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Department of Chemical Engineering

BUET, Dhaka – 1000

Heat of Reaction or Enthalpy of reaction

enthalpy change for a process in which

stoichiometric quantities of reactants at

temperature T and Pressure P react

completely to form products at the same

temperature and pressure.

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 3

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 4

Total Enthalpy Change

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 6

Hess’s Law for Calculation of Heats of reaction

• Hess’s law states that if you can obtain a stoichiometric

equation as a linear combination of the stoichiometric equations

for other reactions, you can determine its heat of reaction by

performing the same operations on the heats of the other

reactions. For example, suppose we experimentally determine

the following two standard heats of reaction:

+ 2D but can’t carry out that reaction experimentally.

We observe, however, that we can obtain that

stoichiometric reaction as [1] + 2x[2]:

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 8

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 9

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 10

Example 9.4-1 Calculate the standard heat of reaction for the

The dehydrogenation of ethane

C2H6 = C2H4 + H2

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 11

CLASS TEST - 3

Syllabus: Chapter 8 (exclude Psychometric

chart) + chapter 9.

Energy Balance

Energy Balance – Open System

EB – HEAT of REACTION METHOD

(Reference – compounds at 25 oC and 1 atm

EB – HEAT of FORMATION METHOD

(Reference – Elements at 25 oC and 1 atm

An Example

25

Example - Heat of reaction method

25

0

0

Example - Heat of formation method

0

0

An Example

Example - Heat of reaction method

Example - Heat of formation method

Problem 9.13

The production of most of the steel manufactured in USA

begins with the reduction of hematite ore (mostly ferric oxide)

with coke (carbon) in a blast furnace to obtain pig iron. The

basic reaction is

2.111×105 Btu/lb-mol

fed at 77 0F, the reaction is complete, the iron emerges as a

liquid at 28000F and CO emerges at 5700F. Perform the

following calculations for a basis of 1 ton of iron produced.

Draw and label a flowchart and perform all the material balance

calculations needed to determine the amounts (1b-mole) of

each feed and product stream component.

Problem 9.13 (cont’d)

b) Taking the reactant and product species in their normal states

at 770F as references, prepare an inlet-outlet enthalpy table

and calculate and fill in all unknown component specific

enthalpies (Btu/lb-mole).

Fe(s): Cp[Btu/(1b-mole.0F)] = 5.90 + 1.50×10-3 T (0F)

Tm = 27940F, ΔHm (Tm) = 6496 Btu/1b-mole

Fe(l): Cp [Btu/(1b-mole.0F)] = 8.15

d) List the assumptions that make the value calculated in part (b)

only an approximate estimate of the furnace heat

requirement. (One of the assumptions has something to do

with the reactor pressure).

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 25

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 26

9.13 (solution) – part d)

Problem 9.21

Ethanol is produced commercially by the hydration of ethylene:

C2H4(g) + H2O(v)= C2H5OH(v)

Some of the product is converted to diethyl ether in the undesired side

reaction

2 C2H5OH(v) = (C2H5)2O(v)+H2O(v)

The combined feed to the reactor contains 53.7 mole% C2H4, 36.7% H2O

and the balance nitrogen which enters the reactor at 3100C. An ethylene

conversion of 5% is achieved, and the yield of ethanol (moles ethanol

produced/mole ethylene consumed) is 0.90.

Data for Diethyl Ether

ΔH0f = -272.8 kJ/mol for the liquid

ΔH0v = 26.05 kJ/mol (assume independent of T)

Cp[kJ/mol.oC]=0.08945+40.33*10-5 T (oC) – 2.244*10-7 T2

(a) Calculate the reactor heating or cooling requirement in kJ/mol feed.

(b) Why would the reactor be designed to yield such a low conversion of

ethylene? What processing step (or steps) would probably follow the

reactor in a commercial implementation of this process?

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 28

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 29

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 30

9.6 Fuels and Combustion

steam, which drives turbine to produce

electricity

• Analysis of fuels, combustion reaction and

reactor is an important activity for chemical

engineers

• Three types of fuels

- Solid (coal, coke, wood, solid waste)

- Liquid (hydrocarbons, coal tars, bio-ethanol)

- Gaseous fuels (NG, acetylene, hydrogen)

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 31

Heating Value of a Fuel

i i

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 32

Heating Values of Common Fuels

Adiabatic Flame Temperature

Problem 9.66 (F&R, 3rd edition)

continuous adiabatic reactor. The methane enters the

reactor at 25 oC and 1.1 atm at a rate of 5.50 L/s ,

and the entering air is at 150 oC and 1.1 atm.

Combustion in the reactor is complete, and the reactor

effluent emerges at 1.05 atm. Calculate (a) the

temperature and (b) the degrees of superheat of the

reactor effluent (consider water to be the only

condensable species in the effluent)

9.66 Solution

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 37

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 38

Known Q and unknown outlet temperature

Waste Heat Boiler

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 41

8/16/2010 ChE 201 shoukat@che.buet.ac.bd 42

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