays a very important role in our everyday life. In fact
plastic waste is a very useful material that brings us convenience and makes many things possible. One
of the well known fact is its environment friendly and cheap price. Except for some disadvantages
plastic wastes are surprisingly beneficial in different aspects for e.g. the electric table fan. Plastic is also
durable and strong. Due to the way the plastic molecules arrange it can stay intact for a long time as
well as is very strong and not brittle.plastices is also very easy to be molded and shaped.

2.8 concluding remark


The previous studies showed that lot of efforts have been done for investigating the effect of using
waste/recycled plastic materials as a component in the electric table fan, but all of them are trying to
confirm the situation and the relevant specifications in their local areas. This project aims to implement
a similar task but with applying the available locally used materials specially using environment friendly
plastic bottles as a raw material.
CHAPTER –THREE
MATERIALS AND METHADES

3.1 Introduction
This chapter presents the experimental design program and the constituent materials used to develop the
potential usefulness of using recycled plastic wastes for electric table fan. In this experimental work, the
effects of recycled plastic wastes, or the blades of the Coca-Cola bottle will be seen by varying the
number of blades. Several parameters were considered in the experimental design of electric table fan
such as the way of using recycled plastic, the type of recycled plastic, the size of blades of the cutted
bottle. This work presents the test procedure, details and equipment’s used to make the electric table fan
ventilator. The test procedures, details and equipment used to develop electric table fan are illustrated in
the following sections.

3.2 Materials
Authors believe, “the raw materials are like the parts of human body “with out which the person cannot
perform his activities. Raw materials are very important requirement of every design work. The
production and development of any product is not possible without raw materials.raw materials are
regarded as assets and are given or sold at higher prices.raw material is essential element of any product
development without it no one is produce anything or product. The raw materials are the most important
components of production process such as the development of electric table fan. When raw materials are
collected then and only then production is possible. If the raw materials are available in the cheapest
way it is the most important advantage for the firms. The raw materials can be compared to water, air,
and food for human beings which are very important so as the raw materials for the firm. Some of the
raw materials used in this project acquired from local market only and some are from our environment.

The materials were used in the experimental program include, wire, dynamo (motor), battery, wood,
switch, recycled plastic and scissors.

3.2.1 Connecting wire: is the material that connects the motor (dynamo) to the battery in order to
oscillate the blades of the electric table fan.
3.2.2 Dynamo (the motor): a device that makes direct current electric power during this project work.
The table fan is driven by an electronic motor. Motor converts electrical energy into rotational
mechanical energy, this means that this dynamo is used as a major raw material to rotate or oscillate the
blades of the fan. in our project we were used either 6v or 9v DC.
Figure3.1 connecting wire and dynammo
3.2.3 Battery: The battery used has a cycle voltage of 1.5 v. Current is supplied to the DC motor by the
battery, which in turn energizes the fan blade for clockwise rotation thereby producing the desired
cooling effect. The battery is used as a power source to rotate the blades of the fan.

Figure3.2 1.5v battery

3.2.4 Plastic wastes: these raw materials are easily available in our environment and are used to make
the fan blades (the rotating part of the electric table fan). The plastic wastes that we were used in this
project are plastic bottles.
Figure 3.3 plastic bottles
3.2.5 Scissors or knifes: Scissors are cutting instruments consisting of a pair of metal blades connected
in such a way that the blades meet and cut materials placed between them when the handles are brought
together.

Scissors are hand-operated shearing tools. A pair of scissors consists of a pair of metal blades pivoted so
that the sharpened edges slide against each other when the handles (bows) opposite to the pivot are
closed. Scissors are used for cutting various thin materials, such as paper, cardboard, metal
foil, cloth, rope, and wire. A large variety of scissors and shears all exist for specialized purposes.

3.3 Preparation techniques of electric table fan


1. Preparation or collecting of the all raw materials: initially the raw materials were prepared from
different sources, such as the plastic wastes were collected from our surrounding, and dynamo,
battery and switch were collected from the town of adigrat especially from the computer and
computer accessories (electronics shop).
Figure 3.4 plastic bottle collecting
2. After we prepared the plastic, waste bottle was cut at the centre of the bottle to prepare a blade.

These blades were cut using knife or scissors at equal size of each blade about 30-60cm length and the
top portion of the bottle was discarded.

Blade: typically fans have three to eight blades. Many people believe that fans with more blades move
more air, but the number of blades does not affect performance, only aesthetics.yhe important elements
in blade performance are pitch, length, and balance. Lower quality fans spin short blades with a shallow
pitch of 10 degrees. These fans swirl quickly but move less air than a slower fan with a short blades at
the industry standard of 14 degrees. Blade length range from 30 to 60 cm. generally the longer the blade,
the more air a fan moves.fan blades come in many styles, from acrylic to hard wood. While blade
material does not affect performance, the quality of the blade will affect the durability. High quality
blades, laminated blades will not wrap. Before installing your blades, check for wrap by sighting down
the edge of the blade, as if aiming as a rifle. Also blade fans must be balanced or the fan will wobble.
Most quality blades come as balanced sets from factory. Don’t try to exchange blades between different
fans. If your table fan starts wobbing, you can purchase balancing kit. Similar to the dynamic balance
weights placed on automobile rims when purchasing a new tire, the balance kit works to distribute the
weight of the blades evenly.

Blade/Impeller assembly. Cuts the air and pushes it forward.


Figure 3.5 cutting plastic bottle

3. next to preparation of blade fan, the blade fans was heated in order to strengthen or to harden their
strength and to give good rotation

Figure 3.6 electric table fan blades


4. Choose the Voltage of Power Source: a DC toy motor (dynamo) and the batteries was choosed to
match it as the power source for the electric fan. If the DC toy motor didn’t come with wires, solder
some wire onto one end of the toy motor. The DC motor shown in figure 3.1 was chosen.
5. Build the Base and Stand: after the choosing of dynamo, the base or the stand of the electric table fan
was build together. Bases Supports the entire mechanism of the electric table fan. The base of the fan
is made up of plastic material which is simple to move from place to place.
6. Prepare the wiring of electric table fan: the bottle cap from the fan blades was removed and pierced a
hole through its center with a pair of scissors. This was the hole through which the pointed end of the
toy motor is to pierce through. Then the pointed end was secured to the bottle cap with glue. Then
affix the fan blades to the bottle cap by screwing the cap back on to the neck of the bottle.

Figure 3.7 hole of a cap of plastic bottle

7. Insert the motor to cap: the dynamo was inserted to the holed cap of the plastic bottle with its end.
And the motor was attached either with cola or with mastish in order not to separate each other. After
the dc motor inserted to the whole cap, the dynamo was set on the head of the stand and the 1.5v battery
again was set near to the dc motor in order to connect the wire from the dc motor to the battery easily.

figure 3.8 inserting motor to cap


Finally the prepared fan blades were inserted to the end of the dynamo which was entered to the cap.
7. Attach all parts: at the end of all process done the wires of the dc motor was attached to the battery
(i.e. one end of the wire to the –ve charge end of the battery and the other to the +ve charge of the
battery) and by using the controller on/off the fan was started to rotate.

3.4 working principle of electric table fan


The working of fan is quite simple. These are the steps as follows:
The table fan basically contains a single phase induction motor. This is the main component of the
electric fan. The capacitor present in the fan is used to give the starting torque to the electric motor
which allows it to start and run. When the electrical current reaches the motor of the table fan it
immediately enters coils of wire which is wrapped around a base of metal or a core. This current passes
through the wire (the coiling), there is a magnetic field generated which exerts force in a clockwise
direction and this is the process or the step that changes the electric energy into mechanical energy using
electromagnetism. This clockwise directional force causes the motor coils to spin. As the coil spins, the
table fan or rather it be a ceiling which is usually the casing of the coil taps into this spinning motion,
and along with its blades this also rotates. The slicing or cutting of the air by the fan blades is the reason
behind the air being pushed forward which causes the air flow created by the fan.
Regarding the air flow, the blades of a table fan are oriented at an angle and when the blades hit the
molecules of air these molecules bounce off after colliding carrying the kinetic energy (partially more
than initial due to collision with blades) which makes us feel the gust of air flow.
Apart from that table fans have an oscillating or a swing mechanism in which they rotate from one side
to another more than 100 degrees about their fixed position by means of a gear system behind them
giving a gusts of air in a wide range.