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Prophecy and Fantastical Reality in Hidden Land Exploration

New Discoveries in Sle lung bZhad pa’i rdo rje’s 1729 Journey to Pad+mo

Faculty of Oriental Studies

MPhil Tibetan and Himalayan Studies

Thomas Greensmith

Wolfson College
Trinity Term
May 2018

gTsang po Gorges Pad+mo bkod - (Kindon-Ward: 2008:55)

Map One (Baker 2004: Map 1)


Firstly, I have to especially thank my father, mother, grandmother and grandfather. Without

their continual support emotionally and financially I simply would never have been able to

even contemplate attending a course for two years at Oxford. Any merit that I may have accrued

due to the efforts of these two years I especially dedicate to them and may they find peace and

happiness in this and all future lives. I must thank the Eleventh Sle lung sprul sku who has

never given up on encouraging me to learn the Tibetan language from the moment that I met

him. It was he who provided me with the inspiration to study about the great Fifth Sle lung. I

must thank my supervsoi Professor Ulrike Roesler. She is the most inspirational tutor anyone

could possibly want and she has provided me with a stability and calm that helped me pen the

following work. Finally, I leave my final thanks to Fjolla Krasniqi. Without her perpetual

support in the form of proof reading and critique, emotional support in times of self-doubt was

all contained within her infinite patience and selfless kindness I would never have enjoyed it

so much. I hope that anyone who may read this finds this most charismatic of individuals as

interesting as I do and I hope in some way it helps encourage more study and reflection on both

hidden lands and Sle rlung bzhad’pa’i rdo rje.

Tom Greensmith

Oxford University - May 2018

Table of Contents

v Introduction
1.1 Introductory Remarks………………………………………….. 6
1.2 General Literature Review …………………………………….. 7
1.3 Pad+mo bkod gTer ma ………………………………………… 11
1.4 Literary Qualities of the Text ………………………………….. 15
1.5 Methodology …………………………………………………... 17

v Chapter One - The Protagonist
2.1 The Sle lung lineage …………………………………………… 19
2.2 The Fifth Sle lung bZhad pa’i rdo rje ………………………….. 20

v Chapter Two – Pad+mo bkod
2.1 The Location of Pad+mo bkod ………………………………… 25
2.2 Sle lung’s Route to Pad+mo bkod ……………………………... 30

v Chapter Three
3.1 The Tibetan Treasure Tradition ………………………………… 30
3.2 Hidden land gter ma …………………………………………… 32
3.3 Thematic Introduction ………………………………………….. 31
3.4 The Five Themes ……………………………………………….. 32

v Chapter Four The Treasure Map
4.1 The Treasure Map ……………………………………………… 35

v Chapter Five - The Narrative
5.1 The Narrative ………………………………………………….. 38
5.2 Apocalyptic Expectations ……………………………………... 41
5.3 Hidden Land Escape …………………………………………... 45
5.4 Sle lung’s Motivations ………………………………………... 47
5.5 Political Motivations …………………………………………... 50
5.6 Spiritual Motivations ………………………………………….. 54

v Chapter Six - The Revealer & Travel Companions
6.1 Qualities of Travel Companions ………………………………. 56
6.2 The Unusual Use of Oracles ………………………………….. 59
6.3 Numinous Companions ……………………………………….. 60

v Chapter Seven – Opening
7.1 Sacred Geography ………………………………………….. 64
7.2 Cakras According to Sle lung ……………………………… 67
7.3 Taming the Numinous ……………………………………… 68
7.4 Ritual Process …………………………………………….… 70
7.5 The Mechanics of Practice ……………………………….… 72
7.6 Political Taming ……………………………………………. 74
7.7 Passing the ‘Baton of Mastery’ …………………………….. 76

v Chapter Eight – The Fruit
8.1 The Fruit ………………………………………………..…... 79

v Conclusion …………………………………………………………… 83

v Appendices.
- Appendix A –
Pleasant and Truthful Words: Directions to the Supreme
Pilgrimage Site of Pad+mo bkod.
Sle lung bZhad pa’i rdo rje ……………………………………. 85
- Appendix B –
The Guide Book to the Hidden land of Pad+mo bkod.
’Ja’ tshon snying po - ………………………………………….. 112
- Appendix C –An Aspiration to Travel to the Hidden Land
of Pad+mo bkod
Sle lung bZhad pa’i rdo rje ……………………………………. 119
- Appendix D – Sangs rgyas gling pa ………………………….. 121
- Appendix E – Sle lung’s Travel accounts ……………………. 121

v Complete Bibliography …………………………………………….. 125

༄༅ Dedicated to the memory of my teacher and friend Tshe ring Don grub༄༅


In southern Tibet, at the end of the Himalayan massif where the gTsang po river carves through

the two magnificent mountains of gNam lcags ’bar ba and rGya la exists a region known as

Pad+mo bkod.1 Pad+mo bkod, a place of vertiginous mountains, hostile tribes and extreme

variations in climate has for some, proven to be a place of great spiritual significance. One such

person was the tantric Buddhist adept Sle lung rJe drung bLo bzang ’Phrin las bZhad pa’i rdo

rje (1697-1740), hitherto referred to as simply Sle lung. He travelled to Pad+mo bkod in 1729

recording the whole journey in his travelogue entitled “Pleasant and Truthful Words:

Directions to the Supreme Pilgrimage Site of Pad+mo bkod” (Sle lung 1983a).2 Sle lung, a

prolific author and master of both Ge lug pa and rNying ma traditions, was inspired to travel

to Pad+mo bkod following in the Tibetan treasure tradition (gter ma) that designates this region

as a hidden land (sbas yul). Having translated a great part of this text, it appears that this first

person account will provide a much needed bridge between the prophecies (lung bstan) section

found in hidden land treasure texts and the actuality of ‘opening’ (sgo ’byed), Pad+mo bkod’s

sacred sites. This is the overriding strength that this text provides when compared with other

forms of literature and the reason why I have selected it as my main text of analysis. I will

introduce who Sle lung was and why he was so important in the history of eighteenth century

Tibet. I will then describe the route from his residence in ’Ol kha through Kong po and into

Pad+mo bkod elucidating the overall journey he took. Since the hidden land genre finds its

source from the Tibetan treasure tradition I will present an examination of this topic thus

providing the context in which hidden land is found. From this point and through to my

conclusion I will follow a structure I call ‘The Five Themes.’ This structure provides a

convenient tool in which to examine Pad+mo bkod, its status and development as a hidden

1 There are two variations of the spelling of this hidden land; Pad+mo bkod and Pad+ma bkod. I have followed the way that Sle lung writes.
2 “gNas mchog pad+mo bkod du bgrod pa'i lam yig dga’ ’byed bden gtam la” (Sle lung 1983a).

land, whilst at the same time examining Sle lung’s motivations and methods for opening the

locked doors of this most sacred of sites. In this way I hope to make the most of the greatest

strength this text has to offer, its first person detail.

General Literature Review

Literature on Pad+mo bkod is mostly found in one of the following genres; original gter ma

text, personal travel accounts, academic exploration, aspirational prayers (smon lam) and ritual

practices. I will present an overview of the more relevant literature on the subject of hidden

lands, Pad+mo bkod and Sle lung. Such an analysis forms the basis of any thorough

examination of this region. First, I will present notable literature that has been written on hidden

land in general, then explore the different academic focus on Pad+mo bkod, finishing with

Tibetan hidden land treasure texts (gter ma).

Hidden land literature, no matter the genre, began with the treasure revealer (gter ston) Rig

’dzin rgod ldem (1337-1408), who was the most prolific hidden land gter ma revealer (Ehrhard

2009:498). He discovered the ‘key’ to bringing to light the seven most important hidden lands

amongst many others (Orofino 1991:246). In particular, sBas yul spyi’i them byang sets the

historical scene and geographical location of seven hidden lands in Tibet.3

In 1975, Aris’ expedition to a region of Northern Nepal describes his exploration to a sbas yul

known as sKyid mo lung (Aris 1975:43-82). An important study since it is one of the earliest

examinations of hidden land leading to his later publication entitled Bhutan (1979). Aris

examines the location of the hidden land Khan pa lung in Bhutan which led to a flurry of

academic research focusing on this sbas yul. He provides a translation of sections of the text

sBas yul mkhan pa ljongs kyi gnas yig padma gling pa’i gter ma.

3Found in Byang gter lugs kyi rnam thar ma ’ongs lung bstan, Gangtok (1983:464-96) translated by Sadar-Afkhami (1996:40-65). This does
not mean there are only seven hidden lands.

Those influenced by Aris’ work include Reinhard (1978), who combined textual analysis of

two texts, sBas yul khan pa lung gi nas yig mthong ba don ldan bzhugs so and sBas yul mkhan

pa lung gi nub sgo lde mig both attributed to Rig ’dzin rgod ldem. He provides an English

translation and compared them to the local oral narrative (Reinhard 1978:5-35). Bernbaum

(1980) visited mKhan pa lung and through conversations with lamas (bla ma) concluded that

there are three levels of experience of a yogins journey; outer (phyi), inner (nang) and secret

(gsang ba). The outer is where the yogi enjoys sensory enjoyment of the land but gains no

spiritual insight, inner where the yogi gains some spiritual insight and the secret where spiritual

realisation takes place (Bernbaum 1980:53-77). Diemberger (1997:287-334) examined a travel

guide entitled sBas yul mkhan pa lung gi lam yig sa spyad bcas pa bzhugs so. It is a different

publication of the same text that both Reinhard and Bernbaum examined (Diemberger

1997:291). She analyses the description found in this travel guide focusing on its exact location

although does not provide a full translation. Orofino (1991) presents an excellent translation of

Rig ’dzin rgod ldem’s gter ma called sBas yul mkhan pa lung gis lam yig sa dpyad dang bcas

pa bzhugs so.

Brauen-Dolma (1985) utilised first person interviews with rNying ma lamas combined with

textual analysis of a gter ma called sBas yul ’bras mo ljongs kyi gnas yig phan yon dang bcas

pa discovered by the nineteenth century master ’Gyur med ’Jigs bral bstan ’dzin dpa’ bo (dates

unknown). He describes the search for paradisiacal lands arguing that it is tied to

millenarianism. He also presents an excellent summary of the prerequisites that those trying to

enter hidden lands must achieve (Brauen-Dolma 1985 245:256).

Childs (1999), taking a different approach to millenarianism and hidden lands, argues that sbas

yul were, above all, places where descendants of the Tibetan emperors (btsan po) could take

refuge in politically unstable times due to the fear of the Yuan Sakya patronage collapsing.

Whilst an interesting article it is limited since it only focuses on Rig ’dzin rgod ldem’s

revelations during the fourteenth century. Ehrhard (1999b) examines the relationship between

the early royal period’s (c.600-c.900) sacred locations and the discovery of hidden land gter


Sadar-Afkhami (1996, 2001) has written the only PHD thesis published on hidden land

narrative to date. He provides a valuable translation of Rig ’dzin rgod ldem’s sBas yul spyi’i

them byang.

Sharpening the focus on Pad+mo bkod, early Western literature is replete with personal

exploration accounts. Examples include Bacot (1912) who travelled in Khams and ran into

Pad+mo bkod pilgrims, the English botanist Kingdon-Ward (1926) who collected seed samples

in Pad+mo bkod and the British military officer Bailey (1957) who mapped the inner gorges

of the Brahmaputra. The latter two accounts describe the flora, fauna and topography of

Pad+mo bkod and the surrounding areas in great detail. The French explorer Bacot (1877-

1965) made an important discovery during his expedition through Southern Khams (1909-

1910). He encountered a group of Tibetan refugees fleeing Chinese warlords and was given

the first guide book entitled Ma ’ong lung bstan snyig ma’i sems can la sbas yul padma bkod

kyi gnas yig to find its way into the West (Sadar-Afkhami 2001:2).4

The study of Pad+mo bkod as the projection of Vajravārāhī is a well-researched topic in

academia. The aforementioned text given to Bacot (1912) influenced Stein (1988)5 who was

the first Western academic to present an in-depth analysis of the description of Pad+mo bkod

as the projection of Vajravārāhī (Ehrhard 1999a:237). It offers an alternative description of the

location of the central channel and cakras compared to later academic studies (Stein 1988:43-

4 Dudjom writes that “Rikdzin Dorje Thokme is probably to be identified with Bacot’s ‘grand lama nommé Sang-gye Tho-med” (Dudjom
5 This text was also supplemented with sTag sham Nus ldan rdo rje’s gter ma cycle rTsa gsum yi dam dgongs 'dus (Ehrhard 1999a:237).

48). Ehrhard (1999a:234) describes the location of the hands, breast and feet as well as the

head, neck, heart, naval and secret cakras of Vajravārāhī.

McDougal (2016) has translated and published three of bDud ’joms Drag sngags gling pa’s

(1871-1936) treasure texts about Pad+mo bkod; dGongs gsang zad med ye shes klong mdzod

las: dai wa ko Ta'i gnas yig ma rig mun sel, gNas mchog tsi t+ta spu ri'i gnas yig shel dkar me

long and rTsa gsum dgongs pa kun 'dus las: yang gsang pad shri gnas yig ma rig mun sel sgron

me (McDougal 2016:5/52). They describe an alternative location of the lower cakras of

Vajravārāhī in lower Pad+mo bkod, Arunachal Pradesh. It also describes the transfer of four

pīṭha, Devakoṭa, Pretapurī, Lampāka and Lake Dhanakoṣa, to the same region (McDougal

2016:20/21, Sugiki 2009:523-524).6 Furthermore, it presents a new cakra called the ‘Deathless

Extreme Secret Place’ (’chi med yang gsang gnas). The text describes that at the end of the life

cycle of the earth, all classes of creatures will gather at the womb of the goddess Vajravārāhī,

in the form of seeds (sa bon). They will then be born again in the next cycle along with the

propagation of the texts hidden in Pad+mo bkod by Padmasambhava. Sanders (2016) collected

and recorded local oral narrative in the autumn of 2001, 2002 and 2008 and reports that the

‘Deathless Extreme Secret Place’ is present in local oral narrative.7

Grothmann (2012a:21/52), focuses on the migration patterns of Pad+mo bkod into the modern

age, an important study which needs further research to determine the extent, that hidden land

narrative had on the net influx of migrators. She also conducts an interesting study of the lesser

known hidden land of Pachakshiri on the border of Pad+mo bkod (Grothmann 2012b:125-151).

Similarly, Xizang (1987) presents information on migration patterns to Pad+mo bkod across

the centuries which could provide extra information on millenarist migration patterns (Xizang


6 See Huber (2008) for a discussion on the transference of pīṭha to new locations.
7 Personal Communication – Sanders (2018)

Ehrhard (1999b:240/57) presents a detailed account of the historical and political turmoil of

the eighteenth century that fuelled the rise in millenarism and subsequent hidden land

exploration. He presents a key relationship between Sle lung and the ruler Pho lha nas bSod

nams stobs rgyas (1689-1747) making a convincing argument that hidden land narrative falls

not only under millenarianism, but also sectarian claims to territory and missionary extension.

This is best read alongside Petech (1972) which remains the most comprehensive examination

of the political backdrop of the eighteenth century.

Ehrhard (1999a:227/39) summarises the most important treasure discoverers from the

seventeenth through to the twentieth century connected to Pad+mo bkod. The notes contain

vital information on the various dharma histories (chos ’byung) that comment on important

aspects of treasure revealers related to Pad+mo bkod. Ehrhard’s forthcoming paper (2018)

adds vital new information on the treasure revealer Chos rje gling pa’s (1681-1720) travels in

Pad+mo bkod.

Pad+mo bkod gTer ma

In the following examination, I present a chronological review of gter ma related to Pad+mo

bkod up to and including the eighteenth century.

’Ja’ tshon snying po discovered the first gter ma to identify

Pad+mo bkod as a hidden land. He revealed the treasure text

sBas yul pad+ma bko lam kyi yig bzhug (1979) which is part

of the treasure cycle rDo rje khro lod kyi sgrub skor. Sanders

(2016) has presented a new text that he was given whilst in

Pad+mo bkod called gNas mchog padma bkod pa’i gnas yig

lung brten, which may pre-date ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s text

Plate 1 - ’Ja’ tshon snying po by some two hundred years. The colophon reads “[the]
Source: ( 2018a)

emanation Sangs rgyas gling pa [1340–1396] revealed this gter ma from the cave of Mo che

shel gyi yangs ljongs.”8 Further research is needed to verify its authenticity (Sanders


bDud ’dul rdo rje (1615-1672) discovered the treasure text bDe chen pad+ma bkod kyi gnas

yig thos pa rang grol bzhugs so (1997)9 and according to Dudjom also discovered a text called

sBas yul padma bkod pa’i gnas yig (Dudjom 1991:815) the latter of which I could not locate.

sTag sham Nus ldan rdo rje’s (1655-1708) text titled gNas mchog dga' ba tshal gyi lo rgyus

snying po mdor bsdus, describes Pad+mo bkod with twelve outer territories, forty inner ravines,

sixteen secret [ravines] and the four cardinal bKo chung (sTag sham 1988:144).10 He also

revealed the treasure text Yi dam rTa mgrin dgongs ’dus las (n.d).

Rig ’dzin rDo rje thogs med’s (1746-1797) text Tshe sgrub ’od kyi drwa ba’i zab chos bdun

pa sbas yul sgo ’byed yid bzhin ’od ’phro’i skor gyi thob yig (1979-1985) describes the

protector deities of Pad+mo bkod’s heart cakra, the more secret geographical levels of Pad+mo

bkod and even hallucinogenic plants one may eat to clear away obstacles. Sadar-Afkhami

(2001) translates small sections and it would be an interesting text to further explore.

Lastly, aside from gter ma and academic examination, personal travel accounts are an

important source of information on hidden lands. Sle lung has written three travel accounts of

his own explorations to Pad+mo bkod; gNas mchog pad+mo bkod du bgrod pa’i lam yig dga’

’byed bden gtam la (Sle lung 1983a) and Bag yod kyi la sbas yul pad+mo bkod du bskyod pa’i

lo rgyus mdo tsam bshad pa ngo mtshar do shal (Sle lung 1982b) and Chu glang lo sbas yul

8 See Appendix D.
9 See Mayward (2016) for a full translation.
10 “De la phyi gling bcu gnyis nang sul bzhi bcu/ gsang gling bcu drug tu yod pa'i nang nas shar lho nub byang gi bkod chung bzhi ni/” (sTag

sham 1988:144).

pad+ma bkod du chibs bskyod gnang skabs kyi tho sgrigs zhal bkod (Loden 2013:). The second

two of describes his journey there 1733 and last of which is Sle lung’s handwritten account

which has yet to be found. Sle lung’s first expedition account served as the inspiration behind

Baker’s (2004) expedition which has helped generate wider increased interest in Pad+mo bkod

and hidden land narrative. Sle lung also wrote a prayer to be in Pad+mo bkod called sBas yul

pad+mo bkod du ’gro ba’i smon lam bzhugs so in 1733 (Sle lung 1982b).11

There are two other travel accounts that bear similarity to Sle lung’s, both written in the

twentieth century. The first, the rnam thar of sGa rje Khams sprul rin po che ’Jam dbyangs don

grub (b1927), includes two accounts of his trips to Pad+mo bkod (Khamtrul 2009:184-204).

The second is Sangak’s biography of gter ston Pad rgyal gling pa (1924-1988). It is a short but

insightful account of the retrieval of a gter ma in Pad+mo bkod (Sangak 2016:149/169).

Shor’s (2011) biography of the gter ston brTul zhugs gling pa (1916-1962) attempt to open a

hidden land in Sikkim is a rich source of first person accounts. He collated oral accounts from

many of those who joined this mission.

rDo bis dge bshes Shes rab rgya mtsho (1884-1968) wrote a treatise against Pad+mo bkod

called Padma bkod kyi gnas yig sun ’byin rdzun nag mun sel sgron me. He argued against

notions of pilgrimage and the Buddhist elite from the view of the creation of a Buddhist

socialist state (Sadar-Afkhami 2001:164-172). Buffetrille has translated and written an article

about this text in French (Buffetrille 2007:1-27).12

11 See appendix C.
12 This text is unavailable on BDRC.

Finally, the most comprehensive study to date on Sle lung himself is Bailey’s (2016) PHD

thesis entitled ‘A Feast for Scholars: The Life and Works of Sle lung bZhad pa’i rdo rje.’

Bailey's thesis contains a detailed biography of Sle lung, an overview of his most important

works, and a detailed examination of two of his ritual texts, which he also translates. For a

general overview of the whole Sle lung lineage see Loden (2013) which also includes a

comprehensive appendix of all the collected works by the Fifth Sle lung (Loden 2013:110-


In summary, the vast majority of Tibetan material on Pad+mo bkod is found in gter ma text

and Sle lung’s travelogue is the only personal account of exploration to Pad+mo bkod written

before the twentieth century known to me. I have not discovered a more detailed travel account

in any century on Pad+mo bkod or any hidden land. Since hidden land treasure texts are all

found within the prophecy section they follow a similar literary trope. In contrast, Sle lung’s

account offers a fresh perspective on a well examined region.

And so academic exploration on Pad+mo bkod has, in the most part, focused on two main

leitmotifs; Pad+mo bkod’s topography, including sacred geography of Pad+mo bkod as the

projection of Vajravārāhī, and the millenarist movement. Since most academic examination

includes gter ma Sle lung’s travel account will supplement the already well-trodden themes

highlighted, as well as opening new avenues of research. Read alone, Sle lung’s travelogue is

rich and valuable, read alongside existing literature, priceless.

Literary Qualities of the Text

The full Tibetan title of Sle lung’s text, written in September 1729, reads “Sbas pa'i gnas thams

cad kyi rgyal po gnas mchod pad+mo bkod du bgrod pa’i gnas tshul drang por brjod pa dga’

byed bden gtam. In English it reads “Pleasant Words of Truth: An Honest Guide of Travelling

to Pad+mo bkod, the King of all Sacred Hidden Lands” and is found in volume eight of Sle

lung’s collected works (gsung ’bum) (Sle lung 1983a:492.2-493.3).13

This text is a first-person account of his exploration to Pad+mo bkod of which I have translated

twenty-seven out of fifty-three contiguous folios (pages 389-416) and included relevant later

sections (appendix A). The subject matter presents several themes woven together by the

underlying leitmotif of exploration, discovery and spiritual awakening. The spiritual is

presented as; songs of realisation (mgur ma), signs of realisation, visions, prophetic dreams,

medium (sku rten) possession, tantric rituals and spiritual instructions. Other passages describe

the practical actuality of hidden land exploration including; correct accoutrements, necessary

provisions, detailed geographic information including, climate, topography, place names and

regional geopolitics. Finally, the text includes some anthropologic, zoological and botanical

information as well as notable personages including other gter ston related to Pad+mo bkod,

travel companions and regional leaders.

The vastness of topic material and style of the text raises the question on how best to categorise

it within a literary type or genre. The simplest solution may be to follow the shorter title’s own

indication and designate it a lam yig.14 Newman translates lam yig as either “route description”

or “itineraries” (Newman 1996:485) and Wylie as “a guide book for pilgrims, whose

pilgrimage involves two or more countries” (Wylie 1965:18). Both descriptions to some extent,

address the purpose and primary contents of a lam yig, but they do not express the personal and

13 I have included the page number and line number from Tibetan folios. For example 492.2-493.3 indicates quote begins on page 492 line
two and finishes on page 493 line three.
14 The shorter title reads - gNas mchog pad+mo bkod du bgrod pa'i lam yig dga' 'byed bden gtam la (Sle lung 1983a:389).

inner spiritual accounts contained within it. I propose that ‘travelogue,’ which, to some extent,

incorporates ones’ own personal experiences and encounters whether spiritual or other, is a

more accurate description.

Sle lung’s account is not only an instructional guide book but is also written as an

autobiography and it is this autobiographical style that renders the text more comfortably

within the genre of Tibetan literature known as rnam thar. These accounts, taking the form

either as a biography or autobiography (rang rnam),15 meticulously record the spiritual

emancipation of realised charismatic individuals such as Sle lung. Since rnam thar, is the

Tibetan translation of the Sanskrit word vimokṣa meaning “liberation” (Roesler 2015:43) the

recounting of his own spiritual emancipation within the text further supports its placement into

this category.

The seventeenth and eighteenth centuries heralded a great increase in the number of rnam thar

written and coincides with the time period of our author (Schaeffer 2010:263). Unlike Sle

lung’s text, they tend to follow a structured form beginning with the conception and birth

accompanied by miraculous signs containing details of sermons, audiences, and teachings

received (Gyatso 1998:101).

Like Sle lung’s text, rnam thar often include a three-fold division of presentation; the outer

(phyi), inner (nang) and secret (gsang ba) levels of experience. The external offers the outer

factual story, the internal the psychological story and the secret an account of higher spiritual

accomplishments (Hall 2012:38). Rnam thar are not only written for the precise detailing of

the mundane but also as a source of inspiration and instructional spiritual advice. Although

subjective, Sle lung’s text does include such inspiration and instruction, a notable example

being the recounting of songs of realisation which effortlessly combine both.

15 Sle lung’s rang rnam (1983e) only covers his life up to 1724.

Therefore, since this text contains several literary genres, it would be appropriate to identify

the text as both lam yig and rnam thar. The text should not be read only as a simple travel

account, but also as a personal description of the spiritual realisation of a master who recounts

his work as a literary device in which to guide, instruct and enthuse future readers and

explorers. It contains personal asides and moments of honest reflection, a long way away from

a more conventional hagiographical quality of some rnam thar.

To summarise, the whole exegesis of trying to categorise where this text best fits in terms of

genre might be deemed academic imputation and I propose that since it seems many Tibetans,

as Gyatso articulates, “write, edit and publish their autobiographies by themselves, for

themselves, in their own way,” this text is best read with this in mind (Gyatso 1998:102).


The primary aim of my dissertation is to translate and examine Sle Lung’s travelogue (1983a)
with the following objectives: to broaden our understanding of Pad+mo bkod as a hidden land
and to gain further insight into the motivations, methods and role that Sle lung, a hidden land
‘opener,’ employed. For the purpose of this research and due to time constraints, I will utilise
relevant translated sections of this text and examine them vis-à-vis existing academic research.
Since the region of Pad+mo bkod and its identification as a hidden land is reliant on hidden
land gter ma, I will utilise two that existed when Sle lung travelled. The two include; ’Ja’ tshon
snying po (1979) and bDud ’dul rdo rje’s (1997) treasure texts, although where possible I will
consult others. I include a full translation of ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s gter ma text (appendix B)
since it demarcates the historical beginning of the hidden land of Pad+mo bkod and a valuable
source of information.

Chapter one presents a general overview of the Sle lung lineage and Sle lung himself.

Chapter two describes the location of Pad+mo bkod and the route Sle lung took. Chapter three
introduces gter ma and hidden land gter ma. I also introduce the structure of the rest my

examination called the ‘five themes’. The ‘five themes’ provide a convenient tool to examine
my stated aim. Chapters four to nine examine in more detail each of the five topics. Wherever

possible, I will supplement these themes by providing relevant contextual background

Finally, the examination of the text and interpretation of relevant sections will be guided by
the three levels of experience found in rnam thar; outer, inner and secret. The outer covers the
actual details of travel and Pad+mo bkod’s geographic and physical attributes. The inner covers
the thought process behind exploration to Pad+mo bkod and the secret an examination of his
personal spiritual experiences. Using this method of examination, I hope to cover all the

necessary topics to meet the aim of my dissertation in a clear and concise way.

Chapter One
The Protagonist

In the figure of Sle lung, we discover a breadth and depth of activity like no other in eighteenth

century Tibet. I will therefore present enough material to highlight a little of the impact he had

on Tibet in both the religious and political spheres of the eighteenth century. By doing so, I

hope to leave the reader with a sense of who this charismatic figure was, his achievements and

the wider historical context in which he made his arduous trip to Pad+mo bkod.

The Sle lung Lineage

The name Sle lung finds its source from the Sle lung valley in ’Ol

kha and where rNam grol gling, the residence and temple of the

Sle lung sprul sku, is located. The Sle lung incarnation lineage is

considered to be the emanation of both Vajrapāṇi (Phyag na rdo

rje) and Padmasambhava.16 The human or nirmāṇakāya lineage

finds its first traceable source as Po to ba Rin chen gsal (1027-

1105) one of the three main students of ’Brom ston pa (1004/5-
Plate 2 – Vajrapāṇi
1064) (Loden 2013:17). In total there have been eleven Sle lung Source: (Loden 2013:2)

nirmāṇakāya emanations.17

16 Personal Communication (2018) – Sle lung sprul sku.
17 See Loden (2013) for a summary of the Sle lung lineage.

The Fifth Sle lung bZhad pa'i rdo rje

Plate 3 – Sle lung bZhad pa’i rdo rje Our protagonist, the Fifth Sle lung rJe drung bLo bzang
Source: (Loden 2013:60)

’Phrin las bZhad pa’i rdo rje was born in 1697. It was a time

when Tibet was waking up to the revelation that the regent

(sde srid) Sangs rgyas rgya mtsho (1653-1705) had hidden

the death of Ngag dbang bLo bzang rgya mtsho, the Fifth

Dalai Lama (1617-1682), for fourteen years. This ruse

would eventually herald Mongol invasions, political

instability, bloody murder and civil war.

In 1699, he was officially recognised as the Sle lung sprul sku with the Sixth Dalai Lama

Tshangs dbyangs rgya mtsho (1683-1706) performing the hair cutting ceremony (skra phud

zhu ba) and giving him the name bsTan pa grub pa'i rgyal mtshan in 1702. Lelung's

autobiography gives a vivid account of the Dalai Lama during the event recounting;

“The Sixth Dalai lama was wearing a fine upper garment of pale blue, his hair to just

below his ears with a ring on every finger. Attendants stood on either side of him wearing

various unsightly costumes and holding quivers of arrows and bows” (Shakabpa


Lelung reports that Tsangyang Gyatso joked that he would give the young tulku the initiation

name of "Nun Tinkling Tārā" (a ne ting ting sgrol ma) before giving him the name Tenpa

Drubpai Gyeltsen (bstan pa grub pa'i rgyal mtshan).

In 1705 he took monastic vows from the Fifth Paṇchen Lama, Lobzang Yeshe (paN chen bla

ma 05 blo bzang chos kyi rgyal mtshan, 1663-1737) and in 1708 was installed as the Abbot of

Chos ’khor rgyal monastery. It was during this period that he carried out his monastic studies

following the more standardised dGe lugs pa curriculum (Bailey 2016:36).

However, what made Sle lung somewhat atypical was that he was, early in his life, a non-

sectarian (ris med) advocate. He wrote later in life that;

“I have un-fabricated pure vision toward all the accomplished [masters] without bias such
as the Sa skya, dGe lugs, rNying ma, ’Brug pa bKa’ brgyud, Karma bKa’ brgyud, etc.
My mind has increased respect toward the holders of these [various] teachings and when
I think about this, I have pride in my own powerful realisations” (Bailey 2016:213)

Up to this point Sle lung had had numerous teachers, the foremost amongst them was his root

guru Dam chos bzang po (1677-1724). However, it was not until Sle lung chanced upon Chos

rje gTer bdag gling pa (1646 -1714) in the fire pig year 1707 at a public occasion at the Po Ta

la Palace in Lha sa, that he met the figure who would change his life.18 They met only

exchanging words of greeting. Sle lung later had many dreams where ḍākinīs came and told

him he must receive teachings from this treasure revealer.19 Due to the challenges of

sectarianism Sle lung found it difficult to receive teachings from him. Therefore, his root guru

Dam chos bzang po, when at sMin grol gling, received the full transmission of teachings on

the deity Jinasāgara Avalokiteśvara and his consort Guhyajñānaḍākinī from the treasure

revelations of gTer bdag gling pa from Pad+ma ’Gyur med rgya mtsho (1686-1718). He

specifically received the Guhyajñāna, or Secret Gnosis (gsang ba ye shes) "mother" section,

and was told of a prophecy, purportedly from gTer bdag gling pa himself that the Fifth Lelung,

was destined to uphold (and spread) this particular cycle. Dam chos bzang po then travelled to

mNga' ris grwa tshang where he then gave the teachings to Sle lung. He then passed the

teachings titled Thugs rje chen po bde gshegs kun ’dus yab yum to Sle lung (Bailey 2016:48).

This practice is a rare rNying ma gter ma, a semi-wrathful form of Vajrayoginī.20

18 Personal Communication – Sle lung sprul sku (2018)
19 Ibid.
20 Ibid - Sle lung sprul sku describes her as a semi-wrathful female form of Avalokiteśvara.

Another gter ston called Chos rje gling pa impacted Sle lung’s life by giving him a gter ma

prophecy citing Padmasambhava’s prediction that his birth fitted with the name given to him

when he had his hair cutting ceremony as well recognising Sle lung as the incarnation of the

first Sle lung, Nam mkha’ rgyal mtshan (1326-1401) (Bailey 2016:38). The prophecy reads;

“One having the name bsTan pa, an emanation of Mañjuśrī in the future, on the bank of
the moon plain [in] mDo smad, will sustain the dharma teachings and benefit many
beings. Also, the wondrous emanation of the bodhisattva [will] arise near the copper
valley. In order to release from obstacles [he] relies on peaceful and wrathful
Avalokiteśvara” (Bailey 2016:38).

In 1716-17, Sle lung went on many closed retreats dedicated to the same Secret Gnosis Ḍākinī.

According to tradition, miraculous signs such as a cascade of auspicious scarves and showers

of fresh myrobalan arjuna plants, with leaves and stems still attached, fell from the sky. Many

years later he would promote the Secret Gnosis Ḍākinī from gTer bdag gling pa’s treasure

cycle, Mahākaruṇika: Embodiment of the Sugata's Intention, and made her a stand-alone, self-

sufficient deity. Although this had begun with ’Gyur med rgya mtsho’s redaction of gTer bdag

gling pa’s cycle, Lelung established her as supreme deity wholly independent from her male

consort (Bailey 2016:82-83).

Sle lung’s life traversed both the spiritual and political. Regarding the latter he maintained

close patron-priest relationships (mchod yon) with every major central Tibetan ruler in the first

half of the eighteenth century, including Lha bzang Khan (d. 1717), Stag rtse pa Lha rgyal rab

brtan (d.1720), Khang chen nas Dā ching bha dur (d.1727), and, most significantly, Pho lha

nas bSod nams stobs rgyas (Bailey 2016:2). He lived during a time of great political movement

and leveraged these relationships trying to bring peace, reduce sectarianism and avert atrocity.

Although not a politician, he participated at the highest level of government. He was part of a

delegation on two separate occasions that tried to dissuade the Dzungar Mongols in their

invasion of Tibet and anti-rNying ma pogroms (1717-1720) (Bailey 2016:46). Post-war he was

active in trying to help re-build the main rNying ma monasteries destroyed during the Dzungar

violence. This included the reconstruction of the famous image of Padmasambhava that had

been at Khra ’brug Temple, and the installation of images of the eighty-four Mahāsiddhas at

the Rab brtan shar estate (Bailey 2016:62/63, Sørensen and Hazod 2005:79/80).

During the civil war between dBus and gTsang he was also part of a delegation that persuaded

the dBus faction to surrender, helping bring an end to the bloodshed (Bailey 2016:67). During

a meeting between the Seventh Dalai Lama sKal bzang rgya mtsho (1708-1757) and Pho lha

nas, Sle lung, acting as mediator between the two, facilitated the assurance that the dBus

faction’s leaders would be spared their lives. He reduced tensions between the two by placing

a statue of Padmasambhava and the protector goddess dPal ldan lha mo on each of their heads

to help dispel feelings of distrust (Shakabpa 2010:448, Loden 2013:66).21

During 1720-1740 he visited Tibet’s sacred places and hidden lands. Notwithstanding the focus

of this dissertation, he is also credited for making the holy mountain of Tsa ri (1719) a popular

place of mass pilgrimage (Huber 1999:155), as well as travelling extensively in Lho brag and

recognising, through dreams, the existence of a hidden land named ’Or mo lha sa (Ehrhard

1999b:242). He also opened rDo lung rdo rje gling and Spro lung in 1729.22

Finally, even though he died at the young age of forty-three he was a prolific writer. His

collected works total forty-six volumes. This rich and varied collection includes topics such as

his auto-biography, liturgical texts, stand-alone texts such as major works on protector deities

(dam can bstan srung rgya mtsho’i rnam par thar pa cha shas tsam brjod pa sngon med legs

bshad stod cha deb gzugs ldi li dpar ma la (Loden: 2013) and one extensive commentary on

the practice of Cakrasaṃvara. From 1729 Lelung began the project of compiling the Secret

Gnosis Ḍākinī treasure cycle (gsang ba ye shes kyi chos skor). He compiled a sixteen-volume

21 The dBus leaders were later executed and their skins stuffed and hung in Dar po gling Temple in Lha sa (Petech 1972: 148-149).
22 See appendix E for the full list of his travel accounts.

cycle (four times the length of the gter bdag gling pa‘s original treasure cycle Mahākaruṇika:

Embodiment of the Sugata's Intention) and was produced over the course of about nine years,

based on the dates found in the colophons of some of the individual texts which span the years

of 1729-1737 (Bailey 2016:86). He finally recorded countless texts from his own pure vision

(dag snang) (Bailey 2016:25). In his biography, he recorded his life events through the

combination of prose and poetry, often referring to scriptural authority through his knowledge

of traditional Buddhist scholasticism. In other places he utilizes allegory, metaphor and simile

combined with exacting detail. One such example includes his trip the rNying ma monastery

sMin grol gling where he wrote:

“We descended from the hill of Bya pho la nyag like turquoise peacocks skilled in the
expression of dance and on the ground transforming into very handsome youths putting
on a musical show with various singing and dancing girls, immortal maidens with the
rank of lordship. The ocean of the welcoming assembly was like a wondrous garland
of constellations, well dressed in robes, peaceful like a flock of ornamented swans” (Sle
lung 1983i:514)

In only forty-three years of life Sle lung left an indelible mark on the history of Tibet. It is

perhaps not surprising that he was posthumously declared to be a protector deity (srung ma)

called Drag shul dbang po who is focused on subduing the controversial spirit rDor rje shugs

ldan (Bailey 2016:230).23 This brief summary of Sle lung’s life only serves to highlight the

person he was, and throughout this exegesis I will present more salient points that will further

describe a figure who can only be described as a charismatic force of nature.

23 Personal Communication - Sle lung sprul sku (2018).

Chapter Two
Pad+mo bkod

Map Two - (Dudjom 1991b:Map 6 & 8)

The Location of Pad+mo bkod

Pad+mo bkod is approximately four-hundred kilometres east of Lhasa, at the point where the

upper stream of the gTsang po river loops in a clockwise direction through the end of the

Himalayan massif. Pad+mo bkod is situated either side of the crook where the river makes its

arching clockwise turn and squeezed between the two magnificent mountains of gNam lcags

’bar ba (7,756m) and rGya la (7,150m) (Kingdon-Ward 1926:325). With only eleven

kilometres separating the two giants it is believed that the river carves the deepest gorge in the

world.24 The whole of Pad+mo bkod is located between sPo bo from the north east, Kong po

from west and spreads into Arunachal Pradesh to the south.

24 Personal Communication - Baker (2018).

Sle lung’s Route to Pad+mo bkod

On first glance Sle lung’s route appears to be circuitous and meandering, however it should be

noted that the path he took was guided by directions found in gter ma combined with

prophecies he received through dreams.

Sle lung’s mission began on the seventeenth day of the first Earth Bird month [1729].25 On this

day Sle lung received a prophecy, perhaps in a dream or vision, that he needed to open the

sacred secret door in the north-east of an outer stage site upon arriving at Pad+mo bkod (Sle

lung 1983a:394.5-394.5).26 The prophecy further stated that he was “under an injunction that

it was necessary to keep everything, inner and outer, with a seal of utmost secrecy” (Sle lung

1983a:393.2-393.3).27 Before leaving for Pad+mo bkod he writes that he had already been to

central Tibet to visit the three centres of Lha sa, bSam yas and Khra ’brug (map two) (chos

’khor gsum) performing many rituals for auspiciousness (Sle lung 1983a:393.3). Subsequently,

he and his travel companions left his residence rNam grol gling in ’Ol kha about a month later

on the second day of the second month (February) of the Earth Bird Year [1729] in great

secrecy. One group departed as if heading for Lha sa, another for gTsang and the third for Kong

po. They agreed to meet at mDa’ khur gzhung somewhere between Lha sa and Kong po. He

did not “let the secret out” about their mission and reasons for going to Pad+mo bkod (Sle lung

1983a:385.5) until reaching the agreed rendezvous.28 From there they went to lake Brag gsum

to make offerings to the protector spirit sKrag med nyi shar (Sle lung 1983a:393.1-393.2).29 It

was at Brag sum that he had a clear vision of Ge sar (Sle lung 1983a: 395.3)30 who gave a

25 See Sle lung (1983a:394.5-397.5) for the full translation of the prophecy.
26 “sNga sor sa bya zla ba dang po'i tshes bcu bdun gyi nub gsang lung la/ pad+mo bkod du slebs nas phyi gling gi byang shar gyi gnas sgo
'byed dgos par gsungs pa'i mjug” (Sle lung 1983a:394.5.394.5).
27 “gNas de nyid du thon kha'i bar du phyi nang thams cad la gsang rgya shin tu dam pa dgos pa'i bka' rgya dang bcas pa'i lung byung ba

bzhin/” (Sle lung 1983a:393.2-393.3).
28 “Der yod thog mched grogs bran dang bcas pa rnams la pad+mo bkod du 'gro dgos pa'i rgyu rkyen 'bras bu dang bcas pa zhib char bshad

de gsang brtol/” (Sle lung 1983a:385.5).
29 “Brag gsum mtsho mo che sogs skrag med nyi shar gyi gnas rnams su bdud mgon chen po'i gsol mchod” (Sle lung 1983a:393.1-393.2).
30 “Ge sar gyi sku'i bkod pa gsal por mjal ba” (Sle lung 1983a:395.3).

guided explanation of opening the holy place of Zla ba gling in the north east. Zla ba gling

therefore appears to be Sle lung’s primary final destination in Pad+mo bkod (Sle lung


They then made further offerings at Brag dkar, Lha chu, and then on to Zho dkar and dKar Nag

in northern Kong po (map 3). From northern Kong po they went to Bu chu visiting gSer gyi

lha khang in southern Kong po (Sle lung 1983a:393.6-394.3).32 They then travelled north to ’O

thang (map three) and then south east, towards the village of Chab nag where he describes the

confluence of the Yar gyab river and river Seng, a place known as Si do bo spun gsum (Sle

lung 1983a:405.1-405.2).33

They then crossed the river travelling near to the villages of Chab nag, rGyal skor, and De mo

(map three) where there was a monastery in the vicinity the villages of Sum sbrag and Spro

lung34 which were both under the administration of the rGya la district chieftain (Sle lung

1983a:404.3).35 He eventually arrived at a village called mKhris pa (map four - Tri pe) from

which point it becomes difficult to identify the exact locations he passes through.

His colophon sums up they went to Blo khug, rTa Lung, dBang chen gling, Gzi lung Drang

rong, mThu rTsal gling and mKha’ ’gro dDud ’dul gling until reaching Pad+mo bkod chung

(maps one & four) (Sle lung 1983a:492.4-492.5).36 In total Sle lung’s journey to Pad+mo bkod

31 “Byang shar Zla ba gling gi gnas sgo 'byed pa'i thems byang gsal por gsung” (Sle lung 1983a:396.1).
32 “Zla grogs grwa slob sbyin bdag sogs ltos bcas thams cad la gsangs te nged lha sar 'thon rgyu dang /sku rten rdo rje 'dod dgu sogs rogs
byed kha cig ni kong yul/ dbu mdzad rdo rje mkha' lding sogs 'ga' zhig gtsang phyogs su 'thon rgyu'i zol sbyor gyi bkod pa bgyis/ mda' khur
gzhung du ma sleb kyi bar chabs cig par 'gro rgyu'i rtsis kyis sa bya zla ba gnyis pa'i tshes gnyis la rnam grol gling nas thon/ mda' khur
gzhung du 'byor nas tshang ma kong yul du bde thabs bsgrub pa'i phyir 'gro dgos tshul lab/[ ]brag dkar lha chu/brag gsum/ zho dkar nag
sogs byang kong phyogs kyi rim gro rnams legs par bsgrubs te bu chur 'byor/” (Sle lung 1983a:393.6-394.3).
33 “De nas thur zhig babs pa na klo'i grong chung rkang lnga dbang zhes pa yod/ yar rgyab gtsang po dang /seng gtam gyi chu 'phrad sa

yin/si do bo spun gsum zhes pa sngar gyi gnas yig rnying pa rnams nas/” (Sle lung 1983a:405.1-405.2).
34 This is most likely the same Spro lung that Sle lung later opened on his return from Pad+mo bkod (Sle lung 1983f).
35 “De'i thad kyi chab nag sribs kyi phyogs su sum sbrag dang spro lung zhes pa'i grong rgya la sde pa'i mnga' zhabs kha cig kyang yod/”

(Sle lung 1983a:404.3)
36 “Las blo khug gi bar du bskyod de/ rta lung dbang chen gling / gzi lung drang srong mthu rtsal gling / mkha' 'gro bdud 'dul gling rnams”

(Sle lung 1983a:492.4-492.5).

lasted about five months. The last date he specifically mentions in his travelogue is the tenth

day of the monkey month (July) (Sle lung 1983a:488.2).37

In conclusion the route he took depended on three important factors. First, he followed

instructions found in the gter ma texts. Second, he received indications on which route to take

from his own prophecies through dreams and visions. Third, the route would have been

changed according to the topography and hostility of the local tribes.

37 “Sprel zla'i tshes bcu” (Sle lung 1983a:488.2).

Map Three – (Sa bkra 1981)

Map Four - (Bailey 1957:8)

Chapter Three
The Tibetan Treasure Tradition

The Tibetan notion of hidden land finds its source exclusively from within the treasure text

tradition. It is therefore necessary to present an overview of the gter ma tradition, how the

narrative has been formed and how it translates into the hidden land treasure text tradition.

The gter ma tradition is centralised within the rNying ma school and is one of the three sources

of its scriptural production, the two others are oral transmission (bka’ ma) and pure vision

(Mayer 1994:534). It cannot be described as being of any one genre since the content is so vast

and varied. It is perhaps best described as a treasure cache, one which can contain various

objects (Gyatso 1996:147). Treasures include whole Buddhist cycles (gter skor), statues (sku)

dharma medicines (sman chos) and/or ritual implements such as vajra (rdo rje), kīlaya (phur

pa) and objects of clothing connected with Padmasambhava or one of his twenty-five disciples

(rje ’bangs nyer lnga). Although there are many classifications of gter ma,38 Gyatso succinctly

condenses the genre into two; those treasures that are physically hidden in places such as rocks,

mountainsides, trees, temples, images, lakes, statues and monasteries known as earth treasures

(sa gter), and those buried in the mind (dgongs gter) of the revealer (Gyatso 1996:148). It is

from within these categories that hidden land texts are mostly discovered as mind treasures.

There is a clear schema that is rigorously followed for a treasure and treasure revealer to be

considered authentic. The schema is as follows; firstly, the treasure must have been hidden in

the eighth century by Padmasambhava, from which the majority of gter ma originate.39 The

treasures are then prepared for burial in an aspirational empowerment ceremony (dbang bskur)

(Gyatso 1996:151). In this ceremony, a prophetic mandate is uttered indicating which of his

38See Dudjom (1991b:77) for his description of eighteen classifications.
39Others described as having hidden treasures are; Bi ma la mi tra, Bai ro tsa na, Tibetan emperors (btsan po), gNubs chen Sangs rgyas ye
shes, Nam mkha'i snying po, gNyags dz+nyA na ku ma ra, sNa nam rdo rje bDud 'joms and Nyang ting 'dzin bzang po and Ye shes mtsho
rgyal (Dudjom 1991a:747).

twenty-five disciples will rediscover them, which future incarnation and at which future time

(bka’ babs lung bstan). Lastly, the treasures are entrusted to the ḍākinīs (mkha’ ’gro gtad rgya)

and/or protector deities (gter bdag), who hold on to them until the time is right to release them

to the predestined treasure revealer (ibid).

It is this predestined narrative that arguably differentiates it most from other revelatory spiritual

experiences and teachings such as pure vision and secret oral transmission (snyan brgyud). The

seemingly rigid categorisation served to legitimise the gter ma by connecting the treasures back

to the siddha Padmasambhava. It is important to note that the treasure revealer is not the author

but a messenger, albeit a spiritually accomplished messenger who, in the case of mind treasure,

had the seed planted back in the eighth century. In a later incarnation this messenger would

recover the treasure and propagate it to his karmically connected students. Treasure text

adherents therefore consider the text to have been written by Padmasambhava himself.

Notwithstanding individual opinion, in general gter ma is viewed with different bias by all four

schools of Tibetan Buddhism. A rough outline of opinion follows that rNying ma followers are

staunch adherents, dGe lugs pa and the Ngor pa branch of Sa skya are its fiercest critics and

the various bKa’ brgyud pa lineages and the remaining Sa skya sect somewhere in the middle

(Kapstein 2000:127/8). The Bon tradition (Bon po) has its own treasure tradition and modern

academics, in the most part, remain doubtful of gter ma but not of its impact on wider Tibetan

religious society. For the purposes of this examination the debate on gter ma authenticity is

best left to others and instead I shall focus more closely on the result of the treasure and not its


40 See Kapstein (2000), Gyatso (1993) and Mayer (1994, 2015).

Hidden Land gter ma

“I myself, Padmasambhava, have spent three years and six months in this supreme place
called Pad+mo bkod, sealing it with my aspirations”
(bDud ’dul 1997:699.6 - 670.1) 41

In this section I will sharpen the focus specifically on hidden land gter ma. Hidden land gter

ma whilst adhering to the descriptions above, also retains its own schematic tradition. I will

present the overall hidden land narrative, the primary purpose of hidden lands, how they arose

and what conditions need to be met to fully qualify as a hidden land. For this purpose I have

examined hidden land gter ma that have been translated and published into English together

with my own translation of ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s gter ma and pertinent sections of bDud ’dul

rdo rje’s treasure text (1997).42 Through this examination it appears there exist five themes that

can be considered as a general structure on the formation of hidden land gter ma. I do not mean

to imply that a single unified form exists, but that there is a degree of coherence and synchrony

between them. I will then examine each point citing relevant examples from Sle lung’s travel

account as well as other Tibetan sources.

Thematic Introduction

The following five themes form a neat and convenient way to examine, in more detail, the

hidden land of Pad+mo bkod. Within each theme there are sub-categories which I shall present

within each of the themes. Below is a summary of the five;

The Five Themes

1. The Treasure Map – Each and every hidden land must have at least one, although

several is common, gter ma revealed by any number of gter ston. They may take the

form of travel guide, guide book (gnas yig) or introductory certificate (thems byangs).

41 “bDe chen pad ma bkod mchog der: bdag 'dra rigs 'dzin par 'byung nyid: lo gsum zla drug bsdad pas smon lam rgyas btab mthus:” (bDud
‘dul 1997:699.6 - 670.1)
42 Published translations consulted; Sadar-Afkhami (2001:39-61), Orofino (1991:255-269), McDougal (2016:5/52), Aris (1979:63-70).

The one ‘opening’ the land follows the revelation which clearly describes its location,

which route to take, how the land appears, sometimes clearly and at others written in

poetic allegorical and symbolic language. Great emphasis is made on the description of

the four cardinal directions presenting a hidden land in the shape of a maṇḍala.43

2. The Narrative - The degenerate age narrative (rtsod ldan gyi dus, corresponding to

Sanskrit kaliyuga), is the key literary device in which gter ma and especially hidden

land gter ma is built upon. It explicitly emphasises the time, conditions, signs, reasons

and right time to make an attempt to open a hidden land (dus la ’bab). This is the

narrative that all hidden land gter ma takes.

3. The Revealer & Travel Companions – The identification of the hidden land ‘opener’

is often, but not exclusively, mentioned by name in gter ma. Other methods of

identification include prophecies passed on by ḍākinīs and/or identified by another

spiritually realised individuals. Travel companions play a fundamental role in the

success or failure of any attempt to ‘open’ the land.

4. Opening – Treasure texts partly describe which rituals and supplications should be

performed, which deity and/or guardians one should propitiate and the manner of

traversing the land. This includes preliminary rituals before entry as well rituals that

one must perform whilst there. Instructions are also given where one should build

enrich the land, hang prayer flags and construct monasteries or stūpas (mchod rten).

5. The Fruit - The qualities of the land are intricately described giving the explorer

confidence in the great abundance of food and resources, medicinal bliss inducing

herbs, curative hot springs, relics, further gter ma and meditation caves of the great

masters of old. Descriptions such as miraculous rainbows, self-pervading incense and

the continual sound of self-arising (rang byung) mantra recitation bubbling from rivers

43The term maṇḍala (dkyil 'khor) is used three times in Sle lung’s travelogue to describe the appearance of certain aspects of Pad+mo bkod.
For more information on maṇḍala see Martin (2009).

are all described. The ultimate boon of a successful trip to a hidden land includes

spiritual awakening (byang chub) and the pinnacle of realisation, rainbow body (’ja


What follows is an elucidation of each of the five themes presented above.

Chapter Four
The Treasure Map

We might describe a hidden land gter ma as a kind of ‘treasure map’ with accompanying

commentary. It is the indispensable item that contains the signs and indications of when, where

and how to find/open a specific hidden land. They also explain the benefits of arriving there.

Thus, it is the first of the proposed five themes and without its existence there could be no

hidden land. The one leading, following the guidance of a gter ma, will then embark on their

mission to open the land. Each hidden land and gter ma has its own unique set of requirements

which are set out to varying degrees of detail, however as will be repeatedly shown in the

following chapters in Sle lung’s case, it appears that he relies more heavily on his own

realisation with a reference to gter ma rather than the reverse.

In general, hidden land gter ma describe the topography and route that the one leading should

take. The one leading uses this document as a point of reference combined with their own

wisdom in the attempt to open the land. ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s gter ma (1979) provides an

example of the combination of clear geographic instructions, versus the more symbolic;

“Concerning the great place Pad+mo bkod specifically: east from bSam ye there is a
valley called Dwags po, and if you follow the main river there, there is a valley like a
scorpion on its back. Atop the tip of the tail is a place called rGya la, which is specifically
the holy place of Yamā. From there you can continue to follow the river, or, alternately,
cross over the Ku skar pass, where there is the great charnel ground Me ’bar. In the east
it is like a group of ungulates, at the base like scales climbing upward, behind is a
mountain like a brandished sword which it is shaped like an open flower. About seven
furlongs from there, there is a place where the gods and spirits gather, with many large
and small border stones, and then there are the four doors” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:439.1-439.6).

However, when reading Sle lung’s travelogue the question to what extent he relied on his own

intuition rather than instructions found in gter ma arises. He utilised one or perhaps several

hidden land treasure texts although only mentions sTag sham Nus ldan rdo rje’s gter ma, rTa

mgrin dgongs ’dus by name. Throughout the text he makes remarks such as; “in the prophecy”

(lung la), “in the introduction certificate” (thems byang du) or “it [the prophecy] clearly

mentioned” (lung du gsal ba bzhin). The description ‘the old travel guides’ (gnas yig rnying

pa rnams) appears five times within his text. The inclusion of the plural rnams suggests that

he consulted more than one gter ma text. The plurality might refer to instructions originating

from Rig ’dzin Chos rje gling pa since Sle lung mentions traveling to the gter ston’s revealed

treasures secret places (Sle lung 454.2-454.3).44 It is probable that Sle lung was aware of Chos

rje gling pa movements. The latter travelled and revealed treasures from rGya la (Dudjom

1991a:85) as well as prepared clarification of sacred sites and route descriptions of Pad+mo

bkod (Ehrhard 1999a:230). After renovating a small Pad+mo bkod shrine he set out to the inner

sanctum of Pad+mo bkod45 and perhaps Sle lung was referring to Chos rje gling pa’s journey

when he describes the gter ston’s revealed treasures secret places.

Sle lung’s account demonstrates that he combined existing gter ma with his own indications

coming through dreams (rmi lam), signs (rtags) and pure vision (dag snang). The following

extract demonstrates the combination of gter ma and prophecy in his travelogue;

“When I stayed in rGod tshang that evening I had a prophecy in a dream: Starting from
rGod tshang toward the south east there is Me lce ’bar ba which is the palace of tsaN+Di
ka. Its peak is perennially covered in snow which stretches down all the way up to the
river. When I investigated it was mentioned in the old travel guides as the conch door
described as an ancient snow mountain, whose glaciers meets the river which was the
mountain known as Kye rdor sdings. The dream clearly said I would need to reach there
on that day, I managed to go although it was a long journey (Sle lung 1983a:411.5-

44 “Rig 'dzin Chos rje gling pa'i gter byon sbas gnas su bgrod pa” (Sle lung 1983a:454.2-454.3).
45 Personal communication - Ehrhard (2018).
46 “rGod tshang du bsdad pa'i nub kyi gsang lung du/ rgod tshang nas brtsams pa'i shar lhor tsaN+Di ka'i pho brang ri bo me lce 'bar ba yod

pa dang / mi 'gyur ba'i gzer la ri de'i gtong thad du gtsang po la thug pa'i gangs yod tshul byung bas rtsad bcad dus gnas yig rnying pa rnams
nas dung sgo zhes gsungs pa'i srid pa'i gangs rnying gangs rtsa gtsang po la thug pa zhig 'dug pa de'i thad kyi kye rdor sdings zhes pa'i ri de

Therefore, whilst the existence of gter ma is an indispensable item, in Sle lungs case, it appears

that he relied heavily on his own spiritual realisation to open the land. I propose that the

repeated statement ‘as in the prophecy’ is ambiguous and equally refers to prophecies that he

received through dreams, rather than reference to a specific gter ma text. It is only when he

writes ‘the old travel guides,’ it is certain that he is referring to a specific gter ma text. Further

research is unequivocally needed to support this observation and should be combined with the

full translation of sTag sham Nus ldan rdo rje’s gter ma (n/d). If this proposal is later proven

to be accurate it could be argued that hidden land gter ma is the vessel which holds the

overriding narrative indicating the existence of a hidden land, the general form, direction on

how to arrive and the benefits of opening it. The details on how it should be opened is wholly

reliant on the spiritual realisation of the one leading the expedition.

yin par 'dug pas de nyin de khar nges par slebs dgos pa'i lung gsal ba bcas lam bgrod thag ring yang thag bcad/” (Sle lung 1983a:411.5-

Chapter Five
The Narrative

Having examined various hidden land gter ma texts, it is clear that the degenerate age narrative

is the key literary device in which the concept of hidden lands is presented. For the most part,

gter ma texts are reliant on the hiding of treasures by Padmasambhava. Often praised by the

epithet, ‘Buddha of the three times’ (dus gsum sangs rgyas gu ru rin po che), it implies that he

is both a Buddha and omniscient and therefore fully aware of what would be needed at any

point in the future. In fact, this is the overriding theme of all gter ma. Due to his foresight he

hid what would be needed at specific epochs to alleviate the suffering of sentient beings during

the degenerate age.

In brief, the degenerate age narrative posits that quarrel, conflict, war, confusion, and wrong

views take the upper hand, the quality of beings becomes poorer and even in the lands blessed

by the presence of dharma it will become difficult, if not impossible, for serious disciples to

have the leisure and tranquillity to devote themselves to practice. The main cause of decline in

both Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna sūtras point to two overriding reasons; invasion by foreign, non-

Buddhist powers and the incorrect behaviour on the part of Buddhists including debauchery,

religious sophistry and the eight worldly concerns (’jig rten chos brgyad) (Nattier 1991:120).47

The phrase the ‘final five hundred years’ (lnga brgya mtha’ ma’i dus) forms an almost

collective consciousness in Tibetan Buddhism, yet the actual details are seemingly less

emphasised. Nattier (1991), in a comparative study between Hīnayāna and Mahāyāna sūtras

translated numerous examples from Indian languages (Sanskrit, Pāli), Chinese, Japanese and

Tibetan. She discovered multiple examples of differing time periods of decline including; five

47 Nattier divides the failing of Buddhists themselves into the following seven categories. All except the first, are present in gter ma related to
hidden lands; “1.The admission of women into the monastic community; 2. Lack of respect toward various elements of the Buddhist
tradition; 3. Lack of diligence in meditation practice; 4. Carelessness in the transmission of the teachings; 5. The emergence of divisions within
the saṅgha; 6. The emergence of a false or counterfeit dharma; 7. Excessive association with secular society. (Nattier 1991:120).

hundred years, five thousand years and even ten thousand years after the Buddha’s parinirvāṇa

(Nattier 1991:27-62).

What to make of this obvious lack of accuracy, and what is its impact on the phenomenon of

hidden lands? It is appears to be form of literary trope in which all gter ma and especially

hidden land gter ma are presented. gTer ma text, taking the form of these predictions, tend to

describe the warmongers as duruSa armies, most closely associated with Turkish or Uyghur

Muslim hordes, Hor which are Mongol or Turkish armies and Sog po, referring only to the


“Brag long nyang will be blanketed by suffering and diseases, many diseases steaming
from the mouths of the people of Hor and Mongolia, medicine being of no help, the
majority will die. From the east dons and ghosts, from the south savage wild men and
barbarians, from the west the poisonous commerce of warfare, and from the north Hor
and Mongol Muslims spread!” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:436.4-436.6).48

For those of the eighteenth century these types of predictions would certainly have found fallow

land in their collective consciousness due to both passed-on memories of war as well as their

own possible experiences of persecution.49

This narrative, despite its inaccuracies, is also in keeping with the overarching theory of

Buddhism and whilst a non-Buddhist may fret over such inconsistencies, a Buddhist may argue

that such notions are perfectly in keeping with the doctrine of impermanence, inexorable

change and inevitable demise. Any method that helps engender proper and long lasting

renunciation may be dismissed as skilful means (thabs shes) in the pursuit of right view (lta


48 “Brag long nyang du sdug bsngal nad rim 'thib: hor sog kha rlangs nad sna mang du yong: sman gyis mi phan phal cher 'chi bar 'gyur:
shar gyi phyogs nas gdon dang 'byung po dar: lho nas mi rgod can gzan kla klo dar: nub nas dmag 'khrug dug gi tshong 'dus dar: byang nas
hor sog du ru Sha pa dar:” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:436.4-436.6).
49 See chapter ‘Apocalyptic Expectations.’

Curiously, one of the earliest mentions of hidden land did not necessarily arise due to perceived

end times nor in the context of gter ma. Instead, Klong chen rab ’byams (1308-1364), in a

eulogy about the Bum thang area, provides one of the earliest known references to the term

sbas yul. He describes it as “a spiritual Arcadia where ideal geographical and human qualities

together conspire to create perfect conditions for religious life” (Aris 1979:63). Yet despite

Klong chen rab ’byams description, the degeneration narrative becomes the essential raison

d'être one would attempt to enter a hidden land. Rig ’dzin rGod ldem tellingly describes the

degenerate age as a “society where the destruction of temples is commonplace, law and order

disregarded, servants become the masters with hatred and disorder reigning supreme” (Orofino

1991:2). This marks the transformation of hidden land from a location that provides the perfect

conditions for religious life, to one that amounts to the perfect conditions for religious life

specifically in response to disaster.

’Ja’ tshon snying po’s proto gter ma devotes a great deal of attention to this theme. In a text

totalling seven folios he dedicates three and a half exclusively to the forthcoming apocalypse

describing in great detail exactly what the signs of degeneration will be (’Ja’ tshon 1979:434.3-

439.3). As an example and perhaps a distillation of the signs and causes of decline, he clearly

describes that the end times will be due to the three poisons (dug gsum);

“In the future, at the fated time of the fortieth eon: Various torments will arise
proportional to the three poisons: famine and desperation arise from desire, proliferating
conflicts and war arise from hatred, multifarious contagions and plagues arise from
ignorance. At that time, sentient beings have no opportunities for happiness, and the
duruSa armies will spread in every direction. Alas! What a raging whirlpool of misery
although there are indeed sixteen greater and lesser hidden lands (’Ja’ tshon 1979:434.3-

50“Da dung ma 'ongs skal dus bzhi bcu'i tshe: 'dod chags las gyur mu ge bkren pa dang: zhe sdang las gyur dmag 'khrug dar ba dang: gti
mug las gyur nad yams sna tshogs dang: dug gsum cha mnyam sdug bsngal sna tshogs 'byung: de dus sems can bde ba'i go skabs med du ru
Sha yi dmag ni phyogs kun g.yos: sdug bsngal rba klong 'khrug pa'i a tsa ma: sbas pa'i gnas lung che chung bcu drug mod:” (’Ja’ tshon

However, as with every prediction text the prophecy may not match the reality. Therefore, the

question naturally arises as to the extent in which the conditions in the eighteenth century were

suitably negative to influence a rise in hidden land exploration.

Plate 4 - gNam lcags 'bar ba (left) and rGya la (right)
(Kingdon-Ward 2008:309)

Apocalyptic Expectations

“We deceive ourselves with our petty sectarianism.
As a result, we only practice dharma to make ourselves comfortable; no one is engaged in the
means of repelling the adversities that threaten all Tibet”
’Ja’ tshon snying po
(Gyamtso 2017:118)

In this chapter I will outline the extent to which Pad+mo bkod and hidden land explorers

travelling to the prophesied places of refuge were influenced by ‘apocalyptic expectations’ as

depicted in the narrative. Since this is explicitly tied to the political situation in Tibet I will first

present the political upheavals of eighteenth century Tibet prior to examining individual cases

of exploration and the extent in which they influenced decisions to escape possible end times.

The rendering of this brief history of eighteenth century aims to depict the wider political

backdrop to Sle lung’s trip to Pad+mo bkod. It should be recalled that Sle lung was an important

figure in both the religious and political arenas. Special attention will be given to his

relationship with Pho lha nas.

The year 1696 marked the end of the official reign of a leader who Petech describes as, “one

of the greatest men Tibet ever produced” (Petech 1972:8). Known as the Great Fifth (lnga pa

chen po), Ngag dbang bLo bzang rgya mtsho shepherded in a period of relative peace51 and

non-sectarian violence under a new regime known as the dGa’ ldan pho brang (Kapstein

2006:137). During his hegemony, in principle, Tibet was run by the Qoshot Mongols, but in

reality it was spiritually ministered to by the Fifth Dalai Lama and politically managed by his

second regent, Sangs rgyas rgya mtsho (1653–1705). However, in 1696 the regent made the

shock announcement that he had been hiding the Dalai Lama’s death for fourteen years and

rapidly announced the enthronement of the libertine Sixth Dalai Lama Tshangs dbyangs rgya

mtsho (1683-1706).

Meanwhile, in 1703 Lha bzang Khan had just risen to become the new leader of the Qoshot

Mongols after poisoning his own brother (Petech 1971:9). This new Khan wished to reassert

Qoshot power in Tibet and was opposed to both the regent and the Sixth Dalai Lama’s

behaviour.52 Relations between the regent and the Khan were never amicable and in 1705 it

descended into one of open warfare (Petech 1971:11). The Khan finally proved victorious with

Sangs rgyas rgya mtsho eventually being executed in 1705 (Petech 1971:12).

The Khan marked his reign by executing the heads of opposing monasteries and the flogging,

imprisonment and oppression of monks in gTsang, (Petech 1971:13). Even though the Khan

51 It should be highlighted that the Fifth Dalai Lama’s hegemony came to fruition during Gushri Khan’s (1582–1655) invasion of Tibet in
1641 coinciding with ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s discovery of the Pad+mo bkod gter ma (Van Schaik 2011:121, Karmay 2003:72).
52 See Shakabpa (2010:408) for a rare first person account by Sle lung describing the licentious behavior at the Sixth Dalai Lama’s court.

had grand plans for his place in history, he lacked any real power base and sought military and

political alignment with the Manchu Dynasty (1614-1912). Thus, we enter a period of a

weakened Tibetan state one which the leader of the Dzungar Mongols, Tshe dbang rab brtan

(1643-1727) would try to capitalise upon. The Dzungars, a confederation of several Oirat tribes

that emerged in the early seventeenth century, were a rival Mongol faction and initiated

arguably the bloodiest one of the most violent invasions in Tibetan history (1717-1720).

The Dzungar invasion comprised of pitched bloody battles, executions, enslavement and

outright war. Lha bzang khan was eventually defeated and executed, Lha sa sacked and its

people put to the sword. The Dzungars then initiated great religious persecution declaring the

rNying ma school outlawed and a violent pogrom took place in central Tibet. The two major

rNying ma monasteries of central Tibet, sMin grol gling and rDo rje brag were targeted and

razed to the ground with sMin gling Lo chen Dharma Śrī (1654-1717), ’Gyur med rgya mtsho,

rDo rje brag Rig ’dzin Padma ’phrin las (1640-1718) and other rNying ma leaders put to death

on the banks of the river sKyid chu (Petech 1972:32-66). Not only were institutions targeted

but the land itself was pillaged as the army swarmed across Tibet. The victorious Dzungars

behaved not as an occupation force but were instead more akin to a raiding party, pillaging

villages for food and resources, cutting down precious trees for firewood and even desecrating

the Fifth Dalai Lama’s tomb (Petech 1972:54). By the end of the Dzungar occupation five-

hundred and fifty rNying ma monasteries had been destroyed and countless people had suffered

(Petech 1971:83).

The Dzungar forces did not remain in power for long and in 1720 Chinese Manchu forces

reached Lha sa and ousted them (Petech 1972:68). In October, the Seventh Dalai Lama sKal

bzang rgya mtsho returned to Lha sa with great pomp and ceremony marking the beginning of

a new Qing protectorate. A new political system was enacted made up of two factions from

dBus and gTsang. The gTsang faction comprised of Khang chen nas bSod nams rgyal po, the

governor of mNga’ ris, and his friend, Pho lha nas. The dBus faction included the ministers

Nga phod pa rDo rje rgyal po (d.1728), Lum pa nas bKra shis rgyal po (d.1728) and a religious

official named sByar ra ba blo gros rgyal po (d.1728). There remained a strong Qing garrison

in Lha sa initially numbering three thousand (Petech 1971:78-80).

The persecution of the rNying ma sect did not stop with the defeat of the Dzungars. In 1726

the emperor Manchu Yongzheng (雍正 1678-1735) openly attacked the rNying ma school in

the form of an edict which had been issued at the instigation of the Tibetan minister Khang

chen nas (Ehrhard 1999a:244). It stated that apart from those at sMin grol gling and rDo rje

brag, the rNying ma teachings should be suppressed, its rituals halted and monastic ordinations

made the exclusive preserve of dGe lugs pa (Martin 1990:4-5).53 One could describe the edict,

if not quite the violent persecution of the Dzungars, certainly the cause of the slow and eventual

suffocation of the oldest school of Tibetan Buddhism.

In 1727 Khang chen nas was stabbed and murdered at court by members of the dBus faction

and civil war ensued between dBus and gTsang led by Pho lha nas (Petech 1971:115). By the

end of the year the dBus armies had been responsible for dispersing the monks of bKra shis

lhun po, insulting the Fifth Pan chen bla ma Blo bzang Ye shes (1633-1737) and destroying

sNar thang monastery. Houses had been burnt, woman raped, monasteries looted and sacred

printing blocks even used as armour for their soldiers. Petech describes the dBus faction

behaving as “perfect barbarians” (Petech 1971:131). At the same time as the civil war dragged

on a smallpox epidemic was raging in the south of Tibet and even reached as far as bKra shis

lhun po (Petech 1971:123). The civil war dragged on until 1728, the arrival of the Qing army

53Pho lha nas vehemently opposed the edict and was a strong supporter of the rNying ma school receiving initiations from Mi ’gyur dpal gyi
sgron ma, the daughter of gTer dag gling pa (Ehrhard 1999b:244).

again in the capital and the permanent establishment of Ambans in Lha sa from 1728 until the

collapse of the Qing in 1912.

Thus, the years 1705 to 1728 marked a dark period in Tibetan history, one where the vast

majority of Tibetans, of all social strata, would have felt the impact of war, destruction, murder

and loss. The vast majority of hidden land gter ma makes reference to war, sectarian religious

persecution, Mongol invasion, destruction of sacred sites, plague and degradation of the quality

of life. The rNying ma school and their members had seen the greatest persecution and

perceived these events as the arising of end times as prophesied by Padmasambhava in hidden

land gter ma. Even the Jesuit priest, Ippolito Desideri (1684-1733) commented on the obvious

correlation between Padmasambhava’s prophecies and the reality of the time writing;

“Whoever compares these prophecies with what I have related concerning the
catastrophes that this unhappy Tibet suffered during my time will see that everything has
been fulfilled down to the minutest detail. This is factual evidence.” (Desideri Loc 7696
of 16266 Kindle edition).54

Desideri was not the only religious figure to come to this conclusion and as will be shown,

there is an undeniable correlation between a rise in hidden land exploration of hidden lands

during these years.

Hidden Land Escape

The cataclysmic events of the eighteenth century, combined with the hidden land narrative had

a distinct impact on the rise of hidden land exploration. It appears that the escapees saw

themselves as the ones described in the prophecies. Chos rje gling pa, on witnessing the

destruction wrought by the Dzungars sought solace in the regions of Pad+mo bkod leaving for

Pad+mo bkod in 1718 (Ehrhard 1999a:230, Ehrhard 2018). Mi ’gyur dpal sgron ma (1699-

54See Desideri (location 7696 of 16266 Kindle edition) for the full description of the prophecies. Pomplun (2006) tentatively makes the case
that Desideri’s knowledge of gter ma may have come from Chos rje gling pa.

1769), gTer dag gling pa’s daughter, escaped to the hidden valley of ’Bras mo ljongs (Pomplun

2006:39). Blo bzang lHa mchod (1672-1747), a student of rDo rje brag Rig ’dzin Padma ’phrin

las, on hearing of the destruction of rDo rje brag monastery and the murder of his teacher, fled

to the “hidden sacred site” (sbas gnas) of Seng ge ri in 1718 (Ehrhard 1999a:242). Lastly, Rwa

ston gter ston sTobs ldan rdo rje (b.17th century) followed his teacher to the sacred hidden land

of the White Lotus (sBas yul Pad+ma dkar po) in light of the Dzungar invasion (Zhabs dkar

2001:xxviii).55 In each instance it should be recalled that like Sle lung, these individuals would

have been accompanied by a group of travel companions in fear for their lives.

Due to the continuous activities of ’Ja’ tshon snying po, bDud ’dul rdo rje, sTag sham Nus ldan

rdo rje and Sle lung, over time Pad+mo bkod became ever more revered as a place of solace

from invasion. rDo rje thogs med fled with thousands of families to Pad+mo bkod (Brauen-

Drolma 1985:251), rJes drung ’Jam pa byung gnas (1856-1922) fled the Qing general Zhao

Ergeng (1845-1911) (Hall 2012:66), sGam po pa O rgyan ’Gro ’dul gling pa, travelled to

Pad+mo bkod at the beginning of the war between Tibet and Nepal (1788–92) (Sadar-Afkhami

1996:7). Even into the twentieth century and the Chinese invasion of 1950 the displaced sought

solace in the regions of Pad+mo bkod including Pad rgyal gling pa (1924-1988) (Sangak 2016)

and Khams sprul Rin po che (Khamtrul 2009). The correlation between hidden land exploration

amongst gter ma adherents is undeniable. However, at the time that Sle lung departed for

Pad+mo bkod the civil war between dBus and gTsang had ended and Pho lha nas was

shepherding in a new era of relative peace. It is difficult to make the argument that Sle lung’s

journey to Pad+mo bkod was motivated by apocalyptic expectation.

55Incidentally he was also a student of Chos rje gling pa although the teacher mentioned here is Chos gling bDe ba'i rdo rje (b.17th century)
(Goodman 1992:137).

Sle lung’s Motivations

“By the powerful conjunction of the dependent arising of this place of emanations, May
all the invading enemies of snowy Tibet be averted, and may all the beings of the land
of Tibet be happy, and may the doctrine of the Buddha spread and increase!”56
(Sle lung1982b:2b.6-3a.1)

Through reading Sle lung’s account it appears as if he had one overall motivation for his

mission, to open the sacred sites of Pad+mo bkod. From this root all his other activities

sprouted. Beginning with the end, Sle lung’s colophon summarises that he established or

‘opened,’ both the main holy places and its secondary ones in Pad+mo bkod. He further stated

that everything went smoothly and auspiciously (Sle lung 1983a:492.6).57 This is an interesting

and perhaps misleading statement since his main aim, as explained to him by Ge sar, was to

open the holy place of Zla ba gling in the north east. However, shortly before the colophon he

writes “as per my task set out in the ḍākinī prophecy, I was not able to progress to north east

Zla ba gling” (Sle lung 1983a:491.3-491.4).58 What was Sle lung referring to when he stated

everything went smoothly and auspiciously and what did he hope to achieve by opening

locations such as Zla ba gling?

Thus far I have not discovered any evidence that he was prophesied in any gter ma to open the

sacred sites of Pad+mo bkod. However and perhaps deliberately, he states in the opening verses

of homage that he himself believed he had permission directly from the ḍākinīs to open the


“I string this garland of words explaining
The account of the first expedition
To the hidden land of ignoble villages,

56 “Sprul pa'i gnas 'di'i rten 'brel 'grig pa'i mthus/_gangs can bod kyi mtha' dmag kun bzlog cing /skye dgu thams cad bod zhing skyid pa dang
/thub pa'i bstan pa dar zhing rgyas par shog” (Sle lung1982b:2b.6-3a.1).
57 “gTso bor gyur pa'i gnas le lag dang bcas pa rnams gtan la phab ste bde thabs kyi rten 'brel rnams legs par bsgrigs pa” (Sle lung

58 “bDag la skal bar mkha' 'gros lung bstan pa'i/ byang shar zla ba gling du bgrod ma thub” (Sle lung 1983a:491.3-491.4).

As was prophesied by the ḍākinīs” (Sle lung 1983a:390).59

Sle lung was certainly no stranger to such proclamations not only confidently declaring himself

as having permission from the ḍākinīs but also prophesising in 1722 that Blo bzang lHa mchod

should open the hidden land sBas gnas ’Or mo lha north east of Seng ge ri (Ehrhard 1999b:242).

Returning to the second question of what he hoped to achieve from spiritually opening the land,

it appears that in Sle lung, we find a new or different use of Pad+mo bkod beyond the usual

literary trope as a place of salvation in degenerate times. In bDud ’dul rdo rje’s treasure text

(1979) we find clues as to a new function. The first describes that “there are many treasure

places [in Pad+mo bkod] offering black magic as a means to defeat the heretics, causing them

and the Mongolian troops to retreat.” (bDud ’dul 1997:658.5).60 The second describes that

Pad+mo bkod will become like the charnel ground Ro Tang Nag po, putting an end to the

enemies of Buddha’s teachings” (bDud ’dul 1997: 664.3-664.4).61 These stanzas introduce the

theme that if the power of Pad+mo bkod were utilised, it could reverse the two causes of

decline, heretics in the form of religious sophistry and outward invasion through the use of

black magic. It appears as if Pad+mo bkod was a location from where to conduct tantric rites

as a means of defence.

These clues are supported in Sle lung’s text on two occasions where he clearly states his reasons

for embarking on his perilous journey to Pad+mo bkod. The first reads;

“Concerning the manner in which I, bZhad pa’i rdo rje ’phrin las dbang po, in the Female
Earth Bird Year [1729], entered into just such a place, especially exalted amongst all the
charnel grounds of India, Mongolia, and dBus gTsang: In the Earth Male Monkey Year
[1728]: as a means to ward off an impending border war in the Iron Male Dog Year

59 “mKha' 'gros lung du bstan pa bzhin/ kla klo'i grong gi sbas yul du/ lan cig chas pa'i lo rgyus rnams/ brjod byed tshig gi 'phreng bar spel/”
(Sle lung 1983a:390).
60 “Mu stegs ngan sngags hor dmag bzlog thabs dang: phung byed ngan sngags gter kha ngum yod:” (bDud ‘dul 1997:658.5).
61 “Dur khrod ro thang nag po lta bur 'gyur: bstan dgra ru hra lus ma las tshom la 'bebs:” (bDud ’dul 1997: 664.3 – 664.4).

[1730] it was necessary, that I myself, set off in the direction of the supreme site Pad+mo
bkod” (Sle lung 1983a:392.5-393.3).62

The significance of the two dates 1728 and 1730 and their relationship is somewhat ambiguous

however it is further supported by the later statement that reads;

“It was said in the prophecy, which will be clear later on whether it was true or not, in
order to bring peace I needed to perform all the necessary rituals of the land [Pad+mo
bkod] fully accomplishing it perfectly. It is said this will avert the malevolent foreign
invasion [in the Year of the] Dog [1730]” (Sle lung 1983a:491.5-491.6).63

It seems that he may have had a prophetic dream or at least some forewarning in 1728 that led

him to believe that there would be war in 1730 and that his primary motivation for travelling

to Pad+mo bkod [1729] was an attempt to avert such a calamity by opening the hidden land.

During 1727 and 1728 he had been occupied with a series of intense visionary experiences and

spent a great deal of time exploring other hidden lands in south and east Tibet (Bailey 2016:68).

Perhaps it was during these years he had a prophecy that led him to believe that he could, as he

later mentions to his companions in mDa’ khur gzhung, “go to Kong po to bring peace” (Sle

lung 1983a:394.2-394.3).64

Thus, just a few months after the execution of the rebel ministers and the exile of the Seventh

Dalai Lama sKal bzang rgya mtsho, Sle lung departed from Lha sa to undertake a journey to

Pad+mo bkod. The travelling to Pad+mo bkod to somehow bolster Tibet is perfectly in keeping

with the type of person he was having written during the Dzungar invasion that he had had a

62 “rGya hor dbus gtsang gi gnas yul dur khrod kun las khyad par du 'phags pa de lta bu'i gnas mchog tu sa mo bya'i lo bdag bzhad pa'i rdo
rje 'phrin las dbang po'i sdes ji ltar bgrod pa'i tshul ni/ sa pho spre'u'i lo lcags pho khyi'i mtha' dmag bzlog pa'i thabs su gnas mchog pad+mo
bkod du ngos kyis bskyod dgos pa” (Sle lung 1983a:392.5-393.3). Ehrhard (1999b:245) also interprets this extract as referring to the Iron Male
Dog year. He also interprets this section as implying that Sle lung meant to bring stability to the borders of Southern Tibet.
63 “bDe thabs rten 'brel gnas kyi bca' ka rnams/ tshems lus med par ji bzhin gnad 'gror bsgrubs/ gdug pa khyi yi mtha' dmag bzlog go zhes/

lung las gsungs so bden rdzun slad nas gsal/” (Sle lung 1983a:491.5-491.6). I have interpreted the reference to a dog to refer to the Year of
the Dog (1730). There is a text Sle lung (1983h) called “A Miraculous Mirror Ornament. Accounts of Victory Over Adverse Conditions in an
Iron Dog Year” which may provide further information.
64 “mDa' khur gzhung du 'byor nas tshang ma kong yul du bde thabs bsgrub pa'i phyir 'gro dgos tshul lab” (Sle lung 1983a:394.2-394.3).

Whilst the term bde thabs bsgrub pa may be read differently after discussions with Sle lung sprul sku he advised this is best read as “to bring
peace” rather than “find an easy way to”.

dream of a beautiful woman and a monk, who advised him to perform many offering rituals to

dharmapālas (Bailey 2016:43).

However, as one becomes more familiar with the character of Sle lung there always appears to

be multiple layers of intention and the martial application of Pad+mo bkod appears to be only

one of a number of other important reasons he travelled to this region.

Political Motivations

As previously mentioned, Sle lung was involved at the highest level of politics and was the

spiritual teacher to the most important political persons of the eighteenth century. Arguably his

political relationships added another layer of incentive for his trip to Pad+mo bkod. To better

understand this it is necessary to return to the year 1726.

In 1726 Sle lung met with Pho lha nas, the future political leader of Tibet.65 During this meeting

Sle lung conferred both an empowerment and a list of important political advice. This meeting

signifies the moment that Sle lung became his lama, confidant and advisor (Ehrhard

1999b:244). In 1728, Sle lung also acted as an important mediator in the civil war between

dBus and gTsang which demonstrated his continual effort in engendering peace in Tibet.

Significantly it exhibits his support of Pho lha nas;

“I arrived in Lha sa when the troops of gTsang had (just) reached Central Tibet. As the
opening provided by (this) lucky coincidence suited (the purpose of) the ruler bSod nams
stobs rgyas, I managed to pacify the disturbances between dBus and gTsang” (Ehrhard

Thus, just after Pho lha nas had unified dBus gTsang Sle lung left for Pad+mo bkod the firm

supporter of Pho lha nas. During his trip he made the acquaintance of local tribal leaders

65The two had met before when Pho lha nas was Lha bzang Khan’s general and received teachings as part of a group of high ranking officials
but the meeting in 1726 marks a much more personal relationship between to two (Bailey 2016:43).

developing good relations especially in the rGya la region. He recounts that he met a chieftain

named Tshe ring dngos grub who led fifty officials and attendants to help them reach the hidden

place (Sle lung 1983a:411.3).66 Sle lung describes how he had received a prophecy that he

would meet two karmically linked people from Klo and that this chieftain was one of them (Sle

lung 1983a:411.5-411.6).67 A second rGya la chieftain helped him carry further supplies with

the support of one hundred and thirty helpers from Chab nag, rGyal skor and De mo (Sle lung

1983a:400.4-400.5).68 At this point he describes giving empowerments to a number of people,

all of which was attended and sponsored by the rGya la chieftain (Sle lung 1983a:400.5-

400.6),69 who is later identified as Lha dbang rNam gyal.70

Finally later in his journey Sle lung also gave a chieftain called dPa’ bo’s two sons an

empowerment where he exacts a promise from them to recite the Vajra guru mantra, as well

having the chieftain’s daughter take refuge with him (Sle lung 1983a:463.5).71 Since it appears

that all three chieftains were important individuals in the border or entry regions to Pad+mo

bkod, there is the implication that Sle lung was attempting a claim to territory through the

‘missionary extension’ of Buddhism. If Sle lung was attempting to bring stability to the

southern borders of Tibet in the name of Pho lha nas’s new government, the age-old tradition

of patron and priest (mchod yon) would have been an intelliegent approach to take and one that

had been in operation in Tibet since the thirteenth century (Van Schaik 2011:77). Evidence

such as Lha dbang rNam gyal and dPa bo’s two sons receiving tantric empowerments would

have meant they would be bound by their Vajrayāna commitments (dam tshig) towards their

lama and therefore under Sle lung’s spiritual guidance. It is likely that this would have

66 “rGya la sde pa tshe ring dngos grub dpon g.yog lnga bcu bskor dang bcas lam mchos dang / sbas gnas kyi rogs byed du 'byor” (Sle lung
67 “gSang lung nas bdag dang sngon nas 'brel ba'i las can klo pa'i rigs kyi skyes bu gnyis dang 'phrad par 'gyur ba'i lung byung ba'i ya gyal

gcig yin par 'dug/” (Sle lung 1983a:411.5-411.6).
68 “Nyer spyod dang 'tsho chas sogs khal rigs ma thar bas chab nag/ rgyal skor/ de mo gsum gyi mi ser gyi thog nas chas bskyel ba brgya sum

cur nye ba rogs su bos/”(Sle lung 1983a:400.4-400.5)
69 “De dag dang phyogs 'dus kyi gnas mjal ba sogs skye bo'i 'du long chen por rgya la sde pas rgyu sbyar te khrom dbang bskur/” (Sle lung

70 See Appendix A (Sle lung 1983a:400.4-402.6).
71 “Kho pa'i bu bsod nams tshe dbang dang bkra shis don grub kyis gu ru'i bzlas pa byed par khas blangs/ bu mo zhig skra gcod dgos zhes pa

ltar gtsug phud blangs/” (Sle lung 1983a:463.5).

established a long-term bond and even if it did not necessarily mean that Sle lung would have

had a direct say in their politics, he would certainly have been a person of authority for them.72

In this way Sle lung was also following in the footsteps of bDud ’dul rdo rje and Chos rje gling

pa. The latter had already developed a strong relationship with the klo pa territories near

Pad+mo bkod by preaching;

“the dharma to the people of Klo, who were like animals, and thus laid the foundations
for their predisposition towards it. The inhabitants of Klo themselves offered him their
trust and services, according to the customs of their country” (Ehrhard 1999a:230).

Since the three chieftains’ sphere of influence surrounded the western regions of Pad+mo bkod

it could explain the positive reception that Sle lung received there due to bDud ’dul rdo rje and

Chos rje gling pa’s previous activities. Perhaps rather than overtly political motivations, Sle

lung was merely continuing the groundwork laid down before him. It is clear that in the border

regions Sle lung was most welcome describing the inhabitants of Klo as offering him their trust

and services and that the chieftain was Buddhist;

“On the 8th dPa’ bo invited my travel companions and I to his
house. He let us sit down on laid leather cushions and then
threw a feast of tea, millet beer, millet soup, dzo yoghurt, dough
made of millet tsampa, beer made of khre tshod, honey, pork,
drinks, other meat and miscellaneous food was provided,
according to whatever was available in their land. In this area
of Klo their spoken language was a mixture with Kham and sPo
bo. They wore earrings of nickel and most of them were shaven
headed. Both their clothes and physicality were impoverished.
dPa’ bo himself, was chubby and bigger in stature, naturally
Plate 5 -Klo pa – Pad+mo bkod
(Baker 2004:250) honest, fringe hair headed, and all the time reciting the mani

72 See ‘Political taming’ for more information on the importance of Sle lung’s relationship with the local leaders.

mantra. He had great faith in the three gems, different from the rest” (Sle lung

As it turns out it was regional politics that brought an end to his expedition in Pad+mo bkod.

Ka gnam, pa, the strongest ruler of the region,74 convened a meeting between thirteen Klo

villages, clearly upset by the encroachment of Sle lung and they put together a written

document not to let Sle lung pass (Sle lung 1983a:466.1-466.2).75 The document stated that

Pad+mo bkod belonged solely to the people of Ka gnam and was not a place that the inhabitants

of dBus and gTsang may enter (Sle lung 1983a:467.1).76 Ka gnam pa and his ability to rally

local support against Sle lung’s further entry seems to reflect his personal regional ambitions

combined with the strong tradition of independence of his people. Sle lung writes “at that time

Ka gnam pa was at the starting point of getting ready to have a war with the people of sPo bo”

and subsequently he may have been perceived as a threat to his plans (Sle lung 1983a:445.4-


Since it appears that Sle lung’s primary motivation for his mission to Pad+mo bkod was the

attempt to avert war, a friendly border region would have been considered a great coup since

Central Tibet was still endangered by attacks from the Dzungars and difficulties with Bhutan

were at a critical point (Ehrhard 1999b:245). Pho lha nas’s new government was still weak and

thus a safe southern border would have been a positive geopolitical outcome.

As a convenient bridge introducing Sle lung’s spiritual motivations we discover the dual

symbolic representation of both the political and spiritual. In 1726 Sle lung made it known to

73 "Tshes brgyad la dpa' bo'i khyim du nged cag 'khor bcas thams cad mgron du bos/pags pa'i stan kho na bting bar 'dug tu bcug nas/ja
dang/khre chang/khre thug/mdzo zho/khre tsam gyi tshogs zan/khre tshod kyi chan/sbrang rtsi/phag sha/skyem/sha sogs yul babs dang bstun
pa'i bza' bca'i bye brag sna tshogs pa'i tshogs 'khor bstabs/'di khul gyi klo rnams skad (khams spo bo'i skad) dang 'dres pa gsha' dkar gyi rna
cha btags pa phal cher ]mgo hril lus dang cha byad gnyis ka ngan pa sha stag tu 'dug/dpa' bo rang sha rgyags pa gzhan las bongs che zhing
rang bzhin drang ba rbad mgo can ma Ni rang 'dren pa/dkon mchog la dad pa che ba/dkyus dang mi 'dra ba zhig 'dug go/ (Sle lung
74 For the history of the Ka gnam sde pa see Lo rgyus (1988:9-27), Schwieger (2002) and Ehrhard (2018).
75 “dGa' sde pa/ bya ra sa pa/ gtam po ba/ ko yu ba/ lung legs pa/ 'brug pa sogs ka gnam pa rang dang 'brel chags kyi klo grong tshan bcu

gsum thams cad bsdus te nged mi gtong ba'i gan rgya blangs/” (Sle lung 1983a:466.1-466.2).
76 “Pad+mo bkod 'di ka gnam pa kho na dbang ba las dbus gtsang gi mi yong sa min.” (Sle lung 1983a:467.1).
77 “De dus ka gnam pas spo ber dmag grabs mgo ma'i skabs su yod 'dug” (Sle lung 1983a:445.4-445.5).

Pho lha nas that Khang chen nas was an emanation of the spirit sKrag med nyi shar (Bailey

2016:64) although his merit was running out. According to Sle lung, Khang chen nas was

“wounding the doctrine of the Great Secret’s essence” (Ehrhard 1999b:244), which would have

been exacerbated by his support of rNying ma persecution. The description that his merit was

running out was accurate since within a year Khang chen nas would be brutally murdered.

Although he personally identified Pho lhas nas as the bstan spirit Yam shud dmar po, he kept

it secret until the end of the civil war in 1728 (Ehrhard 1999b:246/7).

Sle lung, following Ge sar’s instructions, made copious offerings to sKrag med nyi shar78 as

well as identifying Zangs skor in Pad+mo bkod as the abode Yam shud dmar po (Sle lung

1983a:416.1).79 He had already recognised the hidden land of ’Or mo lha sa as the palace of

the same deity in 1722 (Ehrhard 1999b:242). Perhaps Sle lung was trying to bring balance to

what had been a tumultuous and violent period in Tibet in both the physical and formless

realms. In sum, whilst I do not believe Sle lung’s primary motivation centred on political

manoeuvring, throughout his life he appears to make the most of all his interactions often

combining the political and spiritual sphere.

Spiritual Motivations

Sle lung’s travelogue it is replete with spiritual activity such as the concealing spiritual objects

to enrich the land (Sle lung 1983a:408.5),80 personal visions, spontaneous songs of realisation,

the discovery of signs of realisation from past masters81 as well as his own signs of realisation.

At one point he describes that he accidentally left six or seven footprints in the rock (Sle lung

1983a:415.4-415.5).82 Furthermore, he was also able to draw some sort of inspiration from the

78 See note 27.
79 “Zangs skor grags pa btsan yam shud dmar po'i gnas yin” (Sle lung 1983a:416.1).
80 “Der gter dang sa gnad gso ba'i rten sbas” (Sle lung 1983a:408.5).
81 He describes there being signs such as Guru Rinpoche’s handmade vase, Ye she mtsho rgyal’s footprint both of which face one another as

well as Karma pa dBang phyug rdo rje’s (1556–1603) hand print (Sle lung 1983a: 406.4-407.2).
82 “Nged rang ni rkang rjes 'jog 'dod kyang med la/ bzhag pa yin nges kyi snang ba yang ma byung /bzhag song zer ba yang de kha thos pa

las dga' sdug gi snang ba gang yang med par hang sang nge ba zhig byung / zla bo rnams kyi zhabs rjes drug bdun zhig 'dug zer/” (Sle lung

trip in the form of the writing of two short texts.83 He personally took the time to practise and

teach the generation stages of his personal yidam gSang ba ye shes, as well as guide his

companions on guru yoga (bla ma’i rnal ’byor). He describes giving the ḍākinī Pad+ma rol

mtsho and others the pointing out instructions on the nature of the mind (ngo sprod) and the

Sikkimese were busy practising yogic exercises (’khrul ’khor) (Sle lung 1983a:477.1-477.3).84

The journey itself induced great physical and cognitive challenges which, as Sle lung describes,

created the conditions for non-conceptual realisation to arise (Sle lung 1983a:405.5).85 He

explains elsewhere that;

“When one travels to these sacred mountains one naturally (experiences) resplendent
terror, and, (at the same time) is at ease, and in one’s stream of consciousness a new
spiritual experience of the conception-free (unity of) bliss and emptiness flares up”
(Ehrhard 1999b:427).

Since Sle lung was first and foremost an accomplished tantric lama no matter what activities

he undertook, whether in Pad+mo bkod or elsewhere, he always related to events from the

perspective of a practising Buddhist.

In conclusion, the paradoxical statement that Sle lung wrote depicting everything as going

smoothly and auspiciously, even though he did not reach Zla ba gling begins to make sense. It

appears that he was successful in opening some doors to Pad+mo bkod, he helped embed a

safer southern border and utilised the spiritual potency of Pad+mo bkod for himself, his travel

companions and wider Tibet. Sle lung’s final words of advice to bLo bzang lHa mchog

summarises the many layers of motivation he had for opening Pad+mo bkod; He asks the

rhetorical question; “What is the use to others of hidden lands? It is mainly the seizing,

83 “Nam mkha’i bcud len bdud rtsi’i thur ma (Sle lung 1983c) and Zhal gdams zab don gyi snying po” (Sle lung 1983d).
84 “'Bras ljongs pa rnams kyi 'khrul 'khor brgyab/mched lcam thams cad la gsang ye'i bskyed rim gyi zab khrid dang bla ma'i rnal 'byor yang
legs par phab/ rdo rje'i gnas lugs kyi bgro gleng kho nas dus 'da' ba dang /snga dgongs kyi sku rim dang dge sbyor la brtson par byas/ DA ki
ma pad+ma rol mtsho sogs 'dus pa nyung shas la sems khrid phab/” (Sle lung 1983a:477.1-477.3).
85 “De tsho'i thad du cung zad thang chad nyams dang shugs chung ba byung yang snang ba gar bzhag mi rtog par 'byams pa byung/” (Sle

lung 1983a:405.5).

protecting and spreading of hidden sacred sites” (Ehrhard 1999b:242). Seizing could include

both the opening of the land and the spiritual benefits for himself and his travel companions.

Protecting could explain his utilisation of the magical power of Pad+mo bkod to avert war.

Finally, the spreading could explain the conversion of the local people and the spreading of the

dharma in that region

Chapter Six
The Revealer & Travel Companions

The motivations and activity of one man belies the fact that in actuality he was part of a group

of travellers who all underwent great hardship and possessed incredible bravery. Reading the

text it becomes apparent how important his travel companions were to the journey. Hidden

land exploration, whilst dependent on both gter ma and the leadership of the one ‘opening’, is

also determined by the activities of the whole group. In this section I will examine the extent

to which the travel companions played an active role in the opening of Pad+mo bkod. Since

Sle lung’s travel account places particular emphasis on the use of oracles (sku rten) I will also

introduce this as an unusual facet of his journey.

Qualities of Travel Companions

Brauen-Dolma (1985) gives an overview of the qualities that all those wishing to enter hidden

lands must possess including; profound faith in the existence and blessings of the hidden land,

the possession of great merit (bsod nams), freedom from attachment to worldly affairs,

unreserved faith in a guide book and absolutely no attempt to be made without the permission

of the ḍākinīs or dharmapālas. The way will be full of obstacles physical, cognitive and

magical which, like a test of faith, must be overcome with practice and devotion (Brauen-

Dolma 1985:248-249). Sle lung’s account supports this;

“[Pad+mo bkod] is beset by obstacles that are physically dangerous: wild animals, such
as venomous snakes, flies and insects, and all sorts of fanged and clawed beasts of prey,
pernicious wild savages, hateful barbarians and the like, along with fevers, diseases
causing edema and gout, blisters, tumours, and pustules. It is also rife with malicious
demons and spirits displaying various magical emanations. For individuals who are
confused about the crucial points of what should be adopted and what should be
discarded, who do not keep their samaya commitments, who are inordinately attached to
appearances, who are distracted by many thoughts, filled with doubts, enfeebled, it is
extremely difficult to reach this place” (Sle lung 1983a:391.4-392.1).86

Sle lung’s text describes him travelling with a core group of about forty adventurers who were

far more intrinsic to the successful opening than Brauen-Dolma may have envisaged. bDud

’dul rdo rje’s gter ma explicitly states that the entrance to Pad+mo bkod will not be opened by

those who follow the vinaya (bDud ’dul 1997:670.4-670.5).87 Sle lung’s travelogue clearly

supports the notion that it would be non-monastics who would be responsible for opening the

doors since Ge sar rgyal po commands him to ‘have a festival of the union pleasure method

[and] everyone should also take part in great bliss’ to open the sacred site of Zla ba gling (Sle

lung 1983a:395.6).88 He and his travel companions would have to participate in sexual

practices to assist in creating the right conditions to eventually open this sacred site. Sle lung

himself had already received the cycle of gSang ba ye shes which involved sexual yoga with a

female consort and he writes that he had taught numerous disciples this path to awakening

stating that most of his students had “attained control over their own psychic channels” (Loden

2013:67). Presumably, some of this group were included in his travel party and therefore an

integral part of creating the right conditions for success.

86 “gCan gzan/ dug sbrul/ 'bu sbrang sogs mchu sder mche ba can gyi rigs dang / mi rgod gdug pa can dang / kla klo ma rungs pa sogs gzugs
can gyi 'jigs pa/ tshad nad/ rkang 'bam/ chu bur/ skrangs 'bur/ shu thor sogs 'du ba 'khrugs pa'i bar gcod dang / 'dre srin gdug pa can cho
'phrul sna tshogs par ston pas yongs su gang ba/ nyam chung zhing the tshom che la blo sna mang ba/ 'di snang gi rdos thag la lhag par chags
pa/ dam tshig la mi gnas shing / blang dor gyi gnad 'gag la rmongs skye bo rnams kyis shin tu bgrod par dka' ba/” (Sle lung 1983a:398.6-
87 “'Dul khrims rab byung can gyis sgo mi 'byed/” (bDud ‘dul 1997:670.4-670.5).
88 “Thabs shes mnyam sbyor dga' ston gyi/ bde chen dag kyang kun gyis sbyor/ bsam gtan khang bu rmang du thing/rten 'brel shugs kyis 'grig

par 'gyur /zhes pa sogs byang shar zla ba gling gi gnas sgo 'byed pa'i thems byang gsal por gsung” (Sle lung 1983a:395.6). The current Sle
lung sprul sku explained that the term union pleasure method refers to sexual practice (las kyi phyag rgya).

This theme continues in the form of one of the most important travel companions for Sle lung,

not only in Pad+mo bkod but possibly his life. His main consort and principle medium rDo

rje skyab byed played a fundamental role in the opening Pad+mo bkod. The gter ston brTul

zhugs gling pa (1916-1962) explained that a female consort provides the link with the deepest

strata of the spiritual realms, acting as an intermediary and guide and to open a sbas yul, in

short, the consort must be with him (Shor 2011:77). It appears without the participation of

rDo rje skyab byed Sle lung would not have been able to open any of the doors. He makes her

importance clear in his later aspiration prayer writing;

“May the intentions of the one who opened this hidden land, bZhad pa’i rdo rje and the
mother of the victorious ones Lha gcig rDo rje skyab byed be accomplished just as they
were made and may they remain stable and firm for an ocean of eons! (Sle lung
1982b:2b.2-2b.3). 89

It is unusual and refreshing for a lama to praise his consort in this way and perhaps testament

to the importance she played in the opening of Pad+mo bkod.

rDo rje skyab byed was not the only travel companion to be of assistance and throughout the

journey Sle lung writes how active his travel companions were, dancing jigs, singing songs,

calling loudly the sound of So,90 singing spiritual songs, making supplication prayers and

playing instruments constantly (Sle lung 1983a:403.1-403.4).91 These types of activities had

the purpose of appeasing local spirits, distracting themselves from their own physical

discomforts and fostered the arising of spiritual experiences;

“as a result [of the singing] our realisation was so clear and strong we experienced the
view without distractions, therefore we didn't feel we were negotiating a steep incline”

89 “gNas 'di'i sgo 'byed bzhad pa'i rdo rje dang/rgyal yum lha gcig rdo rje skyabs byed kyi/ thugs kyi bzhed pa ji bzhin 'grub pa dang / bskal
pa rgya mtsho'i bar du zhabs rtan shog” (Sle lung 1982b:2b.2-2b.3).
90 Personal Communication –rGen Tshe ring don grub ring – “Ki ki so so lha gyalo” - “Praise be to ye, the local [worldly] Gods of accomplishment!”
91 “Dom 'phrang sgangs su ma slebs kyi bar/ rkang bro/ glu gzhas/ rbad dang bswo sgra/ mgur dbyangs/ gsol 'debs/ rol mo'i sgra sogs rgyun

mi chad kyi ngang nas rig pa'i shugs shin tu che ba snang ba gtad med du 'byams pas gyen 'dzegs pa mi tshor ba byung/” (Sle lung 1983a:403.1-

(Sle lung 1983a:403.1-403.4).92

It also appears that some of the companions were themselves more advanced spiritual

practitioners. Pad+ma bde chen predicted the existence of the marvellous palace of

Vaiśhravaṇa through dreams, (Sle lung 1983a:412)93 and rDo rje rin chen revealed a door in

the direction of rGod tshang mountain after having performed a feast offering (Sle lung 1983a

409.3).94 It is therefore clear that those travelling with Sle lung on this journey helped to

facilitate the right conditions for the ‘opening’ of Pad+mo bkod’s sacred sites.

The Unusual Use of Oracles

Sle lung’s travel companions also included a group of unseen spirits that appears to follow his

every move. These spirits continually manifested during the journey through their chosen

medium. They appeared to support the creation of the right auspiciousness of the journey,

helped to tame the territory and provided assurance, protection and motivation. This seems to

be a unique quality of the Sle lung lineage and I have yet to find any other mention of the

specific use of oracles in the ‘opening’ of a hidden land. Therefore, I will briefly set out the

oracle tradition providing a little context followed by examining how Sle lung’s use of oracles

strongly influenced his trip to Pad+mo bkod.95 I wish to point out that the use of oracles also

appears to be an important ritual method in the ‘opening’ of Pad+mo bkod and it could have

been placed in the chapter ‘opening.’ It would be useful for the reader to keep this in mind

when reading the subsequent chapters.

The term ‘oracle’ refers to a numinous being who possesses a human, and the word “medium”

to the person who is possessed acting as the mouthpiece of that deity (Sidky 2011:75). In the

92 “Dom 'phrang sgangs su ma slebs kyi bar/ rkang bro/ glu gzhas/ rbad dang bswo sgra/ mgur dbyangs/ gsol 'debs/ rol mo'i sgra sogs rgyun
mi chad kyi ngang nas rig pa'i shugs shin tu che ba snang ba gtad med du 'byams pas gyen 'dzegs pa mi tshor ba byung” (Sle lung 403.1-
93 “Tshes bcu dgu'i nub mo pad+ma bde chen gyi rmi lam du/ rnam sras kyi pho brang ya mtshan pa zhig yod tshul gyi lung ston mkhan zhig

byung zer/” (Sle lung 1983a:412).
94 “rDo rje rin chen gyis gtam tshal gyi thad kyi ri rgod tshang gi phyogs su bstan pa'i ngogs” (Sle lung 1983a:409.3).
95 See Nebesky-Wojkowitz (1956) and Diemberger (2005) for more information on the oracle tradition.

Himalayas there are roughly two strata of oracles. The first are those that channel lower ranking

worldly gods which are usually found within the local cult deities (Stein, 1972:188, Berglie,

1976:86) and those that channel more high ranking spirits such as gNas chung known as sku

rten. The spirits that possess the mediums in Sle lung’s account are found within the more high

ranking spirits. The main difference lies in the fact that the higher ranking spirits possess both

higher spiritual realisation and are for the most part, oath bound protectors.

The medium, on becoming possessed, becomes the receptacle or physical support for the

formless spirits who use the body as a means to communicate known as ‘wisdom descent’ (ye

shes ‘bab) (Nebesky-Wojkowitz 1956:428). On descent, the medium’s consciousness (rnam

shes) is said to be replaced with that of the spirit and temporarily projected to an alternate realm

of existence. The consciousness remains in a state of limbo until the spirit departs and it

subsequently returns (Sidky 2011:89). When in trance the medium has absolutely no agency

and observers note that there appears to be the “complete replacement or displacement of the

mediums’ self and identity” (Stein 1972:187).

Numinous Companions

The use of oracles in the Himalayan ranges is common place and not in itself unusual.

However, in Sle lung’s travelogue there are over thirty references to the appearance of spirits

through their mediums and as will be shown it plays an important aspect of the whole journey.

Sle lung describes there being two principle mediums of the group, rDo rje skyabs byed96

(female) and rDo rje ’dod dgur (male). Even though Sle lung describes these as the two primary

oracles, in reality many other travel companions were possessed by several spirits during the

journey (fig.1).

96rDo rje skyabs byed was Sle lungs main consort and primary medium, known to primarily channel Nyi ma gzhon nu, Sle lung’s personal
protector (Bailey 2016:97). Curiously, Nyi ma gzhon nu does not appear in this text.

Sle lung’s text introduces a new concept that the oracles supported him in opening Pad+mo

bkod. He even described their use as ‘prophesied.’ He writes early on in the travel account that

the prophecy clearly mentioned that he needed to invoke sMan btsun chen mo97 through the

medium rDo rje skyabs byed. What the spirit then declares offers an insight into what appears

to be their principle role in Pad+mo bkod;

“O! Since I was sent alone to accompany you the Tantric Knowledge Holder to assist in
opening the sacred sites by the Great Accomplished Master, Padmasambhava, I will not
waver even a moment in carrying out your enlightened activities” (Sle lung 1983a:399.6-

Immediately following this declaration Nyi ma mun sel, manifesting again through rDo rje

skyabs byed, told the travel companions to follow Sle lungs instructions and not to break their

samaya (Sle lung 1983a: 400.2).99 This moment in the journey demonstrates that Sle lung’s

spirits were there to support his enlightened activities (phrin las) displaying their natural more

wrathful qualities.

The regional cosmos plays an important role since the spirit that manifests most frequently

during the trip was the yakṣhini tsaN+Di ka.100 Sle lung writes that if they were to recognise

rDo rje sman mchog as the official medium for tsaN+Di ka, the auspiciousness of their onward

journey to Pad+mo bkod would be assured (Sle lung 1983a:413.6-414.1).101 Although

speculative perhaps this is in part due to the fact that tsaN+Di ka’s palace was located in

Pad+mo bkod and thus her assistance more efficacious. The following extract demonstrates

97 “sMan btsun chen mo spyan 'dren dgos tshul lung du gsal ba bzhin/” (Sle lung 1983a:399.5) sMan btsun chen mo and rDo rje sgron
ma are the same deity with differing names (Nebesky-Wojkowitz 1956:190).
98 “Kye nga ni slob dpon chen po pad+mas rig pa 'dzin pa khyod kyi gnas sgo 'byed pa'i grogs su ched du mngags nas gtang ba yin pas/ phrin

las bsgrub pa la skad cig kyang g.yel ba mi byed/” (Sle lung 1983a:399.6-400.1).
99 “rTen de nyid la zhing skyong ma nyi ma mun sel phebs nas bran g.yog rnams la nged kyi ngag bkod dang mthun pa dang / dam tshig la

ngo lkog med pa dgos tshul sogs zhib rgyas su gsung/” (Sle lung 1983a: 400.2).
100 See Sle lung (1983g) describing the appearance of tsaN+Di ka.
101 “Lhag par rdo rje sman mchog sngar nas tsaN+Di ka kho la lhag par chags pas rten du 'dzugs dgos tshul dang / pad+mo bkod du 'gro

ba'i rten 'brel la” (Sle lung 1983a:413.6-414.1).

that geographic proximity as well as the use of the oracles assisted, not only in auspiciousness,

but perhaps also in the taming of malevolent spirits such as the vicious Nāgamāra;

“Even though it was the abode of Nāgamāra in front of tsaN+Di ka’s palace, we
petitioned tsaN+Di ka and three ging and performed an extensive blood sacrifice. Both
the male and female sku rten were possessed by the great yakṣhini tsaN+Di ka and g.Yu
sgron ma and Zhing skyong sku mched” (Sle lung 1983a:417.4-417.5).

The spirits also provided moral support in the way of both encouragement and chastisement.

On one occasion a secretary was worried he would not be able to bear the blisters on his feet.

A spirit manifests declaring that there was no need to worry and that they would meet face to

face again at the abode of Padmasambhava (Zangs mdog dpal ri). Sle lung remarks it happened

exactly as the oracle said (Sle lung 1983a:400.2-400.4).102 In way of comparison, sMan btsun

chen mo appears to use more wrathful methods by possessing rDo rje skyabs byed and beating

all of the group “running and jumping twice with a fierce expression” (Sle lung 1983a:409.1-

409.2).103 Although one cannot be sure of the exact motivations we might suppose she was

trying to help the companions make it through a tough period, one where more wrathful

methods were needed, or perhaps some of the group had broken their samaya.

In summary, Sle lung’s account explicitly shows the importance that the travel companions,

both seen and unseen, played in his attempt to open the hidden land of Pad+mo bkod. This

aspect should not be overlooked and despite the great importance of the existence of a hidden

land gter ma as well as the one leading the way, they should be seen as a vital ingredient in any

successful attempt to open a hidden land. Regarding Sle lung’s use of oracles, I would

recommend that this should take the form of a whole study in itself since they appear intrinsic

102“sKyon med/ slar zangs mdog dpal rir ngos phrad byas chog pa byed do/ zhes gsungs song bas/” (Sle lung 1983a:400.2-400.4).
103“Lam khar skabs shig na rdo rje skyabs byed la sman btsun chen mo gtum nyams can phebs nas thams cad la brdeg pa dang / mchong
rgyug sogs lan gnyis su mdzad/” (Sle lung 1983a:409.1-409.2).

not only to Pad+mo bkod, but his whole life. At the very least, it is an unusual accompaniment

to his efforts in ‘opening’ Pad+mo bkod and not, as yet, demonstrated in other hidden land

literature and one worthy of deeper research.

Figure One
A list of the named spirits and which mediums they possessed

Chapter Seven

The term ‘opening,’ (sgo ’byed), repeatedly mentioned in

hidden land gter ma, has had limited academic

examination on the actual process it requires.104 The lack

of detail may be that gter ma is often ambiguous in the

actual mechanics of what an ‘opener’ had to perform,

combined with a lack of analysis regarding a first person

account written by one ‘opening’ the land. I will begin

with an examination of the significance of the projected

form of Vajravārāhī onto Pad+mo bkod’s landmass and
Plate 6 - Vajravārāhī
the importance of her five cakras (khor lo lnga). Since Sle (English 2002: plate 1)

lung’s main task was to unlock one or several of the cakras, it is therefore appropriate to begin

by describing the formation of these cakras. Sle lung attempts to unlock these cakras through

taming (’dul ba) the hostile elements of the cosmos with specific ritual mechanics which I will

subsequently examine. Lastly, I will explore the concept that once mastery of a region has been

accomplished, it can be passed from one master to another.

Sacred Geography

The identification of Pad+mo bkod as taking the form of Vajravārāhī finds its source from sTag

sham nus ldan rdo rje’s treasure text rTa mgrin dgongs ’dus. Both Chos rje gling pa and Sle

lung consulted this text during their exploration to open the sacred sites of Pad+mo bkod

(Ehrhard 2018, Sadar-Afkhami 2001:147). In Sle lung’s case, his travelogue clearly describes

that he combined relevant sections from this gter ma with identifying the dharmacakra in the

104 One exception is Ehrhard (1999b:246).

heart of the deity and the sambhogacakra in her throat (Sle lung 1983a:468.1-468.3).105 Sle

lungs describes that;

“[Pad+mo bkod] has the aspects of a self-arisen physical manifestation
of Vajravārāhī, with the cakra of great bliss at the crown of the head, and
so forth, and each of the palaces possesses five islands which are in the
centre and four cardinal directions and each of the five islands possess
Figure 2 – inner, middle, and outer stage sites presenting as the cakra of exalted
Inner, Middle and
Outer body, speech, and mind” (Sle lung 1983a:391.1-391.3).106
stage sites

Locating the cakras is the single most important factor in determining the

final destination for ‘openers.’ Vajravārāhī’s five cakras are Pad+mo

bkod’s geomantic power spots that should be opened.

Sle lung’s description that Pad+mo bkod has inner, middle, and outer stage

sites (fig.2),107 with each palace (cakra) possessing five islands or

continents (fig.3) describes two important factors in the formation of

Pad+mo bkod and how to gain entry.108 Notwithstanding all the preparatory

rites he had already performed in dBus gTsang and Kong po, he also

describes having to “open the sacred secret door in the north-east of an outer
Figure 3 – Five
stage site upon arriving at Pad+mo bkod.”109 This outer door refers to one cakras

of the four “gates of the sacred place” (gnas sgo bzhi). The description of the four gates is a

common method found in hidden land gter ma to indicate the location of a sbas yul. It describes

105 “sNgar yongs su grags par snying ga chos 'khor dang mgrin pa longs spyod kyi sa mtshams 'di yin mi 'dug kyang rig 'dzin nas ldan rje'i
gter byon rta mgrin dgongs 'dus kyi nang tshan pad+mo bkod kyi gnas yig dang lam yig dum bu khriTu bsdebs gung bsgrigs dus shin tu gsal
bar snang bas zla grogs rnams la 'di dang 'di'o zhes ngo sprad/” (Sle lung 1983a:468.1-468.3).
106 “Rang byung rdo rje phag mo'i sku'i bkod pa'i rnam pa can du mchis pa'i spyi bo bde chen gyi 'khor lo sogs 'khor lo lnga'i pho brang re

rer yang lte ba dang phyogs bzhi'i gling ste lnga lnga dang bcas pa phyi nang bar gsum gyi rim pa sku gsung thugs 'khor” (Sle lung
1983a:391.1-391.3). He also makes it known that it is a supine Vajravārāhī “Pad+mo bkod rdo rje phag mo gan rkyal du bzhugs pa'i dbyibs
su yod pa”(Sle lung 1983a:406.3).
107 Figures 2 and 3 were drawn following Sle lung sprul sku’s advice with reference to the travelogue.
108 The five cakras are; the crown (spyi bo bde chen gyi 'khor lo), throat (mgrin pa longs spyod kyi 'khor lo), heart, (snying ga chos kyi 'khor

lo) navel (lte ba sprul pa'i 'khor lo) and secret cakras (gsang gnas bde skyong gi 'khor lo).
109 See note 24.

each hidden land as taking the form of a maṇḍala (Ehrhard 1997:269). For example, ’Ja’ tshon

snying po (1979) describes “the earth [in the shape of] an eight petalled lotus” (’Ja’ tshon

1979:440.5-440.6)110 and within the eight petalled lotus in each cardinal direction there are

located two regions. Pad+mo bkod and Pad+mo bkod chung are located in the western petal

(’Ja’ tshon 1979:440.6-441.4).111

Sle lung’s description indicates he had to gain access through the outer stage site. Once

accomplished, he could gain entry to the middle and inner stages (cakras). Whereas the outer

stage refers to the geographic location of Pad+mo bkod the inner stages of the sbas yul are only

available to those with spiritual insight and who have accomplished opening the outer doors

(Childs 1999:129).

Once Sle lung had opened this outer door, he then

had to approach one of Vajravārāhī’s cakras.

Each cakra has four gates, opening one of the

gates is enough to access the fifth and central door

(cakra) (fig.3 and fig.4).112 Perhaps this is what

Sle lung meant when he described Pad+mo bkod

chung as the western heart cakra and De’u Rin

chen spungs pa as the heart cakra. It could also

Figure 4 – Common maṇḍala Construction explain the statement “[I] opened the main sacred
Martin (2009: Cover Page)

places and its secondary ones.”113 The formation

of Pad+mo bkod combined with the five cakras is a precise description indicating that Pad+mo

110 “Sa ni pad+ma 'dab brgyad yod” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:440.5) In this case the term maṇḍala (dkyil 'khor) is not used and I employ the word
maṇḍala loosely to covey a sense of the image yjr lotus, four gates and figure of Vajravārāhī may appear.
111 “Nub tu pad+mo bkod pa dang: de bzhin pad+mo bkod chung yod:” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:440.6-441.4). See bDud ’dul (1997:656.4-656.5) for

a further description of Pad+mo bkod’s four directions.
112 Figure 4 is indicative and conveys the four doors in the four directions which an ‘opener’ should approach to gain access to the centre.
113 See note 55.

bkod takes the wider form of a maṇḍala in the shape of a lotus. Within the lotus is a supine

Vajravārāhī and within her, the five cakras.

Cakras According to Sle lung

Although there are differing descriptions in later gter ma on the exact location of the cakras,114

I will only mention those that Sle lung identify. He describes the crown cakra being located

north of rGya la and the throat cakra located at the confluence of the two rivers, Yar rgyab and

sPo pa (Sle lung 1983a:406.3-406.4).115 His 1733 prayer further describes the throat cakra

located at Nang sdings (Sle lung 1982b:3a.1). He travels towards Pad+mo bkod chung which

he describes as the western heart cakra where ḍākinīs gather (map one and four) (Sle lung

1983a:492.4).116 De’u Rin chen spungs pa (map one and four) is described as the centre of the

dharmacakra in the heart [of the deity]. Brag dkar bKra shis rdzong is described as the centre

of the nirmanacakra in the navel (Sle lung 1983a:486.1).117 As for the fifth cakra, he writes

that after consulting with those who knew the region,118 he would have to pass through the

secret cakra passing the centre of Gra yul hor kha and Klo nag. Then, he would reach close to

Mon rdza yul but omits to name a specific location.119

The five cakras of Vajravārāhī and their entry gates appear to be the most important sacred

sites of Pad+mo bkod. These cakras are the fabled doors that must be unlocked and determined

the route that all ‘openers’ took. It should be pointed out that the exact location of these sacred

sites appear to be fluid, transitory, and once opened or identified may close. Sle lung’s account

114 See Stein (1988), Ehrhard (1999a), Sadar-Afkhami (2001), Baker (2004), McDougal (2016) and Sanders (2016).
115 “De nas yar rgyab gtsang po dang /spo pa'i gtsang po 'phrad mtshams yan mgrin pa longs skyod kyi 'khor lo'o” (Sle lung 1983a:406.3-
116 “Nub gling pad+mo bkod chung gi 'dus mdo mkha' 'gro gangs kyi ra ba'i mdun snying ga chos kyi 'khor lo” (Sle lung 1983a:492.4).
117 “sNying kha chos 'khor gyi lte ba de'u rin chen spungs pa dang lte ba sprul 'khor gyi lte ba brag dkar bkra shis rdzong” (Sle lung

118 This comment implies that he spoke with others knowledgeable of the sacred geography and aware of the projection of Vajravārāhī onto

the region of Pad+mo bkod.
119 “Sa gnad kyi babs sogs rgyus can rnams la yang dris shing brtags par phyi gling gi byang shar ni/ gsang gnas bde skyong gi 'khor lo nas

brgyud de/ gra yul hor kha sogs klo nag gi gzhung bshags nas phyin pa'i mon rdza yul dang nye ba'i cha yin 'dug” (Sle lung 1983a:397.6-

provides a fascinating insight into the process that those ‘opening’ the doors employed which

a large part included the ‘taming’ of the numinous.

Taming the Numinous

Throughout the journey, Sle lung focuses on specific ritual practices aimed at accomplishing

mastery of the land. This mastery is largely focused on more wrathful methods to tame

malevolent spirits. Since these spirits reside in a numinous realm it is therefore necessary to

briefly understand the Tibetan concept of this unseen world.

For a Tibetan, the land and its topography are alive, animated, and often hostile. One may

perceive the ordinary land with one’s sense faculties taking in the flora, fauna, mountains, rivers

and nature. However, there is also an alternate landscape, one which remains the domain of

spirits, demons, and gods who are not easily perceived from the human sphere. The same land

one sees with the sense faculties takes on anthropomorphic qualities. The mountains are

inhabited by powerful gods (yul lha), other mountains may take the form of ministers (dpon

po), rivers the abode of klu (nāga) or the lakes the consort of the main mountain god. These

gods are not necessarily benevolent and if provoked may cause problems for human interlopers

(Forbes 1998:118). Provocations are largely sent from the eight classes of gods and spirits (lha

srin sde brgyad) and are considered, in some cases, contributing factors to illness.120 It all

amounts to a complex multi-layered cosmos, which humans are a part, but certainly not the


Despite the fact that yul lha and the eight classes are powerful, through tantric ritual, they can

be manipulated, controlled and in some cases enlisted as guardians of the dharma. This process

is described as taming and through the successful taming of the most powerful spirits one

120 See Samuel (1993:162-163) for a full description of the eight classes of gods and spirits.

becomes a master of that region. bDud ’dul rdo rje describes Pad+mo bkod as “a place of

worldly, arrogant gods and spirits” (bDud ’dul 1997:654.6-655.1)121 and it becomes apparent

through Sle lung’s account that the goal or key to ‘opening’ is the aforementioned taming of

these wild spirits at key locations.

Taming occurs through the activities of the one ‘opening’ the land and is applied through

extensive tantric ritual. Tibetan Buddhists believe that tantric deities (’jig rten las ’das pa’i lha)

are more powerful than the worldly gods (’jig rten pa’i lha) and as such the latter can be

overcome (Sidky 2011:76). This type of activity finds its precedent in the figure of

Padmasambhava who was invited by the emperor Khri srong sde bstan (742-c.800) to overcome

the fierce magical resistance put up by the intractable spirits when trying to propagate Buddhism

in Tibet. Padmasambhava roamed the Tibetan countryside and tamed the numinous adversaries

of Buddhism, subjugating and extracting the vows of any negative spirit to protect the dharma

(dam can) (Dargyay 1988:125; Tucci 2000:5-7). Sle lung’s travelogue identifies that

Padmasambhava had been active in Pad+mo bkod in a region known as gSang Lung and

because of its extraordinary qualities, bound under oath the guardian deities of Pad+mo bkod

(Sle lung 1983a 410.3).122

Through his activities, the one ‘opening’ the land becomes the ‘master of that territory’ in

accordance with ḍākinī, guardians and subjugation of malevolent spirits (Ehrhard 1999b:246).

Sle lung’s text demonstrates that he focused, like Padmasambhava, on more wrathful practices

such as destroying (drag po) contained in the four types of activities (las bzhi).123 Figures such

as Sle lung use the four types of activities according to their enlightened understanding towards

both seen and unseen individuals and spirits. Wrathful activity is utilised towards those who

121 “De ni 'jig rten lha srin dregs pa can gyi gnas yin pa” (bDud ‘dul 1997:654.6-655.1).
122 “gSang lung du/ gnas de sngar slob dpon chen po pad+mas pad+mo bkod kyi lha srung rnams dam la btags pa'i gnas khyad par can yin
pas” (Sle lung 1983a:410.3).
123 Personal Communication - Cantwell (2018) Drag po is one of the four activities, the other three include pacifying (zhi ba), enriching (rgyas

pa), magnetizing (dbang ba).

are less than receptive to more subtle methods of taming, in which arrogant gods and spirits

are included.124

Sle lung wrote no less than two hundred and fifty-seven individual ritual texts dedicated to

invoking and propitiating various dharma protectors who are utilised in supporting these types

of activities (Bailey 2016:170). He also compiled a large collection of hostile, exorcistic

sorcery rituals, mostly invoking various forms of rDo rje legs pa and therefore not only had the

necessary qualifications to perform such activities but also great confidence in their efficacy

(Bailey 2016:76). Once this numinous mastery has taken place through the correct propitiation

rites, yul lha can become allies and more harmful spirits subdued or converted to becoming

dharma protectors.

Ritual Process

Returning to the actual ‘opening’ of the land, Sle lung’s text is replete with specific ritual

practice that he performs throughout the journey. If we consider gter ma text as a treasure map

on how and where to travel, the ritual practices might be seen as the actual method in which to

accomplish the ‘opening’ of a hidden land. As Bailey writes Sle lung’s “charismatic career as

a religious savant was primarily directed toward ritual technologies for controlling, directing,

and employing a huge pantheon of dharma protectors” (Bailey 2016:159) and it is this

technology that he most utilised in the process of ‘opening’ and mastery.

The sheer volume, breadth and complexity of Sle lung’s ritual activity is not explicitly written

in any gter ma that I have examined regarding Pad+mo bkod. ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s text

mentions performing one hundred gaṇacakras (tshogs), smoke offerings (bsang mchod) and

declaring the truth of the Buddha’s words at sBrang rtsi brag’ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:439.6),125 as

124 Ibid.
125 “sBrang rtsi brag la tshogs brgya btang: bsangs mchod bka' yi bden stobs brjod:” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:439.6).

well as the need to recite the mantra of Guru Rinpoche (’Ja’ tshon 1979:441.5-441.6).126 bDud

’dul rdo rje’s (1997) does not specifically mention practising any rituals to open the land.

The ritual process began long before Sle lung even travelled into Pad+mo bkod. Sle lung made

the deliberate effort to visit geomantically powerful locations, ‘places of realisation’ (sgrub

gnas) possessing special qualities, particularly connected to Padmasambhava, the emperors

(btsan po) of the Yar lung dynasty (c.600-c.900) and past treasure revealers. This appears to

be part of a process in which visiting the geographic powerful spots such as the border taming

(mtha’ ’dul) and further taming temples (yang ’dul) imbued treasure revealers and hidden land

explorers with some sort of power. Through its geomantic potency it assisted in enabling them

to gain permission and the power to tame the wilderness and therefore open Pad+mo bkod

(Ehrhard 1999a:233). ’Ja’ tshon snying po discovered the first treasure texts related to Pad+mo

bkod at gSer gyi Lha khang in Kong po (Dudjom 1991:811, Ehrhard 1999a:232), a temple

constructed by Srong bstan sgam po pinning the right elbow of the supine demoness (Sørensen

and Hazod 2005:iv). bDud ’dul rdo rje, Chos rje gling pa and rDo rje thogs med all travelled

to and uncovered treasure works from a mtha’ ’dul temple known as mDung chu’i lha khang

(Ehrhard 1999a:230/233).

Sle lung, following in the same vein, visited the three doctrinal centres of Lha sa, bSam yas

and Khra ’brug, the three key dharmacakras of Central Tibet. He then travelled to Lake Brag

sum where there is one of Srong btsan sgam po’s one hundred and eight principal temples (A

tshang & Dar rgyas 2007:101), a location prophesised by Padmasambhava as possessing

numerous gter and surrounded by hidden sacred sites (Ibid:100). Following this he travelled to

126“Dus kun o rgyan dran par gyis: gu ru pad+ma si d+d+hi bzlas: rkyen ngan bar chad de yis sel: the tshom yid nyid ma byed par: (’Ja’
tshon 1979:441.5-441.6)

Bu chu in the south, arriving at gSer gyi Lha khang and practised there for a total of ten days

(Sle lung 1983a:404.2).127

The Mechanics of Practice

During Sle lung’s journey he focused on more wrathful practices, especially those relating to

the dharma protectors (chos skyong). Before entering Pad+mo bkod he writes that according to

the prophecy he had to;

“perform feast offerings (tshogs) and fire offerings (me mchod) to the ḍākinīs as well as
feast offerings to the following dharma protectors; the eight great gZa’ chen brgyad
(Rāhula), Klu chen brgyad (the Eight Great Nāgas), the black Ma ning nag po
(Mahākāla), sTeng dpon nched lnga (the above Five Sibling Chiefs), rDo rje legs pa the
protector Go ra nag po and to g.Yu yi sgron ma. As instructed I performed all the rituals
elaborately in one go” (Sle lung 1983a:396.2-396.4).128

Not only does he perform feast offerings to create the auspicious circumstances between him

and the protectors but he also repeatedly reminds them of their oaths (dam bsgrags) to support

him in his enlightened activity (phrin las). If we recall the proclamation made by sMan btsun

chen mo to do exactly this, it appears that we was successful in this endeavour.129

The more wrathful practices did not stop there and included making “elaborate offerings to rDo

rje legs pa with a red offering (dmar mchod) of an immediately liberated black goat” (Sle lung

1983a:398.4).130 This is not a ‘ritual killing’ (Canty, 1997) where a live animal is replaced with

gtor ma, but one where Sle lung physically sacrificed a goat releasing its consciousness to a

pure land.131 This is further supplemented by the fact that Sle lung wrote that the prophecies

made it clear not to do any kind of animal sacrifice except in front of the mountain where

127 “Na mtshan khor yug zhag bcu'i bar rgyun chad med pa sogs mtha' rgyas su bsgrubs” (Sle lung 1983a:404.2).
128 “Tshogs dang me mchod dang/gza' chen brgyad kyi mtsho/klu chen brgyad kyi mtsho/ma ning nag po'i mtsho/steng dpon mched lnga'i
mtsho/rdo rje legs pa'i mtsho/go ra nag po'i mtsho/g.yu yi sgron ma'i mtsho/ de dag dkyus gcig par/cho ler gtan la phobs/ (Sle lung
129 See note 96.
130 “Ra nag 'phral du bsgral ba'i dmar mchod” (Sle lung 1983a:398.4).
131 Sle lung sprul sku personal communication - According to Tantric theory no bad karma is accrued when performed successfully by an

authentic lama who liberates the consciousness into a pure land.

tsaN+Di ka resides and gNam lcags ’bar ba (Sle lung 1983a:413.6),132 which is exactly where

Sle lung carried out this practice.

As his journey draws him into the deeper recesses of Pad+mo bkod’s jungles, approaching the

western heart cakra of Pad+mo bkod chung, we witness the declaration of his wrathful power

and an insight into the tantric accomplishment with the support of dharmapāla. He fearlessly

threatened harmful spirits with his tantric power, staking claim to the mastery of this sacred site;

“At dusk I, the Tantric Knowledge holder bZhad pa'i rdo rje, who was blessed by Guru
Rinpoche, without much time will be arriving at the centre of the supreme sacred site of
Pad+mo bkod, therefore all of you eight classes of arrogant gods and demons from now
on behave yourselves. If you do not listen to me, there is no doubt that through the anger
of a wrathful deity it will crush you all to dust. I made the people proclaim this and
therefore from that night it was clearly efficacious, so the nights became smooth and I
had a comfortable peaceful sleep” (Sle lung 1983a:461.5-462.1).133

Each day of the journey was also filled with mixed practice. He gives a summary of the

practices they performed daily. A typical day would begin with morning refuge and bodhicitta

prayers, invoking the protector ’Od ldan dkar po, supplicating the warlike non-human bstan

spirits twenty one times, petitioning the dharma protectors through gaṇacakra, offering

extensive smoke offerings, performing the richness summons practice (g.yang ’gugs),

accomplishing the hūṃ sādhanā. They practised the winds of dza b+hir twenty one times daily

and on some occasions at least three times. In the evenings they would chant the seven line

prayer to Padmasambhava (tshig bdun gsol ’debs), followed by ‘the prayer which

spontaneously fulfils all aspirations’ (bsam pa lhun grub ma), prayers to the rigs ldan ma, the

offering of golden libations (gser skyems) as well as offering gtor ma to the peaceful and

wrathful riṣhis. Further practice in the evenings included performing tshi rtul ma one hundred

132 “Nged rnams kyis gsang lung du gang gsal gyi gnam lcags 'bar ba dang / tsaN+Di ka'i gnas ri'i mdun du ma gtogs dmar mchod kyi rigs
ma byas/” (Sle lung 1983a:413.6).
133 “Srod kyi dus la pad+mas byin gyis brlabs pa'i rig pa 'dzin pa'i bzhad pa'i rdo rje bdag gnas mchog pad+mo bkod kyi lte bar 'gyangs med

du 'byor rgyu yin pas khyed dregs pa sde brgyad thams cad da phyin chad nas bag yod par byos shig/ gal te de ltar mi byed na drag por khros
pas rdul du rlog par gdon mi za'o/ zhes skad kyi nga ro chen pos bsgrag tu bcug/ de nub nas ngo so thon par bag phebs la bde bar gnyid log
pa sogs 'jam ding gis song/” (Sle lung 1983a:461.5-462.1).

times, trig khrom ma twenty-one times, and the drang srong gi dmod pa invocation three

times.134 If Sle lung and his entourage practiced as he summarises, the whole journey was truly

one of the accumulation of tantric rites.

Even the physical effort made by the travellers had the function of purifying negativities. Sle

lung explains that even the journey itself would;

“purify the destructive actions and downfalls that prevent one's entrance into the
maṇḍala, laid out in perfect accord with the preliminary practices which accumulate
wisdom and purify obscurations, blazing with the forceful energy of genuine realisation,
devotion and respect, weariness with saṃsāra and renunciation” (Sle lung 1983a:392.2-

Sle lung’s account demonstrated he followed in the approach and style set down by

Padmasambhava, subduing malevolent spirits and gaining mastery over key locations. Through

reading his account it becomes clear gter ma text did not instruct him in which practices to

implement. It further identifies the importance that the one leading had in this endeavour.

Political taming

The term ‘master of the territory,’ includes the outer taming or conversion of the local

population and an intricate part of the process (Samuel 1993:196). The term klo pa is a

somewhat pejorative term used by central Tibetans to describe those living on the border

regions of Tibet. It is often translated simply as barbarians and depicts their non-Buddhist


Whilst in Pad+mo bkod, bDud ‘dul rdo rje, Chos rje gling pa and Sle lung all participated in

activities to convert the local population. This entirely fits into the concept of ‘taming the

134For the full list of daily practices see Sle lung (1983a 407.2-408.2) in appendix A.
135“Lam 'phrang bgrod par dka' ba rnams kyis dkyil 'khor gyi nang du 'jug par byed pa la gegs byed kyi sdig ltung sbyong ba/ sngon 'gro'o
bsags sbyangs dang khrigs mthun par ston pa/ nges 'byung dang /skyo shas dang/mos gus dang/ yang dag pa'i rtogs pa btsan thabs su 'bar
byed pa/” (Sle lung 1983a:392.2-392.5).

wilderness.’ Through conversion the wild tribes became tamed and thus receptive to Buddhist

activity. More than that, this taming of the inhabitants in Pad+mo bkod and her border regions,

became critical to the success and failure of his journey.

Had it not been for the support of the rGya la chieftains, on three separate occasions, it is

unlikely that Sle lung would have been able to travel as far as he did. As shown, Sle lung

converted or strengthened support in the entry regions of Pad+mo bkod through bestowing

empowerments (dbang) building on the Buddhist activities of those before him.

However, in the end, his inability to ‘tame’ the most powerful leader of the region ultimately

ended his exploration. Sle lung’s interactions with local inhabitants depict the Pad+mo bkod

leader Ka gnam pa, as a tyrant. One day, a visitor called bSod nams Phun tshogs, told Sle lung

that he and the chieftain Tshe ring dngos grub had been scolded for entering Ka gnam pa’s

territory a year earlier. They had to offer materials and confess their faults in an act of

repentance (Sle lung 1983a:445.1-445.2).136 He also tells Sle lung that if they were to enter Ka

gnam pa’s territory and he responded by sending an army, they would be reduced to dust (Sle

lung 1983a:445.2).137 In the end, as Sle lung writes, Ka gnam pa’s aggression ultimately

brought the mission to premature end;

“The auspicious circumstances and conditions and opportunities did not allow us to reach
these [sacred] places…We tried every means possible, but the Ka gnam representatives
were too frightened to let us pass. All the doors have now been closed and, in the end we
have decided to return the way we have come” (Baker 2004:173).

Thus, it was the lack of ‘mastery’ over humans and not the numinous that led to the ultimate

136 “sDe pa ka gnam pa 'dis na ning sde pa tshe ring dngos grub gnas su slebs pa la brnyas nas nged tsha zhang rnams la bka' skyon phab/”
(Sle lung 1983a:445.1-445.2).
137 “Nged rnams la'ang dmag byung nas sa mi bcag pa zhig byas 'ong” (Sle lung 1983a:445.2).

ending of his journey. However, it is possible that Sle lung did not perceive the premature

conclusion to his mission negatively and instead viewed the process from the perspective of

decades rather than months.

Passing the ‘Baton of Mastery’

Taking a step back from the details set out in Sle lung’s account, it appears as if there is an

intricate web of interconnectedness between many masters who either uncovered gter ma

regarding Pad+mo bkod and/or gained mastery over her sacred sites. The identification of one

with the permission from the ḍākinīs does not have be written in gter ma. Furthermore, once

mastery of a region has occurred, it can even be handed over from one karmically connected

master to another. What follows is a brief overview of the interdependence between the most

well-known masters connected with Pad+mo bkod up to and including the end of nineteenth


’Ja’ tshon snying po, sent bDud ’dul rdo rje into the wilderness to discover treasures and

convert the non-Buddhist tribes. bDud ’dul rdo rje, following this advice, extracted a gter ma

on Pad+mo bkod and then subsequently travelled to Pad+mo bkod to fulfil the wishes of his

master. sTag sham Nus ldan rdo rje was both a student of bDud ’dul rdo rje and a teacher to

Chos rje gling pa. sTag sham Nus ldan rdo rje identified Chos rje gling pa as the ‘master of his

teaching’ and identified him as one who would open Pad+mo bkod. (Ehrhard 1999a:230,

Sadar-Afkhami 2001:147). As Chos rje gling pa travelled in Pad+mo bkod he identified sacred

sites and like Sle lung, his journey was meticulously based on the treasure cycles of sTag sham

Nus ldan rdo rje (Ehrhard 2018).

Chos rje gling pa had previously prophesied that Sle lung should rely on peaceful and wrathful

Avalokiteśvara, as well as identifying him as the undisputed incarnation of the first Sle lung,

Nam mkha’ rgyal mtshan. According to Chos rje gling pa’s rnam thar, sTag sham Nus ldan

rdo rje prophesied that people would gain great benefit if Sle lung were taught the ‘Drop of

Dakini Mind Essence,’ one of sTag sham’s treasure revelations (Loden 2013:67). Sle lung

openly describes using Tag sham Nus ldan rdo rje’s treasure texts as a point of reference as

well as traveling to the hidden place of Chos rje gling pa in Pad+mo bkod. Sle lung’s aspiration

prayer of 1733 (1982b) was written for the great householder of ’Or shod dPal rgyal138 in Kong

po who were the landed nobility from this region. This ‘great householder’ was also Chos rje

gling pa’s main sponsor (sbyin bdag) during his years there.139 There is also a hitherto

unexamined relationship between Sle lung and bDud ’dul rdo rje, the former penning a three-

page eulogy to the latter;

“You, who is emanated from the vajra secret mind, the heart of all the Buddhas. Due to
the power of your aspiration prayers to help all sentient beings I pray to you, Great Uncle
bDud ’dul” (Sle lung 1982c 12b.2-12b.3).140

This passing of the baton continues into the nineteenth century with, who bDud ’joms ’Jigs

bral ye shes rdo rje (1904-1987) calls, ‘The Three awareness holders’ (sbas yul rig ’dzin rnam

gsum) (Dudjom 1991:957). The three include Rig ’dzin rDor rje Thogs med (1746-1797), Chos

ling Gar dbang ’Chi med rdo rje (b.1763) and sGam po pa O rgyan ’Gro ‘dul gling pa (b.1757),

the latter two were masters of rDor rje Thogs med’s teachings. In particular, sGam po pa was

especially active in opening more regions in Pad+mo bkod after having received teachings

from rDor rje Thogs med (Ehrhard 1999a:228-231).

The identification of those with permission from the ḍākinīs excluding gter ma is shown in

alternative hidden lands. In 1722 Sle lung prophesied that Blo bzang lHa mchod should open

138 “dPa' bo'i khyu mchog 'or shod o rang gi khyim bdag chen po dpal rgyal” (Sle lung 1982b:3a.1).
139 Personal Communication - Ehrhard (2018). The importance of benefactors (sbyin bdag) in the exploration of Pad+mo bkod should be
researched more thoroughly.
140 “Dus gsum rgyal ba kun gyi thugs rdo rje'i/ gsang ba thugs las sprul pa'i bka'i pho nya/ smon lam dbang gis 'gro ba'i don mdzad pa/ rdo

rje bdud 'dul zhang blon chen por bstod/” (Sle lung 1982c:12b.2-12b.3).

a hidden land in Seng ge ri known as sBas gnas ’Or mo mo lha sa (Erhard 1999b:241). The

master Rwa ston gter ston stobs ldan rdo rje (b.17th cent.) was told by Chos gling bDe ba’i rdo

rje (17th cent.) that he was sent (to a hidden land) because he was “the master (of this site)”

(Ehrhard 1999b:246).

In summary, the passing of the mastery of a region through the selection of a chosen successor

or successor demonstrates that although the existence of a specific hidden land must occur from

a gter ma text, the one destined to ‘open’ it was not. Identification such as this should not be

viewed as atypical, one need only recall the declaration that Sle lung should rely on peaceful

and wrathful Avalokiteśvara a gter ma text by Chos rje gling pa. Therefore, hidden land

‘openers’ are identified by other masters, prophecies and ḍākinīs. However they had to rely on

their own intuition and spiritual accomplishment for a successful outcome.

Chapter Eight
The Fruit

“In six months one will spontaneously transform into a body of light”141
’Ja’ tshon snying po
(’Ja’ tshon 1979:443.6)

Having discovered that hidden land gter ma describe in detail the reasons one would want to

escape and find refuge in a place such as Pad+mo bkod, the fifth and final theme instead

describes all that is desirous and bountiful. What follows is a brief examination of the benefits

one will discover on successfully arriving at a hidden land written in gter ma compared with

the reality according to Sle lung’s travelogue.

All Pad+mo bkod gter ma describe it as an environment with a great abundance of resources.

bDud ‘dul rdo rje’s gter ma declares that “As for provisions such as wealth, possessions and

resources, there is no need to bring anything other than mules and donkeys (bDud ’dul

1997:668.2-668.3).”142 Whilst this does not specifically mention food it implies that one need

not be concerned about preparation. Read alongside ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s (1979) gter ma

Pad+mo bkod is presented as a land of milk and honey;

“There is fruit about the size of a horse’s head, of wheat and barley grains the size of an
apricot stone and radishes and turnips so heavy people can barely lift them. There is no
need to grind salt, it is the same as nectar and has the same potency as gods’ food” (’Ja’
tshon 1979:443.4-443.5).143

Interestingly, in Sle lung’s text we discover both the refutation of the lack of a need to prepare

alongside evidence that Pad+mo bkod was bountiful. Sle lung demonstrates his practicality by

describing how he spoke to people who had already travelled to Pad+mo bkod discovering that

141 “Zla ba drug la lhun grub 'od lus 'gyur:” (Sle lung 1983a:443.6).
142 “mThun rkyen longs spyod nor rdzas ni: bong dre 'u ma gtogs sna tshogs khyer:” (bDud ‘dul 1997:668.2-668.3).
143 “Shing thog 'bras bu phal cher rta mgo tsam: nas gro so ba 'bru rnams kham rtsig tsam: la phug nyung ma mi yis theg tsam yod: tshwa

rdor mi dgos bdud rtsi dag dang mtshungs: lha yi zhal zas dag dang nus pa mnyam:” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:443.4-443.5).

traditional Tibetan clothes would not protect them from “the danger of insects and

invertebrates” (Sle lung 1983a:398.2).144 He also explains, contrary to bDud ’dul rdo rje’s

instructions, that not only were they not able to have pack animals but they carried a great

amount of provisions since they needed the help of one hundred and thirty local helpers to carry

it all.145

Sle lung’s travelogue also treats us to detailed descriptions of fruits and trees, which for a

Tibetan, would have been thoroughly unfamiliar and perhaps considered bountiful. He

describes an edible unopened flower, shaped like a heart which tasted like walnuts and the size

of a human head (Sle lung 1983a:457.6-458.1).146 He portrays a number of trees whose fruits

were plentiful such as one called Ta la, which had many layers of skin layered like rolls of

paper with an edible centre (Sle lung 1983a:457.5-457.6).147 There were others called

kaṇḍakari trees on which grew an orange coloured fruit which had a delicious taste and another

called a dbo se tree which had fruit like pi pi ling (piper longum) (Sle lung 1983a 458.1-

448.2).148 There were wild sweet potatoes which were highly edible and about the thickness of

ones’ forearm which could be made into thug pa or soup (Sle lung 1983a:403.6-404.1).149 bDud

’dul rdo rje’s text explains that “there are palm leaves to use for making houses and shelter”

(bDud ’dul 1997:663.1).150 Sle lung’s text concurs by describing sword shaped leaves, two and

a half cubits long, each side had around fifty leaves which protected from the rain underneath

so much so that one could build a hut with them (Sle lung 1983a:458.5-458.6).151

144 “gNas su 'gro myong rnams kyis/ 'bu sbrang gi 'jigs pa bsrung phyir dor ma dang phyu pa sogs dgos tshul zer ba bzhin/ mngon chung gi
nyer bsdogs bgyis/” (Sle lung 1983a:398.2).
145 See note 66.
146 “Me tog kha ma bye ba'i dus snying gi dbyibs can du yod pa/ nang gi ge sar zos na ro star kha 'dra ba/ 'di dus 'bras bu ma smin pa 'dug

kyang star kha tsam du ma phung por 'dril ba mi mgo tsam pa'i tshod du chags pa” (Sle lung 1983a:457.6-458.1).
147 “Ta lar grags pa'i shing dbyibs ldum pa 'dra ba shun pa phyi nang rim pa mang po shog dril du byas pa'i nang snying lha ba lta bu dkar

po za rung ba” (Sle lung 1983a:457.5-457.6).
148 “kaN+Da ka ri 'bras bu kha dog dmar ser ro bcud dang ldan pa dang/ dbo se'i 'bras bu pi pi ling 'dra ba” (Sle lung 1983a 458.1-448.2).
149 “Gro ma 'di gnas nang du bza' shin tu che zhing/ sbom phra lag ngar tsam dang / g.yos su bgyis na thug pa dang khur ba sogs bzo btub

pa snang (Sle lung 1983a:403.6-404.1).
150 “Ta la'i lo mas khang gur nyan yod pas/” (bDud ‘dul 1997:663.1).
151 “'Dab phran ral gri 'dra ba khru phyed do pa phyogs rer lnga bcu tsam gyes pas char skyob kyi khang pa btub pa'i sdong po” (Sle lung

1983a 458.5-458.6).

Aside from the nutritional resources, hidden land treasure texts on Pad+mo bkod also depict a

land with healing qualities. ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s gter ma states that;

“Even (if) a single drop of water and piece of herb is eaten, chronic illnesses and suffering
etc will become appeased, the unclear sense faculties become clear and even old men will
transform their body’s into that of youths (’Ja’ tshon 1979:442.6-443.1).”152

Sle lung makes no mention of discovering curative herbs, but does describe a liquid which he

perceives as Vajravārāhī’s secret urine (sindūra), a dripping, curing medicine for chronic

illness (Sle lung 1983a:406.1).

Lastly and perhaps the greatest boon of any hidden land is the promise of awakening (byang

chub) and the pinnacle of spiritual accomplishment, rainbow body. In ’Ja’ tshon snying po’s

gter ma it famously states;

“From amongst the sixteen hidden lands this great Pad+mo bkod, whoever, hears and
recalls it, [their] karmic obscurations will be cleansed. [Merely] taking seven steps in the
direction of this [Pad+mo bkod] one will certainly be born human. In respect to this,
[after] observing seven prostrations, one will become a non-returner and no longer
wander in saṃsāra. If one certainly arrives and abides here, you will obtain rainbow
body” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:442.4-442.6).153

Through these types of descriptions the potency of hidden lands to stimulate spiritual growth

combined with the signs of degeneration has doubtlessly encouraged the great effort needed to

travel to such faraway lands. The potency of hidden lands as a location of spiritual

emancipation continues to this day with a popular saying amongst hidden land adherents that

one day of practice in a hidden land is equivalent to one year in any other location.154 Hidden

lands are supposed to provide a location where one has the freedom to practice Buddhism

152 “Chu thig gcig dang rtswa nyag zos pa yang: gcong nad la sogs sdug bsngal zhi bar 'gyur: dbang po mi gsal ba rnams gsal bar 'gyur:
rgan po rnams kyang gzhon nu'i lus su 'gyur:” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:442.6-443.1).
153 “sBas lung bcu drug nang nas pad+mo bkod chen 'di: gang gis thos dang dran pas las sgrib dag: 'di yi phyogs su gom pa bdun 'bor na'ang:

'chib 'gyur tshe de ru nges par skye: 'di la dmigs nas rkyang phyag bdun 'tshal na: 'khor bar mi 'khyams phyir mi ldog par gyur: gang zhig
gnas 'dir nges par sleb gyur na: 'ja' lus rdo rje'i sku ni thob par 'gyur:” (’Ja’ tshon 1979:442.4-442.6).
154 Personal communication – mKhan po Nyi ma don 'grub (2017).

without the fear of reprisal. Sadly, for Sle lung’s group of travellers, this freedom never

materialised due to the militant Ka gNam pa. Yet Sle lung never planned to remain in Pad+mo

bkod and instead his journey was one to open the sacred sites for future use rather than settle

there. He makes his intention clear early on when he writes “as it was a long distance and hard

to traverse and so on, I realised certainly I would not return to my place (dbus) until the fourth

month of the Year of the Dog [1730]” (Sle lung 1983a:397.7-398.2).155

Returning to the spiritual boons, it is extremely difficult to ascertain whether these types of

spiritual descriptions are accurate. As we have discovered, Sle lung describes the arising of

non-conceptuality, recounts his own visions and dreams and records the spiritual experiences

of his companions. On reflection it does not appear to be critical to determine the spiritual

efficacy of a location and instead reflect on whether Sle lung and those in his cohort believed

in such pronouncements. In my mind there can be little doubt that the whole group implicitly

trusted the prophecies of Padmasambhava, Sle lung’s leadership and the possibility of spiritual

emancipation through the accumulation of merit and wisdom (ye shes). His spontaneous song

of realisation perhaps best sums up his and his companions’ state of mind;

“East of Lhasa the land of Pad+mo bkod, in the second heavenly realm of Khecarī,
One who has left his homeland behind, a yogi who has renounced attachment and desire,
I am going ahead to discover the sites as [per] the advice of the lamas and ḍākinīs.
All the patrons from here, keep up with your good health.
Us vajra brothers and sisters, our hearts sincerely entrust in the deities of the three roots.
We will take the journey with joy, whatever happens such as illness, death, or happiness
we do not hold any hope or fear”
(Sle lung 1983a:401.3-401.4).156

155 “Nges pa rnyed pas sa thag ring zhing bgrod dka' ba sogs nas khyi lo zla ba bzhi pa'i nang du ma gtogs dbus su mi 'khor bar yid thag
chod/ (Sle lung 1983a:397.7-398.2).
156 “Shar phyogs pad+mo bkod pa/dag pa mkha' spyod gnyis par/pha yul rgyab tu bskyur ba'i/rnal 'byor chags med zhen med/bla ma mkha'

'gro'i bslab bya/ gtan la 'bebs par chas 'gro/'dir bzhugs yon sbyor thams cad/sku khams bzang ba gnang zhu/nga cag rdo rje'i spun grogs/ blo
de rtsa gsum lha la/kha zhe med par gtad nas/nyams dga'i ngang du chas 'gro/na dga' shi skyid yin pas/re dogs gang yang mi 'dug” (Sle lung


Having translated part of Sle lung’s account of his mission to Pad+mo bkod in 1729, as I had

hoped, it has provided a wealth of information. The richness is found in the description of

hidden land exploration from a first person perspective. Most significantly Sle lung wrote it

from the perspective of one ‘opening’ a hidden land. Although hidden land gter ma provided

vital ingredients such as location, right time to depart and the motivation for wanting to travel

to locations such as these, there remains an aperture between prophecy and experience. Sle

lung’s account provides the bridge between the almost standardised literary trope of prophecy

versus his recounting of fantastical reality. Sle lung’s account not only describes the specific

ritual mechanics on how he opened the sacred sites of Pad+mo bkod but also describes the day

to day practicalities of the whole mission. His words brings gter ma alive from the perspective

of a Buddhist master famed for tantric accomplishment. Having reflected on the details of the

text, I am left with one overriding conclusion. His account demonstrates that any successful

attempt to open the doors of a hidden land is reliant on the ripening of causes (rgyu) and the

gathering of conditions (rkyen), otherwise known as the arising of auspicious circumstances

(rten ’brel). Throughout his account we never lose sight he was the engine propelling the whole

endeavour with his determination, one identified by the ḍākinīs and decisions he made based

on his own prophecies. However, like any highly tuned engine, output depends on the sum and

quality of its parts. The whole cast found in the form of his companions (seen and unseen),

political allies and adversaries are all contained within the plot that gter ma provides. These

are the auspicious or inauspicious circumstances that determined success. Sle lung appears to

be adaptable whose every action contained the tripartite approach of outer, inner and secret.

Outer considerations included the physical hardships that he and his companions faced

travelling, the relationships he developed with the local leaders and survival in the hostile

terrain. The inner describes the ritual practices, personal prophecies and clarity of which

practices would be most efficacious in the pursuit of ‘mastery of the land.’ Lastly, the secret is

contained within his person such as the arising of non-conceptual awareness. I have shied away

from examining whether invisible doors in the form of cakras, tantric accomplishment, spirit

possession and the receiving of prophecies through dreams exist. Instead, I have focused on

Sle lung’s words describing how he attempted to attain mastery of a sacred land. In the process

of academic rigour it is easy to lose sight of the fact that Sle lung and all those involved were

real people, facing real challenges who made a journey to the limits of their world. His

travelogue allows the reader, no matter their motivation, to grasp and unveil the sense of what

it meant to open a hidden land in the eighteenth century. Concerning future research, Sle lung’s

four travelogue’s related to Pad+mo bkod (1982a, 1983a, 1983b, 1983f) should be fully

translated which will provide a suitable conclusion on his relationship to this region. Appendix

E is a list of other sacred land texts that Sle lung has produced. They will doubtless be a treasure

trove of information. In my own way I hope that I have drawn aside a part of the veil of secrecy

without dispelling any of the wonder surrounding the hidden land of Pad+mo bkod, what it

means to ‘open’ the doors and lastly Sle lung himself. To finish I would like to leave it to one

of the ‘crazy ones’ (smyon pa) who lost his own life in his uncompromising pursuit of

attempting to unveil an entrance to a hidden land.

Make of it as you will.

‘Don’t listen to anybody. Decide by yourself and practise madness. Develop courage for the
benefit of all sentient beings. Then you will automatically be free from the knot of attachment.
Then you will continually have the confidence of fearlessness and you can try to open the
Great Door of the Hidden Place”
brTul zhugs gling pa
(Shor 2011:vii)

Appendix A
N.B. Where I have discovered a spelling mistake I have kept the original and place in Tibetan
brackets what I believe to be the correct spelling.

གནས་མཆོག་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་0་བ1ོད་པའི་ལམ་ཡིག་དགའ་འ6ེད་བདེན་གཏམ་ལ། ཞེས་6་བ་བ;ག་སོ།།
Pleasant and Truthful Words: Travel Guide to the Supreme Pilgrimage Site of Pad+mo bkod
By Sle lung bZhad pa’i rdo rje

མཁའ་ལ་འཇའ་@ར་ཤར་བ་ཡི། །མཚན་དཔེའི་D་འEལ་རོལ་གར་མཁན།
རང་རིག་G་གHམ་I་ཚJགས་ལ། མི་Kེད་Lས་པའི་ཡིད་Mིས་འ0ད། (Sle lung 1983a:390.1-390.2)
How amazing!
With a mind of undivided reverence I bow
To the assembly of deities of the three roots, reflexive awareness,
Performers of the illusory dance of the major and minor marks,
Like a rainbow appearing in space!

།མཐའ་ཡས་དཔག་པར་དཀའ་བ་ཡི། །ངོ་མཚར་ཆོ་འEལ་བཀོད་པ་ཡིས། །འ1ོ་བ་Oོལ་མཛད་Qགས་Rེའི་གཏེར། །གསང་བ་ཡེ་ཤེས་མཁའ་འ1ོར་འ0ད། (Sle lung
I bow to the ḍākinī gSang ba Ye she,
The treasury of compassion that liberates wandering beings
Through an array of magical wonders,
Limitless and difficult to fathom!

།Sོན་མཁའ་ལ་Tོད་པའི་ཞིང་། །རང་Uང་Vལ་པའི་གནས་Mི་མཆོག །པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་Mི་དMིལ་འཁོར་ལ། །དངོས་པོ་Wན་Xི་Yོ་ནས་འ0ད། (Sle lung 1983a:390.3-
With everything that exists I bow,
To the maṇḍala of Pad+mo bkod,
That supreme place of emanations,
Self-arisen Oḍḍiyana Khecarī!

།མཁའ་འ1ོས་Zང་0་བ[ན་པ་བཞིན། །\་\ོའི་1ོང་གི་]ས་^ལ་0། །ལན་ཅིག་ཆས་པའི་ལོ་`ས་aམས། །Rོད་6ེད་ཚbག་གི་འcེང་བར་dེལ། (Sle lung
I string this garland of words explaining
The account of the first expedition
To the hidden land of ignoble villages,
As was prophesied by the ḍākinīs

གHང་Qགས་འཁོར་Xི་mལ་0་མཆིས་པ་དཔའ་བོ་དང་མཁའ་འ1ོ་དམ་ཅན་e་མཚJ་ཐམས་ཅད་nིན་@ར་འ0་ཞིང་oག་p་བ;གས་པ། (Sle lung 1983a:391.1-

Moreover, that sovereign of all hidden lands, associated with the ignoble villages on the border
of Tibet and India, the supreme place renowned as Pad+mo bkod. It has the aspects of a self-
arisen physical manifestation of Vajravārāhī (rDo rje phag mo), with the cakra of great bliss at
the crown of the head, and so forth, and each of the palaces possesses five islands which are in
the centre and four cardinal directions and each of the five islands possess inner, middle and
outer stage sites as presenting as the chakra of exalted body, speech, and mind. All the oceans
of oath-bound protectors, ḍākinīs and vīras are amassed like clouds and always remain.

གཅན་གཟན། 0ག་rལ། འs་tང་སོགས་མu་vེར་མཆེ་བ་ཅན་Xི་རིགས་དང་། མི་wོད་ག0ག་པ་ཅན་དང་། \་\ོ་མ་xངས་པ་སོགས་གyགས་ཅན་Xི་འཇིགས་པ། ཚད་ནད། zང་
འབམ། u་sར། {ངས་འsར། |་ཐོར་སོགས་འ0་བ་འ}གས་པའི་བར་གཅོད་དང་། འ~ེ་•ིན་ག0ག་་པ་ཅན་ཆོ་འEལ་€་ཚJགས་པར་[ོན་པས་ཡོངས་H་གང་བ། ཉམ་uང་ཞིང་ཐེ་
ཚJམ་ཆེ་ལ་‚ོ་€་མང་བ། འདི་€ང་གི་hོས་ཐག་ལ་Iག་པར་ཆགས་པ། དམ་ཚbག་ལ་མི་གནས་ཤིང་། ‚ང་དོར་Xི་གནད་འགག་ལ་ƒོངས་„ེ་བོ་aམས་Mིས་ཤིན་p་བ1ོད་པར་དཀའ་
བ། (Sle lung 1983a:391.4-392.2)
It is beset by obstacles that are physically dangerous: wild animals, such as venomous snakes,
flies and insects, and all sorts of fanged and clawed beasts of prey, pernicious wild savages,
hateful barbarians and the like, along with fevers, diseases causing edema and gout, blisters,
tumours, and pustules. It is also rife with malicious demons and spirits displaying various
magical emanations. For individuals who are confused about the crucial points of what should
be adopted and what should be discarded, who do not keep their samaya commitments, who
are inordinately attached to appearances, who are distracted by many thoughts, filled with
doubts, enfeebled, it is extremely difficult to reach this place.

ལེགས་པར་བoགས་ཤིང་ད…ད་དེ་གཏན་ལ་ཕབ་པ་ན། ས་hོ་རི་gག་†ོན་ཤིང་u་‡ང་ལ་སོགས་པ་རེ་རེ་ཡང་j་དང་ཞིང་ཁམས་ངོ་མཚར་བའི་བཀོད་པ་€་ཚJགས་H་འཆར་ཞིང་།མི་
oག་པ་དང་། ˆག་བ‰ལ་བ་དང་། [ོང་བ་དང་། བདག་མེད་པ་[ོན་པར་6ེད་པའི་‚་མ་འབའ་ཤིག་p་འཆར་བ། (Sle lung 1983a:392.2-392.3)
When one has come to certainty through analysing and investigating well, each and every piece
of earth, rock, and stone, each mountain, cliff and thicket of trees, each pond and river, and so
forth, [all] will appear as the various amazing displays of pure lands and the body of the deity.
Everything will appear solely as the lama and expresses impermanence, suffering, emptiness,
and non-self.

ལམ་འcང་བ1ོད་པར་དཀའ་བ་aམས་Mིས་དMིལ་འཁོར་Xི་ནང་0་འŠག་པར་6ེད་པ་ལ་གེགས་6ེད་Mི་vིག་‹ང་Œོང་བ། ‰ོན་འ1ོའོ་བསགས་Œངས་དང་•ིགས་མQན་པར་[ོན་
པ། ངེས་འUང་དང་། „ོ་ཤས་དང་། མོས་Lས་དང་། ཡང་དག་པའི་oོགས་པ་བཙན་ཐབས་H་འབར་6ེད་པ། (Sle lung 1983a:392.2-392.5)
The narrow paths, difficult to traverse, will purify the destructive actions and downfalls that
prevent one's entrance into the maṇḍala, laid out in perfect accord with the preliminary
practices which accumulate wisdom and purify obscurations, blazing with the forceful energy
of genuine realisation, devotion and respect, weariness with saṃsāra and renunciation.

བ1ོད་པའི་mལ་ནི། ས་ཕོ་nེ•འི་ལོ་•གས་ཕོ་fིའི་མཐའ་དམག་བ‘ོག་པའི་ཐབས་H་གནས་མཆོག་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་0་ངོས་Mིས་བ„ོད་དགོས་པ་དང༌། དེ་དག་གི་ཆ་“ེན་0་ཀོང་^ལ་
†ོན་པའི་ཚལ་Xི་L་xའི་”བ་གནས་aམས་H་ཚJགས་དང་མེ་མཆོད། གེ་སར་Xི་ཞབས་Mིས་བཅགས་པའི་དབེན་གནས་aམས་H་གེ་སར་Xི་མཆོད་པ། gག་གHམ་མཚJ་མོ་ཆེ་སོགས་
{ག་མེད་ཉི་ཤར་Xི་གནས་aམས་H་བ0ད་མགོན་ཆེན་པོའི་གསོལ་མཆོད་སོགས་རིམ་1ོ་oེན་འgེལ་Xི་རིམ་པ་མཐའ་ཡས་པ་6ེད་དགོས་པ་དང༌། གནས་དེ་ཉིད་0་ཐོན་ཁའི་བར་0་
Kི་ནང་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་གསང་e་ཤིན་p་དམ་པ་དགོས་པའི་བཀའ་e་དང་བཅས་པའི་Zང་Uང་བ་བཞིན། (Sle lung 1983a:392.5-393.3)
Concerning the manner in which I, bZhad pa'i rdo rje 'phrin las dbang po in the Female Earth
Bird Year [1729], entered into just such a place, especially exalted amongst all the charnel
grounds of India, Mongolia, and dBus gTsang: In the Earth Male Monkey Year [1728]: as a
means to ward off an impending border war in the Iron Dog Year [1730] it was necessary,
that I myself, set off in the direction of the supreme site Pad+mo bkod.

As in the prophecy, to facilitate that, in the practice places of the guru (Padmasambhava) in the
forests of Kong po performing feasts and fire offerings, in the solitary places trod upon by the
feet of Gesar, performing Gesar offerings. At the great lake of Brag gsum, and such places, the
dwelling places of sKrag med nyi shar making offerings and invocations to the great Maranatha
(sKrag med nyi shar), and the necessary acts of worship and service with endless layers of
interdependent connections. In those very places, until emerging, I was under an injunction
that it was necessary to keep everything, inner and outer, with a seal of utmost secrecy.

ཆོས་འཁོར་གHམ་Xིས་དsས་པའི་དsས་གཙང་གི་དབེན་གནས་ཡང་དབེན་aམས་H་མཆོད་པ་ཚJགས་དང་བཅས་པ། རིས་མེད་Mི་དགེ་འ0ན་aམས་ལ་བWར་[ི་ཞབས་ཏོག་Kག་
འXེད་དང་བཅས་པ། ཕོངས་ཤིང་ཉམ་ཐག་པའི་„ེ་བོ་Hམ་[ོང་0་ལོངས་པར་ཟང་ཟིང་དང་དམ་•ས་Mི་Œིན་པ། •ིད་པའི་I་གཉན་aམས་གཙJ་བོར་–ར་པའི་vེ་བeད་~ེགས་པ་
aམས་ལ་གསེར་„ེམས་དང་བསངས་Mི་མཆོད་པ། མདོས་གཏོར་མQན་•ས་Mིས་བ—ང་བ། གHང་རབ་བ\གས་པ། ~ང་•ོང་དང་མཁའ་འ1ོའི་གཏོར་འsམ། ལས་བཞིའི་Œིན་•ེག་
སོགས་eབ་ད˜ང་བ„ེད་པའི་རིམ་1ོ་aམས་ནོར་•ས་ལ་ཕངས་མེད་Mི་Yོ་ནས་ལེགས་པར་བ”བས། (Sle lung 1983a:393.3-393.6)
I made offerings with groups in the most isolated hermitages of dBus gTsang amidst the three
centres (Lha sa, bSam yas and Khra ‘brug). I made gifts and rendered service and respect to
the members of the sangha without sectarian bias, and donated various material goods and
sacred substances to three thousand destitute beggars. I made smoke offerings and libations to
the worldly gods and spirits, especially those haughty ones of the eight classes. I thoroughly
accomplished what I could through unstinting offerings of wealth, such as performing
fulfillments with the appropriate substances, gtor ma, and thread-crosses (mdos gto), reading
scriptures, offering the 100,000 gtor ma of the sage (drang srong) and ḍākinīs, and performing
fire pujas of the four activities (las bzhi).

‘་1ོགས་™་šོབ་Œིན་བདག་སོགས་@ོས་བཅས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་གསངས་ཏེ་ངེད་I་སར་འཐོན་`་དང་། j་oེན་hོ་Rེ་འདོད་དL་སོགས་རོགས་6ེད་ཁ་ཅིག་ནི་ཀོང་^ལ། དs་མཛད་
hོ་Rེ་མཁའ་›ིང་སོགས་འགའ་ཞིག་གཙང་Kོགས་H་འཐོན་`འི་ཟོལ་Œོར་Xི་བཀོད་པ་བXིས། མདའ་œར་ག;ང་0་མ་šེབ་Mི་བར་ཆབས་ཅིག་པར་འ1ོ་`འི་Gིས་Mིས་ས་6་‘་བ་
གཉིས་པའི་ཚ•ས་གཉིས་ལ་aམ་1ོལ་lིང་ནས་ཐོན། མདའ་œར་ག;ང་0་འ6ོར་ནས་ཚང་མ་ཀོང་^ལ་0་བདེ་ཐབས་བ”བ་པའི་Kིར་འ1ོ་དགོས་mལ་ལབ། gག་དཀར་I་u། gག་
གHམ། ཞོ་དཀར་ནག་སོགས་6ང་ཀོང་Kོགས་Mི་རིམ་1ོ་aམས་ལེགས་པར་བ”བས་ཏེ་s་uར་འ6ོར། གར་དབང་ཚ•་དཔག་མེད་žངས་མ་བŸད་འ~ེན་Xི་Yོ་ནས་རབ་p་གནས་པ་
eས་པར་བXིས་ཤིང་། ཇོ་བོར་བoན་བ;གས་ ལ། སེར་„་མཆོག་¡ན་འ0ས་པའི་„ེ་བོ་•ི་cག་p་ཉེ་བར་ཆོས་དང་ཟང་ཟིང་གི་Œིན་པ་¢བས་པོ་ཆེ་དང་། རིགས་›ན་མའི་མཆོད་
པ་Hམ་Ÿ། གཞོན་£་བ0ན་མཆོད་ཉེར་གཅིག །ཇོ་བོར་[ོང་མཆོད། ཉིན་མཚན་ཁོར་^ག་ཞག་བŸའི་བར་`ན་ཆད་མེད་པ་སོགས་མཐའ་eས་H་བ”བས། (Sle lung
Having kept secret from all of our associates, companions, students, benefactors and so forth
[our intentions], I [made out]as if I was going to Lhasa, rDo rje ’dod dgu’s group, including
some helpers, [made out] as if going to towards Kong po, and the chant leader (dbu mdzad)
rDo rje mkha’ lding and his group as if going to gTsang. We set the plan that until reaching
mDa’ khur gzhung we journeyed together as one group. Therefore, we left rNam grol gling on
the second day of the second month of the Earth Bird Year [1729].

Once we arrived at mDa’ khur gzhung, I told everyone that we had to go to Kong po to bring
peace. Completing paying homage extensively at such places as Brag dkar, Lha chu, Brag
gsum, Zho dkar and dKar nag in Northern Kong po, we arrived at Bu chu. I performed an
extensive consecration with Lord Amitāyus, “Drawing Out the Pure Essence” practice. I
offered a ceremony requesting may Jowo the Lord Buddha, abide at this site. I poured forth
great waves of generosity of dharma teachings and various material goods to nearly ten
thousand individuals, consisting of both monks and laypeople both high and low, performing
thirty ḍākinī pujas, twenty one pujas to Nyi ma gzhon nu, and one thousand offerings to the
Jowo the Lord Buddha. Practicing day and night continuously for a total of ten days.

‰་སོར་ས་6་‘་བ་དང་པོའི་ཚ•ས་བŸ་བ0ན་Xི་£བ་གསང་Zང་ལ། པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་0་šེབས་ནས་Kི་lིང་གི་6ང་ཤར་Xི་གནས་Yོ་འ6ེད་དགོས་པར གHངས་པའི་མŠག་p། རི་བོ་ཚང་
ཚbང་འ•ིགས་པ་ཞིག །རོང་གHམ་དོག་མོས་གཤམ་ནས་བoེན། Iོ་་6ང་£བ་Mི་Yོ་གHམ་ལ། །gག་ནགས་dང་•་ཆོ་ལེ་བ། །མི་¤ེང་œས་འདེབས་ངང་པ་ནི། །u་ལ་}ས་6ེད་@་sའི་
mལ། །མཚJ་མོ་མ¥ྜ་ལ་Iམ་མཐིལ་འ~། ། ནག་རིང་ཞིག་ལ་བoགས་པ་ན། །འ1ོ་དོན་„ོང་བའི་oེན་འgེལ་ཡོད། །Zག་ནག་ར་ རོག་ཙb+ྡ་k་། ར་•ག་ཤ་གHར་o་དམར་Xི། ཤ་ཚbལ་
Œར་dོས་དང་བཅས་པ། །ཉེ་བར་བvོགས་ནས་དེ་x་མཆོད། །གནོད་Œིན་དམར་པོས་འcིན་ལས་བ”བ། །ཅེས་པ་དང་། (Sle lung 1983a:394.5-395.3)
Previously, on the seventeenth day of the first Earth Bird month at dusk, having received a
prophecy [that indicated] I would need to open the sacred secret door, an outer stage in the
north-east upon arriving at Pad+mo bkod and that there will be a 'Dense thicket mountain, that
is supported from below; three narrow gorges. Around the three doors of the North, South and
West, outstandingly there are; cliffs, forests, meadows, and crags. You will find swans bathing
in the water making a cacophony, sounding like a solitary wailing man. There will be a
maṇḍala lake shaped like the sole of a boot which will be long and dark. When you examine it
you will meet auspicious signs that you will be able to carry out beneficial works for sentient
beings. Prepare a mixed ingredient [offering] (spos) of; black sheep and goats, the five citta,
goat's blood and meat as well as red horse’s fatty meat and offer it at the site. Then the red
yakṣa will accomplish the (dharmapālas) activities!" and thus…

gག་གHམ་མཚJ་མགོར་ཡོད་0ས་ཉེ་—ོར་བ་aམས་Mིས་@ད་མོ་€་ཚJགས་བ[ན་པས་“ེན་6ས་གེ་སར་Xི་jའི་བཀོད་པ་གསལ་པོར་མཇལ་བའི་ཚ•། གHང་ལས། གེ་སར་ང་ཉིད་གནས་
པའི་ས། །དབེན་གནས་དམ་པའི་6ང་ཤར་མཚམས། །ཐང་ཡངས་མཚJ་དང་བཅས་པ་ནི། །དོག་མོའི་རོང་གིས་བoེན་པ་དེར། །gག་རི་པ+ྨ་¨ངས་པ་དང་། །བ0ད་འ0ལ་མཆོད་oེན་
ཉི་‘འི་fིམ། u་བོ་~ོད་›ན་¡ན་Xི་u། །འgས་s་འUང་བའི་¡ན་Xི་fིམ། །རིན་ཆེན་འདོད་དLའི་གཏེར་དང་བཅས། །མཆིས་པའི་གནས་མཆོག་ཉམས་དགའ་ཡོད། །sམ་གཏེར་
]་ཞིང་¡ོན་ལམ་ཐོབས། །ང་ཉིད་མཆོད་ཅིང་aམ་ཐར་ཉན། །ཉམས་Mང་གཏད་མེད་དེ་„ོངས། ཐབས་ཤེས་མཉམ་Œོར་དགའ་[ོན་Xི། བདེ་ཆེན་དག་Mང་Wན་Xིས་Œོར། །བསམ་
གཏན་ཁང་s་ƒང་0་ཐིང་། །oེན་འgེལ་|གས་Mིས་འ1ིག་པར་འ–ར། །ཞེས་པ་སོགས་6ང་ཤར་‘་བ་lིང་གི་གནས་Yོ་འ6ེད་པའི་ཐེམས་6ང་གསལ་པོར་གHང་། (Sle
lung 1983a:395.3-396.1)
When I was at the 'head' of lake Brag sum, because of people surrounding me displayed many
performances, I had a clear vision of the appearance of Ge sar's body. Then at the time he said;

“The place where, I Ge sar dwell, in the sacred hermitage of the north-east border, a
broad plain with a lake, which is supported by a narrow gorge. A rock mountain, Pad+ma
spungs Maradamaka stupa, ornamented with a sun and moon disc. Medicine water, the
warm river. A home which has the fruits of medicine, there will be a joyful sacred site,
which has, a treasure of wish fulfilling precious objects. At that site, hide a treasure vase
and offer your aspirations. Supplicate me and listen to my liberation story. Do a length
of practice on view without distractions. Also have a festival of the union pleasure
method. Everyone also should take part in the great bliss [method]. Focus should be
based as the foundation of the house. Auspicious situations will arise by its own force.”

Ge sar clearly gave a guided explanation of opening the holy place of Zla ba gling in the north

‘་བ་གHམ་པའི་ཚ•ས་གHམ་Xི་Zང་ལ། @ེ་བ་Vལ་པའི་འཁོར་ལོ་མཁའ་འ1ོ་]ས་པའི་ཚལ་0་མཁའ་འ1ོའི་‚་མཚJ་‚་gག་མ་©་གསེར་Xི་xས་]ལ། དབང་ཐང་གི་I་Hམ་བe་ªག་
Ÿ་དང་བཅས་པའི་གནས་ཡོད་པ་གནས་Yོ་གསར་0་ད6ེ་དགོས་mལ་དང་། ཚ•ས་kའི་Zང་ལ། 6ང་ཤར་གེ་སར་lིང་། །‘་བ་lིང་ཞེས་པའི། །oེན་འgེལ་Oིག་དགོས་པས། མ་མོ་
མཁའ་འ1ོ་ལ། །ཚJགས་དང་མེ་མཆོད་དང་། །གཟའ་ཆེན་བeད་Mི་མཚJ། །‡་ཆེན་བeད་Mི་མཚJ། །མ་ནིང་ནག་པོའི་མཚJ། །[ེང་དཔོན་མཆེད་kའི་མཚJ། །hོ་Rེ་ལེགས་པའི་མཚJ། །གོ་ར་
ནག་པོའི་མཚJ། །ག^་ཡི་Oོན་མའི་མཚJ། །དེ་དག་ད«ས་གཅིག་པར། །ཆོ་ལེར་གཏན་ལ་ཕོབས། (Sle lung 1983a:396.1-396.4)

According to the prophecy of the third day of the third month, the emanation wheel of the
navel, the hidden land of the ḍākinī’s soul lake and soul cliff known as the great Golden
Tortoise, as well as the charismatic power site of the three hundred and sixty deities.

In the prophecy of the 5th of the month, since one needs to create an auspicious situation of
northeast Ge sar gling and Zla ba gling, one should perform feast offerings and fire offerings
to the ḍākinīs as well as feast offerings to the following dharma protectors; the eight great gZa’
chen brgyad (Rāhula), Klu chen brgyad (the Eight Great Nāgas), the Black Ma ning nag po
(Mahākāla), sTeng dpon nched lnga (the above Five Sibling Chiefs), the rDo rje legs pa the
protector Go ra nag po and to g.Yu yi sgron ma. As instructed I performed all the rituals
elaborately in one go.

།དེ་ལ་གལ་ཆེ་བ། །ཤ་•ག་དམར་གཡོས་Mིས། །~ེགས་པ་vེ་བeད་བ¬ན། །ནང་མ་རེ་རེ་བཞིན། །གནམ་ལ་ ར་དL་དང་། །ས་ལ་འ-ལ་དL་དང་། །བར་ལ་འ1ིམ་དL་ཡི། །གyགས་
རེ་བཤམ་པ་དང་། །ཉེ་བར་མི་སོ་སོའི། །~ི་མ་ཅི་འཛJམ་tན། །¡ན་རཀ་ ར་མ་ཡི། །Qམ་s་dོས་0ད་བཅས། །བསངས་H་]ར་ཏེ་བཤམ། །0ད་པའི་མཆོད་པ་པ་6། །^ལ་བདག་I་‡་
ལ། །བ‰ོ་བ་ནན་Xིས་6། (Sle lung 1983a:396.4-396.6)
In respect to that knead red flesh and blood to pay off the eight haughty ones (lha srin sde
brgyad) with red meat and blood as their provisions, each morning. Mould the nine types of
creatures, the nine that fly, the nine that burrow in the earth, and the nine that stay on the earth.
Then, summon whatever smells you can for each individual person, and incense made from
sman rak (medicinal herb) and burn as bsang, make smoke offerings and persistently dedicate
to the local deities, gods and nāgas.
།མདོག་དམར་བ་དན་ལ། །]ས་གནས་བ1ོད་š་བའི། །མན་ངག་བŸ་གHམ་པའི། །ནང་ཚན་འདོད་གསོལ་gིས། །རི་མཐོ་ས་གཉན་ས། །གང་Uང་Wན་p་mགས། །ཆད་མཐོ༼ཐོ ༽་
གཏན་0་བOག །zང་gོ་°་གཞས་6། །±ཾ་ཕཊ་´ོ་གHམ་Oོག །བ|ག་°་lིང་sའི་O། །ཟི་དིར་ཆད་མེད་6། (Sle lung 1983a:396.6-397.2)
On a red flag, write the set petition prayers which are part of the thirteen oral instructions about
easy passage to go to this hidden land. In the high mountains where there are gNyen spirits,
you can settle wherever you wish. Perpetually proclaim, recite, dance and sing, call out the
three (syllables) of Hum, Phat and Bhyo and uninterruptedly make the sound of the flute. Let
these sounds reverberate unceasingly.

།ཨོ་eན་‚་མ་ནི། །Tི་བོའི་གµག་p་Yོམས། །ལས་6ེད་ཙb་དམར་པ། །གཡས་གཡོན་¶ལ་བར་Yོམས། །མཁའ་འ1ོ་¨ན་གཉིས་སོགས། མ་མོ་~ེགས་པའི་ཚJགས། །€་འ~ེན་6ེད་པར་
Yོམས། (Sle lung 1983a:397.2)
Constantly visualise that Padmasambhava is at the crown of (your) head, visualise that
protector is always wandering around you, two ḍākinīs sisters etc, as well as an assembly of
haughty mātarī. Visualise yourself leading the procession.

།ངེས་པར་འmབ་ཆེ་0ས། །‰གས་wོད་ལོ·¸ི་ཡི། །བ„ེད་རིམ་›ན་པ་དང་། །བ”བ་པ་ཁ་གསོས་ཏེ། །འཕང་དང་བ•ེག་པ་6། །བ¹ང་བ་‘ོག་ལས་དེ་ཡང་། །དགོས་0ས་6་བ་
ཡིན། །རེས་འགའ་ºཀ་Qབ་p། །རང་ཉིད་གསལ་བ་ཡི། །ཆོས་གོས་1་ཐམས་ཅད། །རིགས་གHམ་མགོན་པོ་ཡིས། །གཏམས་པས་Yོ་གHམ་Xི། །འགལ་“ེན་མ་Zས་པ། །སེལ་བར་ཡིད་
Mིས་བསམ། །འ»་གHམ་oེན་¼ིང་དང་། སོ་སོའི་¼ིང་པོ་བ1ང་། །ས་u་མེ་½ང་གི །འUང་‰གས་•ས་སོ་སོར། །བཏབ་པས་དེ་དང་དེའི། །ཚ་1ང་ཆོ་འEལ་aམས། །ཞི་བར་བསམ་པ་
ཡང་། །ངེས་པར་གལ་ཆེའོ། །ཞེས་པ་སོགས་ཡང་6ང་གི་ཐེམས་ཤིན་p་གསལ་བར་Uང་བར་བoེན། (Sle lung 1983a:397.2-397.5)
When it is stormy and tough, one must do the lok+t+ri mantra along with the visualisation and
accomplishment, supplementing the practice, casting away, burning, protecting, and repulsing
activities can also be used when needed. Sometimes you can visualise seeing yourself as
Śākyamuni Buddha [with all the] all dharma robes and hairstyle etc [You become] immersed
by the Lords of the three families and all unfavourable signs of the body speech and mind

without exception are cleared. Recite the three syllables OM A HUM and The Quintessence of
Dependent Relationship mantra (Pratītyasamutpādahṛdaya). Through having offered
substantial mantra [recitation] (there is) the arising of earth, water, fire and wind [to] each and
every one of the elements’ miraculous powers, imagine that all the elements and their powers
are pacified. Visualising this is certainly also important” Since you find very clearly in the
introduction guide

ས་གནད་Mི་བབས་སོགས་`ས་ཅན་aམས་ལ་ཡང་~ིས་ཤིང་བoགས་པར་Kི་lིང་གི་6ང་ཤར་ནི། གསང་གནས་བདེ་„ོང་གི་འཁོར་ལོ་ནས་བ`ད་དེ། 1་^ལ་ཧོར་ཁ་སོགས་\ོ་ནག་
དsས་H་མི་འཁོར་བར་ཡིད་ཐག་ཆོད། (Sle lung 1983a:397.6-398.2)
When I asked people who had knowledge of the landscape of the place and carried out an
investigation on the northeast of the outer sites. I realised going through the secret cakra
passing the centre of Gra yul hor kha and so on, of Klo nag then one will reach close to Mon
rdza yul. As it was a long distance and hard to traverse and so on, I realised certainly I would
not return to my place (dbus) until the fourth month of the Year of the Dog [1730]

གནས་H་འ1ོ་¿ོང་aམས་Mིས། འs་tང་གི་འཇིགས་པ་བ¹ང་Kིར་དོར་མ་དང་À་པ་སོགས་དགོས་mལ་ཟེར་བ་བཞིན། མངོན་uང་གི་ཉེར་བvོགས་བXིས། (Sle lung
I was told by the people who had been to Pad+mo bkod that we needed [appropriate] trousers
and chuba in order to protect ourselves from the danger of insects and invertebrates, so I
prepared them unnoticeably.

རེ་ཞིག་གི་བར་e་ལ་སེང་གཏམ་ནས་ཡར་›ོག་`འི་ཆ་དེ་ཁ་བXིས་ཏེ་ཐོན། རི་བོ་གནམ་•གས་འབར་བ་ཞེས་པ་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་Mི་£བ་Yོ་¹ང་དམ་ཅན་„ེས་s་ཆེན་པོའི་ཕོ་gང་མཁའ་
འ1ོའི་འ0་གནས་fད་པར་ཅན་དེའི་འ1མ་0་hོ་Rེ་ལེགས་པར་གསོལ་ཁ་ཆེན་མོའི་བཤོས་s་མཁར་ཐབས་eས་པ་དང་བཅས་པ་དང་། ར་ནག་འcལ་0་བOལ་བའི་དམར་
མཆོད། བeགས་བ¬ན། བསངས་Mི་མཆོད་པ་སོགས་བ”བ་དགོས་mལ་ཐེམས་6ང་0་གསལ་@ར་ཆད་མེད་0་བ”བས། དེར་ཡོད་ཐོག་མཆེད་1ོགས་gན་དང་བཅས་པ་aམས་ལ་
པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་0་འ1ོ་དགོས་པའི་`་“ེན་འgས་s་དང་བཅས་པ་ཞིབ་ཆར་བཤད་དེ་གསང་བoོལ། ཚང་མ་‚ོ་བག་•ོ་Kིར་གནས་ནང་0་Áག་ཙམ་བ„ོད་པ་ལས་ཆེར་མི་ཐོགས་པའི་
ཆད་6ས། e་ལར་འ6ོར་ནས་དགོངས་པ་ཡང་ཟབ་Mི་±ཾ་”བ་དང་། ལོ·¸ི་ཡིའི་མནན་•ེག་སོགས་མཐའ་eས་H་6ས། (Sle lung 1983a:398.2 -398.5)
For the time being, we left planning to come back from rGya la seng gtam. The mountain
known as gNam lcags 'bar ba, the western gate of Pad+mo bkod, which is the palace of the
great oath bound protector (rDo rje legs pa), also a special site where ḍākinīs gather. Near the
point I made a great petition with elaborate offerings to rDo rje legs pa with a red offering
(dmar mchod) of an immediately liberated black goat, brgyags brngan offering to the
protectors, smoke offerings (bsangs mchod) and so on inclusively according to the instruction

I let the secret out by telling in detail to close friends, attendants on top of my companions
about the cause and reasons and what the fruition will be so they would relax and be accepting.
I mentioned as if we needed to just enter into the sacred site and which would not take a very
long time. Once we had reached rGya la we performed many rituals including fully finished
Hum sādhanā of dGongs pa yang zab, a sādhanā of Lo Tri Vajrapāṇi subduing practice and
burning practice.

ཐེམས་6ང་0། ལམ་་€་འ~ེན་མི་s་མོ་nེ•་ལོ་མ་ཞིག་གིས་གནོད་Œིན་ཆེན་པོའི་oེན་མ0ང་fེར་ཏེ་འ1ོ་དགོས་པ་དང་། „ེས་པ་ཞིག་ལ་བཙན་wོད་0་མིང་བཏགས་ནས་འ•ིད་
དགོས་mལ་Uང་བར་ འོ་ཐང་ནས་རིགས་›ན་མ་བདེ་ཆེན་ཉི་མ་lོ་sར་0་Uང་nེ•་ལོ་མར་འ0ག་པ་€་འ~ེན་Xི་1ོགས་དང་། འོར་ཤོད་ནས་སངས་eས་lིང་པའི་ག0ང་བ`ད་
དབོན་པོ་Wན་བཟང་ལ་བཙན་wོད་0་མིང་བཏགས་ནས་འཐོན་`ར་6ས། (Sle lung 1983a:398.6 -399.3)
As the instruction guide has mentioned, one of the females leading the path who was born in
the Year of the Monkey, had to carry a support lance of a great yakṣa. Also, a male must be

named as bTsan rgod and set together. At ‘O thang there suddenly appeared bDe chen Nyi
ma who possessed special qualities and was born in the Monkey Year. Therefore, she would
be able to lead the path for the fellow companions. At ‘Or shod we decided to name bTsan
rgod Kun bzang, who was descended from Sangs rgyas gling pa and set off.
‰ར་ཧཾ་Zང་0་ཡོད་པའི་མི་1ངས་Mི་[ེང་0་•ོགས་ཆེན་Vལ་པའི་jའི་ཞལ་šོབ་རས་པ་Wན་བཟང་བདེ་ཆེན་མཆེད་1ོགས་གHམ། Âབ་ཆེན་སངས་eས་Ãན་Âབ། aམ་
དག །རིགས་›ན་མ་པ+ྨ་རོལ་མཚJ་དཔོན་གཡོག །མ་ཆེན་hོ་Rེ་Ãན་པོ་སོགས་འ1ོ་བར་ཐག་བཅད། (Sle lung 1983a:399.3-399.4)
In addition to the number of people already in haM lung there were a number of people
including; rDzogs chen sprul sku’s student Ras pa kun bzang bde chen and his two relatives,
[there was also] Grub chen sangs rgyas lhun grub, Nam dak, Rigs ldan ma pad+ma rol mtsho
with her attendants and [finally] the cook rDo rje lhun po who had all resolved to go.

‰ར་གསང་Zང་0་གHངས་པའི་ཆ་6ད། Ä་Kི་Åར་Æིག །ནང་དམར་པོ། Yོམ་ཐག །Yོམ་zེད། ¡ད་གཡོགས་དང་རས་གཟན་དཀར་པོ། zང་lིང་སོགས་བÇལ་;གས་Mི་ཆ་6ད་
aམས་དང་། ལམ་ཐོག་p་ཟོར་ཡང་ཞིང་ཆར་ཚད་Mི་འཇིགས་པ་སེལ་Kིར་རས་གོས་“ང་པར་བoེན་པའི་གོས་Mི་6ེ་gག་སོགས་1་བOིགས། (Sle lung
Previously, in the secret prophecy it described the accoutrements [one should take including];
a hat, saffron-coloured on the outside, and red on the inside, a meditation robe and meditation
belt [tied around] around the waist. The lower garment shawl and white cotton upper garment.
Necessary for the tantric deportment such as a thigh-bone trumpet etc, including all the
accoutrements. In order to have less weight to carry and also prevent from the rain we prepared
only material clothing.

འཐོན་ཁར་ཉེ་བ་ནག་‘འི་ཚ•ས་བཅོ་kའི་£བ་¡ན་བµན་ཆེན་མོ་Tན་འ~ེན་དགོས་mལ་Zང་0་གསལ་བ་བཞིན། hོ་Rེ་„བས་6ེད་ལ་¡ན་བµན་ཆེན་མོ་Tན་~ངས་པར། Mེ་ང་ནི་
šོབ་དཔོན་ཆེན་པོ་པ+ྨས་རིག་པ་འཛbན་པ་fོད་Mི་གནས་Yོ་་འ6ེད་པའི་1ོགས་H་ཆེད་0་མངགས་ནས་གཏང་བ་ཡིན་པས། cིན་ལས་བ”བ་པ་ལ་—ད་ཅིག་Mང་གཡེལ་བ་མི་6ེད།
ངོ་གཡོག་ཚང་མ་šར་རང་གནས་H་བདེ་བར་šེབས་ནས་གཏང་རག་འདོད་པར་6ེད་དོ་ཞེས་པ་དང་། oེན་དེ་ཉིད་ལ་ཞིང་„ོང་མ་ཉི་མ་Èན་སེལ་ཕེབས་ནས་gན་གཡོག་aམས་ལ་
ངེད་Mི་ངག་བཀོད་དང་མQན་པ་དང་། དམ་ཚbག་ལ་ངོ་Éོག་མེད་པ་དགོས་mལ་སོགས་ཞིབ་eས་H་གHང་། (Sle lung 1983a:399.5-400.2)
Just as we were leaving, on the evening of the 15th, a full moon of the 3rd Tibetan month in
the prophecy it clearly mentioned that I should need to invoke sMan btsun chen mo. When I
invoked sMan btsun chen into rDo rje skyabs byed. sMan btsun chen mo said;

“O! Since I was sent alone to accompany you the Tantric Knowledge Holder to assist
opening the sacred sites by the Great Accomplished Master, Padmasambhava. Therefore,
I will not waver even a moment in carrying out your enlightened activities. I would offer
a gesture of gratitude when yourself and companions have returned to your place safely
again”. To the same medium the Land Protector Nyi ma mun sel manifested and told to
all the remaining companions “[to] follow as my [Sle lung’s] instructions,” also in depth
“not to break samaya.”

;ས་སོང་བས། „ོན་མེད། šར་ཟངས་མདོག་དཔལ་རིར་ངོས་cད་6ས་ཆོག་པ་6ེད་དོ། །ཞེས་གHངས་སོང་བས། རང་ཡང་ཇི་འ~་ཡོང་¼མ་པ་Uང་ཡང་། šར་བསམས་ཚ•་ཇི་@ར་
གHངས་པ་@ར་དོན་ལ་གནས་པ་Uང་ངོ་། (Sle lung 1983a:400.2-400.4)
We came on foot from gNam lcags 'bar ba up to rGya la. At that point, one secretary informed
an oracle that he was scared of being not able to bear the blisters that had developed on his feet

and felt he could not walk any further. The oracle said; “No need to worry, we will meet face
to face again when you reach The Glorious Copper-Coloured Mountain (Zangs mdog dpal ri).”

As a result, I also doubted how it was going to be, [however] when I reflect back it had
happened exactly as the oracle said.

ཉེར་ད…ད་དང་འཚJ་ཆས་སོགས་ཁལ་རིགས་མ་ཐར་བས་ཆབ་ནག །eལ་—ོར། དེ་མོ་གHམ་Xི་མི་སེར་Xི་ཐོག་ནས་ཆས་བ„ེལ་བ་བe་Hམ་Ÿར་ཉེ་བ་རོགས་H་བོས། (Sle
lung 1983a:400.4-400.5)
Since we could not have pack animals to carry all the necessities and provisions, we had to call
one hundred and thirty helpers from the three places of Chab nag, rGyal skor, and De mo to
carry our necessities and provisions.

དེ་དག་དང་Kོགས་འ0ས་Mི་གནས་མཇལ་བ་སོགས་„ེ་བོའི་འ0་ལོང་ཆེན་པོར་e་ལ་vེ་པས་`་Œར་ཏེ་•ོམ་དབང་བjར། མཐོང་1ོལ་j་oེན། ¿ོང་1ོལ་དམ་•ས། ཐོས་1ོལ་
བཏགས་1ོལ་Xི་`ད་བ\གས་པ་སོགས་ཆོས་Œིན་དང༌། •ོམ་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་ཚJགས་འཁོར་Xི་—ལ་བས་ཚbམ་པ་སོགས་བÊ་ཤིས་ལ་ཡིད་nོ་བ་Uང༌། ཚ•ས་བŸ་བ0ན་Xི་རེས་གཟའ་
dེན་པ་དར་བའི་ཉི་ཤར་ལ་བབས་པ་ན། བདེ་ཆེན་ཉི་མ་དང་བཙན་wོད་Mིས་€་~ངས་ངེད་ཅག་མཆེད་•མ་ཐམས་ཅད་[བས་གཅིག་p་ཐོན། (Sle lung
I gave an empowerment to a large gathering of people who had come from different places for
pilgrimage as well as those carrier helpers. [This was] was sponsored by the chieftain of rGya
la I also gave the gift of the Dharma and the blessings of; liberation through seeing objects,
liberation through experience of holy substances, also I gave the oral transmission of liberation
upon hearing and through wearing texts. As we threw a large feast offering where everyone
had their own share we had an auspicious and joyful day. On 17th, a Saturday morning, just as
the day was dawning, myself and all the dharma brothers and sisters set off lead by bDe chen
nyi ma and bTsan rgod.

Yོ་ནས་ཐོན་མ་ཐག་ངེད་Mིས། དLང་‰ོན་མཐོན་པོའི་[ེང་ན། །འཇའ་ཚJན་འོད་kར་འfིལ་བ།།མ་བཞེངས་Ãན་Xིས་Âབ་པའི། །ཕོ་gང་ཆེན་པོར་བ;གས་པ། །ཕ་གཅིག་ཨོ་eན་
ཆེན་པོ། །Œོར་^མ་མཁའ་འ1ོར་བཅས་པས། །འདིར་ཚJགས་—ལ་›ན་ཕོ་མོར། །མཆོག་Qན་དངོས་Âབ་Ëོལ་ཅིག །ཤར་Kོགས་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་པ། །དག་པ་མཁའ་Tོད་གཉིས་པར། །ཕ་
^ལ་eབ་p་བÌར་བའི། །aལ་འ6ོར་ཆགས་མེད་ཞེན་མེད། །‚་མ་མཁའ་འ1ོའི་བšབ་6། །གཏན་ལ་འབེབས་པར་ཆས་འ1ོ། །འདིར་བ;གས་ཡོན་Œོར་ཐམས་ཅད། j་ཁམས་བཟང་
བ་གནང་;།།ང་ཅག་hོ་Rེའི་¨ན་1ོགས། །‚ོ་དེ་G་གHམ་I་ལ། །ཁ་ཞེ་མེད་པར་གཏད་ནས། །ཉམས་དགའི་ངང་0་ཆས་འ1ོ །ན་དགའ་ཤི་„ིད་ཡིན་པས། །རེ་དོགས་གང་ཡང་མི་
འ0ག །‚་མ་དཔོན་པོའི་དགོས་པ། །L་དོག་„བས་H་རེ་བ། །གཉེན་1ོགས་དགོན་པའི་འཆིང་ཐག །འདི་Kི་གཉིས་ཀའི་Oོག་མ0ད། །aལ་འ6ོར་ང་ཚJར་མེད་པས། །གང་དགའ་གང་
„ིད་ཡིན་ནོ། །ལོག་`་Uང་Mང་„ིད་པར། ལམ་ཁར་ཤི་ཡང་དགའ་བ། །vོད་Mང་ཆགས་`་མི་འ0ག །Kིན་Mང་ཞེན་`་མི་འ0ག །ང་ཚJར་འ1ན་འདོད་ཡོད་ན། །འདི་འ~་6ས་
ནས་ཕེབས་ཤོག །ཡང་གཅིག་ཞལ་བཟང་མཇལ་བའི། །¡ོན་ལམ་ཙམ་ནི་;འོ། །ཞེས་པ་སོགས་Uང་eལ་Xི་°་དང་gོ་བÍངས་6ས། །ཛg་ད6ངས་ཧཾ་ཕཌ་´ོ་གHམ་Xི་O། བ|ག་
°། lིང་s། འཁོར་¬། Ï་མ་xའི་O་སོགས་Mི་ཟི་དིར་དང་། རིག་པ་བÇལ་;གས་Mི་མཆོང་`ག །@་[ངས་དང་བཅས་འཐོན། (Sle lung 1983a:401.1-
As we departed from the door, I spontaneously sung;
“On top of the lofty blue sky there is a five coloured rainbow swirling,
[There] spontaneously manifests a palace not built by humans, who sits in the great palace,?
The only father Great O rgyen master with consort ḍākinīs.
May you bless with the supreme and common siddhis to the here gathered fortunate male and
East of Lhasa the land of Pad+mo bkod, in the second heavenly realm of Khechara,
One who has left his homeland behind, a yogi who has renounced attachment and desire,
I am going ahead to discover the sites as the advice of the bla mas and ḍākinīs.
All the patrons from here, keep up with your good health.

Us vajra brothers and sisters, our hearts sincerely entrust towards the deities of the three roots.
We will take the journey with joy, whatever happens such as illness, death, or happiness we do
not hold any hope or fear,
Being a bla ma or leader, having a narrow mind as well as relatives, friends and monasteries
are shackles, a rope that knots for this and future lives,
Which we yogis and yoginis do not possess, therefore whatever we face we are happy with it
If we are able to return we would be happy, if we die on the journey we are also happy
Staying behind there is nothing to attach to.
If I die there is nothing to hold on to.
If you want to challenge us, come along as we are.
At the very least I will pray to see your good face once again”
I sang and danced whatever came to mind. The three sounds of Hung, Bhyo, Phat mantras
whistling tune, flute, gong and damaru, made the atmosphere very vibrant…

དེ་ཉིན་ངེད་aམས་Mི་Rེས་དེར་དགའ་ཆགས་Mི་vེ་པ་I་དབང་aམ་eལ་དཔོན་གཡོག་དང་། གནས་མཇལ་བ་ཡང་མང་ཙམ་ཡོད། @ད་མོ་བ@་བའི་sད་མེད་wན་གཞོན་0་མ་
དང་། སེར་„་གཞན་དག་Mང་འགའ་ཞིག་ནི་ཡིད་འ•ེན་པས་Å་ཞིང་—ད་ངན་འ6ིན། འགའ་ཞིག་ནི་ཡིད་¡ོན་6ེད། འgལ་མི་ཕོད་པ་ཙམ་Xི་Rེས་H་འgང་ཞིང་། ངོ་གནག་པར་
དོ། e་ལའི་དགོན་པ་མཐོང་མི་མཐོང་གིས་མཚམས་དེར་zང་lིང་0ས་གཅིག་p་sས། གསེར་„ེམས་བ‰ོས་0ས་hོ་Rེ་„བས་6ེད་ལ་¡ན་བµན་ཆེན་མོ། I་གཅིག་j་མཆེད། hོ་Rེ་
འདོད་དLར་འོད་›ན་དཀར་པོ་བཅས་ཕེབས་དXེས་ཉམས་མཛད། གསང་Zང་གི་དོན་བཞིན་དེ་ནས་བyང་གནས་Mི་རིང་j་oེན་ཕོ་མོ་གཉིས་ལ་བསེ་j་བ་དང་། ག^་Oོན་མར་
མིང་བཏགས། (Sle lung 1983a:402.2-402.6)
On that day, we were followed by many people including the chieftain Lha dbang rnam gyal
the leader, his entourage, as well as some more pilgrims. Some of the women, the old and
young, and also some other lay and monks were wailing because of their emotions. Some were
admiring and followed as if unable to be separated from us taking it very seriously. When we
were at a point that we could almost see rGya la monastery we blew our thigh bone trumpets
at one time. When we were offering golden libations, rDo rje skyabs byed received sMan btsun
chen mo and Lha gcig sku mched, rDo rje ’dod dgur received ’Od ldan dkar po and showed
joyful expressions. As in the prophecy from this point during the pilgrimage both the male and
female mediums were given the name bSe kuwa and g.Yu sgron ma.

ངེད་ནས་རས་པའི་ཆས་hོག་བདེ་བདེ་འ~་བར་šོབ་དཔོན་ཆེན་པོས་6ང་Kོགས་~ག་པོ་བཀོད་uང་0་ཟབ་གཏེར་0་]་བར་མཛད་པའི་hོའི་Kག་ ར་སོགས་ཉེར་མཁོའི་དམ་•ས་
ཡོ་6ད་Mིས་གཏམས་པའི་•ེས་པོ་†ིད་མི་uང་བ་ཞིག་དང་། zང་lིང་œར། u་ཤིང་གི་འཁར་བ་ལག་p་ཐོགས། (Sle lung 1983a:402.6-403.1)
I was in suitable and comfortable cotton clothes and a reasonably heavy pack filled with a
profound treasure stone phur ba, which was hidden in northern Drag po bkod chung by Guru
Rinpoche and indispensable requisites [such as] sacramental substances and carrying a wooden
staff and a thigh bone trumpet.

གཞན་aམས་ནས། ལ་ལ་Âབ་ཆས། ཕལ་ཆེར་དོར་མ་དང་། À་པ་Qང་བ་རེ་Xོན་པའི་བདེ་ཆས། པད་རག་གི་མདངས་འཛbན་པའི་Ä། རང་རང་གི་ཆར་ཁེབས་དང་། •ེས་པོ་uང་Å་
རེ་བཅས་འཐོན་པ་ཡིན། (Sle lung 1983a:403.1-403.2)
The others, some of whom wore siddha attire, [although] the majority were wearing
comfortable and suitable clothing such as; trousers and short chupas, ruby coloured red hats,
with a small pack and rain cloak, then we set off.

དོམ་འcང་Yངས་H་མ་šེབས་Mི་བར། zང་gོ། °་གཞས། Ðད་དང་བÑོ་O། མLར་ད6ངས། གསོལ་འདེབས། རོལ་མོའི་O་སོགས་`ན་མི་ཆད་Mི་ངང་ནས་རིག་པའི་|གས་ཤིན་p་
ཆེ་བ་€ང་བ་གཏད་མེད་0་འ6མས་པས་Xེན་འཛ•གས་པ་མི་ཚJར་བ་Uང་། (Sle lung 1983a:403.1-403.4)

Until we reached up on the narrow gorge, we danced a jig, sung, called loudly and [made the]
sound of So, sang spiritual songs, made supplication prayers, and made instrumental sounds
unceasingly, as a result our realisation was so clear and strong so we experienced the view
without distractions and therefore we didn't feel we were negotiating a steep incline.

lང་Gེའི་Yངས་ནས་Ÿང་ཟད་Qར་0་Kིན་པའི་༼པས༽་གཤིན་Rེའི་མོ་༼མི༽་གཏོང་gག་œང་ཁ་Iོར་བ@ས་པ་འ0ག་པས། དེར་གསེར་„ེམས་དང་ཆད་མཐོ༼་ཐོ༽་བOགས། བདེན་ཚbག་
བRོད། (Sle lung 1983a:403.4-403.5)
From the top of gLang rtse, as we went downhill for a while, Lord Yamāntaka was looking
South from the cave and not letting us pass. So we made golden libation offerings, announced
the samaya agreement and uttered prayers of truth.

hོ་Rེ་རིན་ཆེན་ནས་དགའ་འfིལ་དང་། hོ་Rེ་མཁའ་›ིང་གིས་gག་ལོགས་དེར་ག^ང་ªང་ཞིག་མཐོང་བ་བ[ན་Uང་བ་ཤིན་p་གསལ་བར་€ང་། དེ་ནས་ཡར་འཛ•གས་ཏེ། (Sle
lung 1983a:403.5)
rDo rje Rin chen had a vision of a whorl bliss gakyil and rDo rje mKha’ lding saw a swastika
across on the cliff which Yamāntaka had caused to appear. We then ascended upward [since
we had Yamāntaka’s permission]

བེ་དོ་དང༌། གསོ་མ་དང༌། ཇ་zང་དཀར་མོ་དང༌། ཀོང་6་རིགས་གཉིས་སོགས་Mི་ནགས་ཚལ་བ`ད་དེ་Kིན་1ོ་མའི་རིགས་ཀོ་ལམ་ཞེས་པ་ཡང་ཡོད། (Sle lung
[We then ascended upward] and passed through the forests [named] Be do, gSo ma, Kong bya
rigs gnyis. Also there was a wild sweet potato called Ko Lam as well.

1ོ་མ་འདི་གནས་ནང་0་བཟའ་ཤིན་p་ཆེ་ཞིང་། ]ོམ་c་ལག་ངར་ཙམ་དང་། གཡོས་H་བXིས་ན་Qག་པ་དང་œར་བ་སོགས་བཟོ་བpབ་པ་€ང་། རི་དེའི་འདབས་གཙང་འ1མ་
0། 1ོང་མ•ིས་པ་ཞེས་པ་ཞིག་ན་རི་དེ•་ཞིག་གི་འ•ིས་H་རིག་འཛbན་རÒྣ་lིང་པས་ས་གནད་གསོ་ཐབས་H་བGིགས་པའི་I་ཁང་། Kིས་རིག་འཛbན་€་ཚJགས་རང་1ོལ་Xིས་ཞིག་
གསོ་མཛད་0ས་wོད་ཚང་ནས་Kག་ནས་གཏོར་བས་ཚ་ཁད་Mི་ས་དེར་Kག་ནས་དངོས་H་བབས་པར་1གས་པའང་ཡོད། རི་དེ•་དེ་\ོ་མི་fིམ་བ0ན་པ་ཞེས་6་བ་མལ་1ོ་གཟི་ཅན་
དLན་ཁ་བ;གས་ས་ཡིན་པར་1གས། (Sle lung 1983a:403.6-404.3)
These wild sweet potatoes are highly edible foods in the hidden land and about the thickness
of ones’ forearm. You could cook them and make thugpa and soup etc. There is a village called
mKhris pa by the river at the foothill. There was a small hill where Rig 'dzin Rat+na gling pa
(1403-1479) built a temple as a measure to revive the vitality of the place. Later, when sNa
tshogs rang grol (b.1608) was renovating it there is a widely believed account that when he
was doing this he blessed all the way from rGod tshang with barley grains and some
miraculously appeared on the temple side. It is [also] widely believed that this small hillock
called Klo mi khyim bdun pa is the winter residence of Mal dro zi chen.

དེའི་ཐད་Mི་ཆབ་ནག་•ིབས་Mི་Kོགས་H་Hམ་tག་དང་nོ་Zང་ཞེས་པའི་1ོང་e་ལ་vེ་པའི་མངའ་ཞབས་ཁ་ཅིག་Mང་ཡོད། (Sle lung 1983a:404.3-404.4)
Directly opposite that hillock on the shaded side of Chab nag monastery, there are the places
called Sum sbrag and Spro lung. These villages are under the administration of the rGya la
district chieftain

མ•ིས་པའི་1ོང་གི་གཤམ་མས་yར་Xི་རི་ལོགས་ན། རིག་འཛbན་འཇའ་ཚJན་པས་hོ་Rེ་1ོ་ལོད་ཤོག་སེར་ནས་ཕབ་པའི་L་xའི་གཟིམས་ ག་འཇིགས་H་xང་བ་ཡོད། (Sle
lung 1983a:404.3-404.4)

On the mountainside, the bottom corner of the village mKhris pa, there is a fearsome resting
cave, the residence of Guru Rinpoche, that was formed when ’Ja’ tshon snying po invoked and
called on rDo rje gro lod to reside there.

འདིའི་ཐད་0་གཙང་པོ་6ང་ཤར་Xི་Kོགས་H་འ1ོ། ཆེ་uང་ནི་hོ་eང་གིས་šེབས་པའི་ཚJད་ལས་མེད་ (Sle lung 1983a:404.4)
Opposite this cave a river flows northeast, the width no wider than a stones’ throw.

འདིའི་ཐད་Mི་ཆབ་ནག་ན་I་བསོད་ནམས་eལ་པོའམ། fི་ཚ་¨ན་དLར་1གས་པའི་ཕོ་gང་གི་གངས་རི་དང་། Kག་ན་hོ་Rེའི་གསང་ཆབ་p་1གས་པའི་u་ཚJན་~ི་མ་ཤིན་p་Ìག་
gོ་བ་ཡོད། དེ་ནས་འcེད་ལ་མར་Kིན་པ་ན་È་ཟི་ལ་མཁར་བ0ད་དོང་འཇིགས་H་xང་བ་ཡོད ། (Sle lung:1983a:404.4-404.6)
Opposite Chab nag there is a snow-covered mountain palace which is the palace of this deity,
bSod nams rgyal po also known as Khyi tsha spun dgur [where] there is widely believed to be
the most disgusting water stains of Vajrapāṇi’s urine. From there, if you went and traversed
across, there is a terrifying demon pit known as the castle of sulphur

འདིའི་ཐད་Mི་ཉིན་Kོགས་ལ་gག་གཡང་ནག་པོ་Yོ་¹ང་lང་རི་འཇོག་པོ་ཞེས་པ་གནས་པ་ཞིག་ཡོད་པ་གནས་ཡིག་ནས་གHངས་པའི་•གས་Yོ་ཞེས་པ་དེ་ཡིན་པར་འ0ག །gག་རི་
དེའི་ད6ིབས་u་•ིན་•ོས་པ་འ~་བ་ཡོད། (Sle lung 1983a:404.6-405.1)
Opposite the sunlit side, there is a dark coloured cliff, known as the gate keeper gLang ri ’Jog
po, who resides there. It must be the iron gate mentioned in the guide book and the shape of
the cliff appears like an enraged Makara157

དེ་ནས་Qར་ཞིག་བབས་པ་ན་\ོའི་1ོང་uང་zང་k་དབང་ཞེས་པ་ཡོད། ཡར་eབ་གཙང་པོ་དང་། སེང་གཏམ་Xི་u་འcད་ས་ཡིན། སི་དོ་བོ་¨ན་གHམ་ཞེས་པ་‰ར་Xི་གནས་ཡིག་
¼ིང་༼ ¾ིང ༽་པ་aམས་ནས། (Sle lung 1983a:405.1-405.2)
When we descended from the hill there was a small village of Klo called rKang lnag dbang.
There is the confluence of the Yar gyab river and the river of Seng Tam and this place was
called Si do bo spun gsum in the ancient guide book.

གནས་ལ་འ1ོ་ཁར་དེར་ཇོ་དར་དམར་པོ་འ-གས་དགོས་པར་གHངས་པ་དེ་དང་། (Sle lung 1983a:405.2)
In [the guide book] it says when you are about to leave on pilgrimage one must hang red prayer
flags [in Si do bo spun gsum].

e་ལ་Gེ་Íམ་Xི་Kོགས་བཞིར་L་xའི་གཟིམས་ ག་རེ་ཡོད་པའི་£བ་‘་གམ་དབང་གི་ ག་པ་དེ་ཡང་ཞིང་གི་དMིལ་0་ཡོད། (Sle lung 1983a:405.2-405.3)
In the four directions of the Gya la rtse rdum, there are four of Guru Rinpoche’s resting caves.
The western cave is [called] Zla gam dbang gi phug pa, that cave is in the centre of the land.

དེའི་ཐད་Mི་རིའི་Yང་དེར་Kག་འཚལ་Yང་ཞེས་པ་དེར་I་བསངས་དང་བoན་གསོལ་བཏང་། པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་Mི་I་‡་གཞི་བདག་མཁའ་འ1ོ་aམས་ལ་ཆེད་༼་ཆེ༽མཐོ་བOགས་པས་དེ་མ་
ཐག་ཆར་ཟིམ་ཞིག་lོ་sར་0་བབས། དེ་ཉིན་གཞན་མ་ཚ་1ང་¼ོམས་ཞིང་ལམ་བ1ོད་བདེ་བར་Uང་། (Sle lung 1983a:405.3-405.4)
Opposite the cave there is a mountain called Phyag ’tshal sgang, and in that place I made smoke
offerings and brtan gsol? I shouted aloud praising the ḍākinīs, local guardians, gods and nāgas
of Pad+mo bkod, [when] suddenly a misty rain immediately descended and on that day, the
temperature was mild and it was easy to pass.

157 A type of mythical sea monster.

Kག་འཚལ་Yང་ནས་སེང་གཏམ་Xི་Kོགས་H་ཁ་6ང་ལ་བ@ས་ཏེ་Kིན་པ་ན་མཚJ་མ་མ་[ེང་[ེང་གི་ཐད་ནས་u་ཆར་ཆེན་པོ་འབབ་པ་འཇིགས་H་xང་བ་འ0ག དེ་ཚJའི་ཐད་0་Ÿང་
ཟད་ཐང་ཆད་ཉམས་དང་|གས་uང་བ་Uང་ཡང་€ང་བ་གར་བཞག་མི་oོག་པར་འ6མས་པ་Uང་། དེ་ནས་ཕར་ཙམ་Kིན་པ་ན་L་xའི་གཟིམས་ ག་འཇའ་འོད་ ག་པར་1གས་པ་
ཕ་བོང་0མ་s་གཅིག་པ་Gེར་†ོན་ཤིང་དང་། འོག་p་œང་sའི་aམ་པ་ཆེར་མེད་པ་ཞིག་ཡོད། དེར་བསམ་པ་Ãན་Âབ་མ་སོགས་གསོལ་འདེབས་¡ོན་ལམ་ལེགས་པར་བXིས། (Sle
lung 1983a:405.4-406.1)
When I turned looking north and went to Seng gtam from Phyag ’tshal sgang, [I saw] terrifying
great rain fall at Lake ma ma sTeng steng. At that those places, I had little strength and felt
worn out but my mind was calm and non-conceptual. When I went a little way away there was
a cave widely known as ’Ja’ ’od phug pa (the rainbow light cave) the resting cave of Guru
Rinpoche, there was a piece of boulder, the top covered by trees and there was not much of a
hollow. In that place, I thoroughly performed the prayer which spontaneously fulfils all

དེ་དང་ཉེ་བའི་གཡས་Kོགས་H་hོ་Rེ་ཕག་མོའི་གསང་ཆབ་p་1གས་པ་སིÕ་ར་འབབ་པའི་ཅོང་ཞིའི་¡ན་u་ཞིག་Mང་ཡོད། (Sle lung 1983a:406.1)
Not far from the right hand side [of the boulder] There is known to be Vajravārāhī’s secret
urine, that sindhura dripping curing medicine for chronic illness.

འདི་དག་ནས་བyང་རི་ཕན་mན་ཐམས་ཅད་ནགས་གནམ་མི་མཐོང་བ་ཙམ་0་འ•ིགས་ཤིང་། རོང་དོག་པ་ཡོད། དེ་ནས་Xེན་0་འཛ•གས་པ་ན་ ་ནགས་རི་དང་གངས་རི་ཆེན་པོ་
e་ལ་Gེ་Íམ་ཞེས་པ་འཇིག་oེན་1གས་ཚJད་ལ་ཨོ་eན་ཆེན་པོས་རི་དེའི་Gེ་བཅད་པར་lེང་བ། དོན་0་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་hོ་Rེ་ཕག་མོ་གན་“ལ་0་བ;གས་པའི་ད6ིབས་H་ཡོད་པའི་ཕག་
ཞལ་Xེན་ནམ་Iོར་བ[ན་པ་དེ་ཡིན། Tི་བོ་བདེ་ཆེན་Xི་འཁོར་ལོ་ནི་རི་འདི་ཁའི་ལོགས་Mི་རི་Hལ་ནགས་ཚལ་དང་བཅས་པ་aམས་ཡིན་ཞིང་། དེ་ནས་ཡར་eབ་གཙང་པོ་
དང་། dོ་པའི་གཙང་པོ་འcད་མཚམས་ཡན་མ1ིན་པ་ལོངས་„ོད་Mི་འཁོར་ལོའོ། ། (Sle lung 1983a:406.3-406.4)
Then, we climbed up the hill, the great snow mountain called Gya la rste rdum which had deep
lower reaches and forests. It is widely believed that the Great O rgyan cut the peak of the
mountain. In reality, Pad+mo bkod is believed to be in the shape of a supine Vajravārāhī and
the face is facing upward or south. The crown chakra of great bliss includes the mountainside
which is forested as well as the corners of the mountain. From there until two rivers, the Yar
rgyab and Spo pa meet, is the throat chakra of Vajravārāhī.

སེར་གཏམ་འདི་dང་གཤོངས་ཤིན་p་„ིད་པའི་དsས་H་གµག་ལག་ཁང་དང་དགོན་པ་ཐོར་s་ཡོད་པ། མཚJ་eལ་Xི་ཞབས་Rེས་ག•་ཁ་Œོར་དང་། L་xའི་Kག་བཟོ་འsམ་༼sམ༽་
པ། ཀƒ་པ་དབང་Àག་hོ་Rེའི་Kག་Rེས་ཤིན་p་གསལ་བ་སོགས་oེན་fད་པར་ཅན་མང་0་བ;གས། རང་6ོན་བསམ་Xིས་མི་fབ་འ0ག །དེ་དག་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་}ས་གསོལ་
དང་། གསོལ་འདེབས་¡ོན་ལམ་མཆོད་འsལ་སོགས་eས་པར་བXིས། Gེ་Íམ་Kོགས་ལ་འ6ར་བའི་རི་•ི་•ོང་›ེ་བཙན་ཞེས་པ་དེ་གསང་Zང་ནས་མ0ང་དམར་ཅན་Xི་གནས་H་
གHང་། དར་དམར་Xི་བ་དན་བµགས། འcིན་ལས་བཅོལ། ཆད་མཐོ་བOགས། དེ་£བ་གµག་ལག་ཁང་གི་ཡང་ཐོག་p་བvད། (Sle lung 1983a 406.4-
Ser gtam in the centre of a very pleasant meadow there are temples and monasteries dispersed.
There also lay many extraordinary objects of worship such as; Guru Rinpoche’s handmade
vase, Ye she mtsho rgyal’s footprint, which faces each other and Karma pa dbang phyug rdo
rje’s (1556–1603) hand print. There are many inconceivable self-arisen objects. We performed
cleansing rituals, greater invocation, aspirations prayers and offerings.

In the secret prophecy, it mentioned a sacred site of mDung dmar can, which is a mountain
called Khri srong lde btsan that joins to rTse rdum side of the mountain. We raised a red flag
banner and requested to perform glorious activities and reminding the oracles about their oaths.
That night, we stayed in the top most part of a temple.

aམ་1ོལ་lིང་ནས་ཐོན་ནས་མ་འཁོར་Xི་བར་0་ནང་རེ་བཞིན་འ0ས་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་Mིས་„བས་སེམས་‰ོན་0་འ1ོ་བའི་Yོ་ནས་འོད་›ན་དཀར་པོར་གསོལ་མཆོད་དང་། བཙན་
གསོལ་ཉེར་གཅིག་རེ། £བ་མོ་ཚbག་བ0ན་གསོལ་འདེབས་‰ོན་0་འ1ོ་བས་བསམ་པ་Ãན་Âབ་མ། རིགས་›ན་གསོལ་འདེབས། གསེར་„ེམས། ~ང་•ོང་ཞི་•ོའི་གཏོར་མ། (Sle
lung 1983a:407.2-407.3)
Since leaving rNam grol gling and until we returned all the people who had gathered, every
morning, we were doing refuge and bodhicitta prayers followed by practicing the invocation
of ’Od ldan dkar po. Also supplicating the btsan twenty one times and in the evenings we did
the [following] preliminaries; The Seven Line prayer (tshig bdun gsol ’debs) [of Guru
Rinpoche], followed by The Prayer Which Spontaneously Fulfils all Aspirations (bsam pa lhun
grub ma) and prayers to the Rigs ldan ma. Also, golden libations as well as gtor ma to the
peaceful and wrathful riṣhis.

ཙ¥ྜི་ཀ །ག^་Oོན་མ། ཞིང་„ོང་j་མཆེད། hོར་ལེགས། གིང་གHམ། གེ་སར་དཔོན་‚ོན། གནོད་Œིན་ཆེན་པོ། འོད་›ན་དཀར་པོ། ¬མས་པ་O་Oོག །ཚJང་དཔོན་eལ་པོ་I་དབང་
ཞེས་པ་hོར་ལེགས་པའི་Vལ་གyགས་ཞིག་དང་། གནོད་Œིན་ཆེན་པོ་~ེད་ཞོན་མ་\ོ་^ལ་0་ཨ་པོར་1གས་པ་aམས་Mི་གསོལ་མཆོད་དང་། ཆད་མཐོ་བOགས་པ་aམས་
དང་། (Sle lung 1983a:407.3-407.5)
We performed petition offerings to the following dharma protectors; tsaN+Di ka, g.Yu sgron
ma, the Protector Family (Zhing skyong sku mched), rDor legs, the three Ging, King Ge sar
and Ministers (Ge sar dpon blon), the Great Yakṣa, ’Od ldan dkar po, Ngams pa sgra sgrog,
the merchant king named Lha dbang, an emanation form of rDo rje Legs pa and the great
Yakṣha who rides a Dremong also in Klo yul known as A Po.

དང་། £བ་མོ་ཚb་Çལ་མ་བe་G། Öིག་•ོ་‰ར་རས་uང་པསམ་མ་ཉེར་གཅིག །~ང་•ོང་གི་དམོད་པ་ཚར་གHམ། ཛ་བྷིར་Xི་½ང་ཉེར་གཅིག་ནས་གHམ་Xིས་Øང་མཐའ་6ས་པ་
aམས་ཆག་མེད་0་བXིས། ནང་པར་དེ་ཁའི་ ་u་བOལ་ཏེ་†ོན་ཤིང་གི་གསེབ་p་;གས་ནས་Kིན་པས་ཉིན་‰ོན་མ་ལས་Mང་རིག་པ་|གས་ཆེ་ཞིང་། ཚང་མ་Iག་པར་nོ་བས་
བ„ོད། (Sle lung 1983a:407.5-408.2)
All the time during the day we were doing extensive smoke offerings and the Richness
Summons (practice) (g.yang ‘gugs) without fail. On top of that, from this point in the morning
we were reciting the extremely profound hung accomplishment [sadhana]. Also every evening
practicing tshi rtul ma one hundred times, trig khrom ma twenty-one times, and drang srong
gi dmod pa invocations three times. We performed the winds of dza b+hir [practice] twenty
one times daily and some occasions at least three times. In the morning, having crossed over
the river near the mountain and entered amidst the forest we even found our minds clear and
stronger compared with earlier days. Everyone took the journey with joy.

—བས་ཤིག་ལམ་འcང་ཤིན་p་གཟར་བ་ཞིག་ན་j་oེན་པར་གནོད་Œིན་ཆེན་པོ་དང་འོད་›ན་དཀར་པོ་ཕེབས་ནས་དXེས་ཉམས་Mིས་འཕར་འ•བ་མཛད། དེའི་“ེན་Xིས་རང་ཡང་
Å་བ་དང་—ད་ཆེན་པོ་འདོད་འདིད་པ་Uང་། (Sle lung 1983a:408.2-408.3)
On one occasion, on an extremely treacherous and precipitous path, there was the form of a
terrible yakṣa and ’Od ldan dkar po bounding with joyful expressions. Due to that, I even
wanted to weep [in joy] loudly.

hོ་Rེ་གོ་ཆ་དང་། hོ་Rེ་བདེ་6ེད་དང་། hོ་Rེ་‘་བ། གནས་འཇལ་བའི་མ་ཇོ་ཞིག་aམས་ལ་6ིན་Iག་པར་ཕེབས་ཆེ་ཞིག །འོད་›ན་དཀར་པོས་Mང་རིག་པ་གདེངས་དང་›ན་པ་འདི་
@་s་མཛད་0ས་ངེད་aམས་མི་འ0་བའི་དབང་མེད་པ་ཡིན་ནོ་གHང་། (Sle lung 1983a:408.3-408.4)
When rDo rje go cha, rDo rje bde byed, rDo rje zla ba and a nun became possessed a special
blessing and they said that when ’Od ldan dkar po has such confidence, they were powerless
other than to gather there.

vེ་བeད་Yང་འོག་མ་ཞེས་པའི་ནགས་•ོད་Mི་vིངས་uང་ཞིག་འ0ག་པ་དེར་གསེར་„ེམས་ ལ། དེའི་ཐད་Mི་@ག་དེར་vེ་བeད་Yང་གོངས་མ་ཞེས་པ་གནས་ཡིག་¾ིང་པ་aམས་
ནས་གHངས་པའི་ས་གནད་ཆེ་ས་ཞིག་འ0ག་པ། དེར་གཏེར་དང་ས་གནད་གསོ་བའི་oེན་]ས། ¡ོན་ལམ་བཏབ། (Sle lung 1983a:408.4-408.5)
We offered golden libations where there is a small cavity in the forest called sDe brgyad sgang
’Od. With regards to that, what is known as Der sde brgyad sgang gongs ma. There is an
important place mentioned from the old guide books, and in that place, and I concealed spiritual
objects to nourish the land made aspiration prayers

དེ་ཉིན་ངེད་ཅག་ཚང་མ་ཐང་ཆད་པ་དང་བÊེས་—ོམ་Xི་€ང་བ་མེད་པར་བདེ་གསལ་Ùར་Tོད་Mི་ངང་ནས་wོད་ཚང་0་šེབ་པ་Uང་། (Sle lung 1983a:408.5-
On that day none of us were exhausted, hungry or thirsty, and we were [instead] in a state of
clear happiness and very energetic and we arrived at a rGod tshang.

ལམ་ཁར་—བས་ཤིག་ན་hོ་Rེ་„བས་6ེད་ལ་¡ན་བµན་ཆེན་མོ་གpམ་ཉམས་ཅན་ཕེབས་ནས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་བhེག་པ་དང་། མཆོང་`ག་སོགས་ལན་གཉིས་H་མཛད། (Sle
lung 1983a:408.6-409.1)
On one occasion, when we were on a path, sMan btsun chen mo having possessed rDo rje
skyabs byed, beat all of us running and jumping twice with a fierce expression.

wོད་ཚང་”བ་ ག་དེ་e་ལ་Gེ་Íམ་Xི་Iོ་Kོགས་Mི་L་xའི་”བ་ ག་བདེ་གཤེགས་ཆེའི་ ག་པ་ཞེས་པ་དེ་ཡིན་པར་་འ0ག་ཅིང་། šོབ་དཔོན་ཆེན་པོས་wོད་0་Vལ་ནས་བ;གས་པས་
wོད་ཚང་ ག་ཅེས་བཏགས་པར་1གས། (Sle lung 1983a:409.1-409.2)
The rGod tshang cave is the Guru cave bDe gshegs tshe’i phug, which is located to the south
of rGya la rtse rdum. Since Guru Rinpoche manifested as a wild vulture and stayed there, it is
known as rGod tshang cave.

དེར་šེབས་པ་ཙམ་Xིས་ཉམས་འབར་བ་ཞིག་€ང་། གསང་བ་ཡེ་ཤེས་Mི་Yོ་ནས་ཚJགས་Mི་འཁོར་ལོ་eས་བ་ཞིག་བ—ོར། Kི་རོལ་p་±ཾ་”བ་པ་དང་འgལ་བར་ཉམས་Uང་eལ་0་
བ„ངས། (Sle lung 1983a:409.2-409.3)
As soon as we had reached that place we held an elaborate feast offering (tshogs) through the
practice of the Wisdom ḍākinī gSang ba ye shes and outside we carried out experiencing as it
naturally arose by practicing Hung.

ནགས་uང་ཞིང་། པད་གདན་དང་འོད་—ོར་ལ་ནགས་ཆེ་བ་ཐོག་ཚད་k་བŸས་Mང་མི་ཚད་པ་ཤིན་p་གསལ་བ་དང་། དེའི་eབ་ནས་Kེད་གyགས་Mི་aམ་པར་འཐོན་པའི་Oོལ་
དཀར་རང་6ོན་དང་། j་oེན་པས་wོད་ཚང་གི་ཐད་དེར་རི་ནོར་s་¨ངས་པ་འ~་བ་དེའི་ངོགས་H་ ཨོ་eན་ཆེན་པོ་བཞེངས་[བས་j་མདོག་སེར་པོ་ཞལ་གཡོན་0་གཟིགས་
པ། Kག་ན་ཚ•་sམ་དཀར་པོ་བ€མས་པ་ལས་u་`ན་འཛགས་པ། hོ་Rེ་‘་བས་ཚ•་དཔག་མེད་རང་6ོན་Xི་ཐད་ནས་མར་Kིན་པའི་gག་ནག་པོ་ཞིག་གི་ངོགས་ལ་གནས་བoན་Xི་aམ་
པ་j་མདོག་དཀར་པོ་བཞེངས་[བས་ཚ•་དཔག་མེད་Kོགས་ལ་ཐལ་མོ་Œོར་བ་ཞིག་དང་། དེ་ལས་j་བོངས་ཆེ་བའི་I་›ེམ་གཉིས་ཞལ་nོད་Mི་mལ་0་བ;གས་པ་མཐོང་བ་aམས་
བ[ན་Uང་བས་ཞིན་p་གསལ་བར་འ0ག (Sle lung 1983a:409.3-410.1)
At the time of performing smoke offerings, rDo rje rin chen, showed a door in the direction of
the rGod tshang mountain and in front of gTam tshal. In that place to the side, there was an
very big statue of Amitāyus and a small tree directly in front of it. It was adorned with a lotus
nimbus of light and there was a bigger tree more than fifty? Behind, White Tārā spontaneously
appeared [in a kind of half form]. The sculptor made, directly in front of rGod tshang [where
there] was a mountain like a heaped jewel, built a yellow statue of the Great Master of O rgyan
which was facing to the left. In the hand of the statue was holding a white longevity vase, out
of which water was dripping. rDo rje Zla ba, in front of the naturally appearing Amitāyus and

on the surface of a black rock, carved a white statue in the style of a mendicant with a white
body, hands folded in devotion in the direction of Amitāyus from that the statue was large and
there were the two statues [made from] clay, facing one another, having seen that it was
extremely clear and everyone could see.

།དེར་འ0ས་Wན་ལ་ངོ་nད་པས་གནས་འཛbན་པ་ན་རེ། རང་6ོན་དེ་འ~་ཡོད་པ་གནས་ཡིག་ལ་འ0ག་Mང་‰ར་ངོ་མ་འcོད་ཟེར་ནས་ངོ་མཚར་བར་6ེད། (Sle lung
Everyone assembled there and I introduced [the visions I was having to them]. Having done
that gNas 'dzin said surprised; “In the guide books and texts it mentions there are self-arisen
images, I had not seen them until today!”

(Sle lung 1983a:410.2-410.3)
I vividly saw on the right side an extremely clear figure of a ZoKi with a load facing to the left
at Brag ngogs dkar po which is on the right side of the rGo tshang [although] I could not be
sure what it was.

དེའི་£བ་གསང་Zང་0། གནས་དེ་‰ར་šོབ་དཔོན་ཆེན་པོ་པ+ྨས་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་Mི་I་¹ང་aམས་དམ་ལ་བཏགས་པའི་གནས་fད་པར་ཅན་ཡིན་པས་Kིས་འUང་aམས་Mིས་པ+ྨོ་
བཀོད་0་འ1ོ་བ་ལ་འདིར་བ0ད་བཙན་‡་གHམ་Xི་གསོལ་ཁ་དགོས་པ་གལ་ཆེ་mལ་Xི་Zང་ཡང་Uང་ངོ་། (Sle lung 1983a:410.3-410.4)
That evening in gSang Lung in the past, since it was such an extraordinary place, Guru
Rinpoche bound under oath the guardian deities of Pad+mo bkod. [Thus], for later generations
of pilgrims in order to go to Pad+mo bkod, according to the prophecy, it is important to petition
nāga, btsan and māra here.

།ནང་པར་Zང་གི་དོན་བཞིན་བ0ད་བཙན་‡་གHམ་མཆོད་དེ། wོད་ཚང་ནས་ཡར་ལོག་གཙང་འ1མ་ནས་ནགས་mལ་Xི་གསེབ་p་རིག་པའི་ངར་དང་›ན་པས་±ཾ་°། མLར་
ད6ངས་Ðད། འབད་°་O་སོགས་6ེད་བཞིན་0་Kིན། Wན་བཟང་བདེ་ཆེན་ལ་ཙ¥ྜི་ཀ་Iག་པར་ཕེབས་ཆེ་བ་དང་། j་oེན་པར་གིང་ཆེན་བཤན་པ། j་oེན་མར་ག^་Oོན་མ་
ཕེབས། (Sle lung 1983a:410.4-410.6)
In the morning and according to the prophecy, we propitiated nāga, btsan and māra and
returned up from rGod tshang, by the river bank through the forest and with focus sang hūṃ,
spiritual songs and folk songs and went like that. tsaN+Di ka would often manifest through the
medium Kun bzang bde chen, the butcher Ging chen possessed another medium and rDo rje
g.Yu sgron main a female medium.

zང་kའི་མཁའ་འ1ོ་གསང་ ག་p་ཡོང་0ས་གཏེར་[ོན་6ང་uབ་hོ་Rེའི་གསོལ་དཔོན་s་u་ནས་བཞེས་པའི་ཤོག་སེར་དང་། ཤེལ་ལ་•ོང་ªག་p་མཁའ་འ1ོས་གHངས་པའི་
དགོངས་གཏེར་¼ན་བ`ད་མཁའ་འ1ོའི་ཆོས་བ—ོར་ཡོངས་H་•ོགས་པ་གནང་„ེས་H་Ëལ་བ་ཆེད་0་བ„ེལ་བར་འ6ོར་པ་དང་འcད་པས་oེན་འgེལ་འ1ིག (Sle lung
At the time of coming to rKang lnga ḍākinī secret cave, the assistant of gter ston Byang chub
rdo rje brought yellow paper [treasure] scroll which was discovered by Byang chub rdo rje
from Bu chu and the complete ḍākinī cycle of teachings, the mind treasure hearing lineage,
which was taught by the ḍākinīs at Shel la rdzong drug. When we met it turned out to be
especially auspicious.

།དེའི་@ག་ཙམ་ནས་ཀོ་བ་བཏོན་ཏེ་j་འsམ་ཞེས་པའི་རི་ངོགས་གཟར་པོར་འཛ•གས་ཏེ། [ེང་དེར་ཞག་ཕབ། དེ་£བ་ཙ¥ྜི་ཀར་མེ་མཆོད་ ལ། (Sle lung

We climbed the side of a steep mountain known as sKu ’bum, then descended from above and
that night I made offerings to tsaN+Di ka

e་ལ་vེ་པ་ཚ•་རིང་དངོས་Âབ་དཔོན་གཡོག་k་བŸ་བ—ོར་དང་བཅས་ལམ་མཆོས་དང་། ]ས་གནས་Mི་རོགས་6ེད་0་འ6ོར་ཞིང་། vེ་པ་ནས་Iག་པར་ཕན་ཐོགས་ལ་‚ོ་Qབ་
པ། Lས་ཞེན་ཆེ་ཞིང་། ཀ་གནམ་པ་དང་sད་wལ་བའི་གཉེན་ཚན་aམས་ལ་བoེན་པའི་6ེད་གཏད་ཆེ་ངེས་H་Uང་སོང་ཡང་། དེ་དག་ཐམས་ཅད་fད་0་བསད་ནས་བདག་གི་དོན་
ཁོ་ན་Ãར་ལེན་པར་6ེད་པས་ཕན་ཐོགས་ཤིན་p་ཆེ་བ་Uང་། (Sle lung 1983a:411.3-411.5)
The rGya la chieftain Tshe ring dngos grub and fifty officials and attendants came in order to
help us to reach the hidden place. The chieftain was especially beneficial and reliable. The
chieftain was especially beneficial and helpful they showed respect and admiration. [In regards
to the] families of Bud rgal ba and Ka gNam pa we relied on them so much we that would have
caused them great hardships, whatever troubles were entailed in and they faced all the hardship
with contempt since they were assiduously doing it for my benefit, it was so helpful

གསང་Zང་ནས་བདག་དང་‰ོན་ནས་འgེལ་བའི་ལས་ཅན་\ོ་པའི་རིགས་Mི་„ེས་s་གཉིས་དང་འcད་པར་འ–ར་བའི་Zང་Uང་བའི་ཡ་Xལ་གཅིག་ཡིན་པར་འ0ག (Sle
lung 1983a:411.5-411.6)
According to the secret prophecy, I was told that I would meet two people from Klo, with
whom I have karmic connections from previous lives it seems that the (rGya la chieftain) is
one of the people.

།wོད་ཚང་0་བvད་པའི་£བ་Mི་གསང་Zང་0། wོད་ཚང་ནས་བGམས་པའི་ཤར་Iོར་ཙ¥ྜི་ཀའི་ཕོ་gང་རི་བོ་མེ་•ེ་འབར་བ་ཡོད་པ་དང་། མི་འ–ར་བའི་གཟེར་ལ་རི་དེའི་གཏོང་
བཅད། (Sle lung 1983a:411.6-412.3)
When I stayed in rGod tshang that evening I had a prophecy in a dream: Starting from rGod
tshang toward the south east there is Me lce ’bar ba the palace of tsaN+Di ka. It's peak (Gze)
is perennially covered in snow which stretches down all the way up to the river. When I
investigated it was mentioned in the old travel guides as the conch door described as an ancient
snow mountain, whose glaciers meets the river was the mountain called Kye rdor sdings. The
dream clearly said I would need to reach there on that day, therefore I managed to go although
it was a long journey.

ཚ•ས་བŸ་དLའི་£བ་མོ་པ+ྨ་བདེ་ཆེན་Xི་ƒི་ལམ་0། aམ་•ས་Mི་ཕོ་gང་ཡ་མཚན་པ་ཞིག་ཡོད་mལ་Xི་Zང་[ོན་མཁན་ཞིག་Uང་ཟེར། (Sle lung 1983a:412.3-
In the evening of the 19th, in a dream of Pad+ma bde chen there happened to be someone who
predicted the existence of the marvelous palace of Vaiśhravaṇa, the Lord of Maras.

དེ་ཉིན་‰ར་བཞིན་བÇལ་;གས་ཆེན་པོས་འཐོན། wོད་ལ་ཞེས་པའི་འcང་བ`ད་དེ་ཨ་ཕོའི་གནས་ཡོད་ས་ཞིག་p་šེབས། (Sle lung 1983a:412.4)
On that day, as usual, we set off with great pomp and ceremony passing through the gorge
known as rGod la and we arrived at the holy place of A po.

གསེར་„ེམས་བ‰ོས། དམ་བOགས། ‰ར་དེ་Kོགས་H་རིག་འཛbན་གོང་མ་aམས་Mིས་ཡོངས་1གས་H་ཕེབས་པ་ཡང་མི་འ0ག་ཅིང་། \ོ་པ་ཁེར་“ང་ལས་བོད་པའི་གནས་མཇལ་བའི་
རིགས་Mང་གཏན་ནས་འ1ོ་•ོལ་མི་འ0ག (Sle lung 1983a:412.4-412.5)
We dedicated golden libations and proclaimed aloud our commitments, and we found that
previously there was no popular awareness of any great former masters arriving here and

apart from the solitary border people we [also] found there was no custom whatsoever of any
kind of Tibetans going on pilgrimage [to this place].

\ོ་པ་ཁེར་“ང་ལས་བོད་པའི་གནས་མཇལ་བའི་རིགས་Mང་གཏན་ནས་འ1ོ་•ོལ་མི་འ0ག །\ོ་པ་ཚJ་རང་གི་•ོལ་ལ་ཨ་ཕོའི་oེན་གང་ཡོད་Mི་སར་མི་1ངས་དང་མmངས་པའི་ཤིང་
མཇེ་རེ་འsལ། ཆེ་བ་6་ཕག་ནས་uང་བ་Yོ་ངའི་བར་Xི་དམར་མཆོད་Mང་མི་1ངས་དང་མmངས་པ་གཏོང་•ོལ་འ0ག་ནའང་། (Sle lung 1983a:412.5-
I found that Klo tribal people, according to their own custom, wherever the head of family
lives, there they make an offering of a wooden erect penis according to the number of
inhabitants or the second custom was to kill and offer, according to the number of inhabitants,
hens, pigs and if [neither of these] eggs.

ངེད་aམས་Mིས་གསང་Zང་0་གང་གསལ་Xི་གནམ་•གས་འབར་བ་དང་། ཙ¥ྜི་ཀའི་གནས་རིའི་མ0ན་0་མ་གཏོགས་དམར་མཆོད་Mི་རིགས་མ་6ས། (Sle lung
What is clear in the prophecy is that one must not do any kind of animal sacrifice except in
front of the mountain where tsaN+Di ka resides and gNam lcags ’bar ba.

འདི་ནས་ན་sན་lོ་sར་0་འ•ིགས་ཏེ། ལམ་མི་མཐོང་བ་ཙམ་0་–ར་ནས་ཡོད་པ། ཡོལ་བ་བསལ་བ་བཞིན་Kོགས་སོ་སོར་དེངས། (Sle lung 1983a:413.1-
The day after all of a sudden it got foggy, and the path became barely visible [but] the
obstruction cleared and bit by bit and the fog dispersed

aམ་པར་ཕེབས་ཤིང་། དེ་ནས་དགའ་ཆགས་Mི་གཉེར་པ་དཔལ་འ6ོར། hོ་Rེ་གོ་ཆ། j་oེན་པ་གཉིས། oེན་•ས་Mི་sད་མེད་གཉིས། པ+ྨ་རོལ་མཚJ། aམ་དག །hོ་Rེ་རིན་ཆེན། Wན་
བཟང་བདེ་ཆེན། hོ་Rེ་I་•ས་སོགས་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་ཞི་~ག་གི་aམ་འ–ར་€་ཚJགས་པའི་Yོ་ནས་ཕེབས་པའི་གཅིག་བyང་ནས་བ„ོད་0ས་གཅིག་ཤོར་བས་ (Sle lung
Just as was mentioned in a prophecy of the past, on that day all the male and female tsaN+Di
ka would come, as soon as we saw the mountain Me lce ’bar ba first of all we saw tsaN+Di ka
appear in a wrathful form possessing bTsan dgod, and then the keeper of dGa’ chags named
dpal ’byor and rDo rje go cha, the two mediums, two woman with ritual objects, Pad+ma tol
mtsho, Nam dag, rDo rje rin chen, Kun bsang bde chen, rDo rje lha rdzas etc were all possessed
in all kinds of peaceful and wrathful forms, I caught one them (perhaps with mantras or
something) [although] one escaped.

ཟི་ལོང་ཆེ་བ་དང་བཅས་ནགས་ལ་གནམ་Xི་ཀ་བ་@་s་འབབ་དགོས་པ་Uང་འ0ག་Mང་དེ་ཉིན་6ིན་Iག་པར་0་ཕེབས་ཆེ་བའི་[ོབས་Mིས་མ་ཚJར་བ་འ0ག་ཅིང་། (Sle lung
With a great deal of commotion, in the forest, even though it had to descend like a tall pillar of
the sky (very high) (heavily)? but, on that day, through the power of the blessings, it seemed
[as if] we had not felt it.

mར་ལམ་གཞན་ལས་དཀའ་ཚ•གས་ཚ•༼་ཆེ༽་ཞིང་ཐག་རིང་བར་འ0ག་པས། Rེས་H་བསམས་ཚ•་འདིའི་ཉིན་མོ་ཉི་མ་ཡང་›བ་འ–ར་Xི་རིང་བ་Uང་འ0ག (Sle lung
On the way back, since it felt more difficult and further than before, on reflection I found that
that it had been twice (as) long than as normal.

།Iག་པར་hོ་Rེ་¡ན་མཆོག་‰ར་ནས་ཙ¥ྜི་ཀ་ཁོ་ལ་Iག་པར་ཆགས་པའི་༼པས༽་oེན་0་འ-གས་དགོས་mལ་དང་། པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་0་འ1ོ་བའི་oེན་འgེལ་ལ། གཡའ་བཟང་། „ིད་1ོང་
མཆོད་ཁང་། ཏེ•་ར། ¡ན་Zང་། བསམ་lིང་aམས་ནས་ཙ¥ྜི་ཀ་ཆེད་0་གདན་འ~ེན་དགོས་mལ་Uང་བ་བཞིན་གདན་~ངས་0ས་oེན་0་ ལ། (Sle lung
Since tsaN+Di ka appeared to be particularly attached to rDo rje sman mchog for a long while,
he ought to be appointed as the medium and for the sake of auspiciousness for our onward
journey to Pad+mo bkod, as according to the suggestion that tsaN+Di ka should be invoked
and invited by propitiating her at g.Ya’ bzang, sKyid grong mChod khang, Te’u ra, sMan lung
and bSam gling. When we carried it out, tsaN+Di ka appeared and was formally appointed to
the medium rDo rje sman mchog.

0ས་Kི་eར་གཙང་0་འ1ོ་`འི་ཁོངས་H་ཡོད་པས་ཐམས་ཅད་Mིས་མི་ཕེར་༼འཕེར༽་གཞིར་བཞག་p་6ད་༼6ས༽་འ0ག་ནའང་། འོལ་དགའ་ནས་ཐོན་པ་ནས་བyང་ ཁ་འཛ•མ་དགོས་
དང་། ¡ན་གཏོང་དགོས་སོགས་ཅི་ཡང་མ་དགོས་པར་གཞི་མེད་0་~ག (Sle lung 1983a:414.2-414.4)
Due to that (being possessed), about three or four months before leaving ’Ol dga, he [rDo rje
sman mchog] suffered from a severe form of divine illness rooted in a phlegm disorder.
Whatever remedies we tried there was no benefit and he was bed ridden. And at that time since
he was very ill he was listed amongst those who were to return to gTsang and everyone had
assumed he would not be in the condition to make it. However since he left ’Ol dga’, [rDo rje
sman mchog] without the need to be mindful of what he ate, or the need for any kind of medical
treatment, he recovered perfectly and there was no trace of illness.

།འདིའི་ཉིན་མོ་ཡང་གཞན་ཐམས་ཅད་Mི་•ོད་ནས་ཁོ་པར་ཙ¥ྜི་ཀ་བ¢མས་ ལ་ཆེ་ཞིང་། ཕེབས་Zགས་Mང་ཛ་Ù་རེར་ཕེབས་པ་དང་། ཤིན་p་འ~་བར་འ0ག (Sle lung
On that day also, from amidst all the others, tsaN+Di ka possessed rDo rje sman mchog which
is very similar to how ཛ་Ù་རེར descends

།ཕན་mན་ཐམས་ཅད་ཤིང་ནགས་Mིས་ཁེངས་ཤིང་། ནམ་མཁའ་མིག་གིས་མི་མཐོང་བའི་གཤོངས་ཐིག་p་ཕ་བོང་Â་བཞི་•ིའི་aམ་པ་གཅིག་“ང་[ེང་u་~ེགས་གང་ཙམ་པའི་dང་
གིས་6ིལ་པོར་fག་པ་ཞིག་འ0ག་པ་ (Sle lung 1983a:414.4-414.5)
On either side it was full of forest and in valley from where you cannot see the sky, there was
a square boulder in the form of a throne, and on it there was algae and to some degree and it
had solidified (ice) on the surface.

དེའི་ས་Kོགས་H་གནོད་Œིན་གང་བ་བཟང་པོར་aམ་•ས་o་བeད་Mིས་བ—ོར་བ་འཇའ་nིན་ངང་„འི་•ོད་0་༼འ•ིས་H༽འ•ིས་H་ཤིན་p་གསལ་བ་མཐོང་ཞིང་། jའི་བཀོད་པ་ཕན་
mན་Xི་ཤིང་ནགས་Mིས་མི་Oིབ་པ་€ང་བ་གཉིས་ཀ་གོ་མ་འ~ེས་པར་འཆར་བ་མཐོང་བས་ས་^ལ་དེ་aམ་•ས་Mི་གནས་^ལ་0་ངོ་འcོད། (Sle lung
In that area, there was Yakṣa called gNod sbyin which was being encircled by Vaiśhravaṇa
with his eight horses, and all around the sky there were rainbows and whiteish grey clouds
which I clearly saw and since I saw both physical manifestations of the Yakṣa and Vaiśhravaṇa,
which were not obscured by the forest on either side, I confirmed this was the holy place of

དེར་ཡིད་€ང་ཕ་བོང་~ེག་པ་ཅན་དེའི་[ེང་0་མཆོང་འདོད་པ་ལ་འཛbན་པ་མ་;གས་པ་ཞིག་Uང་བའི་ངང་། དེ་ཁའི་[ེང་0་šེབས་ནས་Iམ་རས་ཟོམ་ཞིག་Xོན་ཡོད་པས་u་~ེག་དེ་
ལོགས་གཅིག་ནས་ ད་པར་1ོགས་aམས་Mིས་ཧབ་ཐོབ་@་sའི་མ་Zས་པར་བ|ས་སོང་བའི་ངང་ངེད་Mིས་gོ་འ•བས་པས་Ú་Ûིའི་[ེང་0་འ•བས་པ་བཞིན་ནེམ་ནེམ་6ེད་པའི་
€ང་བ་Uང་། འgི་ཆོས་Mིས་Mང་དེ་ཁོ་ན་བཞིན་མཐོང་འ0ག །དེར་པ+ྨ་བདེ་ཆེན་Xི་༼་Xིས༽་j་ཞབས་Mིས་ཞབས་Rེས་འཇོག་པ་€ང་སོང་། ཐམས་ཅད་Mིས་བ@་བར་ཤོག་ཅིག་ཟེར་

ནས་—ད་ཆེན་པོས་འབོད་ཅིང་མཆི་མ་འ6ིན། ལེགས་Âབ་དང་ཆོས་མཛད་གཉིས་ཀ་དེའི་“ེན་Xིས་Å་ཞིང་བeལ་བའི་aམ་འ–ར་6ེད། ངེད་རང་ནི་zང་Rེས་འཇོག་འདོད་Mང་
མེད་ལ། བཞག་པ་ཡིན་ངེས་Mི་€ང་བ་ཡང་མ་Uང་། བཞག་སོང་ཟེར་བ་ཡང་དེ་ཁ་ཐོས་པ་ལས་དགའ་ˆག་གི་€ང་བ་གང་ཡང་མེད་པར་ཧང་སང་ངེ་བ་ཞིག་Uང་། ‘་བོ་aམས་Mི་
ཞབས་Rེས་ªག་བ0ན་ཞིག་འ0ག་ཟེར། (Sle lung 1983a:415.1-415.6)
In that way on top of the mossy boulder I wanted to jump on top of it, but without having any
grasping thoughts I remained in that state. Having landed on top of the boulder and because I
was wearing a zom ba. From one side of that mossy boulder, I took off my boots, all my friends
were kind of scrambling to remove it from me and since I was dancing I had the feeling of
bouncing up and down as if dancing on thick grass. ’Dri chos had also seen exactly like that.
In that place, Pad+ma bde chen saw she had left footprints and shouting loudly “everyone come
to look at the footprints!” and she cried. Legs grub and Chos mdzad were both crying and
almost fainted. I myself not wishing to leave a footprints and also did not have the recognition
at the time. Although I heard [someone] saying I had left a footprint, I did not have any positive
or negative thoughts arising in my mind however, I was quite shocked. The travel companions
said they were six or seven footprints.

Rེས་H་e་ལ་vེ་པས་hོ་དེ་\ོ་པ་aམས་ཨོ་eན་Xི་བ;གས་•ི་ཡིན་པར་6ེད་ཟེར། ཉེ་—ོར་0་hོའི་རིགས་གཞན་མི་འ0ག ‘་བོ་aམས་Mིས་མཐོ་ཆེན་པོ་བGིགས། དར་•ོག་བµགས་
6ས་སོང་། (Sle lung 1983a:415.5-415.6)
Later, a rGya la chieftain said that the tribal people consider this boulder to be the throne of
Guru Rinpoche and that there was not any other type of stone around here [like this].The travel
companions built a stone cairn and planted great high prayer flags. Although I heard [people]
saying he left a footprints, I did not have any positive or negative thoughts arise in my mind
[about that] however, I was quite shocked.

ད་@་ཟངས་—ོར་1གས་པ་བཙན་ཡམ་|ད་དམར་པོའི་གནས་ཡིན། (Sle lung 1983a:416.1)
Now, Zangs skor is renowned as the abode of bTsan Yam shud dMar po

ཙ¥ྜི་ཀའི་ཕོ་gང་གི་མ0ན་0་‡་བ0ད་Mི་གནས་ཤིག་Mང་འ0ག །ཙ¥ྜི་ཀ་དང་གིང་གHམ་Xི་གསོལ་ཁ་eས་པ་དང་དམར་མཆོད་བXིས། j་oེན་ཕོ་མོ་གཉིས་ལ་གནོད་Œིན་ཆེན་
པོར་ཙ¥ྜི་ཀ །ག^་Oོན་མ། I་གཅིག་j་མཆེད་སོགས་ཕེབས། (Sle lung 1983a:417.4-417.5)
Even though it was the abode of nāgamāra in front of tsaN+Di ka’s palace, we petitioned
tsaN+Di ka and three Ging and performed an extensive blood sacrifice (dmar chod). Both the
male and female sku rten were possessed by the great yakṣa tsaN+Di ka and g.Yu sgron ma
and Zhing skyong sku mched

འདི་ནས་བyང་G་ཕད་ཅེས་1གས་ཤིང་Iོ་Kོགས་H་ཏལ་པ་ཞེས་འབོད་པའི་འs་མགོ་aོ་ཞིང་འཕོངས་Yོར་མོ། མ་འ1ངས་པའི་0ས་dོས་c་བ་ཚམ་དང་། •ག་འཇིབས་ནས་
འcོལ་བ་དེ་འ~་ཤིན་p་མང་བར་€ང་། (Sle lung 1983a:418.2-418.3)
From here the place known as rTsa phad in the south there was an insect called tal pa, it was sharp
headed, round bottom and when it is was not fed, it is thin like a tiny piece of incense. Once it
sucks the blood and is fed, then it becomes the size of a thumb. Once it has bitten and until it is full
it does not let go. There were so many.

ཚ•་རིང་ནོར་sར་hོ་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་འཕོག་པས་མནར་Mང་ཞག་སའི་བར་0་ཉེས་„ོན་མེད་པར་འfོལ་ཞིང་‘་1ོགས་ཕལ་ཆེར་Xིས་ལམ་འcང་བ1ོད་བཀའ་བ་དང་། ས་ཐག་རིང་བ་
བཅས་e་ལར་šོག་ན་འགབ་mལ་ཟེར་Mང་Mང་‰ར་ནས་གསང་Zང་0་བབས་པ་དང་། འོད་›ན་དཀར་པོ་དང་ཞིང་„ོང་མ་སོགས་ནས་Mང་ཞལ་Xིས་བཞེས་པ་བཅས་གནས་H་མི་
ཕེར་བ་མི་ཡོང་འ1ོ་¼མ་[ེ་ཐག་བཅད། (Sle lung 1983a:423.5-424.1)
The path now is very steep and difficult. My attendant Tshe ring nor bu was hit by a falling
stone but at least we reached our night’s resting place. The others complained that the way is
too dangerous and our destination too far away; that it would be better to return to rGya la. But
due to the prophecies I received, the deities ’Od ldan dkar po and Zhing skyong ma promised
to assist, I resolved that if we are unable to reach our destination, it would be better not to

ཀƒ་པ་རང་Uང་hོ་Rེས་གནས་Yོ་འ6ེད་པར་མཛད་པའི་6་Áང་ (Sle lung 1983a:436.1)
Bya khyung a sacred site was discovered by Karma pa rang byung rdo rje (1284-1339).
ས་^ལ་མ་ƒོས་པའི་g་བོས་གང་བ། Üམ་པ་དང་ཤིང་གི་འདབ་མ་འཁོར་ལོ་Gིབས་བeད་པ་དང༌། བ0ན་པ། བŸ་ªག་པ། k་པ་aམས་Mི་aམ་པ་ཅན་དང༌། hོ་Rེ་e་1མ་Xི་aམ་
པ་འ~་བ་སོགས་ཡ་མཚན་པ་0་མས་གང་བ། †ོན་ཤིང་གི་vོང་པོ་གནམ་མི་མཐོང་བས་ཚང་ཚbང་འ•ིགས་པ་དེར་ཞག་ཕབ། (Sle lung 1983a:437.1-
Buck wheat was grown in unploughed earth. Full of amazing ldum pa and trees which leaves
are like, seven, eight and sixteen spoked wheels, and also double crossed vajras.

མཁའ་འ1ོའི་མེ་མཆོད་དང༌། Kག་བཞི་པའི་བ—ང་བ། བoན་གསོལ། ¬མ་པ་O་Oོག་ལ་གསོལ་ཁ་ ལ། (Sle lung 1983a:437.3)
ḍākinīs fire offering (me mchod) and four armed Mahākāla propitiation, to the oracle (brtan
Ú་ཕད་དང་ཤིང་ཕད་ཅེས་པའི་འs་•ག་འཇིབ་དང་tང་མ་0ག་ཅན་Xི་གནོད་པ་ཤིན་p་ཆེ་བ་འ0ག །†ོན་ཤིང་གི་གསེབ་aམས་H་tང་s་uང་Å་གཡེར་ཀའི་—ད་འ~་བའི་Oས་
ས་གཡོ་བ་ཡོད། tང་s་འདི་གནས་ནང་0་Èན་མཚམས་དེར་ཐམས་ཅད་0ས་གཅིག་ལ་—ད་འ6ིན་པ་—ད་ཆེ་བ་ཞིག་གིས་6ང་~ངས་ཏེ་འདེགས་འཇོག་གི་aམ་པ་དགེ་འ0ན་མང་
པོ་ཚJགས་པའི་ཞལ་འདོན་འ~་བ་དང༌། ཇ་^ན་གཅིག་ཙམ་ན་0ས་གཅིག་ལ་བཞག་ནས་—ད་Ÿང་ཟད་Mང་མི་བOག་པ་ཡ་མཚན་པར་€ང༌། (Sle lung
There were harmful insects called rtswa phad and shing phad which sucks blood is a poisonous
fly. In the midst of the trees small flies made the sound of small bells causing earth tremouring.
These flies, in the place where there is darkness, all at the same time make a sound. It is a loud
noise and when it starts it were as if monks were gathered and chanting. After the length of tea
time they stop, not even making a little sound, its wondrous!
དེ་ཉིན་ཤ་ཟ་གpམ་པོ་Wན་Xི་འ0ག་གནས་u་བོ་ཆེན་པོ་Ð་\ོང་~ག་p་འ}ག་པ། ཧ་ཧ་དང༌། ±ཾ་±ཾ་དང༌། ཧཾ་ཨཾ་ཞེས་པའི་O་གསལ་པོར་Oོག་པ་དེ་དང་མཇལ། Zང་པ་དེའི་ ་
མདའ་aམས་ལ་o་Zང་ཞེས་1གས་ཤིང་ཕན་mན་ཐམས་ཅད་0་È་ཟིའི་~ི་gོ་བ་དེའི་u་འ1མ་0་འ6ོར། †ོན་ཤིང་རིང་མོ་འXེལ་བའི་ཟམ་པ་ལ་བ1ོད་དེ་Kིན། u་འ1མ་དེར་ཕ་
བོང་[ག་རིས་ཅན་ཆེ་བRིད་ངོ་མཚར་བའི་ངོགས་H་sམ་པ་དཀར་པོ་ནོར་sའི་ཁ་eན་ཅན་དང༌། ཨ་Qང་ཤད་སོགས་Zང་གསལ་Xི་གyགས་བ¾ན་དང༌། གསེར་ཉ། eལ་མཚན།
ག0གས་སོགས་ཤིན་p་གསལ་བ། དེའི་གཤམ་u་དMིལ་Xི་hོ་ཞིག་ལ་མིག་མངས་Mི་རི་མོ་དང༌། @ག་དེར་•ོ་བོའི་Tན་འsར་དོད་0་གསལ་བར་འ0ག་པས། (Sle lung
The waves from the river resounded with ha ha hum hum and hang am, pounding against each
other and crashing into rocks. This valley called rTa lung, the upper and lower parts…smell of
sulphur. We reached the bank of the river and crossed a fallen tree trunk. A great rock rose at
the water’s edge like the skin of a tiger. On it were self-manifested images of a jewel, the
syllable Ah and golden fish. Other rocks were embossed with lattice girds and eyes of wrathful

དེ་£བ་sང་wལ་ནས་\ོ་པ་བསོད་ནམས་ ན་ཚJགས་ཅན་འ6ོར་ནས། ‚་མ་fེད་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་ལ་ཕེབས་`་ཡིན་ན་ཅི་ལབ། vེ་པ་ཀ་གནམ་པ་འདིས་ན་ནིང་vེ་པ་ཚ•་རིང་དངོས་Âབ་
གནས་H་šེབས་པ་ལ་བ¾ས་ནས་ངེད་ཚ་ཞང་aམས་ལ་བཀའ་„ོན་ཕབ། དངོས་པོ་ ལ་ནས་བཤགས་པ་6ེད་དགོས་པ་Uང༌། ད་རེས་Mང་fེད་6ོན་ན་མི་དགའ་`་ཨེ་ཡིན། ‚་མ་
རང་མི་གཏོང༌། vེ་པར་བཀའ་བMོན་ན་ཐམས་ཅད་སེམས་ˆག་པ་ཞིག་དང༌། (Sle lung 1983a:445.1-445.3)
That night, a klo pa called bSod nams Phun tshogs having arrived said’ “Guru, why you are
going to Pad+mo bkod? Last year, the chieftain Tshe ring dngos grub having entered the sacred
site, was scolded by the chieftain Ka gnam pa and we had to offer materials and confess our
faults. Don’t you think it’s better that you don’t go? I am not going to let you go I am not letting
you go, if the leader told us off, then everyone will be sorrowful.”
ངེད་aམས་ལའང་དམག་Uང་ནས་ས་མི་བཅག་པ་ཞིག་6ས་འོང༌། ‚་མ་fེད་སེམས་ཞིབ་མོ་ཐོངས། ཡར་ལོག་ན་མི་དགའ་བ་ཨེ་ཡིན། ཞེས་ཐབས་€་ཚJགས་Mི་Yོ་ནས་བཀག་ཆ་6ེད་
ཅིང་འ0ག །དེ་0ས་ཀ་གནམ་པས་dོ་བེར་དམག་1བས་མགོ་མའི་—བས་H་ཡོད་འ0ག (Sle lung 1983a:445.3-445.4)
If he sends an army to us we will be reduced to dust. Lama you should consider carefully, isn't
it better you return back?” Saying such things he tried many different methods to stop me
going. At that time Ka nampa was at the starting point of getting ready to have a war with
people of sPo bo.

དེ་དག་དང་ཉེ་བར་†ོན་ཤིང་གི་མེ་ཏོག་ཡི་གེ་ཧ་འ~་བ་མགོའི་Kོགས་H་མེ་ཏོག་གི་ཁ་~ིལ་s་འ~་བ་Kི་དཀར་ལ་ནང་དམར་བ་མང་0་འ0ག (Sle lung
Nearby this there were many trees that had flowers, like the letter ha and in the direction of the
heard the flowers’ mouths are like a bell, white outside and red inside

‰ར་རས་uང་པས་བ;གས་པར་1གས་པའི་རས་uང་ ག་པ་ཞེས་པའི་ ག་པ་ཆེན་པོ་ཞིག་Mང་ཡོད། (Sle lung 1983a:450.2)
At Ras chung Phug there was quite a big cave called Ras chung cave which was named after
Ras chung pa who had lived there

‚་མ་fེད་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་ལ་མ་འ1ོ། \ོ་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་པ། མི་ལ་དཔོན་མེད། ས་ལ་•ིམས་མེད། Kིན་Mང་དགེ་མཚན་`་མེད། fེདརང་གི་ཆས་aམས་ངེད་\ོ་པས་ཡར་„ེལ། (Sle
lung 1983a:452.4-452.5)
“Please guru, don’t go to Pad+mo bkod. The klo pa there have no leader and the place has no
laws. Even if you do reach there, there will be no benefit for you. We will help carry your
belongings back the way you have come.”

G་གHམ་Xི་I་ཚJགས་ལ་‚ོས་ལིངས་Mིས་བÌར་ཏེ་དམ་ཅན་aམས་ལ་འcིན་ལས་བཅོལ། ཆད་མཐོ་བOགས། ཛབ་ད6ངས་zང་lིང་གི་O་‰ོན་0་འ1ོ་བས་—ས་ལ་འཛ•གས་པ་འ~་
བའི་ལམ་མ0ང་mགས་གཟར་པོ་ཞིག་ལ་gེང་ཆགས་H་Kིན། འÂལ་ཚན་ཆེ་ཞིང་hོ་མང་ལ་འ1ིལ་„ེན་པ་བཅས་ཉེན་ཆེ་ཡང་„ོན་0་མ་–ར། (Sle lung
We entrusted in the activities of the oath bound protectors and proclaimed aloud our
commitments, we prepared by sounding our thigh bone trumpets and reciting mantras [whilst]
continuously going up a fiercely steep path much like climbing up a ladder. Even though the
journey was hazardous because there were many boulders that were in danger of rolling, still
we managed to make it.
(Sle lung 1983a:454.1-454.2)
Even though there was thick fog and a gale was imminent I generated the vajra-pride of the
deity lok+t+ri pA la intensely and recited mantras to control the eight classes of spirits
L་x་ཡོན་ཏན་གཏེར་མཛJད་Mི་ལས་ཚJགས་]ས་གནས་H་བ1ོད་པའི་ཆད་མཐོ་དང༌། རིག་འཛbན་ཆོས་Rེ་lིང་པའི་གཏེར་6ོན་]ས་གནས་H་བ1ོད་པའི་ཆ་“ེན་Xི་ཆད་མཐོ་
བOགས་རིམ་བཞིན་Xིས་འཇམ་Iིང་Iིང་འ1ོ་བ་Uང་ནའང༌། གནས་རི་ཕན་mན་aམས་ན་sན་Xིས་བOིབས་པས་བཀོད་པ་གསལ་པོར་མ་མཐོང༌། (Sle lung

[Mantras such as] proclaiming the four activities of Guru treasury of good qualities and
smoothly proclaiming the convent of agreement, the secret abode, going gradually and we
travlled to Rig ’dzin Chos rje gling pa’s revealed treasures secret places. Even though we
gradually calmed the storm [by doing the above] the mountains were shrouded in mist and we
could not clearly see what was there.
ཤེལ་དཀར་Zང་པ། པ+ྨ་•ོང་ཆེན་ཞེས་པ་Âབ་ཐོབ་བeད་Ÿ་G་བཞིའི་ཕོ་gང་བཅས་ཤེལ་དཀར་ལ་འདི་དང་ཕན་mན་0་འ0ག་ཅིང༌། (Sle lung 1983a:454.3-
When we turned back up, as was said in the travel guide it was described as the centre throat
chakra of enjoyment, which is fit to be a place attached to the palace of the master of secret
places which is called the white crystal valley, Pad+ma rdzong chen. This white crystal valley
is the palace of the eighty four mahāsiddhas.
མ་¡ོས་པའི་ལོ་ཏོག་ཡོད་པར་གHངས་འ0ག་པ་ཡིན་ནམ་¼མ་[ེ། ཇི་@ར་Mང་eང་ནས་བ@ས་ན་ཞིང་འ~་བ་ལ།འ•ིས་H་Kིན་0ས་འཇག་མས་གང་བའི་བར་མཚམས་aམས་†ོན་
ཤིང་གི་vོང་པོ་•ང་མ་བµགས་པ་@་sས་གང་བ་དང༌།ཕ་བོང་དོ་ཆད་ནང་ནས་u་—ོར་Xི་hོ་འཁོར་བ་འ~་བའི་O་ཡོད་པ་གཅིག་བཅས་འ0ག (Sle lung
When it was mentioned in the guide about these spontaneously arising uncultivated crops, if
one looks from a distance they look like fields but when you go up close the space it is actually
full of wild grass and it also full of willow trees which looks as if they have been planted there
was a stone making the sound similar to that of a turning water wheel.

ནང་པར་ཡེ་ཤེས་Mི་མགོན་པོའི་བ—ང་བ་ ལ། u་འ1མ་Xི་hོ་uང་Å་ཞིག་ལ་དགའ་བ་འfིལ་བ་གཞོང་པ་དང་བཅས་པ་དང༌། གསང་བདག་གི་j་hོ་དཀར་ལས་Âབ་པ་ཤིན་p་
གསལ་བ་ཞིག་¾ེད་Mང་གདན་འ~ེན་མ་Qབ། hོ་མཆོད་ ལ། བ་དན་བµགས། འདི་དག་p་ཤིང་ཤ་ཟན་དང༌། ;ན་མཁན་དང༌། སེང་དཀར་དང༌། ]་ßག་དང༌། གཉའ་ལོ་འགལ་
པ་མང་0་„ེས་པ་མི་གང་ཙམ་དང༌། སེ་ལོ་†ང་པ་ཞེང་སོར་ªག་པ་མི་གང་Iག་ཙམ་0་„ེས་པ་ཤིན་p་མང༌། དེ་£བ་དཔའ་fིམ་ཞེས་པའི་ ག་པར་བvད། (Sle lung
In the morning we did a Mahākāla propitiation. By the river there was a little stone which had
a self-arisen (image) of a dga' ba 'khyil ba with its seater basin. We found a very clear self-
arisen Vajrapāṇi image on white stone but we could not take it away. However, we offered
stone cairns and planted a banner. In this area there grew many trees including shing sha zan,
zhun mkhan, seng dkar, bamboo, gnya’ lo and ’gal pa which were as high as humans. There
grew many se lo ljang, six finger widths, which grew a bit higher than the height of a human.
That night we stayed at a cave called dPa’ khyim.
།ཚ•ས་བཞི་Kི་མའི་ཉིན་ནགས་རོང་Xེན་Qར་གཟར་བོ་བ1ོད་དཀའ་བ་0་མར་འབབ་འཛ•གས་Mིས་Kིན་པ་ན་\ོའི་6་རིགས་€་ཚJགས་པ་ཡོད་པའི་—ོར། 6་—ད་ཀི་W་ཀི་W་ཞེས་པ་
དང༌། ཏིག་ཏིག་ཅེས་པ། ཨ་ཧོ་ཨ་ཧོ་ཞེས་པ། ཧང་ཧང་ཞེས་Oོག་པ་སོགས་རིགས་མི་གཅིག་པ་0་མའི་ཟི་དིར་Xིས་གང་བ། Iག་པར་†ོན་ཤིང་གི་Gེ་མོ་མ་གཏོགས་ས་ལ་འབབ་པར་
མི་ཤེས་པའི་6་—ད་ངན་ཁོ་ན་Oོག་པའི་ཁ་ནས་•ག་འབབ་པ། དེ་ལ་tང་མ་འཁོར་བ་ན་དེ་ཉིད་ཟས་H་ཟ་བ་དང༌། ཉིན་མོ་—ད་མི་1ག་ཅིང་མཚན་གང་བར་མེད་0་—ད་Oོག་པའི་
6་€་ཚJགས་པ་དང༌། [ག་tང་དང༌། ཤ་tང་0ག་ཅན་དང༌། tང་s་སེར་པོ་0ག་ཅན་སོགས་tང་sའི་གནོད་པ་དང༌། [ག་oོལ་ཅེས་པའི་འs་སེར་པོ་¨་ཅན་སོ་བཏབ་ན་ཟ་
འEག་གི་ནད་འUང་བ། •གས་rལ་འ~་བ་ལ་ཡན་ལག་མང་པོ་„ེས་པའི་འs་སོར་k་པ་སོགས་0ག་ཅན་0ག་མེད་བསམ་Xིས་མི་fབ་པའི་•ོག་ཆགས་རིས་མེད་0་མས་གང་བ།
(Sle lung 1983a 457.1-457.5)
On the 4th when we went through forests, with many ascents and descents, it was very difficult
to pass and we climbed up and down. The birds singing went ki ku, ki ku, tig tig, A ho A ho,
hang hang etc. The many different types of singing made the atmosphere fully vibrant. There
was special types of birds that sat only on the top of the trees and not knowing how to come
down to the ground, made unpleasant sounds. They were bleeding from the mouths and when
the flies land on then they eat them as food. There were many different birds that do not sing
in the daytime and sing throughout the night without stopping. Also, there were stag sbrang
fly flies and sha sbrang flies and yellow flies which possess poison which could harm. There
is also a yellow insect that had hair called stag rtol which bites then causes each illness. It was

full of many different types of insects, some have poison and some do not, such as an insect
that has many limbs and five teeth like an iron snake.
པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་Mི་\ོ་པ་aམས་ཏ་ལར་1གས་པའི་ཤིང་ད6ིབས་Üམ་པ་འ~་བ་|ན་པ་Kི་ནང་རིམ་པ་མང་པོ་ཤོག་~ིལ་0་6ས་པའི་ནང་¼ིང་I་བ་@་s་དཀར་པོ་ཟ་xང་བ་དང༌། མེ་
ཏོག་ཁ་མ་6ེ་བའི་0ས་¼ིང་གི་ད6ིབས་ཅན་0་ཡོད་པ། ནང་གི་གེ་སར་ཟོས་ན་རོ་[ར་ཁ་འ~་བ། འདི་0ས་འgས་s་མ་¡ིན་པ་འ0ག་Mང་[ར་ཁ་ཙམ་0་མ་ ང་པོར་འ~ིལ་བ་མི་
མགོ་ཙམ་པའི་ཚJད་0་ཆགས་པ་འདབ་མ་ག;་འདོམ་Kད་དོ་ཙམ་„ེས་པའི་གང་ཡོད་Gེ་མོར་eས་པ་དང༌། བ་x་རའི་vོང་པོ། ཀ¥ྜ་ཀ་རི་འgས་s་ཁ་དོག་དམར་སེར་རོ་བŸད་དང་
›ན་པ་དང༌། དབོ་སེའི་འgས་s་པི་པི་ལིང་འ~་བ། (Sle lung 1983a:457.5-458.2)
There is a Pad+mo bkod klo pa tree called ta la which looks like the shape of a ldum pa and
has many layers of skin, outer and inner like a roll of paper. Inside the centre marrow is like a
white substance that you can eat. Also there was a flower which, when not opened, is shaped
like a heart and when you eat the stamens they taste like walnuts. At this time, although they
had not yet matured they were like a walnut with many of them sticking together and as big as
a humans head. The leaves were two and half bow lengths and all the tops were spread. Ba ru
ra trees (beleric myrobalan). There were kaṇḍakari trees which grows fruit an orange colour
and which had a delicious taste. Also, there was a tree wo dbo se its fruits were like Pi pi ling
(piper longum).

གཞན་ཡང་†ོན་ཤིང་དང་Üམ་པ་ལོ་མ་hོ་Rེ་e་1མ། རལ་1ི། པ+ྨ། འཁོར་ལོ། Gེ་གHམ་Xི་aམ་པ་ཅན་0་ཡོད་པ་དང༌། ཤང་ཐག་ཤིན་p་•་བ་c་]ོམ་0་མས་†ོན་ཤིང་གི་vོང་པོ་
ཕན་mན་eང་རིང་པོ་~་བ་དང་~་བ་Kེད་པས་tེལ་བའི་བར་ན་Z་L་`ད་•གས་Oོགས་དང༌། ཞགས་པ་Hམ་~ིལ། ཉིས་~ིལ། ཐིག་ལེ་ཐིག་cན་ཡི་གེའི་aམ་པ་ཅན་0་མ་འKང་
འEལ་0་གཡོ་བ། (Sle lung 1983a:458.2-458.4)
Furthermore, there were trees and dumpa the leaves shaped like crossed vajras, swords, lotuses,
wheels and three peaks. Many of the very strong vines, thick and thin, were linked between the
trees making different shapes, looped many times like an iron chain, lasso like twisted three
times, two times having many little holes shaped like letters drooping in all directions.
ཤིང་G་མངར་པོའི་vོང་པོ་དང༌། འདམ་Eག་དང༌། „ེམ་ཚJད་དང༌། དོག་གི་6ེ་gག་0་མ་སོགས་ཟས་H་xང་བའི་‰ོ་དང་ཤིང་ཟན་ཞེས་\ོ་པ་aམས་འབོད་པ་|ན་པ་¨་ཞོལ་ཅན་G་
བ་བÍངས་ནས་བཏགས་ན་Kེ་ངན་པ་ཙམ་དང་འ~་བ། Gེ་མོའི་¼ིང་པོ་དཀར་àམ་རོ་@ར་ཁ་བཟང་པོ་gོ་བ། ལོ་མ་zང་འདོམ་Kེད་དོ་ཙམ་ལ་འདབ་cན་རལ་1ི་འ~་བ་}་Kེད་དོ་
པ་Kོགས་རེར་k་བŸ་ཙམ་Xེས་པས་ཆར་„ོབ་Mི་ཁང་པ་བpབ་པའི་vོང་པོ་དང༌། ]་oོལ་ཞེས་པའི་•ང་མ་དང༌། ßག་W་ཤ་དང༌། ཤིང་འgས་Øང་མ་འ~་བ་vོང་པོའི་ངོས་H་á་བ་
@ར་འ6ར་བ་རོ་ཤིན་p་མངར་བའི་†ོན་ཤིང་དང༌། སེ་ལོ་†ང་པ་ཞེང་ཐོ་གང་Iག་ཙམ་0་ཡོད་ (Sle lung 1983a:458.4-459.1)
Sweet rooted trees, ’dam phrug, skyem tshod, and also many types of vegetation dog which
can be eaten, also the klo pa call them shing zan, a tree which has hairy layers and when the
root is beaten and milled it is like a rough tsampa. The centre of the top are white and round,
taste like good walnuts, the leaves length of two and a half foot strides. The petals are sword
shaped and its length is two and a half cubits. Each side has around fifty leaves and it protects
from the rain underneath [so much so] that one could build a hut (by using the leaves). The
willow tree called sba rtol, smyug ku sh and trees that have fruit like turnips which sticks to the
tree trunk as a goiter tasting very sweet. Se Lo sprouts around tho gang width.
པ་དང༌། ཤིང་གི་vོང་པོར་6་འ ར་བ་@ར་མཆོང་ཞིང་„ེན་པའི་6ི་བ་མŠག་མ་¨་ཞོལ་ཅན་ཤིང་6ིར་1གས་པ་དག་Mང་འ0ག །0ག་rལ་ཡོད་ཟེར་Mང་མཐོང་བ་ནི་མ་Uང༌། Zང་
Hལ་འགའ་ཞིག་p་0ག་rལ་Xི་~ི་ཡིན་ཟེར་བ་6ི་ལའི་གཅིན་འ~་བའི་~ི་འmབ་པ་དང༌། འགའ་ཞིག་p་Lར་Wམ་བཟང་པོའི་~ིས་Mང་མཚJན་0་མེད་པའི་~ི་བHང་Iག་པར་
འQལ་བ་འ0ག (Sle lung 1983a:459.1-459.3)
Also there was an animal jumping on the trees, flying like a bird, very fast and hairy like a
mouse, known as tree birds. It was said there were poisonous snakes but I did not come across
any. In some corners there were droppings which they say were [from] poisonous snakes which
had a very bad smell like cat urine. At some places there was a very beautiful diffused smell
of saffron which was incomparable.

\ོ་པ་དཔའ་བོས་ཚ•་¹ངས་དང༌། Wན་དགའ་ཞེས་པའི་མི་གཉིས་བH་བར་མངགས།་ hོ་ལེབ་Mི་dོས་ཕོར་བXིས་ཏེ་dོས་ཤིང་གི་0ད་པ་དང་བཅས་ཏེ་བH་བར་Uང༌། དེ་ནས་མི་རིང་
བར་དཔའ་བོ་རང་ཇ་ཆང་དང་བཅས་Uང༌། བH་བ་བXིས་ཏེ་Kག་དང་Lས་འ0ད་བXིས། (Sle lung 1983a:459.6-460.1)
dPa’ bo sent Tse srung and Kun dga’ to receive us, they were using stone tile as a censer and
smoke from burning fragrant trees and came to receive us. dPa’ bo himself brought tea and
chang and greeted us with veneration…
།ཚ•ས་ªག་བ0ན་གཉིས་ལ་‰གས་wོད་ལོ·¸ི་པ་ལའི་Yོ་ནས་མནན་•ེག་འཕང་བ་eས་པར་བXིས། མཁའ་འ1ོའི་མེ་མཆོད། བeགས་བ¬ན་དང་ཆ་¼ོམས་‰ོན་0་འ1ོ་བའི་Yོ་ནས་
བཀའ་ནན་རབ་བRིད་Mི་ཆད་མཐོ་བOགས་པ་aམས་བXིས་0ས། (Sle lung 1983a:460.3-460.4)
On the 6th and 7th we performed a fire, suppression and will cast through practicing sNgags
rgod lok+t+ri also the same number of ḍākinī’s fire offering and brGyags brngan, followed
by performing a consecration and words of reminding the oath bound oracles.

བeད་ཐམས་ཅད་ད་Kིན་ཆད་ནས་བག་ཡོད་པར་6ོས་ཤིག །གལ་ཏེ་དེ་@ར་མི་6ེད་ན་~ག་པོར་•ོས་པས་Íལ་0་¢ོག་པར་གདོན་མི་ཟའོ། །ཞེས་—ད་Mི་ང་རོ་ཆེན་པོས་བOག་p་
བŸག །དེ་£བ་ནས་ངོ་སོ་ཐོན་པར་བག་ཕེབས་ལ་བདེ་བར་གཉིད་ལོག་པ་སོགས་འཇམ་དིང་གིས་སོང༌། (Sle lung 1983a:461.5-462.1)
At dusk I, the Tantric Knowledge holder bZhad pa’i rdo rje, who was blessed by Guru
Rinpoche, without much time will be arriving at the centre of the supreme sacred site of
Pad+mo bkod, therefore all of you eight classes of arrogant gods and demons from now on
behave yourselves. If you do not listen to me, there is no doubt that through the anger of a
wrathful deity it will crush you all to dust. I made the people proclaim this and therefore from
that night it was clearly efficacious, so the nights became smooth and I had a comfortable
peaceful sleep etc.
ཚ•ས་བeད་ལ་དཔའ་བོའི་fིམ་0་ངེད་ཅག་འཁོར་བཅས་ཐམས་ཅད་མ1ོན་0་བོས། པགས་པའི་[ན་ཁོ་ན་བཏིང་བར་འ0ག་p་བŸག་ནས། ཇ་དང༌། •ེ་ཆང༌། •ེ་Qག །མཛJ་ཞོ། •ེ་
ཙམ་Xི་ཚJགས་ཟན། •ེ་ཚJད་Mི་ཆན། tང་Gི། ཕག་ཤ །„ེམ། ཤ་སོགས་^ལ་བབས་དང་བâན་པའི་བཟའ་བཅའི་6ེ་gག་€་ཚJགས་པའི་ཚJགས་འཁོར་བ[བས། འདི་œལ་Xི་\ོ་aམས་
—ད་༼ཁམས་dོ་བོའི་—ད༽་དང་འ~ེས་པ་གཤའ་དཀར་Xི་a་ཆ་བཏགས་པ་ཕལ་ཆེར་མགོ་¤ིལ་Zས་དང་ཆ་6ད་གཉིས་ཀ་ངན་པ་ཤ་[ག་p་འ0ག །དཔའ་བོ་རང་ཤ་eགས་པ་གཞན་
ལས་བོངས་ཆེ་ཞིང་རང་བཞིན་~ང་བ་Ðད་མགོ་ཅན་མ་ཎི་རང་འ~ེན་པ། དཀོན་མཆོག་ལ་དད་པ་ཆེ་བ། ད«ས་དང་མི་འ~་བ་ཞིག་འ0ག་གོ (Sle lung
On the 8th dPa’ bo invited my travel companions and I to his house. He let us sit down on laid
leather cushions and then threw a feast of tea, millet beer, millet soup, dzo yoghurt, dough
made of millet tsampa, beer made of khre tshod, honey, pork, drinks, other meat and
miscellaneous food provided, according to whatever was available in their land. This area of
Klo their spoken language a mixture with Khams and sPo bo. They wore earrings of nickel and
most of them were shaven headed. Both their clothes and physicality were impoverished. dPa’
bo himself, was chubby and bigger in stature, naturally honest, fringe hair headed, and all the
time reciting the mani mantra. He had great faith in the three gems, different from the rest.
ཚ•་དབང་དགོས་ཟེར་བ་བཞིན་ཡང་གསང་e་ཅན་Xི་ནང་ཚན་L་x་བདེ་ཆེན་དབང་Àག་དང་གསང་བདག་¼ན་བ`ད་Mི་ནང་ཚན་བ0ད་Gི་ཐིག་པའི་6ིན་¢བས་6ས། ཁོ་པའི་s་
བསོད་ནམས་ཚ•་དབང་དང་བÊ་ཤིས་དོན་Âབ་Mིས་L་xའི་བ‘ས་པ་6ེད་པར་ཁས་‚ངས། s་མོ་ཞིག་{་གཅོད་དགོས་ཞེས་པ་@ར་གµག་ ད་‚ངས། མིང་བ0ད་འ0ལ་མཚJ་མོར་
བཏགས། (Sle lung 1983a:463.4-463.6)
As requested I had given a long life empowerment [called] guru bDe chen dbang phyug a
blessing from Yang gsang rgya can and bDud rtsi thig pa a blessing from the ear whispered
lineage of gSang bdag Vajrapāṇi. I made dPa' bo’s sons, bSod nams tshe dbang and bKra shis
don grub, promise to do the Vajra Guru mantra and also as requested I cut his daughter’s hair,
the crown of the head and gave her the name bDud ’dul mtsho mo.

དཔའ་བོའི་‚་Gི། མར་དང་•ེ། ßག་མའི་ཞགས་པ། e་äགས་བཅས་6ིན་Uང་བ་ལས་བཞིའི་oེན་འgེལ་Xི་•ས་H་འ0ག་པར་ལ་ཉེ་བཟང་བར་སེམས། (Sle lung
dPa’ bo offered the following material; musk, butter, millet, bamboo ropes and antelope skin.
[which] I thought were very useful substances for performing the four auspicious activities (las
fིམ་aམས་ལ་མེ་ཏོག་གཏོར་འདི་Kོགས་Mི་\ོ་aམས་འཚJ་བ་ཡོང་0ས་གང་ཡོང་ཟོས། མེད་0ས་ཤིང་ཟན་སོགས་ངན་ངོན་ལ་རེ་བ་མ་གཏོགས་ཆས་གསོག་འཇོག་གི་རིགས་མི་6ེད་
ཅིང༌། •ེ་1ོ་མ་ཙb་ཙb་aམས་ཁ་ཟས་Mི་གཙJ་བོ་6ེད། 6་ཕག་དང་མཛJ་མོ་བoེན་པ་ལས་ར་Zག་སོགས་Yོ་Àགས་གཞན་aམས་བ[ེན་པའི་•ོལ་མི་€ང༌། ^ལ་•ོལ་Xི་དམར་ཐབ་ལ་མི་
འཛ•མ་ཞིང་u་ཐབ་ལ་ཤིན་p་འཛ•མ་པ་དང༌། ཐབ་བXིས་པའི་|ལ་Xི་རས་མ་aམས་ལ་འགོམ་0་མི་འŠག། འགོམས་པའི་ཤིང་མེར་བ•ེག་པ་ལ་ཡང་ཤིན་p་འཛ•མ་པར་6ེད། ངེད་
aམས་Mིས་བོད་Zགས་གང་ཡིན་ལས་^ལ་0ས་དང་བâན་པའི་འཛ•མ་ཆ་མ་Qབ་Mང་ཉེས་„ོན་ཆེ་བའི་རིགས་གཏན་ནས་མ་Uང༌། བབས་ནས་ས་0ག་ཅེས་ས་¢ངས་Mི་འEལ་Xིས་
Zས་ཐམས་ཅད་ཟ་འEག་དང་ཐོར་པ་འཆར་བ། དོན་མེད་0་{ངས་པ། Ÿང་ཟད་ƒ་ཁ་Uང་བ་aམས་|་ཐོར་དང་{ངས་པོ་ཆེན་པོར་འ1ོ་བ་སོགས་འ0ག་[ེ། ངེད་ངོ་གཡོག་aམས་
ལ་ཟ་འEག་ཙམ་ལས་གཞི་ཆེ་བ་མ་Uང༌། ནོར་s་zང་པ་གཉན་{ངས་Mིས་བབས་•ི་ཙམ་Uང་སོང༌། (Sle lung 1983a:463.6-464.5)
They throw flowers on the houses. [On] this side of klo, when they have a lot of food they eat
it all, when they do not have [much] they rely on shing zan and other bare necessities. However,
they do not save any food for the future. Their main food is millet, wild sweet potato and rats.
They keep chickens, pigs and dzo mo and it seems they do not keep goats and sheep and so on
as livestock. In their tradition, it seems they were not very conscientious about dropping meat,
blood or skin etc in the cooking hearth, however they were very conscientious about the chu
thab. Where there were remaining droppings on the cooking remnants the klo pa will not let
you step over them. They were also very conscientious not to burn wood that had been stepped
over. The companions and I only managed to follow the rules that were known in central Tibet,
we were not very conscientious according to the local people’s customs, however there were
not any noticeable faults at all. Generally, there was an earth poison which causes itching all
over the body and spots appeared without reason, swelling. When you have a little wound it
grows and swells greatly. However, the travel companions and I only had little itches but did
not get any major problems. The secretary Nor bu’s feet were swollen and caused some
དགའ་vེ་པ། 6་ར་ས་པ། གཏམ་པོ་བ། ཀོ་^་བ། Zང་ལེགས་པ། འ»ག་པ་སོགས་ཀ་གནམ་པ་རང་དང་འgེལ་ཆགས་Mི་\ོ་1ོང་ཚན་བŸ་གHམ་ཐམས་ཅད་བˆས་ཏེ་ངེད་མི་གཏོང་
བའི་གན་X་(e་) ‚ངས། (Sle lung 1983a:466.1-466.2)
All those the thirteen villages that had established a link with Ka gnam pa such as dGa’ sde pa,
bYa ra sa pa, gTam po ba, Ko yu ba, Lung legs pa, ’Brug pa etc. put together a written document
not to let me pass.

པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་འདི་ཀ་གནམ་པ་ཁོ་ན་དབང་བ་ལས་དsས་གཙང་གི་མི་ཡོང་ས་མིན་ (Sle lung 1983a:467.1)
This Pad+mo bkod belongs solely to the people of Ka gnam; it is not a place that the inhabitants
of dBus and gTsang may enter

རི་Yོ་ཙམ་ལས་ཡོང་ཐེབས་མི་འ0ག །རི་བོ་གནམ་•གས་འབར་བ་གནས་དེ་དག་གི་£བ་མཐིལ་པོ་རང་0་འ0ག །‰ར་ཡོངས་H་1གས་པར་¼ིང་ག་ཆོས་འཁོར་དང་མ1ིན་པ་
བvེབས་Lང་བOིགས་0ས་ཤིན་p་གསལ་བར་€ང་བས་‘་1ོགས་aམས་ལ་འདི་དང་འདིའོ་ཞེས་ངོ་nད། (Sle lung 1983a:467.6-468.3)
Not only are the footpaths in the gorges difficult to traverse, precisely such [sites] as De’u Rin
chen spungs pa, the centre of the dharmacakra in the heart [of the deity], and Brag dkar bKra
shis rdzong, the centre of the nirmanacakra in the navel, cannot be reached from this point;
one would even emerge from the crevice in the mountain. [For] the mountain of gNams lcags

‘bar ba it is as a principle place of its own to the west of these sites. That this [i.e the present
location] is the border between the Dharmacakra in the [heart of the deity] and the
Sambhogacakra in his throat, did not [formerly] exist as a widespread [notion], but since it has
become fully clear at this point in time, now that I have brought into mutual agreement the
[pertinent] sections from [the cycle] rta mgrin dgongs ’dus which has appeared as a treasure
work of Rig ’dzin Nus ldan rdo rje - that is, the compiled fragments containing place and route
descriptions for Pad+ma bkod - I made this known to my travelling companions.

འgས་†ོངས་པ་aམས་Mི་འ}ལ་འཁོར་བeབ།མཆེད་•མ་ཐམས་ཅད་ལ་གསང་ཡེའི་བ„ེད་རིམ་Xི་ཟབ་•ིད་དང་‚་མའི་aལ་འ6ོར་ཡང་ལེགས་པར་ཕབ། hོ་Rེའི་གནས་Zགས་Mི་
བ1ོ་lེང་ཁོ་ནས་0ས་འདའ་བ་དང༌། ‰་དགོངས་Mི་j་རིམ་དང་དགེ་Œོར་ལ་བGོན་པར་6ས། Ï་ཀི་མ་པ+ྨ་རོལ་མཚJ་སོགས་འ0ས་པ་Øང་ཤས་ལ་སེམས་•ིད་ཕབ། (Sle
lung 1983a:477.1-477.3)
The ’Bras ljongs pa were practicing yogic exercises ('khrul 'khor). In the mornings and
evenings, I performed my own practices and gave teachings of gSang ba Ye she, the profound
generating stage practices, and Guru Yoga (bla ma’i rnal ’byor) to assembled dharma sisters
and friends. I passed the time with discussions of rDo rje’i gnas lugs. For the ḍākinī, Pad+ma
rol mtsho and several others, I gave the pointing out instructions on the nature of the mind (ngo

nེལ་‘འི་ཚ•ས་བŸ། (Sle lung 1983a:488.2)
On 10th day of the monkey month
།བདག་ལ་—ལ་བར་མཁའ་འ1ོས་Zང་བ[ན་པའི། །6ང་ཤར་‘་བ་lིང་0་བ1ོད་མ་Qབ། །བདེ་ཐབས་oེན་འgེལ་གནས་Mི་བཅའ་ཀ་aམས། །ཚ•མས་Zས་མེད་པར་ཇི་བཞིན་གནད་
འ1ོར་བ”བས། །ག0ག་པ་fི་ཡི་མཐའ་དམག་བ‘ོག་གོ་ཞེས། །Zང་ལས་གHངས་སོ་བདེན་æན་šད་ནས་གསལ། །འ1ོ་བའི་དོན་0་འ–ར་དང་མི་འ–ར་བ། (Sle lung
Thus, I was unfortunate that I was not able to progress to north east Zla ba gling as in the ḍākinī
prophecy the implements the place of auspiciousness there was nothing left whatever to
accomplish. I had warded off the foreign invasion of the malevolent dog and it will be clear
later on whether it was true or not what was said in the prophecy for the benefit of beings,
changing and unchanging

།བདག་‚ོ་དམན་པས་oོགས་པར་མི་£ས་མོད། །@ོ་གོས་གཏམ་དང་དཀའ་Tད་fད་བསད་ནས། །བདེ་ཐབས་བ”བས་པ་འདི་ལ་འXོད་པ་མེད། །དེ་Kིར་Iག་བསམ་དག་པ་ཁོ་ནའི་
•ོག །བདེན་པའི་yངས་H་བyང་ནས་བGམས་པའི་ལས། །aམ་པར་དཀའ་བ་གང་ཞིག་བསགས་པ་དེས། །0ས་Mི་ཆད་པ་ཐམས་ཅད་ཞི་–ར་ཅིག (Sle lung
Since I had little sense in that moment I realised I had no capacity, having completely scorned
austerity, speech, food and clothes. Therefore, [having] only the heart of pure motivation. After
grasping the truth, from this composition therefore, by the one which is earned through a great
deal of difficulties during times of annihilation, may there be peace everywhere.


ཅེས་]ས་པའི་གནས་ཐམས་ཅད་Mི་eལ་པོ་གནས་མཆོད་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་0་བ1ོད་པའི་གནས་mལ་~ང་པོར་བRོད་པ་དགའ་6ེད་བདེན་གཏམ་ཞེས་6་བ་ འདི་ནི་ས་མོ་6འི་ལོ་མཁའ་
འ1ོས་ཇི་@ར་Zང་བ[ན་པ་བཞིན་0་འབད་Gོལ་ཆེན་པོས་མ1ིན་པ་ལོངས་Tོད་Mི་འཁོར་ལོ་ལས་བwལ་ཏེ་6ང་lིང་ཟངས་འgོག་དང་། £བ་lིང་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་uང་གི་འ0ས་མདོ་
མཁའ་འ1ོ་གངས་Mི་ར་བའི་མ0ན་¼ིང་ག་ཆོས་Mི་འཁོར་ལོའི་ཆ་ལས་‚ོ་œག་གི་བར་0་བ„ོད་དེ། o་Zང་དབང་ཆེན་lིང་། གཟི་Zང་~ང་•ོང་མQ་Gལ་lིང་། མཁའ་འ1ོ་བ0ད་
šེབས་ཏེ་དUག་པས་ དUག་པའི་ཉ་བའི་དཀར་པོའི་Kོགས་Mི་དགའ་བ་དང་པོར་ཞིང་‰གས་Iན་„ེས་Mི་Ï་ཀི་ཐམས་ཅད་nིན་@ར་འ0་ཞིང་དགའ་བཞིའི་ལོངས་Tོད་ལ་དXེས་

ཆགས་པ་hོ་Rེ་ངེས་མེད་Wན་p་`ས་~ང་གཏམ་Iག་པར་Æས་པ་བདེ་ལེགས་H་–ར་ཅིག། །། གཅིག་;ས། ། (Sle lung 1983a:492.2-493.3)
Thus; this guide is called; “Pleasant words of truth; a honest guide of travelling to Pad+mo
bkod, the king of all holy hidden lands.” Thus, in the Female Earth Bird Year, in accordance
with the ḍākinī prophecy, through great effort and resources, I crossed over the throat cakra
and went to the Copper Wilderness in the northern Continent (Zangs ’Brog), the western heart
cakra of Pad+mo bkod chung where the ḍākinīs gather and from there I travelled up to Blo
Khug. From there I travelled mainly to rTa Lung, dBang chen gling, gZi Lung Drang Srong
mThu rtsal gling and mKha’ ’Gro ddud ’dul gling. I established both main holy places and its
secondary ones and since everything went smoothly and auspiciously, in due course we
returned to our respective homes. I wrote this account on the auspicious day of the waxing full
moon of the 9th month, where all the ḍākiṇīs simultaneously, embodying the merit field and
mantra field, gather like clouds. In this is symbolic meditation house, which is the unity of
wisdom and method, the top most of Lhun grup yang rtse near the glorious copper coloured
mountain palace when the host of ḍākinīs enjoy the riches of the four joys. This absolute
statement of truth, [I] bZhad pa’i rdo rje, joy of the ḍākinīs also known as Chag pa rdo rje who
aimlessly wanders everywhere, who naturally sustains crazy behaviour, conduct which is
incompatible with the methods of the land of the snows and especially intoxicated by sensory
pleasure and the intoxicating strong drink of the oral transmissions of the reliable noble
masters. May it be beneficial.

Appendix B

The Guide Book to the Hidden land of Pad+mo bkod
’Ja’ tshon sNying po
ཨེ་མ་ཧོ༔ བདག་འ~་མཚJ་„ེས་པ+ྨ་འUང་གནས་ནི༔ གHམ་[ོང་ཉེར་བeད་e་གར་u་བཞིན་Øལ༔ བe་དང་བŸ་གཅིག་དs་x་བོད་0་བvད༔ ¬་ཡབ་•ིན་^ལ་གདོང་དམར་
ཆོས་ལ་བµད༔ „ེ་འ1ོ་སེམས་ཅན་ཐམས་ཅད་བདེ་ལ་བཀོད༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:434.3)
How amazing! One such as myself, the Lake born Padmasambhava, [in] 3028 wandered
throughout India like water. For 111 years I stayed in Uru Tibet, In the cannibal country
Chamara I led the red-faced into the Dharma, establishing all beings, each and every one, onto
the path of peace.
ད་0ང་མ་འོངས་—ལ་0ས་བཞི་བŸའི་ཚ•༔ འདོད་ཆགས་ལས་–ར་È་གེ་བÊེན་པ་དང༔ ཞེ་vང་ལས་–ར་དམག་འ}ག་དར་བ་དང༔ གཏི་Èག་ལས་–ར་ནད་ཡམས་€་ཚJགས་དང༔
0ག་གHམ་ཆ་མཉམ་ˆག་བ‰ལ་€་ཚJགས་འUང༔ དེ་0ས་སེམས་ཅན་བདེ་བའི་གོ་—བས་མེད་0་x་ཥ་ཡི་དམག་ནི་Kོགས་Wན་གཡོས༔ ˆག་བ‰ལ་Ð་\ོང་འ}ག་པའི་ཨ་ཙ་
མ༔ ]ས་པའི་གནས་Zང་ཆེ་uང་བŸ་ªག་མོད༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:434.3-435.3)
Furthermore, in the future, at the fated time of the fortieth eon various torments will arise
proportional to the three poisons: famine and desperation arise from desire, proliferating
conflicts and war arise from hatred, multifarious contagions and plagues arise from stupidity.
At that time, sentient beings have no opportunities for happiness, and the duruSa armies will
spread in every direction. Alas! What a raging whirlpool of misery although there are indeed
sixteen greater and lesser hidden lands.
དེ་aམས་Wན་p་gོས་ནས་ཐར་བ་ལ༔ ལས་ངན་དབང་གིས་འgོས་མི་ཤིན་p་Øང༔ `་ཡོད་aམས་ནི་སེར་€འི་ཞགས་པས་ཟིན༔ s་ཡོད་aམས་ནི་གཅིག་གིས་གཅིག་བê་6ེད༔ wན་
wོན་aམས་ནི་འ1ོ་བའི་བསམ་པ་ཞི༔ 6ིས་པ་aམས་ནི་gོས་Mང་ལམ་མི་¾ེད༔ 0ད་འ1ོ་aམས་ནི་རང་བཞིན་•ོག་དང་gལ༔ „བས་མེད་སེམས་ཅན་ལས་ངན་¡ིན་པ་ལ༔ (’Ja’
tshon 1979:435.3-436.1)
Because of the power of bad karma, there will be very few escapees. The wealthy will be caught
by the noose of avarice and those in debt will sell each other out. The elderly will lose the will
to go, the young will flee but will be unable to find the path, the animals will just up and die.
Such is the ripening of bad karma for beings without refuge!
Kི་ནང་གསང་བའི་ངན་oགས་འདི་aམས་Mང༔ ཏི་སེའི་གངས་ལ་‚ོ་sར་ëད་xད་འUང༔ མངའ་རིས་^ལ་ཁམས་ཐོག་དང་སེར་བས་བཤིག༔ བོད་དང་e་ནག་མཚམས་H་ས་
གཡོས་འཇིགས༔ བལ་^ལ་È་[ེགས་བ[ན་པ་མང་0་འཕེལ༔ དsས་གཙང་དམ་•ི་བ0ད་དང་འUང་པོས་འ0ལ༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:436.1-436.3)
There are also the following outer, inner, and secret bad omens: the occurrence of sudden
avalanches on Kailash, destructive lightning and the region of mNga’ ri will be destroyed by
hail. Terrifying earthquakes on the border of Tibet and China, the threat of tīrthika doctrines
in Nepal, dam sri demons and ghosts will overrun dBus and gTsang.
མདོ་ཁམས་Kོགས་H་མེ་ཡི་འཇིགས་པ་འUང༔ སེམས་ཅན་•ི་cག་གསོན་བ•ེག་གཞོབ་p་འ1ོ༔ 6ར་žགས་¼ལ་ལ་མི་çོན་fི་çོན་མང༔ gག་ལོང་ཉང་0་ˆག་བ‰ལ་ནད་རིམ་
འཐིབ༔ ཧོར་སོག་ཁ་¢ངས་ནད་€་མང་0་ཡོང༔ ¡ན་Xིས་མི་ཕན་ཕལ་ཆེར་འཆི་བར་འ–ར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:436.3-436.5)
In the area of mDo khams there will be danger of wildfires, tens of thousands will be burnt
alive and wander the scorched earth. There will be many mad dogs and humans in Byar, Dwags
and sNyal. Brag long nyang will be blanketed by suffering and diseases, many diseases
steaming from the mouths of the people of Hor and Mongolia, medicine being of no help, the
majority will die.
ཤར་Xི་Kོགས་ནས་གདོན་དང་འUང་པོ་དར༔ Iོ་ནས་མི་wོད་ཅན་གཟན་\་\ོ་དར༔ £བ་ནས་དམག་འ}ག་0ག་གི་ཚJང་འ0ས་དར༔ 6ང་ནས་ཧོར་སོག་0་x་ཥ་པ་དར༔ ནམ་
མཁའི་མཐོངས་ནས་ཐོག་སེར་གནམ་hོ་མང་༔ ས་གཞི་འོག་ནས་ཁོལ་sར་ས་གཡོས་མང་༔ —ར་མ་འོད་ཅན་འོད་དཀར་ཡང་ཡང་འཆར༔ མེ་I་འོད་དམར་བར་€ང་གང་བར་
འཆར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:436.5-437.1)
From the east dons and ghosts, From the south savage wild men and barbarians, from the west
the poisonous commerce of warfare, and from the north Hor and Mongol duruSapas spread!

From the open sky there will be many bolts of lightning, hailstones, and meteorites. The ground
will ripple with many earthquakes. Shining stars and white lights will appear again and again.
The red light of the god of fire will appear to fill the sky.
Gི་ཤིང་ལོ་ཐོག་མི་¡ིན་ནད་Mིས་fེར༔ È་གེས་མི་ཐོག་Lད་པ་ཡང་ཡང་འUང་༔ ཆར་u་མི་¼ོམས་Yང་གཤོང་ཆེ་བ་དང་༔ ས་hིབ་gག་ཉིལ་u་]ོས་མེ་ད1་མང༔ དེ་@ར་Uང་ཚ•་
ནད་oགས་འདི་aམས་ཡོང་༔ མི་aམས་གyགས་uང་vིག་¬མས་ཆེ་བ་དང་༔ གང་Qབ་ངན་Tོད་½ང་འmབ་བཞིན་0་ལངས༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:437.1-
The orchards and fields will be blighted and bear no fruit. Due to famine, generations of
families will be ruined again and again. Rain will fall unevenly, and there will be great
depressions and ridges in the earth. The ground will collapse and rock faces will crumble, the
rivers will overflow, and there will be many threats of fire. When these things occur, the
[following] signs of illness will come: people will be physically small, with a great capacity
for destructive actions, and will debauch themselves as much as possible, like a rising storm.
eན་ཆས་མཚJན་ཆ་€་ཚJགས་དེ་ཚ•་དར༔ མི་གསར་—ད་གསར་ཆས་གསར་Gིས་H་ཆེ༔ ཆས་གོས་མཐའ་ཡི་eན་aམས་དsས་H་དར༔ དsས་Mི་རབ་Uང་ཆ་Zགས་མཐའ་ལ་དར༔
(’Ja’ tshon 1979:437.3-437.4)
At that time ornamentation and weaponry will spread, there will be a great number of new
people, new languages, and new things. The jewelry and costumes of the borderlands will
spread into the centre of the country, while the appearance of the fully ordained of the centre
of the country will spread to the borderlands.
མདོ་‰གས་གཉིས་Mི་ཆ་Zགས་དེ་0ས་འ}གས༔ གསར་ཆོས་མང་པོ་s་^ག་འmབ་འmབ་འUང་༔ འ~་མིན་བ[ན་བཅོས་ས་[ེང་fབ་པར་འ–ར༔ oོག་གེའི་རང་བཟོས་ཐེག་ཆེན་
དད་པ་ཡལ༔ ཆོས་པའི་གyགས་བ¾ན་བ0ད་Vལ་ཤིན་p་དར༔ Âབ་པ་ཐོབ་པའི་མི་ནི་ཉིན་—ར་ཙམ༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:437.4-437.6)
At this time the appearance of both sūtra and mantra will be disordered, new doctrines will
arise like a swirling blizzard, and various commentaries will cover the surface of the earth.
Confidence in the Mahāyāna will fade in the face of individual fabrications of sophistry.
Demonic emanations that appear to be dharma will greatly increase, while individuals who
attain accomplishment will be as rare as stars in the daytime.

དེ་0ས་སེམས་ཅན་ཕལ་ཆེར་བ0ད་དབང་འ1ོ༔ 1ོང་ལ་•ིམས་མེད་cེང་ཐག་ཆད་པ་འ~༔ ཤི་ལ་[ོངས་མེད་ƒ་ལ་བསོས་མེད་པ༔ ངན་པ་ཁ་eལ་ì་འcོག་Gིས་H་ཆེ༔ (’Ja’
tshon 1979:437.6-438.1)
At this time, most beings will be under the power of Māra. Towns will be without order, like a
mala with a broken cord, there will be no aide for the dying or healing for the injured. There
will be a great number of bad people arguing, robbing and stealing.

བཤེས་གཉེན་aམས་Mང་j་ཚ•་Qང་བ་ལ༔ དོན་Yོམ་མི་šོབ་གཟོ་རིགས་འ1ན་སེམས་Œང་༔ ལ་ལ་འ}ལ་ཞིག་འདོད་ནས་མི་ཤ་ཟ༔ འ1ོ་བའི་•ོག་འcོག་Tོད་ངན་ཁོ་ན་6ེད༔ ༼ཐེམ་
ཐེམ༽ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:438.1-438.2)
What virtuous friends there are will have shorter lives, the cultivation of the meaning will not
be learned, and people will be of a mind to compete rather than reciprocate. Some confused
individuals will, out of desire, eat human flesh, and devote themselves to the bad conduct of
depriving beings of their lives.

དེ་ཚ•་eལ་བ་མཆོག་ད6ངས་Vལ་པ་ནི༔ 6ང་ཤར་མཚམས་H་j་འ}ངས་1གས་པས་fབ༔ a་བར་ཐོས་ཚད་བདེ་བ་ཅན་0་འ•ིད༔ བí་དྷïðñ་དྷÇ་དེ་ཉིད་Mིས༔ (’Ja’
tshon 1979:438.2-438.3)
At that time an emanation of rGyal ba mChog dbyangs will be born on the north east border
and will come to be known everywhere, and all who hear of him will be led to bDe ba can, by
the very same lama Badz+ra d+harmA d+hartu

བ[ན་པ་འ}ག་ཅིང་གོང་འོག་མི་ཤེས་པ༔ ནང་ནི་•མ་}མ་Kི་ནི་e་མི་ཞིག༔ དེ་ཡི་རང་མདངས་གསང་བའི་oགས་འདི་ཡོད༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:438.3-

The teachings will be confused [as the confused people] don’t understand the [correct] ordering
of them. [On] the inside they will be disordered and the outside will be a Chinese person. All
these are the secret signs of these people’s appearance
དེ་0ས་རི་‡ང་Wན་p་ཐམས་ཅད་འ}ག༔ ཕོ་མོ་„་སེར་6ོལ་སོང་ཐམས་ཅད་འ}ག༔ I་•ིན་vེ་བeད་མི་མ་ཡིན་Mང་འ}ག༔ Kི་x་དེ་Iར་འ}ག་པས་ནང་སེམས་འ}ག༔ G་
འ}ག་½ང་འ}ག་0ག་u་འQང་བ་འ~༔ „ེ་འ1ོ་ཐམས་ཅད་རང་ལ་ཡིད་མི་ཆེས༔ དེ་ནི་0་x་ཥ་ཡི་ཆོ་འEལ་ངེས་པར་ཡིན༔ ༼ཐེམ་ཐེམ༽(’Ja’ tshon
At that time, all the countryside will be in complete turmoil! All the men and women, lay and
ordained, and the livestock will be in turmoil! The eight classes of gods and demons, even the
kinnara, will be in turmoil! As there is fighting externally amongst the gods, internally the
mind will be in turmoil! The channels and winds will be in disordered, as if one had drunk
poison! All beings will not trust in themselves. This is definitely the sorcerous power of the

དེ་ནས་འགོང་པོ་¨ན་དLའི་Vལ་པ་ཞིག༔ ˆག་½ང་མིང་ཅན་དེ་ཡིས་“ེན་6ས་ནས༔ བོད་ཁམས་ཡོངས་ལ་གནོད་པའི་ལས་གཅིག་འUང༔ (’Ja’ tshon
After that, there will be an emanation of 'Gong po spun dgu, bearing the name sDug rlung,
because of whom a singular act harmful to the whole of Tibet will arise.
དེས་ན་]ས་Zང་ཆེན་པོ་བŸ་ªག་ཡོད༔ fད་པར་གནས་ཆེན་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་པ་ནི༔ བསམ་ཡས་ཤར་ནས་žགས་པོ་Zང་པ་ཞེས༔ དེ་ཡི་u་`ད་Rེས་¼གས་Kིན་པ་ན༔ vིག་པ་གན་“ལ་
འ~་བའི་Zང་པ་ཡོད༔ མŠག་མའི་Gེ་ལ་e་ལ་ཞེས་6་བ༔ གཤིན་Rེའི་གནས་མཆོག་fད་པར་ཅན་དེ་ཡིན༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:439.1-439.3)
For these reasons there are the sixteen great hidden lands. Concerning the great place Pad+mo
bkod specifically: east from bSam ye there is a valley called Dwags po, and if you follow the
main river there, there is a valley like a scorpion on its back. Atop the tip of the tail is a place
called rGya la, which is specifically the holy place of Yamā.
དེ་ནས་u་`ད་དེ་ཉིད་Rེས་¼ག་གམ༔ ཡང་ན་W་—ར་ལ་ལ་Kིན་Mང་xང༔ 0ར་•ོད་ཆེན་པོ་མཚན་མོ་མེ་འབར་ཡོད༔ ཤར་Kོགས་རི་žགས་འ1ོགས་པ་འ~༔ G་བ་•བ་ཅན་Xེན་
ལ་འཛ•ག་པ་འ~༔ eབ་རི་མཚJན་ཆ་གསོར་བ་འ~༔ ད6ིབས་ནི་མེ་ཏོག་ཁ་6ེ་འ~༔ དེ་ནས་eང་1གས་བ0ན་ཙ་ལ༔ I་•ིན་འ0་བའི་གནས་གཅིག་ཡོད༔ hོ་ཐོ་ཆེ་uང་མང་ཡོད༔
དེ་ནས་གནས་Yོ་བཞི་x་ཡོད༔ ༼ཐེམ་ཐེམ༽ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:439.1-439.6)
From there you can continue to follow the river, or, alternately, cross over the Ku skar pass,
where there is the great charnel ground Me ’Bar. In the east it is like a group of ungulates, at
the base like scales climbing upward, behind is a mountain like a brandished sword which it is
shaped like an open flower. About seven furlongs from there, there is a place where the gods
and spirits gather, with many large and small border stones, and then there are the four doors.

tང་Gི་gག་ལ་ཚJགས་བe་བཏང༔ བསངས་མཆོད་བཀའ་ཡི་བདེན་[ོབས་བRོད༔ དེ་ནས་གཟིགས་€ང་gག་ཅེས་ཡོད༔ གང་ཟག་H་ཡིས་བ@ས་–ར་Mང༔ དེ་དང་དེ་ཡི་རང་
གཟིགས་འཆར༔ དེ་ནས་u་འགག་དམ་པར་ཡོད༔ ཤིང་ཆེན་འདོམ་པ་ཉིས་གཤིབས་ཙམ༔ ཤིང་དེའི་~ི་ནི་dོས་~ི་ཡོད༔ རོ་ནི་ཁ་ཚ་དག་0་ཡོད༔ དེ་ཉིད་བཅད་པས་ཟམ་པ་
ཡོང༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:439.6-440.2)
At Sbrang rtsi brag perform a hundred gancakras, make smoke offerings and declare the power
of truth of the Buddha's words. From there, there is the cliff called Gzigs snang brag, and
whoever even looks upon it will see various manifestations. After that is Chu 'gag dam par
there are big trees, about twice the length of an arm span, which have a smell like incense, and
a pungent flavour.

དེ་དང་འ~་བའི་ཤིང་ཆེན་མང་0་ཡོད༔ ལག་ཆ་ངར་›ན་མང་0་Xིས༔ hོ་ཡི་མཆོད་oེན་རི་རབ་ཙམ༔ དེ་ནས་རབ་•ོས་lིང་ཞེས་6་བ་ཡོད༔ གཟིགས་€ང་ཐམས་ཅད་མངོན་Hམ་
འ~༔ hོ་ཡི་ཟམ་པ་མང་0་ཡོད༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:440.2-440.3)
By cutting one of these, you'll have a bridge and there are many big trees like that. Make many
sharp tools, [and construct] a stone stupa as big as Mt. Meru calling it Rab khros gling. All
[pure] visions are unmistaken and there are many bridges of stone

དེ་ནས་aམ་དག་འཇའ་ཚJན་lིང་0་šེབ༔ བÊ་ཤིས་oགས་དང་•ས་བeད་གསལ༔ གནམ་ས་ཐམས་ཅད་dོས་~ིས་འmབ༔ u་O་ཐམས་ཅད་x་Zའི་O༔ ཏིང་འཛbན་རང་|གས་„ེ་
བའི་གནས༔ དེ་ནས་ལ་uང་འཇོག་པ་མ༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:440.3-440.5)
Then the completely pure will arrive at ’Ja’ tshon ling, auspicious signs and the clear eight
substances and everywhere will be swirling with the good smell of incense and the murmuring
the streams with be the rulu mantra and is a place where samādhi arises spontaneously. Thus,
settle in La Chung ’jog pa ma.

ལམ་ནི་ཡི་གེ་´ོ་ཡིག་mལ་0་ཡོད༔ ས་ནི་པ+ྨ་འདབ་བeད་ཡོད༔ གནམ་ནི་འཁོར་ལོ་Gིབས་བeད་ཡོད༔ ལོག་ནི་བÊ་ཤིས་oགས་བeད་ཡོད༔ བÊ་ཤིས་•ས་བeད་དེ་ན་
ཡོད༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:440.5-440.6)
The path is in the aspect of the syllable bhyo, the earth is [in the shape of] an eight petalled
lotus, the sky is an eight-spoked wheel. Turning back, there are the eight auspicious symbols,
and at that place there are the eight auspicious substances.

དL་མིག་ལིང་Gེ་6ས་པ་ཡི༔ ཤར་0་aམ་དག་བཀོད་པ་དང་༔ དེ་བཞིན་མེ་ལོང་བཀོད་uང་ཡོད༔ Iོ་x་དཔལ་›ན་བཀོད་པ་དང་༔ དེ་བཞིན་ཡོན་ཏན་བཀོད་uང་ཡོད༔ £བ་p་
པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་པ་དང་༔ དེ་བཞིན་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་uང་ཡོད༔ 6ང་0་ལས་རབ་བཀོད་པ་དང་༔ དེ་བཞིན་~ག་པོ་བཀོད་uང་ཡོད༔ དsས་H་མཐའ་ཡས་བཀོད་པ་ཡོད༔ བཀོད་ཆེན་k་ཡི་
e་fོན་ལ༔ eང་1གས་བe་དང་བeད་Ÿ་ཡོད༔ བཀོད་uང་བཞི་ལ་eང་1གས་ནི༔ Hམ་Ÿ་G་kའི་ཚད་0་ཡོད༔ མཐའ་ནི་གངས་དང་•་ཡིས་བ—ོར༔ མཁའ་ལ་མེ་ཏོག་`ན་ཆར་
འབབ༔ 0ས་Mི་འཕོ་འuག་Uང་0ས་H༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:440.6-441.4)
To the east of dGu Mig ling rTse there is rNam dag bkod pa as well as Me long bkod chung,
In the South dPal ldan bKod pa as well as Yon tan bkod chung,
In the West there is Pad+mo bkod as well as Pad+mo bkod chung,
In the North Las rab bkod pa as well as Drag po bkod chung
In the centre there is mTha’ yas bkod pa.

e་ནག་འཇང་དང་\ོ་ཀོང་བཞི༔ gོས་ན་དེ་x་gོས་པས་འཚ•ངས༔ རང་རང་སོ་སོའི་ས་རིས་Mང་༔ ལ་u་gག་གིས་བvམས་ནས་ཡོད༔ འ}ག་ཅིང་འཐབ་པའི་དོགས་པ་
མེད༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:441.4-441.5)
If one flees the four places; China, Jang Klo and Kong, by escaping into that place [Pad+mo
bkod], one will be satisfied. Each and every place is sealed by mountain passes, water and cliffs
there are no worries of fights and quarrels.

དེ་ཚ•་L་xའི་Vལ་པ་ཡིས༔ ལམ་aམས་རིམ་བཞིན་[ོན་པར་6ེད༔ 0ས་Wན་ཨོ་eན་~ན་པར་Xིས༔ L་x་པ+ྨ་སི་òི་བ‘ས༔ “ེན་ངན་བར་ཆད་དེ་ཡིས་སེལ༔ ཐེ་ཚJམ་ཡིད་ཉིད་མ་
6ེད་པར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:441.5-441.6)
At that time, the emanation of the Guru will demonstrate the gradual path and through
thinking of O rgyen at all times and reciting the guru pad+ma siddhi hūṃ mantra obstacles
and mishaps are cleared away, and that very mind of doubt will not occur

ང་ལ་མོས་པའི་„ེས་s་aམས༔ ¼ིང་གི་དMིལ་0་0ང་0ང་བྷཻ༔ ང་ཡང་དེ་x་Iང་Iང་ཡོང་། གསོལ་འདེབས་ག0ང་ད6ངས་`ན་0་འདོན༔ ང་ཡང་€་ཚJགས་རང་O་ཡོང་
༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:441.6-442.1)
[To] those who have given birth to faith in me, I keep them dearly in my heart. I too will come
vividly there and continuously recite a sad song of longing and I will also come as natural

Tི་བོའི་གµག་གམ་མ0ན་0་བYོམ༔ ང་ཡང་མངོན་Hམ་@་sར་ཡོང༔ k་བe་0ས་Mི་མི་aམས་Wན༔ „བས་འ1ོ་པད་འUང་ང་ལ་;ས༔ སངས་eས་གཞན་ལས་Qགས་Rེ་¶ར༔ ཚ•་
འདིར་ང་དང་མ་འcད་Mང་༔ བར་དོའི་ˆག་བ‰ལ་ངེས་པར་སེལ༔ ང་ལ་སེམས་ཅན་དོན་ལས་མེད༔ ཅི་འདོད་Ãན་Xིས་འÂབ་པར་འ–ར༔ (’Ja’
tshon 1979:442.2-442.4)
Visualise either above the crown of your head or visualise in front of you and I too will be there
in flesh and blood. In the 500 [degenerate] years, everyone humbly request me, Padmākara,
and take refuge in me. Compared to other Buddhas, [my compassion] is swift. Even if [we]
don’t meet in this life, the suffering of the intermediate stage will be certainly dispelled. For

me, there is nothing more than the welfare of beings and whatever one wishes will be
spontaneously accomplished

]ས་Zང་བŸ་ªག་ནང་ནས་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་ཆེན་འདི༔ གང་གིས་ཐོས་དང་~ན་པས་ལས་Oིབ་དག༔ འདི་ཡི་Kོགས་H་གོམ་པ་བ0ན་འབོར་ནའང་༔ འཆིབ་འ–ར་ཚ•་དེ་x་ངེས་པར་„ེ༔
འདི་ལ་དམིགས་ནས་“ང་Kག་བ0ན་འཚལ་ན༔ འཁོར་བར་མི་འfམས་Kིར་མི་›ོག་པར་–ར༔ གང་ཞིག་གནས་འདིར་ངེས་པར་šེབ་–ར་ན༔ འཇའ་Zས་hོ་Rེའི་j་ནི་ཐོབ་པར་
འ–ར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:442.4-442.6)
From amongst the sixteen hidden lands this great Pad+mo bkod, whoever, hears and recalls it,
[their] karmic obscurations will be cleansed. [Merely] taking seven steps in the direction of
this [Pad+mo bkod] one will certainly be born human. In respect to this, (after) observing seven
prostrations, one will become a non-returner and no longer wander in saṃsāra. If one certainly
arrives and abides here, you will obtain rainbow body,

u་ཐིག་གཅིག་དང་Ú་ཉག་ཟོས་པ་ཡང་༔ གཅོང་ནད་ལ་སོགས་ˆག་བ‰ལ་ཞི་བར་འ–ར༔ དབང་པོ་མི་གསལ་བ་aམས་གསལ་བར་འ–ར༔ wན་པོ་aམས་Mང་གཞོན་£འི་Zས་H་
འ–ར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:442.6-443.1)
Even [if] a single drop of water and piece of herb is eaten, chronic illnesses and suffering etc
will become appeased, the unclear sense faculties become clear and even old men will
transform their body’s into that of youths.

དམ་ཆོས་མི་~ན་ལས་ངན་ཚན་ཅན་ཡང་༔ གནས་དེར་Kིན་པས་རང་1ོལ་Âབ་ཐོབ་འ–ར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:443.1-443.2)
Many of those with bad karma who do not recall the supreme dharma, even by going to the
place [of Pad+mo bkod], will accomplish the self-liberation siddhi.

གནས་དེའི་ས་hོ་ཁ་ལ་སོང་བ་ན༔ ཚ•་ཟད་མིས་Mང་བe་[ོང་ལོ་x་Qབ༔ 1ང་ན་མེ་½ང་Œོར་བ་གོས་H་Xོན༔ —ོམ་ན་0ད་Gི་u་ལ་ལོངས་Tོད་Xིས༔ @ོག་བÊེན་Uང་ན་ཤིང་ཐོག་
འgས་s་དང་༔ མ་ƒོས་ལོ་ཐོག་འ»་€་k་ལ་Tོད༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:443.2-443.3)
If one were to eat the earth and stones of this place, even at the end of one’s [karmic] life, one
will be able to live hundreds and thousands of years. If one feels cold, wear the clothes of
practice, generate wind and fire in oneself and gives a feeling of heat. If one feels thirsty, enjoy
nectar as water. If one gets hungry and destitute, live on fruits on a trees and the five kinds of
cereal and corn.

Kི་ནང་yག་ôའི་ˆག་བ‰ལ་དེ་ན་མེད༔ འཐབ་Gོད་ལེ་ལོའི་6་བ་དེ་མི་དགོས༔ བདེ་~ོད་རང་འབར་གསལ་[ོང་ཡེ་ཤེས་འཆར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:443.3-
There is no physical and mental pain, laziness and arguments are not needed there [this is a
pure a land]. The primordial wisdom [realisation] of self-blazing clarity and emptiness will

ཤིང་ཐོག་འgས་s་ཕལ་ཆེར་o་མགོ་ཙམ༔ ནས་1ོ་སོ་བ་འ»་aམས་ཁམ་Gིག་ཙམ༔ ལ་ ག་Øང་མ་མི་ཡིས་ཐེག་ཙམ་ཡོད༔ õ་hོར་མི་དགོས་བ0ད་Gི་དག་དང་མmངས༔ I་ཡི་
ཞལ་ཟས་དག་དང་£ས་པ་མཉམ༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:443.4-443.5)
There is fruit about the size of a horse’s head, of wheat and barley grains the size of an apricot
stone and radishes and turnips so heavy people can barely lift them. There is no need to grind
salt, it is the same as nectar and has the same potency as gods’ food.

‚ོ་གསལ་རིག་པའི་G་ཁ་འ6ེད་པ་དང་༔ ¼ིང་བGེ་ཚད་མེད་བཞི་དང་མངོན་ཤེས་འཆར༔ ‘་བ་ªག་ལ་Ãན་Âབ་འོད་Zས་འ–ར༔ ཨེ་མ་ཨེ་མ་0ས་གHམ་eལ་བ་ཡི༔ ¡ོན་ལམ་
མQ་དང་£ས་པ་དེ་@ར་རོ༔ བདག་འ~་མཚJ་„ེས་པ+ྨ་འUང་གནས་Mིས༔ ལ་Zང་གµག་ལག་མང་པོ་གཏེར་0་]ས༔ j་གHང་Qགས་oེན་དམ་•ས་མང་པོ་]ས༔ དམ་ཆོས་བ¹ང་
བ‘ོག་བསད་པ་མང་པོ་]ས༔ མ་འོངས་0ས་H་s་ཡིས་ཐོན་པར་ཤོག༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:443.6-444.2)
The root of intelligence will blossom and one will have prescience and limitless love and
compassion and in six months one will spontaneously transform into a body of light. How
amazing, how amazing! The power of aspiration prayers, and the capability of the Buddha of
the three times is like that. Someone like me, the Lake-born Pad+ma 'byung gnas, hid many

texts, temples and prophecies as gter ma. I concealed many sacred substance(s,) representations
of body, speech, and mind, and [hid] a mixture of many [treasures] for the protection of and to
repel [obstacles] from threats. In the future may those treasures be taken out by a my [heart]

ཏིང་འཛbན་བཟང་པོའི་Vལ་པ་འཇའ་ཚJན་Xིས༔ རང་གཞན་དོན་གཉིས་བ”བ་ཚ•་བར་ཆད་མང་༔ [ག་ར་‡་གོང་འོད་ཅིག་དེ་ཚ•་ཡོང་༔ s་x་བæས་ཏེ་བར་ཆད་6ེད་ཉེན་
ཡོད༔ དབང་~ག་འབར་བའི་ཏིང་འཛbན་བoན་པར་Xིས༔ vིག་‚ོན་•་མིག་Vལ་པ་བཤེས་གཉེན་mལ༔ ཐབས་Mིས་¡ད་ཅིང་མཐའ་མ་འ}ག་ལས་ཡོང་༔ ཇོ་བོ་Qགས་Rེ་ཆེན་པོར་
གསོལ་བ་ཐོབ༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:444.2-444.5)
’Ja’ tshon sNying po, the emanation of Myang ting ’dzin bzang po, when fulfilling the purpose
of self and others will have many obstacles. At that time a light of Ta ra Klu gong of will
appear, and being disguised (born) as your son there is the danger of him causing obstacles.
Do firm samādhi to develop pacifying and magnetising powers [as] falcon eyed evil ministers
will be disguised as a spiritual friend. Through his cunning he will disparage you and will
eventually causes disputes. In such time entreat the great bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara.

བ0ད་མོ་ཟངས་ལག་Vལ་པ་„ེ་གyགས་བཟང་༔ དམ་ཚbག་vོམ་དང་”བ་ལ་བར་ཆད་6ེད༔ I་དང་འ~ེ་x་འཇོལ་ཡོང་རིག་པས་@ོས༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:444.5-
There will be the female Māra Zangs Lag, who will be in the disguise of a beautiful fine form
who will cause obstacles to your accomplishment, vows and samaya. Look at it with your
intelligence, I forewarn, one could mistake the demoness as a god.

བཙན་དམར་ར་xའི་Vལ་པ་མི་ཆེན་mལ༔ ཡོན་བདག་6ས་ནས་མཐའ་མŠག་•ོག་ལ་བདོ༔ •ོ་eལ་¡ེ་བGེགས་}ས་ལ་འབད་པར་གཅེས༔ (’Ja’
tshon 1979:444.5-444.6)
The emanation of bTsan dmar ra ru will be in the disguise of a noble man pretending to be your
patron will eventually hurt life. Loving dedicate oneself to do the ablution to Khro rgyal sme

ཐེ•་རང་གདོང་དམར་Vལ་པ་བ0ན་ཙམ་Xིས༔ ཟས་ངན་མི་གཙང་Œིན་ཞིང་བWར་འདེབས་གཏོང་༔ དེ་ལ་¼ིང་Rེ་བ„ེད་ལ་མཚམས་Œོར་བDར༔ (’Ja’
tshon 1979:444.6-445.1)
One will come across about seven manifestations of red faced sprites, who gives filthy faeces
and will disparage one. In regards to that, develop and show compassion, transforming them
with compassion and love.

གཞན་ཡང་དེ་ཚ•་0ག་གHམ་Gལ་¤ག་པས༔ ཟབ་གཏེར་རིམ་པས་dེལ་ལ་འཚJ་ཤེས་Mིས༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:445.1-445.2)
Furthermore, at that time since the three poisons will be coarse on the channels, develop the
profound treasure gradually and learn how to live.

0ས་གཅིག་དབང་Zང་dེལ་བས་དམ་ཉམས་མང་༔ 0ས་oགས་༼oག༽་ངེས་པར་@་ཞིང་རང་ཉིད་”བ་ལ་བGོན༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:445.2-445.3)
As a result of disseminating empowerments and transmissions at the same time there will be
many samaya transgressors and you must certainly look after them at all times and at the same
times you yourself diligently focus on your own meditation.

çོ་ཆངས་༼ཆང༽་མ་འQང་sད་མེད་རིགས་ངན་dོངས༔ གངས་‰གས་ཐབས་ལམ་འ1ིམ་ཤིང་བGོ་ན་པར་6༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:445.3 - 445.3)
Do not drink beer which maddens and avoid bad kinds of women focus on the ways of the
secret mantra and be diligent.

„ིད་ˆག་ཅི་འUང་ཨོ་eན་~ན་པར་Xིས༔ འgེལ་ཚད་ཆེ་uང་ཐམས་ཅད་འཚ•ངས་པར་འ–ར༔ དེ་ནི་Vལ་པའི་ནང་ནས་ཡང་Vལ་ཡིན༔ དཔེར་ན་ཁོང་•ག་ནང་ནས་¼ིང་•ག་
ཡིན༔ གནམ་མཁའི་དMིལ་ནས་¼ིང་པོ་ཉི་‘་ཡིན༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:445.3-445.5)

Whatever ups and downs, happiness and suffering occurs, always recall the great master of O
rgyan, everything that is related with [Guru Rinpoche], big or small, one will be satisfied. Even
amongst [other] manifestation, he is truly the supreme emanation, out of all the different kinds
of blood he is the very heart blood, and from the centre of the sky, the sun and the moon is the
[very] essence.

¡ན་མཆོག་ནང་ནས་fད་པར་aམ་eལ་ཡིན༔ ནོར་sའི་གསེབ་ནས་དགོས་འདོད་Wན་འUང་ཡིན༔ གཏེར་[ོན་ནང་ནས་དཀོན་མཆོག་ཡང་གཏེར་ཡིན༔ དེ་ལ་གསོལ་བ་ཐོབ་ཅིག་
—ལ་›ན་aམས༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:445.5-445.6)
Of all the best medicines this [terma] is the victor, from the wish fulfilling jewels, all desires
and hopes are fulfilled and from all the treasures this [gter ma] is a treasure which is rare and
unsurpassable. In this regard, fortunate ones supplicate the treasure.

རིག་འཛbན་དེ་ཡི་¼ིང་དMིལ་ན༔ G་འདབ་yར་གHམ་½ང་འོད་འབར༔ དེ་ཡི་oེན་འgེལ་Kི་ལ་ཤར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:445.6-446.1)
In the centre of the heart of the vidyadhara, the blazing light energy the central channel, the
branches and sub-branches and energy will shine the auspiciousness of it can be seen outside.

Qགས་•ོས་6ིས་པའི་Gེད་མོ་འ~༔ ད་@་I་ལ་ད་@་འ~ེ༔ Tོད་ལམ་vེ་€ོད་གHམ་ལ་དད༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:446.1-446.1)
Getting angry at someone are like the games of children, one changes from the nature of god
to a ghost every moment. [However] conduct which has faith in the three piṭakas

Yོམ་པ་Kག་•ོཌ་དs་གHམ་བYོམ༔ @་བ་དམིགས་མེད་མཐའ་gལ་འཆར༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:446.1-446.2)
As for your meditation, meditate on Mahāmudrā, rDzogs chen and the Mādhyamika and have
the non-conceptual view which is free from extremes [of nihilism and eternalism].

aམ་གཡེང་ལོང་མེད་འcེད་འcལ་0་~ན༔ མཆི་མ་འ}ག་ཅིང་བཟོད་མེད་ག0ང་༔ 1ོགས་དང་མི་མQན་དམ་ཚbག་›ན༔ Wན་Mང་G་དེའི་ཆོ་འEལ་ཡིན༔ (’Ja’
tshon1979: 446.2-446.3)
Right away remember that one does not have time for distractions eyes wet with the tears and
tormented because one does not have any patience not living in harmony with one’s friends
and adhering to one’s samaya everything good that happens follows miraculously from that

དེ་འ~འི་ལས་ཅན་བe་ལ་རེ་རེ་ཙམ༔ པ+ྨའི་Qགས་•ས་དེ་ཉིད་ལ༔ ལས་ཅན་—ལ་›ན་མང་0་འཁོར༔ འོན་Mང་ལས་ངན་དམ་སལ་མང་༔ ནམ་མཁའི་ངོ་བོ་ཌ་öྐི་ཡིས༔ „ེས་s་
དེ་ཉིད་བ¹ང་0ག་སོལ༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:446.3-446.4)
Those who are karmically destined are very few, that very heart disciple will attract many
fortunate ones with good karma. There are many who have got rid of their impurities who had
bad karma through the ḍākinīs who are the essence of the sky. [Therefore] I pray that you
protect that very person. Samaya!

སངས་eས་བཀའི་e༔ དམ་ཆོས་བ0ད་Gིའི་e༔ དགེ་འ0ན་¡ོན་ལམ་Xི་e༔ e་e་e༔ ‚་མའི་Qགས་Rེའི་e༔ ཡི་དམ་6ིན་¢བས་Mི་e༔ མཁའ་འ1ོ་ལག་གཏད་Mི་e༔ ཆོས་„ོང་
£ས་མQའི་e༔ e་e་e༔ (’Ja’ tshon 1979:446.4-446.6)
The seal of the words of the Buddha, the seal of the amṛta of the Holy Dharma, the seal of the
aspirational prayers of the sangha. Seal Seal Seal. The seal of the compassion of the Guru, the
seal of the blessings of the deities, the seal of the dans of the ḍākinīs, the seal of the power of
the dharmapāla. Seal – Seal – Seal

]ས་^ལ་བŸ་ªག་གི་ནང་ནས༔ པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་པའི་ལམ་ཡིག་ཆེ་uང་གཉིས་ཀ༔ L་xའི་”བ་གནས་ཀོང་རོང་ ག་པ་ནས་གཏེར་[ོན་འཇའ་ཚJན་¼ིང་པོས་གདན་~ངས་པའོ།
(’Ja’ tshon 1979:446.6-447.1)

“From amongst the sixteen hidden lands, both more important and less important travel guides
of Pad+mo bkod, The gter ston ’Ja’ tshon sNying po revealed this terma from the sacred place
where Guru Rinpoche practiced the dharma in a cave in the valley of Kong po.” This
'Realisation Cave', in Kong 'phrang, is where he is said to have uncovered the cycle rDo rje gro
lod rtsal gyi sgrub skor, together with a route description and prophecies for Pad+mo bkod.

Appendix C

An Aspiration to travel to the Hidden Land of Pad+mo bkod

G་གHམ་Wན་འ0ས་པ+ྨོ་ཐོད་འcེང་Gལ།དཔའ་བོ་མཁའ་འ1ོའི་ཚJགས་དང་བཅས་པ་aམས། བདག་གི་¡ོན་པ་འÂབ་པའི་དཔང་པོ་x། ཐོགས་མེད་གཤེགས་ལ་འདིར་བ;གས་
དགོངས་H་གསོལ། བདག་གཞན་„ེ་འཕགས་Wན་Mི་0ས་གHམ་0། བསགས་པའི་དགེ་ཚJགས་ཇི་¼ེད་བXིས་པ་དང་། (Sle lung 1982b:1b.2)
Embodiment of the Three Roots, Pad+mo thod 'phreng rtsal, together with the gatherings of
ḍākas and ḍākinīs, I pray that you will come here, unimpeded, and stay. To witness me as I
make this aspiration! Through whatever collections of virtue have been accumulated in the
three times, By myself and others, all ordinary beings and noble ones,

རིག་འཛbན་མཁའ་འ1ོའི་Qགས་བ„ེད་བདེན་[ོབས་Mིས། ¡ོན་པའི་དོན་འདི་ཐོགས་མེད་¶ར་འÂབ་ཤོག གངས་ཅན་„ེ་དLའི་བསོད་ནམས་ཞིང་མཆོག་p། པ+ྨས་6ིན་བ¢བ་]ས་
གནས་Wན་Mི་མཆོག (Sle lung 1982b:1b.4)
Through the power of truth, the bodhicitta resolve of the Vidyādharas and ḍākinīs, May the
aim of this aspiration be quickly accomplished without impediment! Supreme among all the
hidden lands blessed by Padmasambhava, in this holy pure realm of the people of the snow

མཁའ་Tོད་གཉིས་པ་པ+ྨོ་བཀོད་འདི་ཡི། ངོ་མཚར་€ང་བ་གཏན་ལ་ཕེབས་པར་ཤོག འUང་བཞིའི་གཡང་བŸད་€ོད་Mི་དགེ་བŸ་eས། ལོ་ལེགས་„་eལ་འདོད་དL་ངང་གིས་འ0།
(Sle lung 1982b:1b.5)
This second Khecarī, Pad+mo bkod, May we see this wondrous marvel in actuality! In the
environment of the essential wealth of the four elements the ten virtues increase, Unified as the
grain of the good harvest of everything one could desire.

ནད་ཡམས་འ}གས་Gོད་0ས་Mི་ཆད་པ་Wན། མིང་ཡང་མི་1གས་oག་p་ཤིས་པར་ཤོག \་\ོ་མི་wོད་གཅན་གཟན་འs་tང་སོགས། མu་vེགས་མཆེ་བ་ཅན་Mི་ག0ག་øབ་དང་།
(Sle lung 1982b:2a.1)
Even the names of the calamities of contagious disease, strife, and war are not heard— May
there be this constant auspiciousness! Barbarians, savages, and carnivorous wild beasts and
insects, With their threatening, vicious, fanged mouths,

གནས་¹ང་vེ་བeད་མཁའ་འ1ོའི་ཆོ་འEལ་སོགས། གyགས་མེད་འmབ་མའི་བར་ཆད་ཞི་བར་ཤོག {ངས་འsར་|་ཐོར་ཚད་ནད་zང་འབམ་དང་། དÈ་u་1ང་བ་u་སེར་ལ་
སོགས་པའི། (Sle lung 1982b:2a.3)
The local guardians, the eight classes of spirits, and emanations of ḍākinīs, with their
immaterial provocations—may all these obstacles be pacified! Interrupt the occurrence of
tumours, abscesses, pustules, fever, gout, edema, chills, colds, and all such illnesses

འUང་བཞིའི་ནད་དང་0ག་¢ངས་`ན་ཆད་ཅིང་། དོན་གཉེད་ཅན་Wན་བགེགས་མེད་བ1ོད་པར་ཤོག གངས་ཅན་བོད་Mི་—ལ་›ན་Wན་འ0་ཞིང་། བཤད་”བ་Qབ་བ[ན་¼ིང་པོ་
དར་བ་དང་། (Sle lung 1982b:2a.5)

Of the four elements and noxious vapors— And may all who strive overcome them without
obstruction! May the fortunate ones of snowy Tibet come together And spread the heart of the
theory and practice of the Buddha's doctrine!

fད་པར་hོ་Rེའི་ཐེག་པའི་¶ར་ལམ་ལས། ]ས་གནས་Âབ་ཐོབ་ཕོ་མོས་གང་བར་ཤོག གང་ཞིག་གནས་འདིར་བ1ོད་པ་ཙམ་བXིས་མོས། vིག་Oིབ་ཉེས་‹ང་~ི་མའི་ཚJགས་དག་ནས།
ཉམས་དང་oོགས་པ་ངང་Xིས་འབར་བ་དང་། G་½ང་ཐིག་ལེ་¡ིན་ཅིང་1ོལ་བར་ཤོག (Sle lung 1982b:2b.1)
Particularly, by the swift path of the Vajrayāna, may the hidden land be filled with male and
female siddhas! Whoever merely aspires to reach this place— Their accumulated stains of
faults, failures, and obscuring destructive actions will be purified, And by the blazing up of
experience in the state of realisation, āḍī, prāṇa, and bindu will be ripened and liberated!

གནས་འདིའི་Yོ་འ6ེད་བཞད་པའི་hོ་Rེ་དང་། eལ་^མ་I་གཅིག་hོ་Rེ་„བས་6ེད་Mི། Qགས་Mི་བཞེད་པ་ཇི་བཞིན་འÂབ་པ་དང་། བ—ལ་པ་e་མཚJའི་བར་0་ཞབས་oན་ཤོག
(Sle lung 1982b:2b.2)
May the intentions of the one who opened this hidden land, bZhad pa’i rdo rje and the mother
of the victorious ones Lha gcig rDo rje skyab byed be accomplished, just as they were made,
and May they remain stable and firm for an ocean of bskal pa!

གསང་མཆོག་མཁའ་འ1ོ་e་མཚJས་Zང་བ[ན་པའི། €་འ~ེན་དཔའ་བོ་དཔལ་eལ་Rེ་འབང་Wན། གནས་—བས་མངོན་མཐོའི་ལེགས་ཚJགས་Wན་eས་ཤིང་། མཐར་Qག་པ+ྨ་འོད་
0་1ོལ་བར་ཤོག (Sle lung 1982b:2b.3)
Those prophesied by the ocean of ḍākinīs of the supreme secret, The guide, the ḍāka, the
glorious king and all the subjects, For the time being may they attain the higher realms and
everything excellent, and ultimately may they be liberated in Lotus Light!

མཁའ་1ོ་e་མཚJས་oག་p་1ོགས་མཛད་ཅིང་། དམ་ཅན་¹ང་མས་འcིན་ལས་”བ་པ་དང་། ཇི་@ར་བGིས་པའི་ལས་Mི་6་བ་Wན། བ[ན་འ1ོའི་དོན་ཆེན་ཁོ་ནར་འ–ར་བར་ཤོག
(Sle lung 1982b:2b.4)
May the ocean of ḍākinīs always be friendly companions, may the activity of the oath-bound
protectors be accomplished, may every activity and action, just as they have been planned,
Result only in the great benefit of the teachings and beings!

གནས་འདིའི་Kོགས་H་ངལ་བ་བoན་པ་Wན། oག་p་‚་མ་མཁའ་འ1ོས་Rེས་བyང་[ེ། Qགས་Rེའི་6ིན་¢བས་¼ིང་ལ་འŠག་པ་དང་། འདི་Kིའི་དོན་aམས་ངང་གིས་འÂབ་པར་
ཤོག (Sle lung 1982b:2b.5)
May all weary ones everywhere who rely on this place, always be watched over and accepted
by the lamas and ḍākinīs, And may the blessing of compassion enter into their hearts, that they
may accomplish the benefit of this life and the next!

Vལ་པའི་གནས་འདིའི་oེན་འgེལ་འ1ིག་པའི་མQས། གངས་ཅན་བོད་Mི་མཐའ་དམག་Wན་བ‘ོག་ཅིང་། „ེ་དL་ཐམས་ཅད་བོད་ཞིང་„ིད་པ་དང་། Qབ་པའི་བ[ན་པ་དར་ཞིང་
eས་པར་ཤོག (Sle lung 1982b:2b.6)
By the powerful conjunction of the dependent arising of this place of emanations, May all the
invading enemies of snowy Tibet be averted, and may all the beings of the land of Tibet be
happy, and may the doctrine of the Buddha spread and increase!

ངན་སོང་གHམ་Xི་ˆག་བ‰ལ་Wན་ཆད་ཅིང་། ཁམས་གHམ་འོག་མིན་0་འ6ོངས་པ་དང་། ཇི་•ིད་ནམ་མཁའ་ཟད་པར་མ་–ར་བར། གསང་གHམ་eན་Xི་འཁོར་ལོ་འབར་བར་
ཤོག (Sle lung 1982b:3a.1)
May all the suffering of the three lower realms cease, and may the three realms attain the
perfection of Akaniṣṭha! For as long as inexhaustible space remains unwavering, may the wheel
of the ornament of the three secrets blaze!

hོ་Rེས་ཤིག་ཡོད་ཅེས་པ་u་མོ་lང་གི་ལོ་nེ•་‘་བའིདཀར་Kོགས་Mི་1ལ་ཚ•ས་དགེ་བར་པ+ྨ་ཡང་vོང་གི་ཁང་sར་ཤར་མར་nེལ་བའི་གེ་པ་ནི་hོ་Rེ་གསང་བདག་གོ། (Sle
lung 1982b:3a.1)
Colphon - Thus, having been requested insistently by the supreme lord of ḍākas, the great
householder of ’Or shod o rang, Pal rgyal, so that it might be practiced continuously in the
gatherings of Pad+ma 'od gling, the practice center of Nang sdings, the place with the aspect
of the cakra of enjoyment in the throat of Pad+mo bkod, the great hidden land, the Vidyādhara
bZhepa’i rDo rje said “I have one.” Dictated without obstruction at the little residence of
Pad+mo yang to the scribe, the Vajra Lord of Secrets, throughout the auspicious first half of
the monkey month in the year of the Female Water Ox 1733.

Appendix D

Appendix E – Sle lung’s Travel Accounts and Ḍākinī Lands

Sle lung bZhad pa’i rdo rje. 1983. “gNas mchog pad+mo bkod du bgrod pa'i lam yig.” In: Sle
lung rje drung bZhad pa’i rdo rje’i gsung ’bum. Vol 8. Pp.389-493. Sonam, T. and Tashigang,
D.L. Leh. (W22130). Title: Pleasant and Truthful Words: Travel Guide to the Supreme
Pilgrimage Site of Pad+mo bkod Synopsis: Sle lung’s first trip into Pad+mo bkod 1729.
______ 1983 “mKha’ spyod ’grub pa’i smon lam ’phrul gyi zhags pa” In: gsung ‘bum/ bZhad
pa’i rdo rje/. Vol.7. P.p407-414. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh. (W22130). Title: A
Mystical lasso. Synopsis: An aspiration prayer to actualise the pure Ḍākinī land prayers to the

______ 1983 “mKha’ spyod kyi gnas yig la” ” In: gsung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje/. Vol.8.
Pp.1-33. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh. (W22130). Title: A Guide to the Pure Ḍākinī
Land: Synopsis : An account of a mystical experience and travel which took place in 1727.
______ 1983. “Spro lung dbang phyug gling gi gnas sgo gsar du phye ba’i lo rgyus rab snyan
dbyangs la” In: gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp.519-546. Sonam T. & Tashigang.
D.L. Leh. (W22130). Title: A Marvellously Melodic Tune: An Account of the Inauguration of
the Holy Place of Spro lung dBang phyug gling Synopsis: An account of the opening of the
hidden land, Spro Lung, on the return from Pad+mo bkod. Written at Yo dgon.
______ 1982. “Bag yod kyi la sbas yul pad+mo bkod du bskyod pa’i lo rgyus mdo tsam bshad

pa ngo mtshar do shal.” In: gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje/. Vol.5. Pp141-204. ⼤⾕⼤学图

书. 京都市. (W1CV2744). Title: A Magnificent Garland. A Short Account of a Visit Pad+mo

bkod in the Female Earth Bird Year. Synopsis: Account of Sle lung’s second trip to Pad+mo
______ 1983. “rDo lung rdo rje gling gi gnas gsar du rnyed pa'i lo rgyus go bde drang gtam
la.” In: gsung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje/. Vol.8. Pp.495-518. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L.
Leh. (W22130). Title: True Words Easy to Understand: Annals of the Newly Discovered Holy
Place of rDo lung rdo rje gling. Synopsis: An Account of a mystical experience and travel
which took place in 1727.
______ 1982. “sBas yul pad+mo bkod du bgrod pa’i smon lam bzhugs so.” In. gsung ’bum/

bZhad pa’i rdo rje/. Vol.7. Pp.515-520. ⼤⾕⼤学图书馆. 京都市. (W1CV2744). Title: An

Aspiration Prayer to Travel to the Hidden Land of Pad+mo bkod. Synopsis: An Aspiration
Prayer to be in Pad+mo bkod written in 1733.
______ 1983 “gNas mchog zangs mdog dpal ri’i gnas bshad kyi gtam la ’jug pa’i mtshams byor
bklags as yid ches la.” In: gSung ‘bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje.Vol. 8. Pp.35-55. Sonam, T. and
Tashigang, D.L. Leh. (W22130). Title: A Trust Inspiring Introduction: A Preface to a Description
of the Supreme Pilgrimage Site of Zangs mdog dPal ri. Synopsis: An explanation of a visionary
visit to the Zangs mdog dPal ri paradise of Guru Rinpoche written in 1729.
______ 1983 “Nas chen zangs mdog dpal ri’i gtsug lag khang gi gnas bshad ngo mtshar rad
gsal la” In: gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp.57-65. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L.
Leh. (W22130). Title: A Clear and Marvellous Guide to the Temples of the Great Pilgrimage
Site of Zangs mdog dPal ri. Synopsis: Account of the replication of a temple based upon the
author’s Zangs mdog dpal ri visions between 1727-1728 under the patronage of Mi dbang dGa
‘ldan bSod nams of Lha rgya ri.

______ 1983 “gNas chen zangs mdog dpal ri’i gnas rten gyi bkod pa las ’phros pa’i lo gyus
rags rim ngo mtshar dad pa’i ljon shing la.” In: gSung ‘bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp.109-
147. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh. (W22130). Title: A Marvellous Tree of Faith: A
General History of the Environment and the Inhabitants of the Great Pilgrimage site of Zangs
mdog dpal ri. Synopsis: More about the temple complex of Zangs mdog dpal ri modelled on
the author’s visions and its blessing bestowing objects written in 1728.
______ 1983 “gNas chen zangs mdog dpal ri’i cha shas las ‘phros pa’i gnas ri rnams kyi lo
rgyus DA ki dgyes pa’i glu dbyangs la.” In: gSung ‘bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp.149-
210. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh. (W22130). Title: A Song Delighting Ḍākinīs:
Histories of Holy Mountains Connected to Branches of the Great Pilgrimage Site of Zangs
mdog dpal ri. Synopsis: An account of the environs of the Zangs mdog dpal ri temple complex
written in 1729.
______ 1983 “mKha’ ’gro rdo’i mchod rten gyi lo gyus DA ki’i lam yangs la.” In. gSung ’bum/
bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp211-218. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title:
A Vast Path to the Land of the Ḍākinīs: A History of a Dakinis Stone Stupa. Synopsis: An
account of the stone stupa in the environs of the Zangs mdog dpal ri complex, written in 1728.
______ 1983 “g.Yung drung ’khyil pa’i gsang phug rnyed pa’i lo gyus ngo mtshar ’khor lo la.”
In. gSung ’bum / bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp.219-224. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh
(W22130). Title: A Wonderful Circle: An Account of the Discovery of a Secret Cave of
Swirling Swastika. Synopsis: An account of the opening of a concealed cave in 1728 in the
Zangs mdog dpal ri complex.
______ 1983 “Sa sprel zla brgyad ’tshes lnga kyi nyin la glang po sna’i” In. gSung ’bum/ bZhad
pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp.225-232. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title: A
Record of a Visit to Elephant Trunk Valley on the Fifth Day of the Eight Month of an Earth
Monkey Year. Synopsis: An account of bZhad pa’i rdo rje’s visit in 1728 to the gLang po sna
(Elephant Trunk Valley ) is south eastern Tibet.
______ 1983 “mTsho mgor bgrod tshul gyi lam yig nyams dga’ nyung gsal la” In. gSung ’bum/
bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp.243-255. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title:
Very Brief and Enjoyable Directions to Tsogo. Synopsis: An account of a visit to mTsho sgo
ma ru rtse Pho brang in South Eastern Tibet. Written in 1728.
______ 1983 “gZi can dang u ma’i pho brang gsar du rnyed tshul gyi lo rygus Od ’bar snang
gsal la.” In. gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp.247-254. Sonam, T. and Tashigang,
D.L. Leh (W22130). Title: A Radiant Blaze of Illumination: Accounts of the Newly
Discovered Palaces of U ma and gzi can Synopsis: An account of the opening of the mystical
palaces of the protective deities gZi can rgyal po and U ma.

______ 1983 “Srid gsum zil gnon gyi gnas bshad la.” In. gSung ’bum / bZhad pa’i rdo rje.
Vol.8.Pp.281-326. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title: Directions to the
Pilgrimage Site of Srid gsum zil gnon. Synopsis: An account of the finding and author’s
spiritual experiences connected with the complex known as Srid gsum zil gnon.
______ 1983 “gNas thor bu rnams kyi lo gyus ltad mo’grong khyer la.” In. gSung ’bum/ bZhad
pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp327-371. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title: A City
of Entertainment: Histories of Scattered Holy Places. Synopsis: An account of the Sle lung’s
spiritual experiences and travels to the various mystical places of Tibet.
______ 1983 “ham lung gsang chen bkod pa’i gnas su brgod tshul gyi lam yig la.” In. gSung
’bum / bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.8. Pp373-388. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130).
Title: Directions to the Great Secret Ham Valley Kong po. Synopsis: An account of a spiritual
journey to a mystical place in Kong po.
______ 1983 “l+wa ba pa’i gzims phug dang dpal lha dang jag me’i gsang phug sogs ngo
’phrod pa’i lo gyus dran pa’i me long la” In. gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.9. Pp.1-27.
Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title: A Mirror of Memory: An Introduction
to the History of the l+wa ba pa’s Residence, the Secret Caves of Pal Lha and Jag me. Synopsis:
An account of the discovery in 1729 of some holy caves in the Kong po area of southeastern
Tibet. Written with Indrapunya as scribe link
______ 1983 “mLha’ ’gro’i ’du gnas gri gug gsang lam gyi lo rgyus me tog ’phreng mdzes la”
In. gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.9. Pp.29-33. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh
(W22130). Title: A Garland of Beautiful Flowers: A History of Gri gug gSang lam, A Meeting
Place of Ḍākinīs. Synopsis: Phyi temple in Southeastern Tibet 1730. Written at ’Bri Lung the
old ’Ol dga ‘dul lung.
______ 1983 “lTal chung mkha’ ’gro’i dga’ tshal gyi gnas sgo gsar du phye ba’i lam yig bden
pa’i zings ldan la.” In. gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.9. Pp.203-219. Sonam, T. and
Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title: Spirit of Truth: Directions to the Newly Discovered
Joyous Holy Garden of lTal chung Ḍākinī. Synopsis: An account of the opening of a sacred
place in the ’Ol dga’ area, iTal chung. This discovery took place in 1730.
______ 1983 “gSal dwangs ri bo che’i gnas zhal gsar du phye ba’i lo rgyus mngon sum snang
byed mig gi dbang po la.” In. gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.9. Pp.227-252. Sonam, T.
and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title: A Clear Visual Faculty: Annals of the Inauguration
of the Holy Site of gSal dwangs ri bo Che. Synopsis: An account of the opening of the sacred
place, gSal dwangs ri bo, in southeastern Tibet. The Story begins in 1729, written with rDo rje
Sa gzhi as scribe.

______ 1983 “gSal dwangs ri bo che’i gnas yig ’jug bde’i ’phreng ba la” In. gSung ’bum/
bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.9. Pp.253-270. Sonam, T. and Tashigang, D.L. Leh (W22130). Title:
A Convenient Entry: Directions to the Holy Site of gSal dwangs ri bo che. Synopsis: An
account of the journey to open the gSal dwangs ri bo, the sacred complex in Southeastern link
______ 1982 “gNas yig dang lo rgyus dpar du ’khod pa rnams kyi dkar chag bkod pa.” In.

gSung ’bum/ bZhad pa’i rdo rje. Vol.9. Pp29.34. ⼤⾕⼤学图书馆. 京都市. Title: A

Catalogue of Published Guides to Pilgrimage sites and their Histories.

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