You are on page 1of 32

EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

OUTLINE
1.! Introduction: Rationale and Course Description 2
2.! Contextualization 3
3.! Legal Framework and Curricular Stages: Curriculum Design 5
4.! Primary Education Stage General Objectives, EFFL Area Main Aim and Teaching Goals 5
5.! Key Competences and the EFFL Area: Lifelong Learning 7
5.1.! Contribution of the EFFL Area to the Development of Key Competences
5.2.! Competency Profile for the EFFL Area in Primary Education (1st Grade)
6.! EFFL Area Contents: Intradisciplinarity 12
7.! Interdisciplinarity: Across the Curriculum 14
7.1.! Transversal Elements
7.2.! Connections to other Subject Areas: Curriculum Integration
7.3.! Values Education
8.! Competence-based Evaluation. Evaluation Criteria, Learning Standards and Performance
Indicators. Assessment Instruments: Achievement Levels and Rubrics (Grading Policy).
Annual Area Profile: Course Requirements 16
9.! Methodology and Class Dynamics 19
9.1.! Pedagogical Principles and Instructional Strategies for Lifelong Learning
9.2.! Teacher’s and Pupils’ Roles: Learning Implications
9.3.! Exercises, Activities and Tasks for Lifelong Learning
9.4.! Teaching Resources and Materials
9.5.! Classroom Management
10.!Treatment of Diversity. Inclusivity Statement: Academic Recovery and Support 21
11.!Plan for the Promotion of Reading Habits in the EFFL Class 22
12.!Supplementary and Extracurricular Activities 23
13.!Teaching Units Proposal: Curricular Application and Didactic Transposition 25
1.! Teaching Unit 1 Title (September 10th-September 30th)
2.! Teaching Unit 2 Title (October 1st-October 18th)
3.! Teaching Unit 3 Title (October 21st-November 12th)
4.! Teaching Unit 4 Title (November 13th-November 29th)
5.! Teaching Unit 5 Title (December 2nd- December 20th)
6.! Teaching Unit 6 Title (January 8th-January 25th)
7.! Teaching Unit 7 Title (January 28th-February 15th)
8.! Teaching Unit 8 Title (February 18th-March 13th)
9.! Teaching Unit 9 Title (March 14th-March 30th)
10.!Teaching Unit 10 Title (April 1st-April 22nd)
11.!Teaching Unit 11 Title (April 23rd-May 20th)
12.!Teaching Unit 12 Title (May 21st-June 21st)
14.!References and Further Reading 50
15.!Appendix

Paco Aranda! ! 1 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

51
1.! INTRODUCTION: RATIONALE AND COURSE DESCRIPTION
“I believe that teaching is one of the most delightful and exciting of all human activities when it is done well
and that it is one of the most humiliating and tedious when it is done poorly”

Paul Ramsden

Syllabus Design is a specification of the content of a course of instruction and lists what will be taught
and tested (Richards, 2001). The 2013 Organic Act on Education Quality Improvement (LOMCE)
defines Syllabus as a series of Objectives (in each Educational Stage and Level); Contents (the ability to
activate and apply the knowledge of each Subject Area and Educational Stage in an integrated way),
Competences (all the abilities, skills and attitudes which help achieve the objectives of each Educational
Stage and Grade for the promotion of Lifelong Learning); Methodology (which includes the description of
teaching practices and the organization of teachers' work); Gradable Learning Standards and Results; and
Evaluation Criteria of the degree of Key Competences acquisition and the objectives of each Educational
Stage and Level.
This EFFL (English as a First Foreign Language) Syllabus Design is aimed at the 1st grade of
Primary Education (6 to 7 year old pupils). It contains 12 Teaching Units to be taught during a whole
school year. Nine Teaching Units of this proposal focus on the acquisition of Communicative Functions,
while the other three focus on the transmission of knowledge about L2 (Secod Language) Cultural Aspects.
This Syllabus Design is not based on any course book: it is an original and personal didactic proposal.
We may define this EFFL syllabus through its main features:
- It is Competence-based: instead of selecting a topic or field of knowledge that one is going to teach and
then choosing “concepts, knowledge, and skills that constitute that field of knowledge”, Competence-
based Language Teaching “is designed not around the notion of subject knowledge but around the
notion of competence” (Richards & Rodgers, 2001). Therefore, the focus is on how the students can use
the language instead of their knowledge about the language. This approach is outcome-based and it
influences this Syllabus, especially the kind of assessment that is used. Students have to perform
specific language skills that they have already learned during the course. The Key Competences tested
consist of a description of the essential skills, knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors required for effective
performance of a real-world task or activity (see section 5).
- It is Learner-centered: students and their ability to learn are at the center of what we do. This means
that we focus on the process of learning rather than the content. As EFFL teachers, we want to make our
students autonomous, lifelong learners (see section 9.2).
- It is Task-based: the content of the teaching is a series of purposeful tasks that the students want or
need to perform with the language they are learning (see section 9.3).
- It is Content-based: this proposal emphasizes learning about something rather than learning about
language, and makes an effort to link the lessons with Transversal Elements, Values Education and
Interdisciplinary Learning (see section 7).
- It is Plot-based: an EFFL syllabus can be designed to build on the students’ own interests and the
content can be chosen from an enormous number of diverse topics. This story-based syllabus can raise
cultural awareness issues. This plot-based framework is designed to show students how the language they
already have learned is used in a different context, alternative to the course book. Learners are expected
to start developing a more positive attitude to learning the foreign language since stories are memorable,
as the language is repeated, and this encourages participating. Stories are expected to motivate the
learners and arouse their curiosity about the target language and its culture.

Paco Aranda! ! 2 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

This EFFL syllabus has a common thread or plot that gives coherence to the 12 lesson plans. It
catches the attention and interest of learners, making them want to move forward in the learning throughout
the school year. The common thread is Sesame Street, a long-running American children’s television series
created by Joan Ganz Cooney and Lloyd Morrisett. The show is known for its educational content and images,
communicated through the use of Jim Henson’s Muppets, animation, short films, humor, and cultural
references. Sesame Street was originally intended to teach English to immigrant kids in USA. With the
creation of Sesame Street, producers and writers of a children's television show used, for the first time,
educational goals and a curriculum to shape its content. It was also the first time a show's educational effects
on young children were studied. Thus, the use of Sesame Street is a valuable and still up-to-date resource that
will motivate the L2 learners. Since this TV show was designed to teach English to non-native speakers, it
perfectly suits first graders interests and needs: there is no need to adapt the language or materials to be used
in this Syllabus Design Proposal (see Appendix section of this document for further explanations about the
common thread).
2.! CONTEXTUALIZATION
Before writing a Syllabus, it is indispensable to get to know about the context in which we will teach. The
following data about the schools’s context should be found in the Education Project (see section 3):
2.1. Socio-cultural Environment.
- Knowledge Society: We live in a society based on the acquisition, dissemination, and use of information,
especially by exploiting technological advances; a society with a knowledge economy. Globalization is
accelerating the effect of English as a commodity (English as a Lingua Franca). For decades English has
dominated the ICT industry, mass media, diplomacy, economics, science... English has the potential to
bring people together. It is the language of the World Village. We are talking about Global English, and it is
a necessity for our students’ Lifelong Learning, as members of 21st Century Knowledge Society.
- Living in Andalusia: The fact that part of our economy is based on tourism, gives us the opportunity to be
in contact with different foreign languages. Therefore, we must help our students to be aware that this fact is
relevant to their lives, not only in their learning process, but also in their academic and professional future.
Thus, we should foster the English language learning in different real-life situations as we live in a
multicultural and multilingual environment.
- Location of the School: The school is located in a neighborhood in a town. It is well communicated with
downtown. Although it is situated in the city, busy roads do not surround it, and it has a park right in front of
the school. It is a small school; it has two classes in each grade of Primary and Infant. The school is co-located
with two Government-recognized, Private Aided Schools in the same neighborhood.
- Socio-economic Standard: In general, the children’s parents’ socio-economic level is average-high. Most
parents are civil servants and work in the city. Parents cooperate a lot with the school and there is a PA
(Parent’s Association), which collaborates with the tutors and in the organization of extracurricular activities.
2.2. Teaching Situation.
- School Data:!The school caters for approximately 400 students from Infant School to 6th grade. The school
data indicates a steady decrease in enrolment in 2018 due to lower birth rates and that some parents in this
area are increasingly choosing Government-recognized, Private Aided Schools (which are erroneously
perceived to be better due to their infrastructures, class sizes and extracurricular activities) over government-
run institutions for their children. The school population includes 4% (16) students with a disability, 5% (20)
ethnic minorities students, 8% (32) inmigrant students from Spanish speaking countries, 10% (40) students
from a non-Spanish Speaking Background. The school has 18 classes.
- Class Sizes and Students Attendance: the number of pupils in the class is about 24; in fact, most of the
courses have between 20 and 27 students. On the whole, students do not miss classes at any time of the year.
Most of the pupils’ absences are due to occasional illness and are properly justified.
Paco Aranda! ! 3 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

- Course Teaching Hours: There are two weekly lessons of 45 minutes for the subject of English in 1st grade.
This is an important point for our classroom planning and it is necessary to take it into account when
sequencing the course contents.
- Facilities: the school counts on a computer classroom with twenty computers where we can work on ICT, a
big playground; it has a kitchen, a canteen and an early morning classroom. It organizes some extra activities
or workshops like computer classes, dance, English and so on. Besides, there is, of course, a classroom for
each class, toilets and a small library and a TV room. The school has got an assembly hall too.
- Human Resources: there are two English specialist teachers, one in charge of the Infant School’s pupils and
first and second grade of Primary Education, and the other one from third to sixth graders; one PE teacher and
one Special Needs teacher. The group of tutors and specialist teachers at Primary level collaborate well; their
work is coordinated and they are devoted to teaching. There is a Pedagogical Team (counselor, doctor,
language difficulties specialist…), but they only visit the school once a week, that shouldn’t be enough.
- Educational Projects and Plans: The school develops several Educational Plans as stated within the
General Annual Programming (PGA), and which are also part of the Education Project (PE): Attention to
Diversity Plan, Reading Habits Promotion Plan, Tutorial Action Plan, Education for Peace and School
Coexistence Plan, Healthy Habits Promotion Plan, ICTs Integration Plan, Teachers Training Plan, CLIL
Program and the School Linguistic Project (PLC) which is an Andalusian Education Council initiative that
aims at developing the Communicative Competence in Linguistic and Non-linguistic Subjects Areas. This
Syllabus will contribute to the development of all these projects and plans through the proposal of
Teaching Units, activities and tasks, while choosing materials and topics related to them.
2.3. Intended Group of Learners: Characteristics, Prerequisites and Prior Knowledge.
Many 6-year-olds may have some experience with school routines from kindergarten and preschool. Six-
year-olds are taking some real steps toward independence, although separation anxiety is still not uncommon
for many children this age. Six-year-olds' abilities and development can vary from child to child; after all,
kids, like adults, are unique individuals with their own distinct preferences, experiences, and capabilities. That
said, here are some general milestones that can be expected in the development of 6-year-old children:
-Behavior and Daily Routines: One of the most significant changes in 6-year-old behavior and daily routines
is an increasing movement toward independence. Children this age will spend more time away from home at
school, and participate in activities on their own, such as attending birthday parties or going on play dates.
-Physical Development: We can expect to see a wide range of physical development in 6-year-old children.
Some will develop motor skills and coordination more rapidly than others, and natural athletic abilities may
become apparent at this age. Rates of physical growth will also vary.
-Emotional Development: Six-year-old children are developing the skills to handle emotional ups and downs
more maturely. However, it will still be difficult for children this age to have the emotional sophistication to
handle drawbacks, losses (such as in a game), and other setbacks. At age 6, children will also experience the
insecurity that comes from spending more time away from home, and will need and want the comfort and
security of home and time with his parents.
-Cognitive Develpoment: Six-year-old children will experience a tremendous learning growth as they enter
school and tackle more difficult material. They will begin to read (and may even delve into chapter books with
some help from parents and teachers), and will learn basic Maths skills as well as other subject such as Art,
Science, and Social Studies.
-Social Development: For a 6-year-old child, social interactions and the development of social skills will take
on a greater significance as they spend more time at school and with friends. The social world of the 6-year-
old will be more complex and they may put more emphasis on relationships with others outside the immediate
family such as friends and teachers.

Paco Aranda! ! 4 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

3.! LEGAL FRAMEWORK AND CURRICULAR STAGES: CURRICULUM DESIGN


When it comes to EFFL teaching, the Common European Framework of Reference (CEFR) has to be the
starting point. The CEFR is an indispensable reference for the elaboration of language syllabi, curriculum
guidelines, textbooks, etc, across Europe. It describes what language learners have to learn, the knowledge
and the skills they have to develop in order to communicate effectively in a foreign language. This Syllabus
also takes the considerations established on the EPL (European Portfolio of Languages), which aims to
encourage to learn foreign languages and its lifelong use; to ease mobility throughout Europe and to favour
understanding and tolerance among European citizens, by the use of other languages and cultures.
The next step in the Syllabus Writing Process is to get to know the legislative framework governing and
guiding the Spanish Education System. It comprises the Spanish Constitution (1978), the Organic Act on
the Right to Education (LODE, 1985) and the 2006 Organic Act on Education (LOE) which develops the
principles and rights established in it. The 2013 Organic Act on Education Quality Improvement
(LOMCE) is not a new law; it is an amendment of the existing school reform LOE. The 2013 Organic Act
on Education Quality Improvement (LOMCE) offers (at national level) the legal framework to provide
and assure the right to education (the Autonomous Regions will adapt this law to their territories).
The Spanish Education System is flexible and open to diversity and it has the following stages from
general to individual organization levels:

- The 2013 Organic Act on Education Quality Improvement (LOMCE) + the Royal Decree
126/2014 of February 28th: curriculum planning at National Level.

- Decree 97/2015 of March 3rd + Order of March 17th of 2015: curriculum planning at Regional Level.

- Education Project (PEC) + General Annual Programming (PGA): adapting the official curriculum
to the specific characteristics of the school context and community: School-wide Level.

- Syllabus: it specifies the selection of objectives, contents, standards and indicators, methodology, and
evaluation criteria, adapted to a particular grade and group of learners. It is at Grade Level.

-! Teaching Units: a unit of work, relative to an articulated and complete teaching-learning process. The
objectives, the teaching-learning and evaluating activities must be specified in it. It is at Classroom Level.

-! Individualized Education Plan (IEP). An IEP is developed for each child eligible for Special
Education, based on the child's unique needs, containing a statement of the child's present level of
performance, educational needs, goals and measurable objectives (see section 10 for further details). It is
at Pupil Level.

According to LOMCE (Article 2), Curriculum Design (also curriculum organization) refers to the ways
in which we arrange the Curriculum Components of a Syllabus. Seven curriculum components should be
included: Objectives, Key Competences, Contents, Methodology, Evaluation Criteria, Learning Standards
and Assessable Learning Outcomes. All these components can be found in the next sections.
4.! PRIMARY EDUCATION STAGE GENERAL OBJECTIVES, EFFL AREA MAIN AIM AND
TEACHING GOALS
Adhering to the European Union guidelines regarding education, the Europe 2020 Strategy and the need for
improvement in education in this country, one of the General Objectives of LOMCE is to improve the
learning of Foreign Languages (objective f). Thus, with regard to Foreign Language Learning, the LOMCE
brings a more extensive timetable, an increase in content and an emphasis on oral skills. It promotes both
Foreign Language learning and the development of those Key Competences that serve to enable our students
as future citizens (Lifelong Learning).
Paco Aranda! ! 5 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

As mentioned in the Royal Decree 126/2014 of February 28th, the General Objectives at Primary
Education Stage refer to the capacities pupils have to develop in all subjects. All subject areas combined
contribute to the acquisition of Stage Objectives. Furthermore, these objectives are to be achieved by the end
of the Primary Education Stage. They are inextricably linked to Evaluation Criteria:

a.! Learning about and appreciating the values and norms of co-existence. Learning how to function
in accordance with these values and norms, preparing themselves for the active role of citizenship
and showing respect for human rights as well as the pluralism that is part of democratic society.

b.! Developing work habits as an individual and within a team. Also promoting study habits in terms
of effort and responsibility, as well as self-confidence, a critical capacity, personal initiative,
curiosity, interest and creativity as a learner, and entrepreneurship.

c.! Acquiring techniques to prevent or resolve conflicts in a peaceful manner so that learners can
behave independently within their family and home life or within their social groups.

d.! Learning about, understanding and showing respect for various cultures and the differences
between people; equal rights and opportunities between men and women; and the non-
discrimination of disabled people.

e.! Learning about and correctly using Castilian and the co-official language, if one exists, of the
Autonomous Community. Promoting reading habits.

f.! Acquiring in at least one Foreign Language, basic communicative competence that allows them
to express and understand simple messages, managing in day-to-day situations.

g.! Developing basic Maths skills and beginning to solve problems involving the four basic
operations, geometry and estimations. Being able to apply this knowledge in everyday life.

h.! Understanding the basics of Natural Science, Social Studies, Geography, History and Culture.

i.! Gaining initial practice in using information and communication technologies as a learning tool.
Developing critical skills towards the messages they receive and produce.

j.! Using different forms of artistic representation and expression and gaining initial practice in
developing visual and audiovisual proposals.

k.! Valuing hygiene and health; accepting their own and other peoples’ bodies, showing respect for
differences.

l.! Learning about and value the animals closest to human beings and behaving in a way that is
conducive to their well-being.

m.! Developing emotional capacities in all aspects of their personality and in their relationship with
others, opposing violence, all kinds of prejudice and sexist stereotypes.

n.! Promoting road safety and considering attitudes, which go hand in hand with the prevention of
traffic accidents.

The Main Aim of the EFFL Area is , apart from contributing to the fulfillment of the Primary
Education Stage General Objectives, to help students develop language skills in the L2 necessary to be
successful students and members of information society (Communicative Competence). This can be done

Paco Aranda! ! 6 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

most effectively by meeting the following Teaching Goals for the EFFL Area in Primary Education in the
Autonomous Community of Andalusia, established by the Order of March 17th of 2015:

1.- Listening and understanding aural messages, using the information transmitted to fulfill experience-
based tasks.
2.- Expressing orally in real-life situations, using verbal and nonverbal cues, adopting a respectful and
cooperative attitude.
3.- Understanding simple, short written texts and reading for pleasure and personal satisfaction, applying
information extraction techniques purposefully.
4.- Writing simple, short texts about previously learned topics for assorted purposes with the help of
model texts.
5.- Learning to use with increasing autonomy all the means at their disposal, including new technologies,
to obtain information and to communicate in the FL (foreign language).
6.- Valuing the FL, and languages in general, as a means of communication and understanding
between people of diverse origins and cultures.
7.- Expressing a receptive, interested and self-confident attitude in their own ability to learn and use the
foreign language.
8.- Using knowledge and prior experience in other languages for a faster, more efficient and independent
acquisition of the target language (L2).
9.- Identifying the phonetic aspects of rhythm, intonation and pronunciation, as well as linguistic structures
and lexical aspects, using them as basic elements of communication.
!
5.! KEY COMPETENCES AND THE EFFL AREA: LIFELONG LEARNING
Preparing children both to successfully face the challenges of the information society and derive maximum
benefit from the opportunities it provides has become an increasingly important objective of education
systems in Europe. Key Competences are a combination of knowledge, skills and attitudes appropriate to
the context. They are particularly necessary for personal fulfillment and development, social inclusion, active
citizenship and employment. The transversal nature of Key Competences makes them essential.

The LOMCE builds on the LOE that placed the Key Competences at the center of the language-
learning curriculum. The Key Competences focus on preparing children for the future by developing skills
and attitudes that will help them to enjoy a good quality of life, and to successfully interact with others in
the contexts they are likely to encounter in their daily lives.

Lifelong Learning is a necessity for all citizens. We need to develop skills throughout our lives for
our personal fulfillment and for our ability to engage with the society in which we live. The Council and the
European Parliament adopted a European Framework for Key Competences for Lifelong Learning
(2006), which identifies the Key Competences that citizens require for their personal fulfillment, social
inclusion, active citizenship and employability in our society. Everything students would learn forms a
background of culture and information that should serve them throughout their lives.
Following the guidelines and recommendations of the European Union, the Royal Decree 126/2014 of
February 28th develops the concept of Key Competences in the Spanish Curriculum. The aim of this
initiative is “to permit students to integrate their learnings, relating them to different kinds of contents as
well as using them in an effective way in any situation and context”.

! The Key Competences will guide the teaching process since they will make possible to identify the
most important contents and evaluation criteria and will inspire the decision-taking in the whole teaching-
learning process. Seven Key Competences have been identified:
1. -Linguistic Communication Competence (the ability to use language as a way of representing,
interpreting and understanding reality).

Paco Aranda! ! 7 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

2. -Mathematical Competence and Basic Competence in Science and Technology. (Mathematical


Competence is the capacity to use and relate numbers, operations, symbols and mathematical reasoning to
produce and interpret different types of information. Competence in Science refers to the ability and
willingness to use the body of knowledge and methodology employed to explain the natural world.
Competence in Technology is viewed as the application of that knowledge and methodology in response to
perceived human wants or needs).
3. -Sense of Initiative and Entrepreneurship (to turn ideas into actions, to be creative and innovative, to
take a risk, to plan and manage projects, to be aware of different working contexts and being able to optimally
use given opportunities for own development).
4. -’Learning to Learn’ Competence (it aims at lifelong learning and thus education and training needs to
provide the learning environment for the development of this competence for all citizens, including persons
with fewer opportunities -those with special needs, school dropouts and adult learners).
5. -Social and Civic Competences (to be able to participate in social, civic and working life, dealing with
people coming from different social and cultural backgrounds. It is to be able to cope in a constructive way
with conflicts, having a knowledge, skills and attitudes needed to be active as a citizen).
6. -Digital Competence (the capacity to search, obtain, process and communicate information, turning it into
knowledge).
7. -Cultural Awareness and Expression (to be creative in expressing ideas through music, all possible ways
of art, literature and theater. It aims at being appreciative for expression of ideas through music, theater,
literature and other forms of art, and to be aware of own cultural context and cultural context of others).!
5.1. Contribution of the EFFL Area to the Development of Key Competences.
The Key Competences are all considered equally important, because each of them can contribute to a
successful life in a knowledge society. Many of the competences overlap and interlock: aspects essential to
one domain will support competence in another. Even though the EFFL subject is directly related to the
Linguistic Competence, it also contributes to the mastering of all the other Key Competences because:
1. -Competence in foreign languages requires knowledge of vocabulary and functional grammar and an
awareness of the main types of verbal interaction and registers of language.

2. - Essential skills for communication in foreign languages consist of the ability to understand spoken
messages, to initiate, sustain and conclude conversations and to read, understand and produce texts
appropriate to the individual’s needs. Individuals should also be able to use aids appropriately, and learn
languages also informally as part of Lifelong Learning.

3. -A positive attitude involves the appreciation of cultural diversity, and an interest and curiosity in
languages and intercultural communication. This area also contributes to the development of the other
competences such as Learning to Learn, Social and Civic Competence, Cultural Awareness and
Expression and Sense of Initiative and Entrepreneurship. In a brief, external way, it contributes to the
acquisition of the Mathematical Competence or the competence in Technology and Science, basically by
providing the linguistic tools for cross-curricular project developing.

The acquisition of the Mathematical Competence and Basic Competence in Science and
Technology means applying skills and attitudes that allow for mathematical reasoning and the ability to
integrate mathematical concepts with other types of knowledge. Using numbers and basic operations and
symbols to produce and interpret information, and to resolve problems related to daily life.
The acquisition of the Sense of Initiative and Entrepreneurship competence implies creativity, innovation,
responsibility and a critical approach to the development of individual or group work.

Paco Aranda! ! 8 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

All the above-mentioned competences are currently directly related to data processing and Digital
Competence. ITC offers the possibility of communicating in real time with any part of the world and also
offers easy access to an incessant flow of information, which is growing every day. Knowledge of a L2
offers the possibility of communicating and the context of this communication is authentic and functional.

5.2. Competency Profile for the EFFL Area in Primary Education (1st Grade).
According to the Order ECD/65/2015 of January 21st, which details the relation between Key Competences,
Contents and Evaluation Criteria in Primary Education, a Competency Profile is a summary of the Key
Competences set up to give a logical overview of evaluation criteria and descriptors for each school year. In
the Appendix section we include a template called Rubric of Assessment of Competences, which enables us
to evaluate the degree of acquisition of the Key Competences, indicating the grading level achieved by each
student. Teachers need a series of instruments to obtain specific data (see section 8.3). This is the
Competency Profile for the EFFL Area, 1st Grade of Primary Education:

1. Linguistic Communication Competence (LC)

Descriptors:

LC1. LISTENING

LC 1.1. Identifying words, introduced previously, about familiar themes of interest.

LC 1.2. Identifying simple sentences, introduced previously, about familiar themes of interest.

LC 1.3. Grasping the gist of oral texts and identifies some specific details with the help of linguistic
and non-linguistic elements of the context.

LC 1.4. Recognizing aspects of sound, rhythm, accentuation and intonation of expressions that appear
in habitual communication contexts.

LC 2. SPEAKING

LC 2.1. Singing a song making appropriate use of linguistic and paralinguistic elements.

LC 2.2. Reciting chants, tongue twisters, short poems, etc. with correct intonation and pronunciation.

LC 2.3. Participating in simple sketches.

LC 3. CONVERSING

LC 3.1. Participating in very controlled oral exchanges about familiar themes in easily predictable
communication situations.

LC 4. READING

LC 4.1. Reading words introduced previously in oral fashion about familiar and interesting themes

Paco Aranda! ! 9 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

LC 4.2. Reading simple sentences introduced previously orally, about familiar themes of interest

LC 5. WRITING

LC 5.1. Writing words based on models and with a specific goal.

LC 5.2. Writing sentences based on models and with a specific goal.

2. Mathematical, Scientific and Technological Competence (MSTC)

Descriptors:

MSTC1. Counting to 10 in English.

MSTC2. Resolving simple problems.

MSTC3. Relating fundamental elements and resources with people's lives

MSTC4. Applying very basic scientific concepts and notions to understand the world around us.

MSTC5. Identifying some species of living creatures.

MSTC6. Identifying characteristics of different stages of people's lives.

3. Sense of Initiative and Entrepreneurship (SIE)

Descriptors:

SIE1. Showing interest and curiosity regarding learning the foreign language.

SIE2. Identifying personal aspects that help one learn better.

4. “Learning to Learn” Competence (LL)

Descriptors:

LL1. Using basic strategies to learn to learn, such as using picture dictionaries.

LL2. Using basic comprehension strategies like grasping the gist in oral texts with the aid of linguistic
and non-linguistic elements of the context.

LL3. Using basic strategies of interaction, such as asking for help, using mimics and gestures, etc.

Paco Aranda! ! 10 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

5. Social and Civic Competences (SCC)

Descriptors:

SCC1. Participating in and enjoying games and sketches adjusting performance to relationship with
classmates.

SCC2. Valueing the foreign language as an instrument of communication with other people.

6. Digital Competence (DC)

Descriptors:

DC1. Using the digital medium to learn the foreign language.

7. Cultural Awareness and Expression (CAE)

Descriptors:

CAE1. Recognizing certain cultural manifestations present in the Anglo-Saxon world.

CAE2. Creating simple works of art.

CAE3. Reproducing patterns of rhythm and melody with his/her voice.

CAE4. Participating in and enjoying games and sketches.


!

6.! EFFL AREA CONTENTS: INTRADISCIPLINARITY


Language may be viewed as a scaffolding tool, which can be used to express functional meanings, such as
narrating, describing a process, comparing sources, expressing opinions, or exchanging information. This
EFFL Syllabus is established to provide students with the Communicative Functions (the use of the target
language in a given context) and Notions (vocabulary, grammatical structures, pronunciation, spelling and
cultural aspects) needed for both school performance and everyday living. This Syllabus provides the
learners the opportunity to grasp the academic, social, and cultural aspects of the English language through the
teaching of the four linguistic skills: listening, speaking, reading and writing.

As it is stated in the Royal Decree 126/2014 of February 28th, the EFFL area Contents, Criteria
and Standards are organized into four main sections that correspond to the activities related to
comprehension and production (expression and interaction) of oral and written texts: 1. Oral Texts
Comprehension, 2. Oral Texts Production: Expression and Interaction; 3. Written Texts Comprehension
and 4. Written Texts Production: Expression and Interaction. These four main blocks are the basis for the
Evaluation Criteria and Gradable Learning Standards as well as this Syllabus’ contents.

The EFFL Area Contents for the 1st year of Primary Education are as follows:

Paco Aranda! ! 11 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

Contents Block 1. ORAL TEXTS COMPREHENSION:


Comprehension of oral messages connected to the learners’ own experience and communicative needs.
Specific comprehension of particular messages (face to face, recordings, etc).
*Comprehension Strategies:
-Listening for the main idea, predicting, drawing inferences, summarizing...
-Listening for specific details, recognizing cognates, recognizing word-order patterns...
-Familiarization with the English intonation, rhythm and sounds.
*Communicative Functions:
-Everyday/frequent oral communicative situations and needs (Communicative purposes: greetings,
identification and description of people and objects, expression of needs, asking for something…)
*Syntactic-discursive Structures:
-Oral receptive high-frequency lexis and structures (personal identification, daily life, home, family...)
Contents Block 2. ORAL TEXTS PRODUCTION. EXPRESSION AND INTERACTION:
Oral linguistic exchanges to express communicative needs within the classroom (instructions, games…)
*Production Strategies:
a) Planning.
-Formulating the message that learners wish to convey.
-Adapting the production to the receiver, context and channel, using an appropriate register.
b) Utterance.
-Using properly the English intonation, rhythm and sounds.
-Expressing a properly structured message with clarity and coherence.
*Linguistic Strategies:
-Substituting one word with another, giving short answers, rephrasing, paraphrasing, etc, in order to avoid
communication breakdowns.
*Paralinguistic and Paratextual Strategies:
-Miming, using gestures, pictures, pointing at objects, using body language, etc.
-Use of different research methods and the possibilities of ICTs.
*Sociocultural and Sociolinguistic Aspects:
-Recognition of particular socio-cultural aspects of English-speaking countries: comparisons between daily
life aspects of the foreign culture and their own, placing value on socio-linguistic behavior that will improve
personal relationships, interest in meeting people from other countries...
-Placing value on socio-linguistic behavior that will improve personal relationships.
*Communicative Functions:
-Greetings, introducing people, talking about abilities, likes and dislikes, agreeing and disagreeing, describing
people/activities/objects/places, asking and offering help, talking about past events, etc.

Paco Aranda! ! 12 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

*Syntactic-discursive Structures:
-Oral productive high-frequency lexis and structures (personal identification, daily life situations, home,
family and friends, jobs, hobbies, sports, traveling, health, food, shopping, environment, ICT...)
-Necessary vocabulary and structures to express orally in basic communicative activities.
Contents Block 3. WRITTEN TEXTS COMPREHENSION:
Global comprehension of written messages related to familiar communicative needs and students’ interests.
*Comprehension Strategies:
-Reading for the main idea, predicting, drawing inferences, summarizing...
-Reading for specific details, recognizing cognates, recognizing word-order patterns...
-Making connections, questioning, visualizing, inferring, determining importance, synthesizing...
-Recognition of unknown elements in texts.
-Relationship between the meaning of words, their pronunciation and their spelling.
*Communicative Functions:
-Everyday/frequent oral communicative situations and needs (Communicative purposes: greetings,
identification and description of people and objects, expression of needs, asking for something…)
*Syntactic-discursive Structures:
-Written receptive high-frequency lexis and structures (personal identification, daily life situations, home,
family and friends, jobs, hobbies, sports, traveling, health, food, shopping, environment, ICT...)
Contents Block 4. WRITTEN TEXTS PRODUCTION. EXPRESSION AND INTERACTION:
Production of written texts: notes, letters, personal information, descriptions, compositions, etc.
*Production Strategies:
a) Planning.
-Formulating the message that learners wish to convey.
-Adapting the text to the receiver, context and channel, using an appropriate register.
b) Writing.
-Producing properly structured written texts with clarity and coherence.
*Linguistic Strategies:
-Substituting one word with another, giving short answers, rephrasing, paraphrasing, etc.
*Paralinguistic and Paratextual Strategies:
-Using pictures and other non-linguistic information to infer meaning in written texts.
-Use of different research methods and the possibilities of ICTs.
*Sociocultural and Sociolinguistic Aspects:
-Recognition of particular socio-cultural aspects of English-speaking countries: comparisons between daily
life aspects of the foreign culture and their own, placing value on socio-linguistic behavior that will improve
personal relationships, interest in meeting people from other countries... Comparision of daily-life aspects.

Paco Aranda! ! 13 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

*Communicative Functions:
-Greetings, introducing people, likes and dislikes, agreeing, describing, asking and offering help, etc.
*Syntactic-discursive Structures:
-Written productive high-frequency lexis and structures (personal identification, daily life, home, family...)

7. INTERDISCIPLINARITY: ACROSS THE CURRICULUM

Educators and researchers know that children see the world as a connective whole rather than in isolated
segments. When curriculum is organized in a holistic way, it better reflects the real world and the way
children learn at home and in the community.

7.1.! Transversal Elements


Although both, the LOMCE and the Royal Decree 126/2014 of February 28th describe learning in Subject
Areas that have their own distinctive knowledge and understandings, skills, values and attitudes, these subject
areas include outcomes that are common to other subject areas and grade levels. They are called
Transversal Elements, and include: a) Reading Comprehension, b) Oral and Written Expression,
c) Audiovisual Communication & ICTs, d) Entrepreneurship and e) Civic and Constitutional Education.

Furthermore, the Decree 97/2015 of March 3rd, which Establishes the Ordination and Core
Curriculum of Primary Education in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, also recommends to foster
6 more Transversal Elements throughout the Primary Education Stage: 1. Peaceful Conflict Resolution and
Violence Prevention, 2. Acquisition of Healthy Habits, 3. Responsible Use of Free Time and Leisure, 4.
Effective Equality between Men and Women, 5. Knowledge and 6. Respect for the Values set out in the
Statute of Autonomy of Andalusia and the Natural Environment, History, Culture and other
Differentiating Facts of Andalusia. All of these Transversal Elements will be considered when designing the
Teaching Units, activities and tasks included in this proposal (see section 12 and Appendix section).

7.2.! Connection to other Subject Areas: Curriculum Integration


Curriculum Integration can be defined as a curriculum approach that purposefully draws together
knowledge, skills, attitudes and values from within or across subject areas to develop a more powerful
understanding of key ideas. Curriculum integration occurs when components of the curriculum are
connected and related in meaningful ways by both the students and teachers. Through curriculum integration,
teachers can plan for the development of Key Competences and understandings that transcend
individual strands and subjects. Choosing meaningful connections among subject areas helps students
build on their diverse prior knowledge and experiences, supports their holistic view of the world and
ensures more meaningful learning. English as a First Foreign Language has particularly close links with
subjects such as Social Studies, Music, Spanish, and Art and Crafts. But English also links to all subject
areas because the skills that students acquire in English are universally useful and applicable:
-All Subject Areas depend on students being able to understand, respond to, and use a variety of written, oral
and visual language to locate, interpret, and evaluate information and to communicate with others.
-The critical thinking and analytical skills developed in EFFL are important in all areas of the curriculum.
-EFFL plays a major role in developing the key competences and values that are of benefit in other subjects.
When language and content areas are integrated, students become aware that English is not just an
object of academic interest; instead, English becomes a real means of interaction and sharing among
people. Curriculum connections make learning more meaningful for students. Integrating other
disciplines into the lesson will make the content more significant to the learners and will create higher
order thinking skills across the areas. Every unit in this proposal will include connections to contents of
other subject areas.
Paco Aranda! ! 14 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

7.3. Values Education


There is no such thing as a value-free education. Everything a school does teaches values, including the way
teachers and other adults treat students, the way the principal treats teachers, the way the school treats parents,
and the way students are allowed to treat school staff and each other. If questions of right and wrong are never
discussed in classrooms, that, too, teaches a lesson about how much morality matters.

Incorporating Moral Education in the English as a First Foreign Language classroom responds to the
increasing calls for having teachers take on a more pro-active role in the moral development of their
students. This includes the development of fundamental values, principles, and attitudes; continuous
character growth that allows learners to become concerned, informed, and involved citizens; and laying down
the foundations of a critical approach to controversial issues. Introducing Moral Education in EFFL
curricula is based on the assumption that it helps learners in developing their linguistic and cognitive
skills, social awareness, emotional well-being, critical thinking, and a tolerant world view, goals that are
compatible with the new approaches and methods of teaching EFL.

The teaching of values is an important part of this syllabus, we should teach the values of
tolerance and respect, helping to promote self-esteem through values features and culture lessons, seeking to
raise children’s awareness of being part of a global community by helping them to develop awareness of the
people around them. EFFL teachers should be as aware as their students that they are transmitting unwritten
or hidden curriculum ideas (values). A good way of systematizing the transmission of those values would be
cross-curricular links to moral education, that is to say, through Values Education. Values Education must
impregnate the entire educational practice and be present in the different areas. Its inclusion is an
attempt to reduce some social needs inherited from traditional culture and attempts to transform them via ivic
and moral learning. LOMCE, in its articles 17 and 23, recommends developing those skills related to:
i)! Personal Development,
ii)! Respect for self and Others,
iii)!Improvement of Coexistence,
iv)! Active and Responsible Citizenship and
v)! Respect and Care for the Social, Cultural and Natural Environment.
To succeed in teaching respect and responsibility, these five aspects of Values Education will be
taken into account and the use of Fables to work moral contents is intended in this syllabus. These short
stories using animals and other inanimate objects are meant to teach us lessons that are universally applicable.
Fables can be useful because of their simplicity and their ability to draw the reader in regardless of culture.
The selected fables for this proposal are: “The Ant and the Grasshoper” (first term), “The Bear and the
two Travelers” (second tern) and “The Town Mouse and the Country Mouse” (third term).

8. COMPETENCE-BASED EVALUATION: EVALUATION CRITERIA, LEARNING


STANDARDS, INDICATORS AND ACHIEVEMENT LEVELS. ASSESSMENT INSTRUMENTS.
Learning must be evaluated systematically and regularly, both to measure the knowledge and skills
acquired by the student, and to introduce as many changes as necessary if the situation requires it.

If we assume that Key Competences involve a real and practical application of knowledge, skills
and attitudes, the way of checking or assessing whether the student has acquired them, is to reproduce real
situations where the student gets to apply his/her knowledge, primarily responding to practical
situations. In this way, when we assess competences we are essentially, though not exclusively, assessing
procedures and attitudes, which is why we relate them to assessment criteria that are more procedural and
attitudinal. Competence-based Evaluation helps assess both the achievement of the subject goals, and the
level of knowledge of Key Competences.
The teaching process and the teacher’s work should also be evaluated, thus including an
evaluation procedure of teaching programs and Syllabi through their Achievement Indicators in the school’s
Paco Aranda! ! 15 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

Education Project (assessing aspects such as plannings, contents selection and sequence, materials, types of
activities/tasks, classroom management, etc).

According to the Order of November 4th 2015, which establishes the Ordination of the Evaluation of
the Primary Education Learning Process in the Autonomous Community of Andalusia, Evaluation should be
Global (assessing not only cognitive, procedural and attitudinal aspects of learners, but every element that
takes part in the teaching-learning process), Formative (it must be used as an improving element for the
teacher), and Continuous (applied during all the teaching-learning process). Every stage and every element in
the teaching-learning process should be assessed:

-Initial Evaluation: at the beginning of the process, the teacher needs to know the learners’ starting level
in order to design the performance and choose the objectives appropriately.
-Process Evaluation (Assessment): it is carried out during the teaching-learning activities and it allows
the teacher to redirect his/her performance to get better results. It supplies information about how the
process is being developed.
-Final Evaluation: the evaluation of the results after the process has ended. It is time to value those
results. It indicates the teacher the levels reached by learners throughout the whole learning process.

8.1.! EFFL Area Evaluation Criteria

The achievement of the Primary Stage General Objectives is assessed in the Evaluation Criteria. The
Evaluation Criteria of the different Subject Areas will be the main reference to value the fullfillment of the
Stage General Objectives and the degree of acquisition of the Key Competences. The Evaluation Criteria,
regarding EFFL Area in Primary Education, established by the Order of March 17th of 2015, are:

1- Recognizing and producing English sounds, rhythms and intonation patterns.


2- Global understanding of oral texts in face-to-face situations, with gesticulation support.
3- Understanding specific information of simple oral texts.
4- Short oral exchanges concerning classroom language.
5- Taking part in role-play exercises, using appropriate social formulaic language.
6- Global and specific written understanding of simple texts.
7- Reading of adapted readers with the help of the teacher dictionary, and with visual support.
8- Producing short and comprehensible written texts adapted to the communicative situation and purpose.
9- Recognizing some socio-cultural features of English-speaking countries.

8.2.! Learning Standards, and Performance Indicators for the EFFL Area
In order to grade the performance of each pupil during Primary Education, LOMCE sets different levels and
speifications of Evaluation Criteria. These specifications are called Learning Standards and are based on
what pupils should know and do in each subject. Thus, Learning Standards are tied to Evaluation Criteria.
They are considered minimum levels required, or levels required to be considered ‘best practice’. Learning
Standards are usually composed of statements that express what a student knows, can do, or is capable
of performing in their learning progression. Learning Standards must be observable, measurable and
possible to evaluate and, along with Evaluation Criteria, must be used to evaluate Key Competences and
Objectives in continuous evaluations and at the end of each course. Because of this, Learning Standards
are set for the whole of Primary Education Stage by the Royal Decree 126/2014 of February 28th.

! Performance Indicators are essential instruments for monitoring and evaluation and are even more
specific, observable and measurable. They complete Learning Standards with procedures and application
contexts. Performance Indicators refer to the means by which a Learning Standard can be judged to have
been achieved or not. Indicators are therefore tied to objectives and Standards and serve simply as ‘yardsticks’

Paco Aranda! ! 16 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

by which to measure the degree of success in Standards achievement. They are also used to determine the Key
Competences development in each learner.

Here, we detail the connection between Contents Blocks, Learning Standards and Learning Outcomes:

LEARNING STANDARDS LEARNING OUTCOMES

General Standards for the Primary Education Stage 1st Grade of Primary Education

Contents Block 1: Oral Texts Comprehension LISTENING:


•! 1.1. Understanding the gist of adverts and comercials. •! To understand simple oral messages
•! 1.2. Understanding messages and public announcements and instructions and recognize
which contain instructions, warnings or other information. familiar words.
•! 1.3. Understanding what is said during usual transactions. •! To identify the main theme of an oral
•! 1.4. Identifying the subject of a predictable daily text and some specific details with
conversation that you hear. visual aid.
•! 1.5. Understanding the gist of short, simple conversations •! To recognize aural items such as
about family matters and which you take part in. accent, rhythm and correct intonation
•! 1.6. Understanding the gist of simple, clear presentations in familiar contexts.
about matters of interest helped by pictures.
•! 1.7. Understanding the gist and identifying subject
!
changes in TV shows and other audiovisual materials.

Contents Block 2: Oral Texts Production


TALKING AND CONVERSING:
•! 2.1. Making short presentations, previously prepared and
practised, about daily subjects or things of interest. •! To recite or sing a very simple song
•! 2.2. Coping in daily situations. with correct pronunciation and
•! 2.3. Taking part in direct conversations or using technical intonation.
resources to make social contact. •! To answer the questions orally using
•! 2.4. Taking part in an interview, giving personal simple vocabulary and structures.
information. •! To take part in spoken interactions.
!

Contents Block 3: Written Texts Comprehension


READING:
•! 3.1. Understanding instructions, explanations and basic
information in notes, signs and posters. •! To understand the gist of simple signs
•! 3.2. Understanding essential information and identifying and posters.
specific information in simple informative texts. •! To understand simply written texts
•! 3.3. Understanding brief, simple correspondence about about familiar subjects with previously
familiar subjects. learned words.
•! 3.4. Understanding the gist of short pieces of news and
articles about familiar subjects or subjects of interest.
•! 3.5. Understanding the gist of short, well-structured
stories using pictures or actions as a resource.

Contents Block 4: Written Texts Production


WRITING:
•! 4.1. Filling in a short form or card with personal data.
•! 4.2. Writing short messages or talking about themselves •! To reproduce simple words and
!
and their immediate surroundings. structures using models.
!

Paco Aranda! ! 17 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

8.3. Annual Area Profile: Course Requirements


According to the Order of March 17th 2015, which Develops the Core Curriculum for Primary Education in
Andalusia, an Annual Area Profile is made up of the set of Evaluation Criteria and Performance Indicators
for a school year, relating them to their contribution to the development of the Key Competences. Here we list
the course requirements through the Annual Area Profile for this Syllabus:

ENGLISH AS A FIRST FOREIGN LANGUAGE: 1st GRADE OF PRIMARY EDUCATION

BL EFFL AREA EVALUATION CRITERIA PERFORMANCE INDICATORS KC!

1 EFFL. BL1.1 To identify essential information EFFL. BL1.1.1 Student identifies the LC,!
in brief oral texts, with simple structures and communicative function of the oral text SIE,!LL!
high frequency lexicon, articulated clearly and (greetings and apologies, congratulations,
slowly, and transmitted by voice or by technical expression of likes and feelings…)
means, on usual topics related to their own
experiences and needs, in predictable daily EFFL. BL1.1.2 Learner identifies the LC!
contexts or related to areas of immediate need in essential information in short and simple oral
texts, with simple structures and high !
the personal and educational contexts, provided
that the acoustic conditions are good and the frequency lexis, with paralinguistic support
message is not distorted, and that it can be heard (images and gestures).
again or confirmation can be asked for, and has EFFL. BL1.1.3!Pupil understands, by means LC,!DC!
visual support or a clear contextual reference, of play and experimentation, topics related to
discriminating sound patterns. their interests and needs, in predictable daily- LL,!SIE!
life conversational contexts.

EFFL. BL1.1.4 Schoolchild discriminates LC,!LL!


sound patterns through experimentation.

EFFL. BL1.2 To use, through play and EFFL. BL1.2.1 Student understands an oral LC,!LL,!
experimentation, the most appropriate basic text using paralinguistic elements SIE!
strategies for the comprehension of an oral text. (illustrations, modulation, body language...)

EFFL. BL1.3 To distinguish specific EFFL. BL1.3.1 Learner recognizes, through LC,!
sociocultural and sociolinguistic aspects from games, congratulations on special days, SCC!
different countries, as well as their own, family celebrations and customs from
respecting the basic courtesy norms. different countries.

EFFL. BL1.4 To identify, through play and EFFL. BL1.4.1 Pupil identifies, through play LC,!LL,!
experimentation, some high frequency words, and experimentation, some high frequency SIE!
contextualized in everyday situations related to oral words, related to his/her needs in
their own interests, experiences and needs. everyday predictable environments.

2 EFFL. BL2.1 To interact or reproduce, through EFFL. BL2.1.1 Schoolchild participates, LC,!SIE!
play and experimentation, conversations on through play and experimentation, in
familiar topics, through a face-to-face or situations of usual interaction (greetings,
technical conversation in an understandable way, apologies and congratulations…)
with the use of appropriate sound patterns.
EFFL. BL2.1.2 Student produces or LC,!SIE!

Paco Aranda! ! 18 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

reproduces simple phrases or sentences,


expressing his/her likes and feelings.

EFFL. BL2.1.3 Learner uses the right sound LC,!SIE!


patterns through experimentation and play.

EFFL. BL2.2 To apply or reproduce basic EFFL. BL2.2.1 Pupil plans brief and simple LC,!LL,!
strategies of planning, execution and revision, oral texts on familiar topics, using his/her SIE!
through play and experimentation, to produce previous knowledge, compensating his/her
brief and simple oral texts on familiar topics, linguistic deficiencies with paralinguistic or
being able to self-evaluate the final outcome. paratextual procedures and using picture
dictionaries as support.

EFFL. BL2.2.2 Schoolchild produces or LC,!LL,!


reproduces brief and simple oral texts on SIE!
familiar topics, expressing the message in a
clear and well structured way.

EFFL. BL2.2.3 Student collaborates in the LC,!LL,!


collective process of reviewing oral texts, SIE!
assessing the clarity of the message and the
required effort to produce it.

EFFL. BL2.3 To use specific and significant EFFL. BL2.3.1 Learner refers to, through LC,!
basic socio-cultural and sociolinguistic aspects experimentation, congratulations of special SCC!
from different countries, applying them to oral days, celebrations and customs from different
production or reproduction, through play and countries, in daily life situations.
experimentation, being appropriate to the context
and respecting the basic courtesy norms. EFFL. BL2.3.2 Pupil produces or reproduces LC,!
orally his/her likes/dislikes about celebrations SCC,!
and customs from different countries. SIE!

! EFFL. BL2.4 To use a repertoire of high EFFL. BL2.4.1 Schoolchild produces or LC,!SIE!
frequency oral lexicon in family and school reproduces, through play and
contexts, on specific topics related to their own experimentation, some high frequency oral
interests, producing or reproducing it through lexicon, related to his/her needs and interests,
play and experimentation. in everyday predictable environments.

EFFL. BL2.5 To strive and keep attention while EFFL. BL2.5.1 Student strives or maintains LL!
they do an activity, without giving up, even the attention while performing an activity.
when it entails certain difficulty.
EFFL. BL2.5.2 Learner persists in carrying LL!
out an activity, without giving up.

EFFL. BL2.6 To participate in work teams, in a EFFL. BL2.6.1 Pupil participates, with the SCC,!
guided way, collaborating with the other teacher’s guide, in work team, collaborating LL,!SIE!
members of the group to reach common goals. with the other members of the group to
achieve common goals.

Paco Aranda! ! 19 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

3! EFFL. BL3.1 To identify the essential EFFL. BL3.1.1 Schoolchild identifies the LC,!DC!
information, in any type of format, in short and communicative function of the written text
simple written texts, with simple structures and (greetings and apologies, congratulations, !
high frequency words, in printed or digital expression of likes/dislikes and feelings…) in
format, on usual and specific topics related to any type of format, re-reading it if necessary.
their own experiences and needs, in predictable
daily contexts or related to areas of immediate EFFL. BL3.1.2 Student recognizes the LC,!LL,!
interest in the personal and educational contexts, essential information in short and simple SIE!
provided they can be re-read, supported by written texts, with simple structures and high
paratextual elements and discriminating basic frequency lexis with paralinguistic support.
orthographic signs and sound-spelling EFFL. BL3.1.3 Learner recognizes the LC,!LL!
relationship. meaning, through play, of punctuation marks
and the sound-spelling relationship.

EFFL. BL3.1.4 Pupil searches and selects LC,!LL,!


information on topics covered in his/her SIE!
grade, using the different available resources.

EFFL. BL3.2 To use the most appropriate basic EFFL. BL3.2.1 Schoolchild understands a LC,!
strategies for understanding a written text and written text using paratextual elements SIE,!LL!
using the words they understand. (graphics, illustrations, maps or photos).

EFFL. BL3.3 To distinguish specific EFFL. BL3.3.1 Student recognizes LC,!


sociocultural and sociolinguistic aspects from congratulations on special days, family SCC!
different countries, as well as their own, celebrations and customs from different
applying them to reading comprehension. countries, in written texts.

EFFL. BL3.4 To identify, in a guided way, a EFFL. BL3.4.1 Learner identifies, through LC,!LL,!
repertoire of high frequency written lexis, play and experimentation, some high- SIE!
contextualized in specific topics and related to frequency written lexis, related to his/her
their closest environment. interests, in everyday situations. !

4 EFFL. BL4.1 To produce and reproduce, EFFL. BL4.1.1 Pupil produces and LC,!LL,
through experimentation and play, short and reproduces simple phrases and sentences in SIE!
simple phrases and expressions, applying the written texts.
basic spelling conventions, graphic patterns and
the main punctuation marks, to talk about EFFL. BL4.1.2 Schoolchild interacts, at the SIE,
themselves and their environment. written level, to communicate on electronic DC, LL
devices in targeted communication situations.

EFFL. BL4.1.3 Student applies, through play LC,!LL!


and experimentation, the punctuation marks.

EFFL. BL4.1.4 Learner applies orthographic LC,!LL!


standards in written productions.

EFFL. BL4.2 To apply, through play and EFFL. BL4.2.1 Pupil plans the creation of LC,!LL,
experimentation, the very basic strategies of phrases or short sentences using vocabulary SIE!

Paco Aranda! ! 20 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

planning, writing and reviewing, distinguishing and structures previously covered in oral
what to write, who is the text addressed to and interactions.
what materials will be used, valuing originality
and effort, and presenting the final product in EFFL. BL4.2.2 Schoolchild uses online DC,!LL!
different supports and formats for its inclusion in picture dictionaries, posters or word charts.
the portfolio. EFFL. BL4.2.3 Student organizes and LC,!LL,
reproduces creative word banks, following SIE!
simple models and using different resources
(lists, pictures and drawings).

EFFL. BL4.2.4 Learner produces or LC,!LL!


reproduces simple and complete words,
phrases or sentences, following models.

EFFL. BL4.2.5 Pupil collaborates in the LC,!LL,


collective process of reviewing written texts, SIE!
assessing the clarity of the message, regular
space between words and effort.

EFFL. BL4.3 To distinguish specific EFFL. BL4.3.1 Schoolchild applies, to a LC,!


sociocultural and sociolinguistic aspects of written production or reproduction, CL,!
different countries, as well as their own, congratulations of special days and of the CAE
applying them to a written production or family, festivities or rhymes from different !
reproduction, through play and experimentation, countries, through game and experimentation,
respecting the basic courtesy norms. respecting the basic courtesy norms.

EFFL. BL4.3.2 Student produces or SCC,


reproduces in written texts his/her likes about LC,
congratulations, celebrations and customs CAE
from different countries, respecting the basic
courtesy norms.

EFFL. BL4.4 To use, by reproducing through EFFL. BL4.4.1 Learner uses, reproducing LC,!LL,
play and experimentation, some high frequency through play and experimentation, some high SIE!
written words related to everyday situations and frequency written lexicon, close to his/her
usual and concrete topics, taking into account needs, in everyday predictable contexts.
their own interests, experiences and needs.

EFFL. BL4.5 To participate in the process of EFFL. BL4.5.1 Pupil participates in the LL,
planning the development of a task, ordering the process of planning the development of a task SIE
steps to follow and expressing their opinions on and sequences the steps to follow, with the
the final outcome. teacher’s help.

EFFL. BL4.6 To participate in work teams, in a EFFL. BL4.6.1 Schoolchild participates, with SCC,!
guided way, collaborating with the other the teacher’s guide, in work teams, LL,
members of the group to reach common goals. collaborating with the other members of the SIE
group to achieve common goals.

Paco Aranda! ! 21 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

8.4. Evaluation Instruments and Grading Policy: Achievement Levels and Rubrics
A proper Competence-based Evaluation requires observation and measuring tools, which combine to
give both information about the pupils and an assessment of the evaluation process. As part of this process, we
need to take into consideration the development of the Key Competences and the pupils’ own self-
evaluation.

! Achievement Levels can be used to show progress towards achieving an Indicator. Each Indicator
must be directly related to measures of success. There should be at least one Indicator for each Standard and
the Achievement Level should represent progress towards what we wish to accomplish. Achievement Levels
are usually expressed as a rate, ratio or percentage. We have identified four Achievement Levels, and to
record them we will use the following Qualitative Scale, ordered from low to high (see Appendix ix):
Beginning Learners - bellow 50% (limited knowledge and understanding of contents; limited application of
related skills; may need academic support), Developing Learners – between 50% and 69% (may have gaps in
knowledge and skills, demonstrating partial proficiency), Proficient Learners – between 70% and 89%
(demonstrate proficiency and prepared for the next level), and Distinguished Learners – between 90% and
100% (in-depth knowledge and understanding of contents, able to extend the application of skills). These
levels must be applied to Standards and Indicators in every Rubric.

! A Rubric is typically a document or evaluation grid used to promote the consistent application of
Evaluation Criteria, Learning Standards, and Indicators in the classroom. Rubrics can help ensure
consistent and impartial grading and clearly define academic expectations for students. Rubrics are made up
of rows and columns. The rows correspond to the various Standards and Indicators and the columns
correspond to the Achievement Levels expressed for each criterion. A descriptor and point value
(Achievement Level) for each cell in the rubric defines the evaluation and score of a teaching unit or task. A
Scoring Rubric is an attempt to communicate expectations of quality around a task and can also provide a
basis for self-evaluation, reflection, and peer review (see Appendices xxi-xxv). A Rubric should also indicate
each of the Key Competences followed by a breakdown in Performance Indicators. When assessing with
rubrics, it is recommended grading, firstly, each of the indicators or those upon which we have focused, thus
obtaining a global vision of the competences to assess them subsequently. We propose three types of
evaluation instruments for the EFFL classroom:

-Formative Evaluation Grids (Rubrics). These can be used to record the progress of each pupil, both in
relation to the linguistic objectives of learning a foreign language and the non-linguistic objectives, such as
classroom behaviour and development of the Key Competences.

-Final Tasks. In terms of summative evaluation, there is an extensive range of tasks, along with answers,
transcripts and marking schemes.

-Self-evaluation Activities. These contribute to the creation of an ‘English Portfolio’ by pupils, based on
the guidelines of the European Language Portfolio (ELP). It will be used as a method of self-evaluation and
a source of motivation for the pupils.

EFFL teachers can also use both the activities and tasks that learners carry out in the classroom or at
home, and other techniques such as tests or final projects:
-Learners´ Activities: oral and written production, tasks and projects, answering questions, completing
learners´ diaries, pair work…
-Teachers´ Evaluation Techniques:
*Direct observation: learners´ performance in ordinary classrooms for evaluation (participation, attitude…)
*Direct questions: to answer about any particular aspect of learners’ interests.
*Task analysis: this consists of analyzing how learners carry out tasks and activities.

Paco Aranda! ! 22 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

9. METHODOLOGY AND CLASS DYNAMICS

9.1. Pedagogical Principles and and Instructional Strategies for Lifelong Learning

The integration of the Key Competences into the EFFL curriculum allows a focus on essential learning,
in a holistic sense, and learning that is directed towards the practical application of the knowledge
acquired. This Syllabus promotes the Key Competences development and its main benefit would be to
contribute to learners’ Lifelong Learning. Communicative Competence is fundamental in the resolution of
conflicts and in learning to co-exist peacefully. Acquisition of this competence involves a command of
oral and written language in a variety of contexts, and a functional use of at least one foreign language.
Didactic Transposition

The term Didactic Transposition refers to the pedagogic transformations that occur between knowledge of
reference and school knowledge. EFFL teachers are expected to transform the English language into
teachable units. As teachers, we are not mere implementers of a curriculum; we must co-develop a
participatory curriculum to reach our learners. The learners are not passive recipients either; they are active
agents involved in the process of change. Scaffolded instruction, or the gradual release model, is broadly
recognized as a successful approach for moving classroom instruction from teacher-centered, whole-group
delivery to student-centered collaboration and independent practice. Sometimes referred to as “I do, we do,
you do,” this model proposes a plan of instruction that includes demonstration, prompt, and practice.

At the beginning of a lesson or when new material is being introduced, the teacher has a prominent
role in the delivery of the content. This is the “I do” phase. But as the student acquires the new
information and skills, the responsibility of learning shifts from teacher-directed instruction to student
processing activities. In the “We do” phase of learning, the teacher continues to model, question, prompt
and cue students; but as student move into the “You do” phases, they rely more on themselves and less on
the teacher to complete the learning task.

A key element of this scaffolded model is the repeated checking for students' understanding of the
knowledge and skills being taught throughout the lesson. This is to ensure that all students experience
success. Teachers continually monitor students’ progress and provide them with immediate feedback.
If students can remember basic skills and knowledge automatically they can learn new and complicated
concepts more easily. For this reason we have included Consolidation Activities in our lessons. Daily
Consolidation Activities have a clear focus on practicing basic skills until they become automatic. This
automatic recall of knowledge assists students to become more successful in learning more complex skills (see
“Teaching Units Porposal: Didactic Transposition charts” section for further details).
Cognitive Processes
Learning is broadly defined as change. The focus should be on how we learn (the process). It is about how
we change and how we adapt, grow, and develop. This adaptation, growth, and development occur from the
inside out. Cognitive Processes are all those skills that make knowledge acquisition and information
treatment possible. LOMCE, taking into account Bloom’s Taxonomy (1956), classifies Cognitive Processes
for learning in the Primary Education Stage into six categories. Here we also propose potential learning
activities for the EFFL class:
-Remembering (recognizing, listing, describing, identifying, retrieving, naming, locating, finding)
Exercises that help students first to recognize the new material are a good start: using flashcards, copying,
simple dictations... We could then move on to exercises that have them locate the items.
-Understanding (interpreting, summarizing, inferring, classifying, comparing, explaining exemplifying)
Summarizing is a good way of checking understanding. Inferring meaning is another way of helping students
deal with the connotative meanings of new language. Classifying information is also a useful.
Paco Aranda! ! 23 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

-Applying (implementing, using, carrying out, executing)


Here the learner has the opportunity to explore how the items learnt can be used. We may transfer to situations
similar to the original context. It is also important to vary the mode of delivering the new items. If the main
exercises have been written, we have to transfer to speaking: students could make their own presentations.
-Analyzing (comparing, organizing, deconstructing, attributing, outlining, finding, structuring, integrating)
Analysis is the process that helps students to integrate the new material with what they already know. They
may find that the new material is consistent with rules they have learnt, or anomalous (something frequent in
L2 learning). Analysis reveals gradually more about the mechanics of the language and helps understanding.
-Evaluating (checking, hypothesizing, critiquing, experimenting, judging, testing, detecting, monitoring)
It helps learners think about why they have done something and if it is correct. Evaluation really lends itself to
collaborative work in pairs or groups: getting students to give feedback on each other’s work.
-Creating (designing, constructing, planning, producing, inventing, devising, making).
L2 students can learn some useful skills and techniques that will enable them to tap into that creative ‘right
brain’ thinking and bring a new perspective to innovation, problem-solving and managing change.
Every Cognitive Process will be covered in a concrete lesson, in each Teaching Unit’s Didactic
Transposition (see section 12). This way we will guide our EFFL students through the transition from Lower
Order Thinking Skills to Higher Order Thinking Skills (Bloom, 1956), contributing, at the same time, to the
development of different Cognitive Learning Styles.
Cognitive Learning Styles or Thinking Styles are the information processing habits of an
individual. Unlike individual differences in abilities, cognition describes a person's typical mode of
thinking, perceiving, remembering, or problem solving. Cognitive Style is usually described as a personality
dimension that influences attitudes, values, and social interaction.
Thinking Styles and Multiple Intelligences: Multimodal Learning
If EFFL students interact to a situation where the content presented is not in line with their Thinking Styles,
and do not know any learning strategy to cope with the situation, they will not be able to fulfill the desired
objectives. We should consider the Thinking Styles and prior knowledge of students to create desired
behavioral changes in a cyclic process. This explains the individual differences in receiving information,
responding to the situation and attitudes among students. Thinking Styles should be determined beforehand
by considering the differences such as personality, perception, ability and intelligence. As people have various
learning styles and points of view in the life, some people learn through feeling, thinking, watching and doing.

The classification of Thinking Styles given by LOMCE states, among other attributes, that
successful students should think critically, creatively, reflectively and logically:

-Practical thinking which is also known as “common sense” concludes as to how one adapts to the
enviroment. It helps learners to discover mechanisms to help succeed.
-Deliberative thinking: decision-making is largely based on quick, automatic, and intuitive processes that are
occasionally supplemented by slow controlled deliberation.
-Systemic thinking is a simple technique for making sense of challenging situations and developing simple
interventions for transforming them.
-Analytical thinking is the process of gathering information, analyzing it in various ways, and evaluating it
for the purpose of gaining understanding, solving a problem, or making a decision.
-Logical thinking is directed towards making deductions or presenting arguments.
Paco Aranda! ! 24 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

-Analogical thinking is applying information from one domain to solve a problem in another domain.
-Critical thinking is thinking which involves evaluation and, perhaps, challenge.
-Creative thinking is related to solving a problem in one’s own way, involving imagination and initiative.
-Reflective thinking involves looking back on one’s previous thinking, knowledge and understanding.

These skills are not entirely independent. A given task may well involve more than one kind of
thinking. Understanding the Thinking Styles involved in the teaching-learning process allow EFFL
students and teachers to more effectively take advantage and apply the brain power available to them.

Howard Gardner developed a theory of Multiple Intelligences (1983/1991) which can go someway
towards explaining different Thinking Styles. According to Gardner there are eight different types of
intelligences. The eight intelligences are: Linguistic- the word player, Logical/Mathematical- the questioner,
Visual/Spatial- the visualizer, Musical- the music lover, Bodily/Kinesthetic- the mover, Interpersonal- the
socializer, Intrapersonal- the loner, Naturalistic- the nature lover.
Everyone has some of each of all the intelligences, but in different people one (or more) is more
pronounced. We could try to make sure that we vary the tasks and use a range of activities so that we touch
upon all the types of intelligences now and again. By observing our students and making notes on how they
react to different activities we may well discover, for example, that we have a class with a majority of visual
learners so we may try to use more flash cards or improve our board work. Second language learning tasks
can be developed around different types of intelligences. Multiple Intelligences Theory is an excellent
tool to enable EFFL teachers to plan attractive ways to provide learners with language practice.
Scenario-based Learning

Scenario-based Learning (SBL) uses interactive scenarios to support active learning strategies such as
problem-based or case-based learning. It normally involves students working their way through a storyline,
usually based around an ill-structured or complex problem, which they are required to solve. In the process
students must apply their subject knowledge, and critical thinking and problem solving skills in a safe, real-
world context. SBL is often non-linear, and can provide numerous feedback opportunities to students, based
on the decisions they make at each stage in the process. Scenario-based learning may be self-contained, in that
completing the scenario is the entire task, or it may be the first part of a larger assignment requiring the
student to complete the scenario, and then provide a reflection and self-assessment on the process.

Since learning best takes place in the context in which it is going to be used, and situated cognition, the
idea that knowledge is best acquired and more fully understood when situated within its context, SBL
can be used in a wide range of contexts, but it works especially effectively when used to simulate real-world
practice, providing opportunities which may be difficult for students to experience within the confines of a
course. SBL can be used as part of either formative or summative assessment. SBL usually works best when
applied to tasks requiring decision-making and critical thinking in complex situations. Tasks that are
routine to the students will require little critical thinking or decision-making, and may be better assessed using
other methods (see “Teaching Units Porposal” section for further details).

Developing Communicative Competence as a Primary Focus of L2 Teaching


In 1980, the applied linguists Canale and Swain published an influential article in which they argued that the
ability to communicate required four different sub-competencies: grammatical (ability to create
grammatically correct utterances), sociolinguistic (ability to produce sociolinguistically appropriate
utterances), discourse (ability to produce coherent and cohesive utterances), and strategic (ability to solve
communication problems as they arise).

Paco Aranda! ! 25 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

Brown (1994), viewing Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) as an approach (that is, a
theoretical position about the nature of language and of language teaching), rather than a specific method of
teaching, describes four underlying characteristics in defining CLT in a foreign language classroom,
which are summarized below:
1.-Focus in a classroom should be on all of the components of communicative competence of which
grammatical or linguistic competence is just part.
2.-Classroom activities should be designed to engage students in the pragmatic, authentic, and functional
use of language for meaningful purposes.
3.-Although we first should work on fluency, both fluency and accuracy should be considered equally
important in a second language learning classroom. And they are complementary.
4.-Students have to use their target language, productively and receptively, in unrehearsed contexts under
proper guidance, but not under the control of a teacher.

Instructional Strategies for Lifelong Learning in the EFFL Class

Teaching in English language classes focuses on fostering student thinking as well as language content,
outcomes, and learning activities/tasks. The following strategies are designed to help teachers meet the
needs of all the students in their EFFL classes and contribute to their Lifelong Learning:

1. Providing comprehensible input. L2 learners must understand the message that is conveyed. They
acquire language by hearing and understanding messages that are slightly above their current L2 level
(Krashen, 1982). Teachers need to speak slowly and use body language to get across the meaning to students.

2. Making lessons visual. Using visual representations of new vocabulary, graphs, maps, pictures…

3. Linking new information to prior knowledge. Teachers need to consider what schema EFFL students
bring to the classroom and to link instruction to the students’ personal, cultural, and world experiences.

4. Vocabulary instruction. EFFL learners require direct and indirect instruction of new vocabulary.
Teachers should also provide practice in pronouncing new words. Students need exposure to new terms,
words, idioms, and phrases. Teachers need to tie new vocabulary to prior learning using visuals.

5. Using cooperative learning strategies. Working in small groups is especially beneficial to learners since
they benefit from cooperative learning structures. Giving students a job in a group and monitoring that they
are participating is really recommended in this case.

6. Testing and homework for EFFL students. Teachers should allow alternative types of assessment: oral,
drawings, physical response (e.g., act-it-out), and manipulatives as well as modification to the test.
Homework and assessment should be directly linked to classroom instruction.

9.2. Teacher’s and Pupils’ Roles: Learning Implications


EFFL learners have to take a responsible role in their own learning. In this context, the language teacher
becomes a helper who assists with a choice of materials and guides learners in the teaching-learning process.
The L2 learner should be regarded as a processor of comprehensible input. S/he is challenged by input
that is a little beyond her/his present level of competence. S/he is expected to be able to assign meaning to this
input through dynamic use of context and extra linguistic information.
An EFFL teacher is one who helps learners to develop a natural capacity to communicate with other
people. Communicative teachers have three crucial roles. Firstly, the teacher is the primary source of
input that is understandable to the learner. Secondly, the teacher must create a friendly, pleasant

Paco Aranda! ! 26 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

classroom atmosphere. Thirdly, the teacher should choose the most effective materials and employ a rich
mix of acquisition tasks and learning activities.
EFFL teachers must be “Scaffolding” teachers. Scaffolding, a concept developed by Wood, Bruner
and Ross (1976), refers to the process that enables a child to solve a task or achieve a goal that would be
beyond his unassisted efforts. Teachers must know children’s interests and simplify tasks so they are
manageable and motivate children to pursue the instructional goals. In other words, we can say that
scaffolding is the help teachers offer to learners so that they can learn by themselves. Four types of
scaffolding sequences have been identified from classroom-based instructional conversations: explicit
modeling, direct explanation, invitations to participate in the conversations and verifying and clarifying.
9.3. Exercises, Tasks and Activities for Lifelong Learning
The European Comission (2014) definition of Lifelong Learning reads: “all purposeful learning activities,
whether formal or informal, under-taken on an ongoing basis with the aim of improving knowledge, skills
and competences.” So all learning activities must be undertaken throughout life, with the aim of
improving knowledge, skills and competences, within a personal, civic, and social and or employment
related perspective.

An exercise is a teaching procedure that involves controlled, guided or close-ended practice of some
aspect of language. A drill, a cloze activity, a reading comprehension passage can all be regarded as
exercises.
The term activity is more general and refers to any kind of purposeful classroom procedure that
involves learners doing something that relates to the goals of the course. For example singing a song,
playing a game, taking part in a debate, having a group discussion, are all different kinds of teaching
activities. An activity may contribute to the development of a Key Competence.

Communication tasks have been defined as tasks that 'involve the learner in comprehending,
manipulating, producing, or interacting in the target language while their attention is principally focused
on meaning rather than form' (Nunan, 1989). They aid fluency by enabling learners to activate their
linguistic knowledge for use in natural and spontaneous language, such as when taking part in a conversation.
Communication tasks to be developed in this didactic proposal will have the following characteristics:
•! It is something that learners do, or carry out, using their existing language resources.
•! It has an outcome which is not simply linked to learning language, relevant to learners’ needs.
•! It calls upon the learners’ use of communication strategies and interactional skills.
•! It contributes to the development of Key Competences.

9.4.! Teaching Resources and Materials


Resources are any instruments that help us to achieve any goal; that is, auxiliary material with which the
pupils develop the learning process. The simplest didactic resources for TEFFL are real objects (realia),
which can be used as a source for vocabulary or used for activities such as role-plays to provide realism and
fun. People are also a basic resource. Another common resource is the blackboard. It is important to plan
what we are going to use it for, bearing in mind that any drawing or writing must be done big and clear
enough for everyone to see it, and avoid writing on it for a long time.
Text-based materials (worksheets, handouts, graded reading books and other materials which
include written texts) are also very suitable, since they provide individual access to culture in general, and
develop reading skills, as well as autonomous learning and an interest in reading.
Visual materials can shorten the gap between the classroom and the real world and they encourage the
transmission of the contents of language. The most used materials are flashcards, posters, friezes, etc. They
help making the linguistic input comprehensible to L2 learners.

Paco Aranda! ! 27 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

The 2013 Organic Act on Education Quality Improvement (LOMCE) emphasises the
importance of digital literacy and the appropriate use of technology to assist learning. This syllabus brings
technology into the learning environment where it adds most value. Their learning experience mirrors real life
experiences in that children obtain information from a wide range of sources and media and develop the
confidence to use all of them to their best advantage:
-Audiovisual resources, such as DVDs, compact discs and other multimedia type instructional materials are
really motivating in language teaching. They provide a closer approach to reality through the ear and eye and
keep the students active.
-Computers are popular for TEFFL due to their advantages. They improve the assimilation of contents and
create autonomous learning; also, the combination of visuals, sound and movement provides a very attractive
presentation. The use of blogs, webquests, and podcasts will foster L2 learning.
-The interactive whiteboard or smart-board provides EFFL teachers and students with a whole new
interactive learning environment to share ideas, information, images, animations, audio or video. Learning is
much more powerful if it is multimodal and the smart-board supports several different learning styles. L2
students are highly motivated when content is presented on a smart-board.
9.5.! Classroom Management
The EFFL classroom is unlike any other, and thus thrusts its teachers into management situations that are
rare or non-existent in the classrooms of other subject areas. No content can be taught or learned if there is
mayhem in the classroom environment. Effective classroom management practices are often what consume
the teachers’ time and energy.
*The most important action an effective EFFL teacher takes at the beginning of the year is creating a
Climate for Learning. Communicating expectations, enforcing discipline and even establishing simple
classroom routines may pose special problems in the EFFL class.
The classroom isn’t always the best place to learn a foreign language due to some limitations such as
space and time. The teacher must try to create the best conditions for learning, despite the drawbacks:
*Managing Class Time is essential and really critical in order to run an effective classroom. The L2 teacher
should anticipate the length of the lessons, of the stages of the lesson and of the activities, but this is just an
orientation because we need to follow students´ learning rhythms. EFFL teachers should do activities in class
which students really can’t do outside class on their own, so nearly 80% of the class work will be oral, leaving
the written tasks as homework. In every lesson, some minutes will be saved for doing these routines:
-The first 5 minutes (classroom routines): greeting the students, asking about the date and the weather…
-10 minutes for correcting homework out loud or using the blackboard.
-Last few minutes to start the homework just in case students have doubts.

*As regards to Space Management, if the classroom is used for teaching other areas, the EFFL teacher can
create an “English Corner” with some shelves to keep readers, magazines, games, realia, etc. and a board to
pin things on. The physical aspects of the classroom (general room arrangement, sitting, display boards,
etc.) should be carefully considered with both student’s needs and teaching objectives in mind. Good
environments should be flexible, so we could experiment with different room arrangements. Teachers could
encourage children to have an active role in decorating their classroom.

*When talking about Student Groupings, whatever the seating arrangement we have in a classroom, students
can be organized in different ways: as a whole class, in pairs, in groups or individually. The type of
grouping we choose will depend on the activity and the interaction pattern we consider most suitable for it.
Although a communicative approach to teaching seems to favor pair or group-work, it does not mean that all
the communicative activities in the classroom must involve them.
Paco Aranda! ! 28 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

10. TREATMENT OF DIVERSITY. INCLUSIVITY STATEMENT: ACADEMIC


RECOVERY AND SUPPORT
One of the elements upon which the LOMCE places most emphasis is Treatment of Diversity. It is clear that
the same educational method employed with a single group of students has differing results depending on
each pupil’s knowledge and previous experience, their intellectual capacity and their interests and motivation
with regard to teaching. In accordance with the Order of July 25th 2008, which Regulates Attention to
Diversity in Primary Education in Andalusia (revised and consolidated in 2016), schools should have at
their disposal measures of attention to diversity, either organizational and/or methodological, which provide
them with flexible organization and personalised attention to students according to their needs.
Pupils learn at different speeds and have different styles of learning. In every class there will be a
variety of interests, likes and dislikes. Moreover, some children may have different cultural backgrounds
from the rest of the group. The needs and interests of the learners should drive the design of any EFFL
Syllabus. By teaching our students to value their differences, we are creating a truly global classroom. And by
explaining students’ appreciation of each other, we are showing them how to appreciate the rest of the world.
All EFFL specialist teachers need to be prepared to adjust their instructional approaches to
accommodate the different levels of English proficiency and different learning rates and styles of their
students. Therefore, these differences should always be catered for, by presenting the same activities in
different ways. Teachers need to evaluate towards whom they should direct each type of activity, and need to
be constantly aware of these differences, not only when assessing, but also when teaching and planning.
Naturally, in classes where there is a wide range of abilities, pupils’ needs will be different. Some will
require reinforcement of what they have learned, while the most able will benefit from extension and further
practice. This can present a challenge for the teacher. Thus, Reinforcement and Extension activities (see
Appendices xv-xxii) have been designed for every Teaching Unit included in this Syllabus. These activities are
not planned to be worked on at any particular moment in the lessons; we will use them just when it is
necessary to accommodate the different levels of the L2 proficiency and different learning rates and styles of
our students. Reinforcement activities aim to consolidate and build on the English that students have already
learnt. They feature topic-based material designed to motivate learners to communicate about matters that
genuinely concern them. Extension activities are aimed at students who finish early and offer learners a
choice of project work, enabling them to consolidate language and topic work to best suit their interests.
As established by the School’s Attention to Diversity Plan, those students with the EFFL Area
pending from previous school years, in case they pass one of the term evaluations during the current school
year, will be considered to succeed. Those who do not overcome any of the evaluations in the present course
will have to work on their own with material provided by the EFFL teacher and after that, they will have the
right to take the extraordinary tests established by current regulations. Students who may require Academic
Recovery and Support, through individualized, one-on-one instruction, can focus on improvement in
vocabulary building, writing skills, mechanics, organization, and writing style and speaking skills,
including clarity, fluidity, and pronunciation.
The Academic Recovery and Support Program for this type of pupils is designed to help them
achieve academic success. We will focus on self-awareness (strengths exploration, self-management and
personal values), and academic strategies (goal setting, learning strategies, academic resources and
procedures) that would make these students improve their academic performance.
According to Royal Decree 126/2014, we should “provide measures and alternative methodologies
in teaching and assessment foreign languages with students with special needs or learning disabilities,
especially those who has difficulties in speaking”. Within the overall EFFL learners in a Primary Education
class, it has become clear that there are students who have special needs, including disabilities of an
intellectual, physical, sensory, emotional, or behavioral nature, and learning disabilities, and exceptional gifts
or talents. When engaging in EFFL planning for a Special Educational Needs (SEN) student, it is
important to include the English specialist teacher on the IEP team. An Individualized Education Plan (IEP)
Paco Aranda! ! 29 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

is based on the child’s unique needs, level of performance, educational needs, goals and measurable
objectives. IEP’s can be classified into: non-significant curricular adaptations (adjustments that do not
substantially modify the programming of the regular education), significant curricular adaptations
(modification or elimination of contents and objectives of the planning and resulting in repercussion in the
evaluation criteria) and access adjustments (modifications or provision of special material or communication
resources in order to facilitate access to the regular curricular for students who present motor, visual or
hearing deficiencies).
Criteria and Procedures Adopted for the Development of Individualized Education Plan (IEP) for
Students with Special Educational Needs (SEN):
Adaptations will focus on: 1- The time and rhythm of learning, 2- A more personalized methodology, 3- A
reinforcement of study skills, 4- The improvement of procedures, habits and attitudes.
Ways of increasing amount of counseling:
a) For the more gifted students, extension materials will be provided
b) For pupils with serious learning problems, procedures and attitudes will be the priority, with social
integration being the overall aim. Core instrumental skills need to be the key content of the adapted
curriculum. Modifications to the curriculum may be quite significant (they will probably entail the
elimination of contents, objectives and assessment criteria which might otherwise be essential).
When such adaptations are not enough, the alternative is to have the pupil study part of the core
curriculum in special groups, with different contents and educational activities. This learning can take place in
the mainstream classroom with special support, or in a separate physical space. This pupil will have the
general objectives of this stage as a reference, but will work through different contents and activities.
11. PLAN FOR THE PROMOTION OF READING HABITS IN THE EFFL CLASS

Several sociological studies on reading habits state that school pupils no longer read for leisure, or even to
satisfy individual curiosities. Free Voluntary Reading (FVR) or Extensive Reading (giving students the
time, encouragement, and materials to read pleasurably, at their own level, as many books as they can,
without the pressures of testing or marks) is a way, not only to help developing a personal and social identity,
but also to create literacy capacities, namely the information literacy abilities that are so needed to go through
life in today’s world. Reading (and hearing) of tales since birth is fundamental to help children grow.

Within the national and regional curriculum, there are some aspects which try to develop reading
habits in the school as for example the Plan for the Promotion of Reading Habits in Andalusia or specific
physical spaces in schools, such as the School Libraries. LOMCE states that reading comprehension is an
object of interest that must be developed in all educational stages. It also promotes the development of
reading habits and the initiation to the study of literature, in order to achieve the effective use of learning.

Throughout Primary Education, children should be presented all sort of written texts, pieces of
writing for different purposes so they get used to read language in a variety of contexts: formal/informal,
poetry and prose, letters, messages, advertising, information content texts, literature... One of the best methods
of incorporating reading habits in EFFL contexts is by creating a Classroom Library, using graded readers
(short and simplified books) as well as any kind of real-life text. This type of works recycle large portions of
high-frequency vocabulary, helping students to recognize words automatically. Reading improvement is
perhaps the first such gain, but the benefits of Extensive Reading (FVR) extend to writing, listening, and
speaking, as well as increased motivation to continue reading in English. Another initiative to promote reading
habits is the creation of books. We can find many online resources to create and edit a book, allowing us to
write a story, thinking about the setting, the facts, the characters, etc. We can also add some different reading
formats; we may work with magazines, newspapers, webpages, etc. We may work with tales or fables which
transmit positive values: interculturality, tolerance and respect, friendship and conflict resolution.
Paco Aranda! ! 30 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

Teachers can use a combination of different activities based on various methods to help children
learn to read in English. One approach is to provide visuals to help children memorize words or sentences
(‘Look and Say’ method). Reading a big book with the whole class, encouraging children to use clues from the
story to understand it (the ‘Whole Context’ approach), is another. Children can also be taught to associate the
sounds of English with common spelling patterns (phonic methods and high-frequency words). This can
support the reading process but should not be the only method used, as English is highly irregular in its
phonic and graphic correspondence. Pupils may read words by sounding out and blending their separate
parts, and they also read spellings that represent more than one sound. They can be taught to differentiate
between the separate sounds in words, and learn the letters and letter combinations most commonly used to
spell those sounds. The EFFL lesson should involve a daily focus on a story or non-fictional text.

12. SUPPLEMENTARY AND EXTRACURRICULAR ACTIVITIES


Providing global education for L2 students that reaches beyond classroom teaching and promoting the
all-around development of children is a commitment taken on by this porposal. The extracurricular and
supplementary activities will contribute to the formal education, bringing benefits like reinforcing
motor development, socialization skills and the capacity to focus and concentrate. These activities also
encourage the practice of physical activities and promote the artistic development of EFFL students.

Since it is impossible to learn English without getting to know the Anglosaxon culture and people, we
should pay special attention to extracurricular activities and therefore, complement the EFFL classes with a
broad cultural program. Our aim is to create a cordial and stimulating atmosphere in which our students
are encouraged to practice their English inside and outside the classroom in real life situations. To develop
the Key Competences, we will have to foster EFFL students to acquire positive values not only in those tasks
and activities developed in class, but also through Extracurricular and Complementary Activities. All of them
are detailed in the General Annual Programming (PGA) and Education Project (PE).

Regarding Supplementary Activities, we have those ones proposed by the 1st Cycle’s Teaching Staff
that are compulsory and developed within the school schedule. The activities that our school organizes to
promote the use and learning of the English language are:

-Lectures about: “Risks on the Internet, “Ciberbullying”, “Studying Techniques”, “Healthy Lifestyle”…
- Peace ́s Day, International Book Day, Constitution Day, Andalusia ́s National Day…

The Extracurricular Activities are established at the beginning of the school year, taking into account
the opinions and suggestions of students ́families and Parents ́Association (AMPA) by the previous revision of
the School Board. All of them are aimed to foster participation of families with the school community and
improve the learning process. These activities are stated within the General Annual Programming (PGA) and
are voluntary:

-Visit to the theater or cinema in English. The play may vary, according to availability of tickets and
companies and it should be about issues such as tolerance, environmental concern, etc.
-Visits to tourist locations in order to meet and interview native English speakers. These activities are closely
related to work on other subject areas such as Social Studies and Science.
-Halloween party
-Talent show
-English Dessert Contest

Paco Aranda! ! 31 Candidate # 235769436!

!
EFFL Syllabus Design 1st Grade of Primary Education

14. REFERENCES AND FURTHER READING

14.1.! Reference Literature.


)! Council of Europe (2001). A Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (Learning,
Teaching, Assessment). Strasbourg.
)! Council of Europe (2006). Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of 18
December 2006 on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning. (Official Journal of the EU # L394).
)! European Commission (2013). Education and Training in Europe 2020: Responses from the EU
Member States. Eurydice Report. Brussels: Eurydice.
)! Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and Practice in Second Language Acquisition. New York: Pergamon.
)! Law, Barbara (2007). Assessment and ESL: An Alternative Approach. Portage and Main Press.
)! McLaren, N. Madrid, D. (2004). TEFL in Primary Education. Ed. Universidad de Granada.
)! Nunan, D. (1999). Second LanguageTeaching and Learning. Boston, MA: Heinle and Heinle.
)! Varela, R. (Ed.) (2003). All about Teaching English. Centro de Estudios Ramón Areces.

14.2.! Legal Framework.

)! Andalusian Council of Education and Science (2008/2016). Order of July 25th 2008, which Regulates
Attention to Diversity in Primary Education in Andalusia -revised and consolidated in 2016- (BOJA #
167, August 22nd, 2008).
)! Andalusian Council of Education and Science (2015). Decree 97/2015 of March 3rd, which Establishes
the Ordination and Core Curriculum of Primary Education in the Autonomous Community of
Andalusia (BOJA # 50, March 13th, 2015).
)! Andalusian Council of Education and Science (2015). Order of March 17th 2015, which develops the
Core Curriculum for Primary Education in Andalusia (BOJA # 60, March 27th, 2015).
)! Andalusian Council of Education and Science (2015). Order of November 4th 2015, which establishes the
Ordination of the Evaluation of the Primary Education Learning Process in the Autonomous
Community of Andalusia (BOJA # 230, November 26th, 2015).
)! Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (2013). Organic Act on Education Quality Improvement
(LOMCE), of December 9th (BOE # 295, December 10th, 2013).
)! Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (2014). Royal Decree 126/2014 of February 28th, which
Establishes the Core Curriculum in Primary Education (BOE # 52, March 1st, 2014).
)! Spanish Ministry of Education and Science (2015). Order ECD/65/2015 of January 21st, which Details
the Relation between Key Competences, Contents and Evaluation Criteria in Primary Education,
Compulsory Secondary Education and Baccalaureate (BOE # 25, January 29th, 2015).

14.3.! Webography.
)! English as L2 - Learn English (http://esl.about.com/)
)! English Language (ESL) Learning (http://www.usingenglish.com/)
)! Language Learning and Teaching (http://llt.msu.edu/vol3num1/hoven/)
)! Learn English with EC (http//:www.ecenglish.com/learnenglish/)
)! Resouces for EFL Teachers (https://www.englishclub.com/index.htm)
)! Teaching Today (http://www.glencoe.com/sec/teachingtoday/tiparchive.phtml/7)
)! Telling Stories: ESL Strategies Multimedia Page (http://www.prel.org/eslstrategies/multimedia.html)

Paco Aranda! ! 32 Candidate # 235769436!