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A COMMENTARY ON
PATANJALA YOGASUTRA
NAMED
THE MBROSIA OF YOGA
-,
~~ ';j"flt 41•1«~ ~:
~lhHQ?t~fM\Nfla 41•rfi~~f%ar
qfhll\ifef1 · Mff~l~l~~~H{qt'QI fcHf~ai 1
A C01\1MENTARY ON
- -
PATANJALA YOGASUTRA
NAMED
THE AMBROSIA OF YOGA
with the Yogasiitras ofPJtafijali
composed by
Parivrajaka Sri Sadasivendra Sarasvati Avadhfita

Transliteration in Roman Script and English Translation


of Patafijala Yogasiitra and English Translation of Sadasiva's
Yogasudha.kara in Sanskrit by
S. Kothandaraman, B.A., LL.B.

with a Foreword by
Jyotisha Bhushanam Mahamahopadyaya Vedamartanda Tantra
Bhaskara Vidyavacaspati, Mantra Yogi, Srividya, Mahapoornabhi·
shikta Sarva Krama Dikshita
Dr. B. Krishnamurthy, Ph.D., D.Sc., M.D.

B.R. Publishing Corporation


New Delhi-110002
in association with
Karkotaka Vayalore Trust
Chennai - 600 033
Cataloging in Publication Data--DK
Courtesy: D .K. Agencies (P) Ltd. <docinfo@dkagencies.com >
Sadasivendra Sarasvati, 18th cent.
[Yogasudhakara. English & Sanskrit]
Yogasudhakaro nama Yogasfltra ~ : Pataiijalipra¢ta
Yogasfltrasahita i Sadasivendrasarasvatya viracita = A
commentary on the Pataiijala.Yogasfltra named The Ambrosia
of yoga with the Yogasutras of Pataiijali I composed by
Sadasivendra Sarasvati ; transliteration in roman script and
English translation of Pataiijala Yogasfltras and English
translation of Sadasiva's Yogasudhfilcara in Sanskrit by
S. Kothandaraman ; with a foreword by B. Krishnamurthy.
p. cm.
In Sanskrit; translation and introductory matter in English .
Classical work on yoga philosophy.
Includes bibliographic.al references.
Includes index
ISBN ~ 10 digit) 8176466476 (13 digit) 9788176466479
1. Pataii.jali. Yogasutra. 2. Yoga--Early works to 1800 . I.
Pataiijali. Yogasutra . English & Sanskrit. II. Kothandaraman,
S. III. Title. IV. Title: Ambrosia of yoga . V. Title: Yoga
sudhakara. VI. Title: Commentary on the Pataii.jala Yogasutra
named The Ambrosia of Yoga with the Yogasutras of Pataii.jali.
DDC 181 .452 22

Printed and Published by:


B.R. Publishing Corporation
425, Nimri Colony
Ashok Vihar, Phase-IV
Delhi - 110 052
Phones: 011-23259196, 011-2325 9648
E-Mail : brpc@Jvsnl.com

First Published, 2009


© Karkotaka Vayalore Trust, Chennai
ISBN (10 digit) 81-7646-647-6
ISBN (13 digit) 978-81-7646-64 7-9

The contents, facts , views and analysis in the !Jook are entirely t~e responsibility of the
Author. All rights including the right to translate or to reproduce this book or parts thereof
except for brief quotations, are reserved
CONTENTS

Page No.

Picture of Sadasiva (frontispiece)


Pataiijala Yogasiitras (list of siitras) i to vii
Key to transliteration and pronunciation
List of abbreviations
Srimukham from Kanchi Kamakoti pithadhipati.
Photographs of Kanchi Kamakoti pithadhipatis.
1. Foreword by Dr. Krishnamurthy ... I
2. Introduction 9
Photographs: (l) Entrance to Samad.hi.
(2) Renovated Temple near Samadhi.
(3) Another entrance to Samadhi.
(4) Sthapati and.his family.
3. Chapter - I
Spiritual Absorption (Samiidhi Piida) 35
(Aphorisms I-1 to I-51)
4. Chapter - II
Practice of Yoga (Siidhana Pada) 88
(Aphorisms II-1 to II-55)
5. Chapter - ID
On Power of Yoga (Vibhuti Pada) 139
(Aphorisms III-I to IIl-57)
6. Chapter - IV
Absoluteness (Emancipation) (Kaivalya Pada) 189
(Aphorisms IV-1 to IV-34)
7. Bibliography 221
8. General Index 223
9. Sadasivendra Stava 231

---000 : 0:000 ---


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Patanjala .Yogasutrapathah

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---0000000---
KEY TO ~ fi in singe.
TRANSLITERATION AND
PRONUNCIATION ~ ! in ten.
q_ th in anthill.
31' a in rural.
~ Q in den.
311' a in father.
in redhaired.
9h
l
,
1 in lily.
in police.
'
11I_ i:t in under.

'
I t in true.
(={.
~ u in full. in thumb.
?.{_ th
~ u in rude.
d in then.
~
~ f in merry. in adhere.
st. dh
1t e in May. .,_ n in not.
~ a1 in aisle. 't{_ p in_put.
al 0 in go.
~ ph in uphill.
af1' au in now.
b in rub.
~
m in sum. bh in abhor.
"£.
h. in half. l{_ m in map.
Cfi_ k in kill. l{_ y in loyal.
~ kb in inkhom. r in run.
\
TC_ g in go. 1 in luck.
~
ll. gh in loghut. v in avert.
~
in sing. ,
~ Ii
~ s in sure.
c in chain.
'
~ ch
.
in catch.
in jump.
"{_

~
~

s
in shun.
in sin.
\it. J l. I:i in hear
ll jh in hedgehog.
LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

Aph. ... Aphorism.


Ast. Adh. A~~dhyayi (of Pfu:iini).
AV. Atharva Veda.
BG. Bhagavatglta.
B{h. Up. Brhada.raQyaka Upani~ad.
BS Brahma-Sutra.
Ch.Up... . Chandogyopanisad
~.Up .. . Ka~ha Upani~ad.
KSS .. . Kasi Sankarit Series.
MS. Manu smpti.
MU. Mudakopani~ad.
PM. Piirva Mrmamsa.
J:{V. ~g Veda.
RY. Raja Yoga (by Vivekananda).
SBE . ... ~acred Book of the East (Series).
SK. S'arikhya Karika.
SS. Siva Siitra.
ssv. ... Siva Siitra Vimarsini.
sv. Sama Veda.
Ta Tantraloka.
SY. Science of Yoga (by Taimni).
TS. Taittirfya Samhita.
Tai.Up.... Taittirfya Upani~ad .
vs. Vajasaneyf Samhita.
YS. Yoga Siitra (of PatanjaJi )

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~

KAMAKOTI SANKARA MUTT


Kan c hee puram

Yogasastra is one among the six Dar-


sanas - Systems of Philosophy - pertaining to
the study of the knowledge of the Atman.
This system, which deals with Astanga Yogas
like Yama, Niyama . and others, has been
presented in the form of Sutras by Sage
Patanjali. On this work. well known as Patan-
jala Yoga Sutras, i!: a popular commentary
written bv saint Sadasiva Brahmendra Saras -
vati. \vho' adorned this Mutt. We are pleased
to see that both the works have been
rendere(i into English. lucidly by Sri Raman
of Bombay.
We bless th e author who h.= ~ greatJy
h elped in this pursuit of the stud y of th e
Atman to have all his desires fulfill ed. by th e
grace of Parasak b Yogarupini.

Narayana sm ruti
FOREWORD

The science of Siva Yoga was gifted by Siva to this world from
face No.1 of his five faces through his horripilatory manifestation of the
excelling super-dancing God, Lord Nataraja, headquartered at
Chidambaram in Dak$ina Bharat. To begin with, the gift of Siva was, is,
and will ever be, demonstrated by Lord Nataraja on every thirteenth day
of the tw·o fortnights in a month (Prado$Gkala) . This way of teaching the
Yoga was, to most of the then generations, both inaccessible and
ingraspable, being unintelli'gible. Out of the many followers of Lord
Natar{Jja, the two sages, Pataiijalt and Vyaghrapfida felt it as their
supreme duty to write out a treatise on Siva's light-thought, gift of
awareness and the demonstration that is the Science of Integral Yoga,
received and treasured in the Kashmir Valley of Bharat.

2. Thus, the original Siva Sutras acted as beacons to the


compilation by the sage, Patanjali in the form of Piitaiya(a Yoga
Aphorisms subdivided into four piidas or quadrants, narpely: Samiidhi-
pada, Sadanapada, Vibhutipada and Kaivalyapada. A student of these
yoga aphorisms is progressively invested with the possession of super-
phenomenal or nownenal intellective vision, to understand and digest the
terse, abstruse and abstract contents in the aphorisms.

3. The unauthored Siva Sutras are considered like the Vedas, a


revealed book of the Yoga, a supreme identity of the individual self with
the Divine:
ihC::l~cilmn · gMc::~f"i1~c:ornasi14 :Jilck'>lct {~t4fisic::14l l1T
~, ~fll1w:ia: 1 ~ qv1r~1tj., ~ ~
ar:+iMasiRri.r: ¥f: ..... 1
A student stands to gain much more when this book, particularly
mastered as the fountain-head of the spiritual practice, is assimilated in
conjunction with direction of Vijniinabhairava or divine consciousness,
Pratyabhi-jnahrdayam, Spanda Sutras and the like.

K$€mariija's introduction to Srva Siitras (cf SSV. by Jaideva Singh - M BD


Publication).
2
YOGASUDIIAKARA

4. Siva Sutras are divided into four sections, namely Anupiiya


Sambhavopaya c22 sutras), saktopaya oo sutras), and Anavopaya (4s
sutras), giving in all 77 aphorisms to humanity's highest beatitude in three
upayas or approaches, interlinked with each other as vestibules. This
division is identical mostly wit~ the four padas of Patanjali's Yoga
Aphorisms. The speciality in the Siva Siltras is that Anupiiya has no sutra
to its credit by virtue of the fact of Anupfiya being Sambhava Yoga itself
in its highest maturity:

The Siimbhavopaya itself, in its highest crystallisation, is known as


Anupaya. The least spiritual discipline undergone to earn grace, is in
Anupaya When, through the highest saktipii,tha, only by once hearing a
word from the spiritual director, (guru), the aspirant realizes the Real Self
and gets saturated in the Divine Consciousness (in other words, without
especially sustained effort, one is said to, have attained self-realization
through Anupaya which is left out of the Siva Siltra text on Yoga for the
pregnant reason that Anupaya refers to a stage, in which self-realization is
a fait accompli, without any specific yoga. Even countless means cannot
reveal Siva Sakti, just as a jar cannot r~veal t?e sun: Or:e with a lofty
vision, pondering this, get absorbed muned1ately m Siva, the self-
luminosity awareness,(Abhinavagupta). This stage transcends all yogic
activity. This is one mirror to perceive purely our Sadiisivendra Sarasvati
in-and-out and out-and-in.

5. The second mirror is the one provided by Vijfziinabhairava to


see our Sadasiva analytically and synthetically. Now let us bestow our
attention on this second mirror. Vijniinabhairava is an eloquent
scintillating and excelient exposition of the yogaja-miirga sans viveka-
marga, in which yogaja-marga the goal is not the isolation of the Self
from Prakrti or Miiyii but the integration of the individual self to the
universal Self. or Bhairava and the realization of the universe as the
expo~ition of its sakti or spiritual energy. The ideal of this text is not the
rejection of the universe but its assimilation to its source. This synthetic

2
· Cf Ta.K-1 42.
3
FOREWORD

appellation allows its division as Vijnana and Bhairava, who (the latter)
is an acrostic word consisting of letters 'Bha ~ 'Ra' and 'Va~ 'Bha'
indicating 'bharana' or maintenance of the universe, 'Ra' meaning
· 'ravana ' or withdrawal of the universe and 'Va' connoting 'vamana' or
projection or manifestation of the universe, thus containing all the thiee
aspects of the Divine. The essential nature of Bhairava is Vijnana or
Bodha or Mahabodha, cit or caitanya, the main characteristic of which is
svatantarya or absolute freedom, revealing itself in Jccha, Jfzana and
Kriya. It is to this that the seeker of spiritual life has to be integrated.

6. The highest state of Bhairava is free bf all notions pertaining to


direction, time; nor can that be particularised by some definite space or
designation. In verity, that can neither be indicated nor described in
words. Its choiceless awareness can be had only when one is completely
free of all thought-constructs.

7. To realize this highest state, Bhairava describes 11 2 Dhiira!JaS


or types of yoga practices, leading to awareness, transformation of the
hwnan consciousness into Divine consciousness. This Vijnanabhairava
has utilized all the traditional techniques of yoga-postures, gestures,
development of p raIJa-sakti, awakening of "KuQdalini, mantra-japa,
devotion, realization through understanding meditation, creative
contemplation and including techniques of non-formal nature like vacant
look at the dark night, high mountain, watching the conditions or
consciousness in a see-saw movement, the condition of consciousness
before falling asleep, intently looking at a vase without partition etc. The
ultimate goal recommended, is identification with Bhairava, the
undifferentiated Universal Consciousness, involving the undermentioned
processes:- (1) Unalloyed interiorization so that one is absorbed in the
heart of the Supreme; (2) passing from vikalpa or the stage of
differentiating dichotomizing thought-constructs to nirvitarka stage of
thought-free non-relational awareness; (3) di sappearance of the ego or
limited pseudo-I, a product of prakrti, and the emergence of the Real
Universal-I (piirQiihantii), which is Divine and (4) di~solution of cit'ta or
the individual mind into cit or the Universal Consciousness. This is the
essence of Yoga, according to Vij"nanabhairava.
4
YOGASUDIIAKARA

8. Sadflsiva entered the Supreme Universal Divine-1-


Consciousness by thought-free non-relational awareness by dissolving
himself in the form of his little-I, consisting of the body,praqa, etc. in the
nectaric lap and the savoury sap of the Universal Divine Consciousness
through the process of splitting the chrysalis of his ego to q'u alify his
entrance into the sanctum sanctorum of the Divine Presence.

SllDlllll"l~H"ttl<Dllf<~&l41lllPt!Rf4'il!, {<:!Rl~'i, ,3i[°tjCflfqCfl{<'q u(


3i~~l~<[°tj"lfif=t44fi*il<l(G'11 Bf4<~'1 , ~ ~41f4~q_ I ~
~? lffi:, WJU!IDllKSl"llQOdi m fifcct"le.:tilH~ 4'3\Ji~rt Slfil441', I 3

9. Dissolution and Emergence, Death and Birth, are delineated in


the hymns of Ka.thopani$(1d. As the erudite translator's Introduction
shows, Sadflsiva was intrinsically and esoterically caught up by the
maxim that one has to die (phenomenally) to live (noumenally or
spiritually) for ever. Divine filiation it is, defying description in any
human language, it being a reality of a different inexplicable dimension.
'The prima facie consideration or condition of deification presupposes the
eradication of all otherness.' 4

IO. Vij"fzfinabhairava bestows upon the Siva-Sakti yogis 112


Dhflranas for this consummation.

11. A few words about Spanda Siistra is meet and proper at this
juncture. This Spanda K~rikii or Sutra, . elaborate .the impeccable
principles laid down in th~ Siva Sutras, working out their details chiefly
from the point of view of Sakti.

12. In Siimbhavopaya - Aph .. I - Atma - characterized as


foundational consciousness, illuminated by absolute freedom of
knowledge and action. In siitra 22, Para or the highest Sakti, is, by virtue
of its fathomless depth, transparency like a lake. The moment the sadhaka
is united with it or constantly aware of his identity with it, the aspirant has
the inductive experience of the potency of the great mantra, which means

3
· K$emaraja's commentary on SS. translated by Jaideva Singh, cf S.HI-2 !" vide SSV.
P. 177.
4
Dr. Anand K. Coomaraswamy
5
FOREWORD

the percolation of the throb of the Supreme-I-Consciousness (as his/her


own inmost self), their source-generator of all mantras, which derive their
power from it. The first sutra of this uptiya is caitanyam titmti ( ~
~).In Stiktopaya, the first aphorism is cit'tam mantrab ( ~ ~: ). The
spiritual centrifugality of cit'ta when fully charged with mantra, Sakti
realizes the essential Divine Self. titmti cit'tam ( 3ffi'qi ~ ) is the first
ahporism in AIJavopaya, so-called because of the bearing aIJu (atomy) -
the Jons et origo of this A IJavopaya, which takes this psychological or
empirical self, which fixes itself on something different from the essential
s,elf. Kriyti (activity) is the most predominant in this upaya, jntina in
StiktopO.ya and the Universal Consciousness characterized by absolute
freedom, jntina (knowledge) and kriyti (activity), which is the self in
Stimbhava Yoga.

13. Panindra's (Patafzjali's) aphorisms became divinely fortunate


for us to be commented upon by HHSri. SadO.sivendra Sarasvati
Avadhuta in his vrit'ti (Yogasudhakara) Ambrosia of Yoga, which excels
and amplifies the original Patanjali Sutras, by highlighting the operation
of the quintessence of Siva Sutras - Vijnanabhairava techniques etc. in
the life, development, perfection and cosmicization of Sadtisivendra's
phenomenal and transcendental life's complete sojourn; much more so the
scintillating all-round annotation, performing tournament of miracles, in
his nectaric cominentary aforesaid, would be legion and an attempt at it
would swell this Foreword into another text, which is not the purpose
now but may see the light of the day later.

14. The evolution of life, to sound a practical note here, is


quickened by the predominance of the Energy of Inertia and
inequilibriumatic activity filling in the hell of MahO.tala, superintended
and surveilled by Atfahakiila, belonging to the sphere of Earth. Look! 'The
Sun' (1988, Nov. Issue) tell us under the caption, 'Scientists fear they've
opened gates of hell': "the shrieks of condemned souls have been heard
coming from world's deepest (9 mile).hole, where terrified researcher fear
they've unleashed the evil forces of hell upon the earth. ' The information
we are collecting, is so astounding that. quite frankly. we're afraid of what
we might find down there'. declares Dr. Viktor Azzakov. Director of the
Project to drill a 9-mile hole in remote Siberia. Geologists \Nere dumb-
6
YOGASUDllA.KARA

founded when, after drilling several miles into the bedrock, the drill bit
began to spin wildly. 'The only explanation is that the very center of the
earth is hollow', states (the) amazed Dr. Azzakov. Another surprise was
the extreme heat detected in the depth of the earth. 'Our calculation
indicate temperature of 2000 degrees Fahrenheit', notes Dr. Azzakov.
'This is 10 times higher than we expected. It almost seems as if a fiery
inferno is raging within the earth's core.' The latest discovery, however, is
so earth-shattering that scientists are afraid to continue with the project.
In an attempt to listen to the shifting of the earth's different levels, a high-
sensitivity microphone was extended into the shaft. What they heard
turned the logical-minded Russian scientists into trembling wrecks.
'There was a faint ·high-pitched noise, which we thought was our
equipment', explained Dr: Azzakov, 'but after we made some adjustments,
we realized it was indeed coming from the earth's center. We could hardly
believe our ears. What we were listening to was the unmistakable sound
of a human voice, screaming in pa~n. Although one voice was prominent,
we could also make out, as if in the background, thousands, perhaps
millions of tormented souls. Since the ghastly discovery, half the
scientists have resigned in fear. Hopefully, whatever's down there, will
stay down there' adds Dr. Azzakov.

15. Patanjali's sutras No.28 & 24 of Vibhuti Pfida will emit light
on the why and wherefore of such finds and occurrences. In
Wordworthian language, 'the World is too much with us'. Yoga-pursuit in
right earnest will make us do a 'right-about-tum'~ to see tha! the 'World is
very much for us to realize i~ as the very expression o~the Sakti in Siva as
propounded in siitra No.6 (Siimbhava Yoga) and 45 (A~ava Yoga) of Siva
Sutra and DiihraIJii No.82 (of the technique of V[iniinabhairava), the
practice of which guided me to undertake the pancapraIJavopasa at the
Samiidhi. of Sri Sadiisivendra at Nerur long ago, in simultaneity with the
sagacious advice oflate Dr. MM Gopinath Kaviraj of Varanasi.

16. It was Siva's wish that these aphorisms should be lived


entirely in one' daily life unfailingly. In those days, the Science of Yoga
was conveyed to the recipients in parcels of practical lessons with the
Guru showing the perfonnance of the eight-fold manifestations i.e.,
A$.tadiiga Yoga to the disciple, who, in tum, practised them in the
7
FOREWORD

presence and supervision of the great Master. In this way, in an unbroken


chain, this science saw it~ way and started running through the centuries
uninterruptedly down to the present, to go into the future.
17. There are many authorities, practical exponents of the various
techniques used in the dissemination of the Science of Yoga, whose
memory is written in letters of gold in the silver plaque of the human
minds. To cite a few instances, Sankara. Ramakr?hna Paramahansa,
Vivekananda, Paramasivendra Sarasvati, Sadasivendra Sarasvati,
Mirabai, Bal Gangadhar Tilak, Mahatma Gandhi, Aurobindo Ghosh,
Acarya Vinobha Bhiive, are, suffice it to say, in their own inimitable
ways, monuments worthy of cherishing in our memories.
18. From out of the names aforementioned and other luminaries,
there are many Sanskrit commentaries on this Yoga Sutras by Sage
Patanjali. The one, which has rarely seen the light of the universal day,
save in South lndia,5· the commentary of His Holiness Sri. Sadasivendra
Sarasvati Avadhuta (whose Samadhi is at Nerur, Karur Tatuka, in the
District of Trichinopoly, South India), is not only a written, or dictated,
commentary but a living one for that matter. as his entire life of sadana
has explained the complete text of the above Yoga Aphorisms in action.
That is why his commentary is superbly easy and meanin¥ful,
comprehensible to all followers, besides for the simple reason that
Sadiisiva has not displayed his intellectual gymnastics or phenomeµal
acrobatics but has proved ·the infallible contents of the said aphorisms
through nothing but translating them into _his ovm practice. Hence the
nece.ssity for the timely publication of this scintillating and efflorescent
commentary, translated into English most faithfully and appropri ately by
my illustrious friend, Sri. S.Kothandaraman. who is a tribunal counseller
amidst his other variegated activities in the world of spiritual industry. He
has requested me not only to go through the entire cbntents of the version
of Sanskrit Commentary but also his English rendering and then write a
Foreword to this book.

5
So late as 1957., there had been a publication in North India, i·ide The Kasi Sanskrit
Series 83, with six commentaries together, one of which is that of Sadosivendra
Sarasvati, edited by Pandit Dhundhiraj Sastri. Principal, "ityananda Veda
Vidyalay, Banares .. with an introduction in Hindi b) Mahaprabhu l al Goswami and
published by Chauk.hambha Sanskrit Sansthan. Varanasi. [Translator].
8
YOGASUDllAKARA

19: I welcomed this duty as one of my contributions to the world


of the twenty-first century to be revived back and founded solidly on the
basis of the most powerful Bharatiya Cultural Heritage, which is not
enclosed but co-extensive with infinity and all that is in eternity. In my
coverage of the various page of this Book, I was totally absorbed in the
beautiful way the above revered translator has been guided to give the
touch of confidence drawn by him from the Con-Science-Power as
bestowed by the great Mahasakti. Wherever necessary, I have made some
corrections and amendments to the English rendering of rhy friend, of the
Sanskrit Vrit'ti.

20. In the following pages the Yoga aphorisms in relation to the


Sanskrit Commentator as applicable to us through the modem conditions
into eternity, is spotlighted on some useful lines for percolation and ·
absorption by the good and great posterity including the present universal
generations. It is not that letter alone counts nor the epistemological
contribution of this Science alone that attracts the entire cross-section of
hilmanity but that nectu-, which is full to overflowing in everyone's
mental tank of intelligence and super-intelligence, is required to be
tapped, absorbed, assimilated and digested in toto, for the wholesome
self-realization. Let us all jointly pray:

so that the remaining years of the current century and the centuries to
follow, make us live the spiritual life of perfection - the sole guarantor to
all, always, everywhere in whole Universe, of Peace, Prosperity, Plenty
and Progress,

Vikhroli (East),
BOMBAY - 400 083, Dr. B.KRISHNAMURTHY.
19th May 1990.

6
Brfl. Up.
INTRODUCTION.

I. Life Sketch of Sadasiva:

1. The life sketch of Sadasiva, our commentator, like that of any


other saintly philosopher in the Indian -scene · suffers from a dearth of
reliable materials on which to depend, to give an authentic version. We
have none else to blame except ourselves for this sorry state of affairs.
We have had in the past no such systematic chronograph, much less a
chronicle to record the eventful lives of many great saints during their
lifetime, as we witness today. As for instance, Yogacharya Sri.
Krishnamacharya, a rare personality of a living legend, was born in
November 1888 in Muchhukunte village in Chellakare Taluk of
Chitradurga District in Karnataka State, who possesses knowledge of the
sastras, Sanskrit Grammar, the Vedas and Yoga and whose ancestors are
traced back to Nadamuni, one of the greatest of Sri Vai$nava A/wars, has
been so-much-so chronicled for posterity by Bhavan's Journal (cf Vol.
35, No. 11 January 15, 1989) that one need not have to fall back on hear-
say versions for true details.

2. To attempt a biography of Sadasiva on modern lines, one has to


look for what is available from the few published materials. Divergent
synopses are offered by different pamphlets and journals and one has to
sift the chaffs from the grains before one could get a clear picture of the
life of Sadasiva. Even as regards the exact date of his life, which is not an
antiquity, unnecessary confusion is created by exuberant enthusiasts by
making a terse one-sentence statement that he li veQ a hundred and fifty
years ago, without caring to verify the relevant facts.' From reasonable
records available, one can say certainly that he lived about three centuries
ago and that the contrary is a misconception. For, _there exists a
copperplate inscription 2 of 1738 AD, whereby grants of land were made,
at the express desire of Sada.Siva, to his fellow pupil, Gopala Kri$IJD
Siistri, by the then ruler of Pudukotah State in the erstwhile Madras

1
cf p. xiv of Mukhavurai (introduction) to Yogasudhakara of Sadasivendra Sarasvati,
translated into Tamil by Yogi R. Subbaraya Sanna (Pub. Nathan Printing Press,
Madras).
2
cf paragraph I I infra.
10

YOGASUDHAKARA

Presidency (now Tamil Nadu), round about which time he was said to
have been roaming in -the forests adjoining Tiruvarangulam, a few miles
away from Pudukotah, where-after he was said to have wandered
wherever his feet led him.

3. This apart, the late Dr. V.Raghavan of the Madras Universit)


gives a brief account of Sadasiva 's life on pp. 455 & 456 in his Prayers,
Praises and Psalms, a notable selections from Vedas, Upani$(lds, Epics,
Gita, Purru;as, Agamas, Tantras, Kfivyas and the writings of iiciiryas and
others, translated by him, with a foreword by Mahatma Gandhi, published
by G.A.Natesan & Co. Madras, in 1938, where he says: 'The name of no
sanyasin is held in greater respect in South India than that of SadaSiva
Brahmendra, who lived in the latter half of the 17th centuiy and the
earlier half of the 18th, and .whose final disappearance from the world
was at Nerur in the Trichy District on the banks of the River Cauvery,
where even today his festival is celebrated. He has written brief
commentaries on the Brahma sutras and Yoga sutras and some minor
Advaita works. An account of his life is found in the Vani Vilas Press
Edition of his gloss on the Yoga sutras. Besides hymns in verses, he has
left us songs in praise of several deities and the Absolute, all very popular
with devotees and musicians. The Vani -Vilas Press, Srirangam, has issued
an edition of these songs. Two of these songs and one verse from a stotra
of his are here included.'

4. Ekoji, who established the Maharashtra Kingdom in Tanjore,


had three sons, namely, Sahaji, Sarabhoji and Tukoji, of whom the first,
Sahaji; ruled Tanjore during 1684-1740. It was in 1693 that Sahaji caused
the · village, Tiruvisalur, situate on the northern bank of -the River
Cauvery, to be renamed 'Siihajiriijapuram' by laying out an agrahiiram
(where usually. brahmGI;as lived in olden times in the South of India) and
bequeathed it free of tax to 46 select brahmaIJGS, who were well-versed in
Vedas and their families to live iri.. Great men like Ramabhadra D~ita of
Kandramanikkam , Bhaskara D~ita, Vedakavi, Maha-veda-kavi,
Vediappa-kavi, Nalla-kavi etc., belonged ·to these families. There were
certain Andhra families also in these; notably Sridhara Lingayaryar
[father of Sridhara Venkatesa (Ayyaval)] was one such from Andhra.
11

INTRODUCTION

Sadasiva was another, being the son of Moksham Somasundara, who was
one of the 46 donees of Sahajiriijapuram.

5. As had been the custom in India during those days, Sadasiva


was married to one Kamakshi when both were minors and while he was
still studying. No sooner had he completed his studies on Vedas etc. than
his young wife came of age in a distant village, when his mother was
preparing for an elaborate dinner later than usual. He reflected on this
fasting for a longer time than ordinary, thus: if it be the case on the first
day of his wife coming to age, what would be the position when he
entered the married life with all the accompanying misery! He abhorred
the afflictions, to which he would be subject in family life, and took a
decisive plunge in search of a spiritual preceptor. After a long and
strenuous search, he found at last his preceptor in Parama.Sivendra
Sarasvati (cf footnote 3 below) at Kasi (near Varanasi), under whose
expert guidance he began his apprentice-ship in Yoga science. In due
course Sadasiva became an adept in Yoga by the grace of his master's
blessings, who gave him his dik$fi name, Sadasivendra Sarasvati 3· (the

3
· This Parama5ivendra Sarasvati and Sadasivendra Sarasvati are different, and far
removed in point of their life-times, from the 57th and 58th Kanchi Kamakoti
PiP1Mhipatis, whose times were AD.1538-1585 and 1585-1637 respectively (cf The Age
ofSanlcara by T.S. Narayana Sastri, p.197, 2nd Edn. (I st published in 1916) and also cf
Kanchi periavarkku kanakabhi$l!kanga/ in Tamil by Vidvan V. Mabadevan of
Kumbakonam pp. 5 to 8]. It is most unfortunate that certain historical inaccuracies are
prefaced to the Yogasudhiikara of Sadasivendra Sarasvati, edited and published by the
Saipskrit Education Society, Madras, (cf Piitanja/ayogasutram with Yogasudhiikara of
Sri. Sadasivendra Sarasvati, I st Edn.1938, pp.v.vi and xiv) in the sense that SadMiva of
Yogasudhiikara was born in Trichinopoly Distract, who sought and obtained his 'great
guru in His Holiness Jagadguru Sri ParamaSivendra Sarasvati of the Kanchi Kamakoti
Peetam...... the 55th (sic.57th) Pontiff. .... .' From the available biographical details of our
commentator, what emerges is that he was the son of Moksharn Somasundra from
Andhra, who, incidentally, was one of the 46 donees of Sahajirajapuram (alias
Tiruvisalur) of Tanjore District, that he was an avaduta, was a contemporary of
Bhagavannama Bodhendra Sarasvati of Kan chi Kamakoti Ptµrn ( 163 7-1691) and was
one who attained final beatific union at Nerur in Trichinopoly District. Siddhiinta
Ka/pavalli was a poetical version of the great Appyya D~ita's Siddhiinta
ldasangraha, rendered by our commentator, Sada5iva, which definitely fits in well
with his life-span from the latter half of the 17th century and the early 18th (as
propounded by Dr.Raghavan) in relation to that of Appya Dik~it [whose life-time is well
settled as 1520- 1592, on more than one ground by Dr. N.Ramesan, former Secretary to
12

YOGASUDllAKAR.A

pet name given him by his parents being Pitchukuppan). At about this
time he was sa.\d to have composed a short poem, Atma Vidya Vitasa,
consisting of 62 verses in arya metre on the glory of self-realization. He
also spun out several lyrical kfrtanas, which displ~yed his ear for music
and his bent of mind with lofty ideals, which, as expressed in his poems,
were to quench his thirst for realization.

6. Sadasiva was in the habit of worrying,the people, who wished


to have I.he audience of his preceptor, with numerous questions and thus
shaming them into silence. Thus resented, some people mentioned it to
Parama5ivendra, who, in a fit of annoyance, admonished him: 'Sadasiva,
when will you learn to keep your mouth shut?' Sadasiva, at once, realized
his folly and, to hold his tongue against transgression, he self-imposed on
himself a vow of life-long silence. One day, at long last, he prostrated
himself before his preceptor, begged forgiveness for his fault, took leave
of his master and went out at large a homeless, speechless and supportless
mendicant, to realize what he set forth himself in the Atmavidya Vilasa.

7. Henceforward he led the life of a nomad never being stay put


anywhere for any length of time, never opening his mouth to speak but to
expressing his thoughts through gestures or by writing on the ground
when absolutely necessary. All looked upon him, more as a curiosity
than a determined soul of the highest non-attachment, all his energy
having been turned in, and concentrated on, the inner self. One early
morning Sadasiva was seen lying in a duly harvested field at Tiruvisalur
village by two passers-by. One began by saying, 'Look at this great man!
Unmindful of the prickly hay of the newly harvested field, he is lying in a

the Government of Andhra Pradesh, in his book, Sri Appayya Dik.shita, published by
Srimad Appayya Dik.shitendra Granthavali Prakasana Smithi, Hyderabad, (cf. pp.31 &
32)], while it is singularly incongruous to hold that either Sadasivendra (1512-1538) or
Sadasiva Brahmendra (1585-163 7), the 56th and 58th Pontiffs respectively of Kanchi
Kamakoti PI~ha, rendered it, in view of its impossibility in the first, and of its
improbability in the latter, case. Besides, Dr. Raghavan, in his brief account of
Sadasiva's life, refers to our commentator as a sarryasin and not as a distinguished
disciple of His Holiness Paramasivendra Sarasvti of the Kanchi Kamakoti Pltha. ln our
anxiety to highlight the sages of our land, we should not be oblivious of factual
inexactitudes, when especially the intended purpose of the published book is to cater for
the needs of the University students. (Tr).
13

INTRODUCTION

trance unaware of his selfl Is he not a great soul?' The other retorted by
saying, 'What ho! Without letting his head lie along with his body in the
field but by mounting it on the embankment, he enjoys tli.e pleasure of a
pillow for his head! Is he a great soul?' After a while, when both were
returning the same way, they found Sadasiva lying in the same field but
without any support for his head. They wondered how one, who professed
to scorn all earthly things, could still be so sensitive to criticism. When
this incident came to the knowledge of Venkatesa Dik~ita, one of
SadaSiva's fellow-pupils, he gave vent to his thoughts in the following
couplet: -

Qo1ufMa1R§e;s111ai Cfl<a&Cflf&a1R9&<~f2"lHi 1
~Mltl1Cll<q\C.lti2i;Hifq' ~~f.fH41{ 11 4
·

Even to those who hold the world as valueless as a straw and who have
mastered all the secrets, it is difficult to cease to be slaves to the strumpet
fame.

Such trivial failures and criticisms were the eye-opener, which took him
to the highest heights of Yoga.

8. Sridhara Venkatesa Ayyaval used to draw great religious


inspiration from his audience with Bhagavannama Bodhendra Sarasvati
of Kanchi Kamakoti Mutt, who used to camp at Govartapuram (presently
known as Govindapuram), a village on the banks of River Vfracholan, a
branch of Cauvery, where Sadasiva used to be seen as an ascetic on a vow
of life-long silence, having renounced all worldly attachments and
connections [literally even kaupfnam (loins-cloth)]. .Pained over the
incident in the paddy field at"Tiruvisalur, where Ayyaval was residing as

4
· This verse is quoted differently (as reproduced below) by some, who hold that

Sridhara Venkatesa Ayyaval was the author of this verse (cf p .28 of Sridhara Ayyava/
caritram in Tamil by V. Swaminatha Atreya, published by Sridhara Ayyaval Mutt
Governing Body.
-Qo~11-rc"/~a1-r<r1-M ~ q:){Cfifc"/a'l4l ~ t
~~~\!~II
This particular verse, however, is not found in the collection of all verses of Sridhara
Venkatesa Ayyaval in Sridhara Stutimani Mala made by T.M.Narayana sastri and
printed in 1919 by Sarada Vilasa Printing Press of Kumbakonam (Tamill Nadu) in
Grantha.
14

YOGASUDHAKARA

a house-holder, and apprehending that the great learning and wisdom of a


truly realized soul were going to waste, he was said to have pleaded
privately with Sadasiva by saying that a vow of silence was necessary to
counter the empty prattle of wordly bickering but was a vow of life-long
silence necessary to sing the songs of God? If only he opened his mouth,
the humanity at large would be the beneficiary of his enlightened speech
and numberless verses of wisdom. On the spot, Sadasiva was said to have
sung the immortal piece:~~ (bruhi mukundeti). Sadasiva appeared
to have quietly left the scene, lest his great vow should be demolished by
the importunations of his dear friend, while plausibly granting within
silently his fervent appeal, which explains his having left behind silently
several compositions of his own to be published by his devotees in times
to come.

9. He started now wandering on the banks of the River Amaravati


and Cauvery in the Coimbatore District of Tamil Nadu, where he was lost
in deep meditation on the unknowable and the unknown. He was seen by
people around :'ith strange far-off looks in his upturned eyes, he being
utterly unconsc10us of what was happening around him, almost like a
mad man. When this reached the ears of his preceptor, Paramasivendra,
he seemed to have regretted in a couplet that such madness did not
overtake him: -

3'"A'dqffi:q \al~ ~1tx:m1 tj ra ~ ~ ~ 1


R9?J'ti)qliHf4 ~: ~ tgri:i=am if 11% a 1 ~~ n ra 11

Unknown devotees in Sadasivendra Stuti and Stavam, which it may be


hard to believe but they persist in living, interweave many anecdotes,
whose number is legion. Nothing is impossible for a siddha and Sadasiva
was undoubtedly a siddha par excellence. He cared for nothing in the
world and he was ever and anon deeply concentrated in samiidhi. His
realization of the summum bonum of life was such that even his preceptor
praised and envied him. He rose above the world. He had no caste, creed,
et al to discriminate. ·He cared not for food, shelter, drinks or clothes but
was ever hankering after spiritual wisdom and was immersed in eternal
bliss. A true mahatma and a divine manifestation of a true siddha, he was
also an adept in prtu;iiyama exercise in the kevala kumbhaka mode.
15

INTRODUCTION

Ordinarily, prtil)iiytima consists of a sahita lcumbhaka buttressed by a


puraka and a recaka. But after prolonged practice it is possible to
dispense with puraka and recaka and practice lcumbhaka alone, which is
called f<evala lcumbhaka. In the life-sketch of Sadasiva,
T.K.Balasubramaniam says: 'Now would he (Sadasiva) be seen to plunge
into the _groves far wide that lay stretched on either side of the sacred
stream and remain lost to view for many a day. Now would he be seen
lying upon the white undulating sands of these rivers. Once, while thus
reposing on the sands of the Cauvery near Kodumudi, one of those
sudden floods that often rush through the stream without notice, came and
carried off the unconscious yogi and buried him on the sands in its
onward sweeping course. The villagers on the banks, who were the
spectators of the scene, were quite powerless to help the yogi and quietly
returned to their homes, deeply regretting the calamity, which, they
thought, had befallen the great sage, whom they looked upon with awe
and reverence.
Three months passed by and when the freshes in the river
subsided and water became scarce, the village officers went to the river
for erecting the usual korambu. While one of the labourers plunged his
spade deep into the bed, lo! it came into contact with some obstruction.
The surprised workmen drew out the spade and beheld with consternation
a few drops of blooa dripping ·down his tool. All the officers and
work.men now gathered around him and dug a deep pit round the spot and
wonder of wonders! they found buried deep in the sand our great
Mahatma, his several limbs lying in different directions and himself lost
in Samiidhi. They carefully dug him out complete, and thus roused into
consciousness, this mighty saint, whose 'soul was like a star and dwelt
apart' looked about him as if just risen out of deep slumber and after a few
minutes, went his way as if nothing in the world had happened to him.
Such had been the prowess in priir:iiiyiima of our commentator, Sadasiva,
who had plausibly gone into instantaneous Samtidhi, to escape from the
impending catastrophy.
10. Perhaps, it would not be too low a criticism to that one made
in the Tiruvisalur field if one pointed out an accusing finger towards
Sadasiva for his having caused a favour from the ruler of Pudukotah
State, to honour his fellow-pupil, Gopala Krishna Sastri (cf next
paragraph), though he derived no benefit therefrom directly or indirectly.
16

YOGASUDllAKARA

Sadasiva, who did not give in to any one's plea except perhaps silently to
Ayyaval on literary matters, gave in to Tondaman's single minded
devotion, who 'clung to the sage (Sadasiva) for about 8 years with a
steadf~tness, which precluded all chances of evasion.' For a ruler of a
State, it was a paramount offer of dak?ina, pure and simple, which
Sadasiva, in his discriminative wisdom, did not want to evade, nor deny
Tondaman the merit, in the aforesaid modus operandi.

11 . 'It was about 173 8 AD that Sadasiva roamed into the forests
adjoining Tiruvarangulam, a few miles off Pudukotah. While wandering
in these extensive forests, he was seen by the then ruler of Pudukotah
State - Vijaya Raghunatha Tondaman (1730-1 769), who was known by
his more familiar name, Sivajfianapuram Dorai. This Tondaman was a
religious man and spent much of his time in pious meditations in the
forests adjoining a lake, which still bears his name. Pleased with the
single minded devotion of the Tondaman, who clung to the sage for about
eight years with a steadfastness which precluded all chances of evasion
Sadasiva wro~e down on the sand certain religious instructions and by the'
same method d~ected him for further information to his fellow pupil
Gopala Krisha Sastri who was then living in Bhikshandarkoil in th~
Trichinopoly District. This Sastri was accordingly invited to the Court
and by a copper-plate Sasana (edict) dated 1738 AD that still exists
grants of land were made to him and other brahmaIJaS, who came with'
him into the State. The Dusserah celebrations as well as the worship of
Dak?inamurti in the Palace Temple were now instituted on the lines laid
down by Sadasiva. The sand, on which the sage had written the
instructions, were carefully brought to the Palace shrine and is still
preserved there with religious veneration and worshipped as the holy relic
of the great sage. From the advent of Sadasiva, followed a bright and
prosperous period for the State and the Tondamns trace all their glory and
eminence to the spiritual influence of the sage. Sa~asiva did not stay long
in these forests, but wandered on wherever his feet led him, spreading
sunshine and happiness, wherever he went.' 5

5
·Quoted from 'Sadasivendra Sarasvati - a sketch' by T.K Balasubrahmanyam, published
by Vanl Vilas Press. in 1909.
17

INTRODUCTION

12. Sadasiva spent his last days in Nerur in Trichinopoly District.


'After a long life of silent meditation, he, one day told the brahmaIJaS of
Nerur that on a particular day (i.e.,jye$fa suddah dasami) in the month of
mithuna, he intended to attain beatific union with the Supreme Being and
if the villagers were prepared for the event on that day, a brCi.f!man would«
be coming with a biil)alinga from Banares, which should be consecrat~d
in a temple by the side of his samadhi'. Precisely on the appointed day' a
briihmana djd turn up from Banares with the biinalinga. The great
jlvanmukta descended of his own accord into the pit specially dug out for
his samiidhi and attained beatific union with the Absolute. The people
assembled there performed the necessary ceremonies and had the temple
erected by the side of the samadhi, which is the only one well known in
South India. Tondamans of Pudukotah made extensive grants of lands for
the performance of religious services in this sacred shrine. All expenses
of the celebration of the anniversary day every year were being defrayed
by the Pudukotah State.

13. The 33rd Pontiff, Jagadguru of Sringeri Sankariiciirya of


6
Sarada Mutt, Sacchidiinanda Siviibhinava Nrisimha. Bhiirati . (1867-
1912) had this most worshipful Sadasiva as his ideal and longed for the
day when he would be as free as Sadasiva. He was having then in his
possession a picture of Sadasiva, a replica of which is given here as
frontispiece just as it embellishes our publication, 'Yogasudhiikara'. That
was perhaps the only picture of Sadasiva in existence more than a century
ago because only this kind of picture one normally comes across in South
India with all devotees of Sadasiva besides the one taken out at Nerur on
mithuna }ye $.ta suddah dasaml around the temple and samadhi.
14. Sadasiva· appears to have composed several works but only a
few of them are now available. He composed most of them, not all, when
he was studying and practising under the guidance of his preceptor,
Paramasivendra Sarasvati. Though the ViinT Vilas Press, Srirangam,
published a number of works jn the first decade of the last century, yet
many of them, are out of print and are not readily available. Of these, the
Brahmasutra-vrt'ti titled Brahmatatvaprakasa and Yogasutra vrt'ti entitled
6
Cf Sdasivendra stava, an eulogy by him to our commentator, annexed to our
publication 'Yogasudhiikara', viz. this book.
18

YOGASUDHAKARA

Yogasudhtikara, besides Atma vidyti viltisa are by far the most important
and impressive. Apart from these, it was held out that other dfpikas for
about a dozen Upani~ds, then believed to have been existing, were
promised publication towards the fag end of the first decade of the last
century. Sadasiva was reported to have turned out a poetic version ·of the
siddhiintalesasangraha of Appayya Dfk$ita 1· in his siddhii.ntakalpavalli.

15. There are several vrit'tis on Yogasiltra, and several of them


have been printed and published. But SadaSiva's characteristic exposition
of the terse aphorisms of both Patanjali (Yogasiltras) and Badartiyal)a
(Brahmasutras) in his gloss on them is marked by simplicity of style,
lucidity of expression and dexterity of reasoning, though they are based
on the style and version of Vyasa's and Sankara's conunentaries but with
economy of words confined to the very point. His invocatory verses at the
start of each chapter and at the end of his commentary in both the cases of
Patanjala Yogasiltras and Biidartiya Brahmasutra, mark him at once a
poet of extra-ordinary standard. Bearing in mind the utility of his
commentary on PCitanjala Yogasutras to students and scholars alike
'
while translating it, for the first time in English, his commentary in
Sanskrit is quoted in full alongside, which should surely commend itself
to all lovers of Sanskrit literature.

16. Though something of Sadasiva could be gathered from the


available account of his life-style, much more of his stature of attainment
can be gathered from his charming verses in Atmavidyii. Vilasa, which
describes the greatness of a yogi, who has realized the true Self. Those
who have had the opportunity of reading it, say that, while going
thorough it, one felt as if one were reading a faithful description of
Sadasiva himself. Even without any one having to be swayed by the
popular accounts of the supernatural powers reported to have been
exhibited by Sadasiva, who, by no account, was practicing Madhupratfka
or Vi.fokii Siddhis, one would be convinced nf his high spiritual
attainments by reading his poems and vrit'tis. We can do better to quote a
few sample verses:

7
Appayya Dfk$ila Jived during AD. I 520- 1592 (cf footnote 2 supra).
19

INTRODUCTION

~ ~ll<'il\Jll& tjCi':lqi$1{ ~ tiqo«""l"O>C41 I


am~ ~fq<cfl41«) f.illqli:q~qcm)in 11
By abandoning the allurement of scriptural injunctions, s.
As well as all occupations of business fully abandoned
And by resorting to be on the straight road wholeheartedly,
A Yogi becomes as motionless as does a steady lamp.
~ll'4~¥54Pl ftj~1;f)~14~N'hl~l'<i'l_ I
~ dfqi$R( ~ ~ ~ <ITTroz, II
The wide road of asceticism kindles
Internally unbounded knowledge;
Mounted on the Mansion of Reality,
The ascetic delights with Freedom.
3Mllql!;f) -ift;fi ~<1~41&'!1ci: ~: I
q)ldC'5~141:i«i(lciC'5RC'5~ 5;f.1\lf4fa 11
With hope dispirited,
(but) silence (maintained)
Decorated by desirelessness,
(but) Peace (maintained)
Begging only a handful food,
(but) stationed
At the foot of a tree,
a sage wins (emancipation).

May be, the rendition of the English translation does not bring out what is
lyrical in the Sanskrit verses but certainly, it is hoped, it brings out the
portrait of Sadasiva's ascetic life.

8
SadMiva was an advita vedantist. His especial stress on 'abandoning the allurement of
scriptural injunctions' must be understood with reference to the general conditions
that were prevailing in Tiruvisalur (Sahajirijjapuram) during his time. The majority
of the briihmal}as that peopled the village in the latter half of the seventeenth
century were dfk~iras, who followed the vedic injunctions contained in piirva
mimiiqmi, having performed a number of y aj nos and they were not prepared to
admit the easy way of attaining salvation through the eficacy of bhagavanniima,
which was being propogated by Bhagavannoma Bodendra Saras\·ati and Sridhara
Ayyava/. Those interested in details may refer co the book in Tamil, entitled
Sridhara Ayyava/ Caritram. authored by Tanjore V. Swaminatha Atreya and
published by the governing body of the Tiruvisalur Sridhara Ayyaval Shrimatham.
20
YOGASUDHAKARA

II. BACKGROUND OF INDIAN PHILOSOPHY

17. Essentially, Indian Philosophy is spiritual. It has its roots in


Veda and Vediinta. The Veda has four branches (Siikhas), .8gveda,
Samaveda, Yajurveda and Athavaveda. Each branch has attached to it a
sacrificial procedure (Briimhana), ending finally with Vedanta (the
Upani$lldS).

18. At the threshold of mankind, we find the natural elements and


the atmospheric phenomena are deified by the vedic people in their oldest
book, ~gveda. To them, their worship is the worship of Nature, leading
up to Nature's God. The trinity of agni (iihavan1ya, dak$ina &
giirhapatya) is the central theme of the Vedas. The-dyiiviiprthivi (sky and
earth) are the Universal Parents. Indra is the god of battle. Varuna , the
upholder of physical and moral order, is the forgiver of sins. The sun is
deified as Vi$nu, Urukrama, Surya, Mitrii-Varu!Ja etc. By far the easily
best and the most enchanting of the vedic deities is the U !j(lS, the goddess
of dawn, who provoked the most graceful vedic poetry. The poetic
consciousness and geniuses of the unencumbered primitive mind are
reflected simpliciter in the colossal hymns addressed in adoration, praise
and prayer, to the favourite deities. The fantastic cosmogonic legends and
the mythological stories enmeshed in the earliest hymn of Vedas and the
prosody of BriihmaIJGS do not only yield us a glimpse of the abode of the
vedic society in the remotest past but display the primitive mind exerting
and grappling the various forces and phenomena of Nature as an
aggregate of animated Entity with supernatural powers and a divine spirit,
capable of bestowing a good, or exerting an evil, influence on the human.
To please them and to obtain their favours, sacrifices (yajnas) are offered
at definite intervals. The sacred fire (agni) is treated as a guest and
maintained at every home constantly for performing sacrificial offers to
gods every morning and evening, on every new and full moon and at the
commencement of every season and half year. In the result, based on the
movement of the moon, the sun and the stars, the associated yajna-
sarpskaras correspond to their cyclic phenomena of a year.

19. The succeeding generations, endowed with creative


imaginations embellish the original form with secondary accretions of
21

INTRODUCTION

what contrary celestial planetary dispositions they witness. Over a long


period of time, several rks came to be revealed to, and seen by, several
vedic bards referring to events, of which they were not witnesses in the
former age of their forefathers. navagvii}J (na}J purve pitaro navagvii}J) [cf
]:?V. VI-22-2,), and (angiraso na}J pitaro navagvii}J atharviiIJO brgaval;
soumyasa}J) [cf ]:?V. X-14-6.) etc. Yet the succeeding generations further
contribute by proliferation [cf 8V. V-90. - Puru$[1 Sukta verses]; compare
more especially verse X-90-26 with verse I-164-50 with particular
reference to Sankhayana Srauta Sutra V- l 5- l 5a. Our purpose is not to
indulge in historicity but draw a sketch of the background to Indian
Philosophy. Suffice it to say, the evolution of beliefs based on
personification and worship of natural phenomena must necessarily have
been spread over a considerable millennium in archaic time before their
redaction into Sarphita, Briihmw1as, Upani$[1dS, Sutras etc. mostly
collected, from various surviving families of the unprecedented deluge
and cataclysm known to history. In this process, which came later but
inherent in the antiquated past, the surprising thing is that even satirical
verses are preserved to posterity [cf 8V. VTI-103].

20. Recognition of Atharva Veda as a divine revelation was not


accorded it for a considerable time. confirmation of which may be traced
to 8 V. X-90-9. "For the follower of the Atharva Veda it was. therefore.
necessary to demonstrate the superiority of their own Veda to the 8 V. . the
SV. and the VS. Perhaps the most effective means. employed for the
achievement of this object, was to in\"ent legends and allegorical stories.
in which a certain task is proposed for them. The 8V.. the SV .. and the
VS., are invariably shown to be· incompetent in its performance, and it is
given up as too difficult by the three Vedas, in succession, being finally
accomplished by the AV., whose superiority over the other three Vedas is
thus implicitly expressed .... " 9·

21. While the followers of Atharva Veda succeeded in their


sectarian battle with their counter-part, their gimmick set in motion the
scepticism in Indian Philosophy, the echo of which is traceable in some

9
Cf lakshman Sarup's Introduction to the 1\'igha1J.nt and rhe l\'irukta. pp. Tl-74. 1984
Reprint ( 1920 Pub. M.Banarsidas.
22

YOGASUDIIAKARA

Aranyakas and Upani!Jads. Yaska (whose date is undetermined, ranging


between BC. 700 & BC.500), a rationalistic etymologist sans bigotry and
f~ticism has had occasion to refer and refute 10· the view held by a
Kautsa, who asserted and maintained that the vedic verses were
meaningless. It is therefore, evident here, though indirectly, that at least a
section of the society had started seriously inquiring into the vedic
ceremonialism. But Yaska's rebuttal met squarely the point:
~ QJ1Gfc:ltxrn1l4f 'GCR'ftfu ~ ~1an<q<1'tll
4~'14~-;; ~ I ~~jq{jf:I : ti cqqfu I 11
·

"As to (the objection) that their meaning is obscure,


(we reply) that it is not the fault of the post if the blind
man does not see; it is the fault of the man." 12·

"The earlier anti-vedic scepticism, together with the doctrines of the


Buddhist, the Carvaka and the Arhata systems must have created in
cow-se of time a considerable amount of opposition to the teaching of the
Vedas. It was, therefore, necessary for the followers of Vedas to answer
the objections of their opponent and re-establish their position. Hence
Jaimini was compelled to devote almost the whole of the first Adhyaya of
the Purva MfmaI!JSa to the examination and refutation of such objections.
The substance of Kautsa' criticism, together with the subject-matter of
Yliska's rejoinder is amplified with numerous additions in the first chapter
of the Purva MfmaI!JSa. 13

22. Kumliri/a Bhatia and, after him, Sankara, restored the


shattered supremacy of the vedantic philosophy to its pristine glory.
SiiyaIJa (whose date is fixed for the latter half of the 14th century)
reverted to the Kautsa's controversy in the introduction of his
commentary on the ~gveda where he quotes Apastamba as having said,
'The Veda is the name given to the mantra and Brahmana'

23. The Veda as such is called iinufrava because the preceptor


recites the phone on every syllable with accent, the sound of which travel

10
· Cf No.l.15 & 16 (NighatJtu pp.37-39) ibid.
11
Cf No. I. I 6 (NighatJ!IJ p. 39) ibid.
12
lakshman sarup's English translation.
13
Cf Lakshman sarup's Introduction to Nirukta pp.
23

INTRODUCTION

to the ear of the disciple, who repeats it and memorises the whole in
course of time in the same form and with the same intonations as taught
by the preceptor. Our highly educated and civilized mind would impute it
to the absence of scripts at the e1ifliest point of time of known human
existence. But the system of anufrava obtains even to-day
notwithstanding printed vedic ·text; for, the Hindu mind considers it a
duty to mankind, to preserve the purity of the vedic sound and virtues
with religious care and composure, to guard against corruptibility of the
traditional codes and to perpetuate the divine revelation for all times as a
means of attainment of the ultimate end of emancipation from the circuit
of life. If one reflects on the various sarpskiiras (refined concept of
virtues), of the vaidika society, with a patiently refined mind subjected to
constant and earnest practice of spiritual absorption over a long period of
time, one cannot but discern clearly the 'spiritualism, scripturalism and
traditionalism' lying at the root of the vedic virtues' for purposes of
governing the created body so that it is irreproachable.' (Cf Sadasiva's
comments on Aphs. I-23 & 1-29).

III. BACKGROUND OF PATANJALA YOGASUTRA:

24. Vedic traditions held a sway so long as the performance of the


sacred rituals in pursuit of prosperity and wisdom was not undermined.
Brahmaiviidis kept a low profile until the unorthodox rel igious systems of
Buddhism and Jainism confronted the vedic omnipotent sacrificial
ceremonies. By and large, in ancient times, religious arguments and
counter-arguments in learned assembly sessions were the methods by
which theses were advanced, defended and maintained. Nominal
acknowledgment of the infallibility of Vedas was the condition of the
Brahmaiviidis for any intellectual pugilism. Belief in the existence of God
not being insisted upon for any speculati ve religious and philosophical
tournaments, there was utmost freedom of thought and expression for any
kind of attack on Briihminic orthodoxy. These sorts of religious exercises
resulted ultimately in vedantic philosophy subduing all the different
school of thought, though each one of them served the most useful
purpose of evaluating the vedantic realism. Of these. six were extant viz:
Siiiikya, Yoga. Nyiiya, VaiSe$ika. Purva Mimaf{lSa and Utrara A1fmarpsa.
24

YOGASUDHAKARA

25. The genuine belief of the MimCirpsakiis is that Vedas are not
merely an arrangement of words perfectly in a particular order,
possessing a dormant potency in them actually, when intonated with
accents in the manner taught by the preceptor, but also are eternal (nitya),
without a beginning (aniidi) and not created by a human author
(apaurwjeya). This visual faith persisted not only in antiquated times but
persisted right up to modem times as it persists even to day. Nevertheless,
it was not without determined but unsuccessful attacks from the other
schools of thought. Tue. Nyiiya and Vaise$ika philosophies were
originally atheistic. They were certainly contradictory to Mimiirpsa. They
became theistic in course of time. Naiayikas, while denying the doctrine
of eternity, admitted the authority of Vedas on the basis of their having
emanated from competent persons having intuitive perception of duty
(sak$fltkrita dharmCinaiJ). The system of Vaise$ika was evidently of much
greater antiquity than Nyii.ya and they believed that the Vedas were the
'Yorks of ~$is, though not of lsvara. VaiSe$ikas were referred to by
Sankara as ardhavainfisikas or seminihilists (cf Sankara Bhii$Ya to BS.
11-2-18). Later Naiyayika and Vaise$ikas freely discussed the nature of
God, while considering the theory of Atman.

26. Sii.nkhya attacked the pessimism of Buddhism and Jainism and


developed a system that gave the analytical enumeration of the principle
of cosmos, which set the trend for metaphysical speculation in Indian
Philosophy. They agreed with Naiayikas by regarding Vedas as
pauru~ya in the sense that it emanated from Primeval Puru$(l. They
admit God as a nearly perfected being, temporarily in charge of a cycle of
creation. Patanjali of Yoga Philosophy solved the question by making a
distinction between the successions of word as arranged in Vedas
(vanJii.nupurvi) and their contents (artha) so that the eternality subsisted
in their sense (artho nityaf:i). This view was opposed to that of the
Mimii.!pSak.iis, who held both sense and order of words are eternal.

27. The Siirikhya and Yoga go together: because the latter is based
on the excellent teachings of the former. Sii.rikhya put forward its theory
and Yoga presented the practical side of it. The systematic thought on the
subject of Yoga Philosophy was pre-existing at the time of Patafzjali and
what he did was, to collect and sum it up in his aphorisms. The Yoga
25
INTRODUCTION·

system had no polemics against the other systems of thought mainly


because each system had it in some form or the other and it served as a
link between Sankhya and Vedanta. The supremacy of psychic over the
physical, mi~d over the body is evident throughout ,in the exposition of
the aphorisms. A perfect control of the mind leads to Intellective Vision,
with potential prospects of the attairunent of the highest non-attachment
towards worldly things and that paves the way for self-realization and
emancipation. It is contended that livara praIJidhiina in Aph. I-23 to 27
and Il-1 & 45 was a later insertion. Even if these aphorisms were to be
disregarded, the Science of Yoga, systematically presented in the rest of
the aphorisms, taken as a whole, is not affected.

28. That Yoga held out nothing better than what Sankhya held out,
is not altogether unwarranted. Towards the end, it leaves the perceptible
(i.e. the individual soul) beautifully vague. Emancipation merely means
1
the 'resolution in the reverse order of the Energies bereft of puru.'j(J S
interest' or, in the alternative, it is self-establislunent of the Con-Science-
Power (citisakti) . The problem of Siinkhya was the perplexity of the
relation of purw;a with prakrti in the ultimate analysis, while the problem
of Yoga was no less than the absence of the third principle to connect
citisakti (Con-Science-Power) with prak[ti (the primeval substance). In
this context; it may be said that Vedanta starts where Yoga has left.

29. All schools of thought must ultimately trace their origin to


Vedas and their end in view was liberation from worldly bondage to get
over the three distinct miseries of iidyatmika (self-produced miseries),
adhidaivika (miseries of Destiny) and iidhibhautika (external miseries
from other created being). The speculations of Nyaya philosophy met
with logical realism i.e. a reasoned knowledge of objects, while Vai.Se$ika
stepped into the atomic constitution of things, which the former accepted
without much argument, just as Yoga system adopted in limine the
twenty-five principles of Siirikhya. Thus, though each system sought an
independent line of speculation, each system contributed something to
enrich the other. Except Yoga, all other schools of thought rose against
the efficacy of vedic injunctions but finally each one of them contributed
to the better appreciation of the vedantic Philosophy drawn from vedic
hymn.
26

YOGASUDHAKARA

IV. SADASIV A's COMMENT ARY ON YOGA SUTRA :

30. Those who may look forward to the commentary of Sadasiva


for modem ideas on Yoga would be pleasantly disappointed. His
exposition of the Science of Yoga conforms strictly to the orthodox lines
of exegesis. He says it at the outset of his commentary that his, is but the
cream of what was elaborately taught him by his preceptor. 14 · His
commentary is useful to us on two grounds. Firstly, it was traditionally
imparted to him. Secondly, it is one based on experience of countless
mystics and sages of yore, including Sadasiva. As recently as three
centuries ago, almost after the manner explained in Bhagavad Gfta
15
verses, · he came to live it the way he preached it in the world through his
poems an~ commentary. Though himself always containing the world in
Yoga (union with the Absolute), he was a beacon light for others. who
sought after spiritual emancipation.

31. Our commentator, Sadasiva belonged to the age-old school of


learning Vedas under a preceptor, who preserved and transmitted the
vedic texts from generation to generation in the pristine phone and accent.
Such preceptors gave individual, immediate and wholesome attention to
students, who were privileged to have residentiary status with them.
Preceptors, in those days, wen~ never overburdened with more than four
such students at a time. This class of people, avoidably and erroneously
much derided as the 'chanting frogs' was destined by virtue of accident of
birth, to memorize Vedas with religious devotion and self-sacrifice from
the age of five, not for any worldly pelf or power, pleasure or passion, but
for knowledge for the sake of knowledge. The session of cormitting the
vedic verses to memory, a fairly long and exacting one, was. and is even
now, in a particular form of recitation called vik(fis, which are eightfold
thus:
\ifCT 11IBT ~ 't@ ~ ~ "{~ tR: I
3l181 ~: ~: ~ ~: II
so that everything was so indelibly imprinted in memory that any verse
from anywhere could be recalled correctly at any time at will. When a
student could recite Vedas in all these eight disciplines without any

14
Cf /nvocatory Verse No.4 to Chapter I infra.
15
Cf BG. TV.42 to 44 (vide footnote 9 under Aphorism III-6.hereof).
27

INTRODUCTION

mistake or error, he was declared a ganapiithi, meaning one who had


gone to the zenith of, and mastered, the eight modes of recitation. After
this mugging up, a regular course of what . is called angiidyayana
(auxiliary study) was used to be commenced and vyiikaraIJa (grammar),
tarka (logic), kiivya (literature), niitaka (drama) and alarikiira (rehtoric)
etc., leaving it to the students themselves to develop and specialise later
on in whatever discipline they choose. At the end of this preliminary
study, their residence with the preceptor terminated and the preceptor
declared them fit enough to launch on their own and succeed in life.
Here, there was no issuance of paper certification in vogue, but the
students were known by their attainments, the greatness of the teacher
reflecting in the pupil and that of the pupil, in the teacher. The students
were then returned to their parent for initiation into the order of a
householder. Under this dispensation of education, which quite differed
from modern education, a student stored up every thing in his memory
much akin to the modern computer, in which whatever was fed could be
retrieved with great advantage, with, of course, a world of difference in
that, while the insentient computer has no ego, the sentient student has
one that exerts, as it were, always for higher and higher intuitional
development. Our commentator went through such a discipline in
education and his early discernment of the afflictions associated with
worldly life sent him in search of his next preceptor, Paramasivendra, for
initiation in yogic practices and that explains his orthodoxy in
yogadarsana. Besides, our commentator, being a Vedantin, was an
upholder of uttara mfmarpsii and this is a further reason for his being
orthodox in his exposition.

32. Our commentator implies by his introductory comments at the


commencement of Siidana Pada [cf Ch. II hereof] that the Yoga
aphorisms of Patanjali in the first chapter, Samadhi Piida, would meet
the requirements of those who have collected their thoughts in abstract
meditation, with devout steadfastness, to accomplish the highest spiritual
absorption. Perhaps, it is because of his conviction that the first chapter
alone, taken by itself, would serve the purpose of all that is necessary and
essential to know about emancipation and strive after it. What is
obviously intended by this, is that it is quite sufficient for one who has
practiced the dharmasiistra, who has fulfilled all injunctfon of karma
28

YOGASUDHAKARA

kiinda as a householder and who is, in due course, ready to embark on


self-realization and final emancipation in the sense of deliverance of the
s~ul from recurring birth. It is in this light, the first chapter defines the
difference between the Cognitive (Seeded) and Ultra-Cognitive
(Seedless) Spiritual Absorption. In other words, it refers to those who
have controlled and introverted the externally flowing mind and
streamlined it to start on its inhibitive functions in the third and fourth of
the four orders (iisrama) of life.

33. The fust part of the second chapter (i.e. Aph.II-1 to II-27)
~xplains the external practice of the expedients of Yoga in order to show
h~w t~ motivate and counter the mind that is not fully developed and is
still clmging to worldly objects, instead of engaging itself in inhibitive
research operations. A third category of potential practicants of Yoga
cannot be ruled out. Those whose mind is worse than the aforesaid second
category of people by having its own directionless bent and any one who
is a novice to the Science of Yoga, would fall under this category. For
them, the advice of our commentator is that they should start practising
from the second part of the second chapter, that is to say, from Aph.II-28
to Aph.III-4. The rest. of chapter Ill recounts the various accomplish-
ments incidental to spiritual absorption and chapter IV defines
Emancipation. Thus, the Science of Yoga caters for, and is useful to, all
irrespective of caste or creed, to which one is labelled and baptised by
virtue of birth, at any stage of life and anywhere on the globe, who
seriously inquire into the mystery of the 'inner' Life and the 'outer'
Universe, to understand and solve their deeper bewilderments.

V. RELEVANCE OF SADASIV A's WORKS IN MODERN


TIMES:

34. It needs hardly to be iterated that Sadasiva's Vedcmtic Kirtanas


and Hymns arose in the really Modern Era, i.e., the 18th century a time in
which there was a sort of efflorescence in intellectual pursuits with
literature, music, philosophy etc., in the Cho/a Desa under the local
Mahiirii$fra Kings, who themselves were learned and took infinite
interest and pleasure in inviting learned men of all shades, to live very
close by in Tiruvisalur such that the Kings could be in their midst as often
29

INTRODUCTION

as they wished, on a sojourn from Tanjore. Sadasiva's contemporaries


were Bhagavanniima Bodhendra Sarasvati, of the Kiinchi Kiimakoti
Sarikariiciirya Mutt and Sridhara Ayyaval of Tiruvisalur. All the three
were the staunch propagators of bhakti through singing in praise of God,
to cater to the masses at a time when the vedic ceremonialists spoke from
the ivory tower. There ·were occasions when all the three were together in
Govindapuram, a small village, situate a little away from
Tiruvidaimarudur and Aduthurai in Tanjore District of Tamil Nadu.
Among the many immortal kritis of Sadasiva, this one is the most
beautiful and thought provoking indeed. Many past (notably GNB 9· in his
own inimitable style) and present day musicians handle this kriti deftly in
'Samii raga':
~~{~
~~{11
s;:i\{qon11;:i~iffcrnr<
~qCfi\JHAk<"l'"GI{ I
if G~I ffil N'501 c1<tJctRlf{
"1tHl4Cfiql{?fclf\;fa~{ I
q <"1 ~ Wj)~ il 'i!:i4Cf,){
q f<'{f<ct:t<&l<CI~ II

'O ! Mind, move in the Supreme Being,


Move in the Supreme Being.

'Move in that Supreme Being who sports at the high bosom of his
beloved Lak~mi, who is the (all giving celestial) mandara tree in the
houses of those who serve Him whose locks are decked with the feathers
'
of the exhilarated peacock, whose glorious cheek outshine a mirror, who
is looking up to the moon of the Paramahansas' like a Chataka bird and
from the flute blown by whom music flows in a stream.' 10 ·

9
· Gudalur Narayanaswamy Balasubramaniam, BA (hons), Annamalai University, a
student of music par excellence and the disciple of Tiger Varadachary of the said
Unviersity and the illustrious son of G.Narayanaswamy of Gudalur, Tanjore District
(adjacent to Maharajapuram) the renowned Headmaster of the Hindu High School,
Triplicane, Madras, (Tamil Nadu) in the twenties and thirties of the last century.
10
· The English translation given here, is the verbatim translation of late Dr. Raghavan in
his Prayers, Praises and Psalms (1938 publication of G.A. Natesan & Co. Madras.
30

YOGASUDHAKARA

35. The modern trend of the bhakti cult has lost its m ooring on the
high seas. It is so beautifully culled out by Bengali Baba in his p ostscript
to his English translation of Vyasa (cf Appendix) that I cannot resist the
temptation of quoting the relevant portion in his own words :

"...The people in general erroneously think of the term bhakti as an


emotional love towards God, which ensues from the exhaustion of
mental force by means of pushing and shoving, rolling and
tumbling, springing and jumping, crying and shouting and weeping
and bursting in praise of their sectarial gods. They labour u nd~r the
impression that the term bhakti siistra sign ifies a philosophy of
love, which has no concern with the Six Texts of the Indian
System of Philosophy, but it is quite distinct and separate from all
of them and even from the vedic authority. They hold that bhakti
(devotion) is the easiest path for becoming a lover of God by
leaving off all the spiritual obligations pertaining to the soc ial and
religious observances and even by forsaki ng all the moral
obligations of humanity. They stick to their own principles by
following the dictates of their free will without paying any heed to
the rational and reasonable conclusion of any authority. By tak ing
bhakti as female, many of them being male in form and shape,
wear the female dress and ornaments. and mix themselves up with
the females by leaving off the moral characters of the males for
becoming a beloved to their created lord. Thus. we find that the
people hold the idea of bhakti as irrational ism and inactivity of the
mind caused by the compression and suppression of the mental
force."
The niimasanklrtana as a form of worship popularized by Sadasiva and
his contemporaries towards the close of the 17th and the beg inning of th e
18th centuries had an aesthetic fervour to realize the transcendental
ex~erie~ce, not at the cost of rationalism but by extolling the settled
belief m, and the infallibility of, the vedantic traditions. They
demonstrated it by their exemplary life, Sadasiva, the digambara, as the
greatly respected ascetic of the highest order of monism, Sridhara
Venkatesa Ayyaval as a true householder and Bhagavannama Bodhendra
as the Institutional Guruparamparya Head of the Mutt established by
Sankara himself as his own for pursuing his worship of
candramoulfsvara afte~ his digvijay and his having establi shed four Mutts
in the four corners of India during his digvijay. The namasiddhtinta
developed by them soon caught up with the succeeding generations. Then
the proverbial musical trinity of the Tanjore District, Muthuswamy Dlk$;1,
31

INTRODUCTION

Syama Stistri and Saint Thytigartija, followed suit. For·them, it was a way
of worship through 'sound', nadopasanii. The late K K. Shah, a past
Governor of Madras, once spoke at an annual conference of the Music
11
Academy of Madras thus: scientifically interpreted, sound, air
....

medium and hearing leads to understanding of the harmony in the


individual. If man discovers this harmony, he can seek it between himself
and the cosmos... And this is what music leads to ultimately. (From a 11

report appearing in 'The Hindu', Madras]. In this context Sada.Siva was


the forerunner through the media of his Vedanta Kfrtanas, Hymn etc.

36. The Hindu mind does not despair in terms of Schopenhaueren


pessimism that 'the best thing about man in this world is that he should
not be born at all; if he is born, it would be better that he dies in youth'.
Strangely, in contradistinction, our sages of yore prayed for the whole
humanity and showed us the way to pray likewise for the whole humanity
thus:

~ ~a;~~t('( I q~~'i ~: ~ ~ ~: ~ I is.


That eye, the benefactor of god, the resplendent (i.e. the Sun) has ascended.
May we see (Him) a hundred aurumns! May we live a hundred autumns!

Our sages considered life as something worthwhile living for a hundred


years, for God, in his wisdom has given this life to enjoy and live with
Nature with her mysterious beauty spread all around only to realize our
Self. Under modem conditions of city-dwelling and bread-wirming spree,
we become automatons. We have little or no time to sit with Nature to
reflect on the philosophy of life. People do not generally care for any
self-inquiry. None ever approaches such an inquiry in any serious way
until one meets face to face with reality of things on some tum of events
in one's life when problems confront but solutions elude. Cases are not
wanting when many get worked up with trivial matters, some unable to
get over anger, passion, jealousy and despondency and others suffer from
physical ailment and the like Our education, in w hich we are taught to
draw out the good in us, has no effect on us.

18
8 v. VII. 66. 16.
32

YOGASUDHAKARA

37. Yoga as practised in the East, has the answer to such. of these
problems. The Science of Yoga as propounded by Patanfzjali, is not an
armchair psychology or useless verbiage but a perfected practical_way. of
developing self-culture. It lays down the modus operandi to sy;ithes1se
the body, mind and soul, for the realization of the purpose of life as such.
Swiimi Vivekiinandii in his preface to Raja Yoga says:

"The aphorisms of Patanjali are the highest authority on Raja Yoga ...
Each soul is potentially divine. The goal is to manifest this divine
within, by controlling Nature, external and internal. Do this either by
work or worship or psychic control or philosophy, by one or more or
all of these, and be free. This is the whole of Religion. Doctrines o r
Dogmas or Rituals or books or temples or forms, are but secondary
detail."

Even the Materialist West ha arrived at the same truth:

" The 20th century-physic..s has now landed up in the consciousness of


the individual or the participant. Max Plane, the German Nobel
physicist and propagator of the quantum theory, gives a strong s upport
and evidence. In an interview for the London-based newspaper,
Observer, he had categorically stated that 'matter is a derivative of
consciousness'." 19·

38. The present English translation of Sadasiva's Sanskrit


commentary was taken up by this translator as it helps us understand the
common fund of the .national or popular Indian Philosophy, however
much it may be different in delineation in the conventional Six Darsanas
and to appreciate the emerging holisti c outlook at the present state of the
spiritual evolution of man. In this endeavour, if this edition has been
found useful to any genuinely interested inquirer into the secrets of the
Science of Yoga of the East, he will feel richly rewarded.

19
· Cf Article published in Indian Express, Bombay Edition [6-4-1990] by G.J. George,
entitled, Scientific Study of Vedic Rituals. on the eve of the proposed Atiratra slated
to be performed between April 28 and May 9, 1990, at Kundoor in Thrissur District
of Kera/a on the banks of Chalakudy River
33

INTRODUCTION

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

39. I am indeed indebted to Bengali Baba (translator of Vyiisa's


Sanskrit Commentary on Yoga Sutra of Patanjali, whose English
equivalents of the Sanskrit metaphysical terminologies I have used in my
translation, for I find that the most appropriate terminology of 'citi sakti'
is Con-Science-Power, besides several others, which he has introduced in
his translation for the first time. I have made the best use of the Chart of
Terminologies of all the Six Darsanas on a comparative basis, which he
has annexed to his book referred to, without which I would have been
very much handicapped. His English ,<,~anslation of Vyiisa's Sanskrit
commentary also guided me in translating some of the tough passages of
Sadiisiva, as far as possible, faithfully.

40. Wherever I found it relevant to quote, I have reproduced the


comments of Swami Vivekananda in his Raja Yoga, published by Swtimi
Gambhzriinand, President, Advaita Ahrama, Almora (10th Edn.1955) and
also of l.K. Taimni in his 'The Science of Yoga', published by the
Theosophical Publishing House, Adyar, Madras (7th Reprint 1986)
besides the Sanskrit comments of Vyiisa. To quote relevant passages, I
have also made use of other publications, notably of Dr. Paul Brunton's
'A Search in Secret India', Dr. V Raghavan' 'Prayers, Praises & Psalms'
and Lakshman Sarup's Introduction to his English translation of Ytiska's
NighaIJ.CU & Nirukta, Siva Siitra, & Spanda Kiirika by Jaideva Singh, all
published by Motilal Banarsidass, besides other Tamil publications and
pamphlets. ViiIJi Vilas editions of Sanskrit literature helped me gather the
true account of Sadtisiva's life and his Sanskrit commentary on Piitanjala
Yogasutras.

Jn conclusion, I wish to express my obligations to my maternal


uncles, T.S. Sehasayee, Retired Settlement Tahsildar, Madras Board of
Revenue, for his help and suggestions and T.S. Krishnamurti (a gold
Medallist of the Madras University in 1949), now residing in Tiruvisalur
after retirement as Dy. Collector of the Government of Tamil Nadu. who
assiduously went through the whole manuscript and whose several
suggestions had been invaluable and of great assistance and
encouragement ro me. With profound feelings of gratitude, do I
34

YOGASUDllAKARA

acknowledge the tremendous help and guidance I received from Jotisha


Bhuhanam · Mahamahopadyaya Vedamartanda, Tantra Bhaskara
Vidyavacapati Mantra Yogi, Srividya Mahapoornabhishekta Sarva
Krama Dikhita Dr. B. Krishnamurthy, Ph.D., D.Sc., MD. , Consultant,
~/RI/CPR Projects with the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, who
zs associated with a number of organizations and institutions,- for h~ had
undertaken the laborious task of reading the work in spite of his
indifferent health. I am greatly indebted (o him for the Foreword to the
book

42. Lastly, but not the least, I {lcknowledge the assistance of my


wife, Mrs. Rukmani Raman, in carrying out corrections in the manuscript
and in the preparation of the· Bibliography and the General Index. I have
also to thank profusely the Karkotaka Vayalore Trust, Madras, who
readily agreed to print and publish this work Having done my bit, I
humbly dedicate the book to the humanity at large and conclude in the
words of the we/known consecratory formula:

Bombay
14th April 1990 S. Kothandaraman

PREFACE TO THE SECOND EDITION

By popular request from the public, more especially from down


South, we are happy to bring out the second edition of the book. In this
edition, misprints occurring in the previous edition have been corrected.
We have taken this opportunity to correct some of the spelling mistakes
also both in Sanskrit and English in the previous edition. Wherever, it
was found necessary, alterations in the text of the translation has been
made at few places for the sake of greater clarity.

Bombay
31st March 2007. S. Kothandaraman
~~:I
[Obeisance unto the teachers]

A commentary on Yoga Aphorisms


named

"THE AMBROSIA OF YOGA II

[Samlidhiplida}J]
SPIRITUAL ABSORPTION - CHAPTER - I

[In,,ocatory Verses]

ll ~ Iq "'I I~q 141 4 >! fl! fcfil fc:"FFill"l ll I I


~~ICfiqf•~H:ifii~ ~~II (~)
smq(4•rn~H.~~'E4 qc;~~liRkci~ I
cR ~ lFT: Cfill!qlili ~f&'lCfll4«i II ( ~)

ftjQl{M 11<1T ~ llC14141{qlf<~: I


-cR a1f:q~~cf~1;q~&i1"'1~~1~j{t'l'l I I C~)

~q~~ICfict~IGi511Ri~IRll2l fctJIS"?.l "ffil{ I


~: Cfil~~Ri'll'l"Rffi ~ II (~)
Through fancying whom this salubrious
inward looking mind untouched by
Pain and Action was caused to be obtained,
that Lord, do I profoundly worship. ( 1)
36 [I-1
YOGASUDHAKARA

I bow unto the faultless pair1•


of opposite words of Patafzjali,
By which to purify my mind speech,
body and this work just being done. (2)
By whose abundant grace this treasure
of knowledge is gained by me,
To those sage, and to those venerable
sages who gave it to them, I salute. (3)
Having heard from the eloquent lotus mouth
of the local sage,2· and now having churned it,
On the Yoga Aphorisms of PaIJfndra, 3·
a small commentary is commenced by me. (4)

~ ~ ~Jlql;qa~f&: ~lcfr>1qf4tqfllcfi
G~l4fa II
Here, verily, the revered Patanjali expounds the usefulness ·of
wise application of the Science of Yoga, as bestowed by the scriptures.
~ ~'r•11:t~t1~"4'l c~)
(atha yoga-anu.Slisanam)
1. Now begins instructions on Yoga.
3Bf ~: ~:, 31~f;tj'le512f~ I '¥ ~' mr
~lal2J'I: ~: cif41j~llfl~ ~{UlPl1-f ~ll{;;;ilij)~~ f.<l~H
&ql@l4d ~: ~: ~ ~ll{;;;i~ I ({"~ ~
Ch~~~ck~Chl'41<4 51f8qm~lJl5lRN1c;cf> ~ ~: . I ITT
~: fi>1~1ffisfi>1~1a~ 1 ~ ~ Rh1f4 ~: 1 ~ IB 84~011-
~Ch(tjl~:©"i~qait_ I ~~ - ~ ~ ~ R{IC6J4R1 I ITT
~ ~ ~Lfll'41ai ~ ; ~ RS::lt">~1RqRv1rif<t1'{ ;

1
pada dvandva may also be taken reverentially to refer to the 'pair of feet' of Patanjali.
2
· This refers to SadiWvendra Sarasvati's Preceptor, (guru) Srimat Paramahal!JSa
Parivriijakiiciiryavarya Sri Paramasivendra Saravati.
3
· PatJfndra means Patanjali.
1-1] 37
SAMADHI PADA

~tt~ i3FR1 ii: Bfl2 ~ 'i 'l"i =c=tj ;i Cf) I<!;I Rl (tj)~ l'i ~uni~ I ffi:j l{i Ifu ~Hi ~ .
~alil1f<14l'""l~'i "{!OG:B~4Cfl1Q~CflaH~ ; 5l~IHiBCfl&<1RF:fl BB=tlR~1~
R~Q&lO( 1 ~ :r.r ~:;i~qf{c~1~'"l1cif.{1~~&~1llafQ Rl'C1fQ
~~~~:II
Here, the word atha means, 'begins\ and of all meaning
~auspiciousn~ss' 4 · is one. Yuja Samiidhau - union in spiritual absorption ~
is the essential element of yoga and so yoga means spiritual absorption.
The instruction on y oga conforms to the science of hairal)yagarbha and j

4
Properly speaking 'auspiciousness' is not the sense of 'atha' but the very utterance or
hearing of the word is considered to be indicative of auspiciousness, as the word is
supposed to have emanated from the throat of Brahma. - Vaman Shivram Apte.
5
· Brahma: One Lord of what exists, born from a golden egg out of seed deposited in
water. But cf B.Y. X.121. There, the burden of the siikta is Kasmai devaya havi¢
vidhema? - 'To what god have we to apportion the oblation?' and, by the last verse,
the answer is Prajapati [.~Y - X.12 I. IO & I].
~~i'Cl~i11~"4l~~~"i1T~I
~~~q'l"f)o;;i1~~~~~11 }Q II
fuu~·J~: flin*tlc11J ~ ~: ~ 31Ttfu\ I
lf~~~~~~~ II I II
MacDonnel/ says (cf A History of Sanskrit literature p. 115) that this last
stanza (X.121 . I0) is added to the poem at a later time to proclaim the unknown god
to be Praj iipati. If so. the whole of the hiral!)'ag arbha sukta 121 falls fl at without
purpose or content. Why raise a question without answering it? He also says (cf
Vedic Mythology p . 6) 'the tenth and the greater part of the first book of the 8gveda
are, therefore, more likely to contain later conceptions than the other books.' Cf
~V. Yl-53-2 where Prajiipati is identified with Savitr. the sun. Can it be said that
Mandalas other than ten does not contain verses of later development of concepts?
It may, however, be seen that the order of the hymns has followed the fami ly of ~$iS
and more or Jess in the order of the deities, to whom they are addressed. These were
revealed over several millenniums and were, long after, brought into a collection
(sarphitii) from surviving families. Cf I;? V. X.80 - Vr~iikapi Sukta - Here Vr$iikapi
represents the sun in Orion (mrgasiras ), coinciding with the vernal equinox. By the
time the Taillirfya S arphitii came to be compiled. the sun has further receded to
Kriuikiis , where it coincided with vernal equinox. Here, Prajiipati represents the
sun in K(iuikiis (cf The Orion, by B.G. Tilak).
What else is Prajiipati? In TS. II 5.7.3. and Vll.5.7.4. it means sacrifice.yajno
vai prajapatiJ:i. In TS. Vll.2. 10.3 it is synonymous with year sarrrvarara}_I prajaparih
so that, when the course of daily. fortnightly. bi-month l~ and half-yearly sacrifices
are completed with Vi ,\ uvan and Abhiji1 days providing the equal day and night
38 [I-1
YOGASUDHAKARA

is taught and explained with the means of attainment of the various


absorption of spiritual cognition.
Also in the same manner, it means that the instruction of the
demonstrated yoga science is commenced to illustrate it for any one who
is desirous of detaching the soul from matter and identifying with the
Supreme Spirit (Kaivalyakiimiiya) 6 ·
There, the spiritual absorption is of two kinds, Cognitive Spiritual
Absorption and Ultra-Cognitive Spiritual Absorption, which is the
characteristic of the mind. Verily, the mind, owing to its being
conditioned by the tlrree energies, 7· pervades the five mental planes.
The (five) mental planes are: k$iptam (raving), mudham
(forgetful), vik$iptam (oscillating), ekiigram (one-pointed) and niruddam
(restrained). That mental state, which, pushed by rajo °guIJa (active
energy), lead to craze, rage, infatuation etc., is k$iptam or the raving
mind. That mental state, where there is want of cognition (e.g., sleep or
swoon), is mudham or the forgetful mind. That state of mind, which is
conditioned by satva gul)a (illuminative energy) but intermixed with the
effects of a little active and inert energies and which is sometimes
engage? in. a meditative flair (an improvement over k$iptam), is vik?ipta'!'
or o~c1llatmg mind. [In this state, the mind is specially engaged m
working between two ends, either failure or success and not one-pointed,
the preceding tWo mental states being included in this, the third]. That
mental state in which the illuminative energy bereft of the influences of

phenomenon at the two equinoxes, a year comes to an end and another starts.
Nevertheless, Prajapati is clearly identified with hirawagarbha in TS.V.54. 1.2: -
.... fg(OQIJ'Cf: 4itloh!i'll'<! $i<ll~{ql ~'!;jiff~~! ~{Otlljq: . . •

The kaf:i in the siikta X-121 is identified with Prajapati in TS. I. 7 .6.6. :
prajapatirvai kal). ·
The Hirawagarbha Science, thus, includes Agnihotrta, Dars apurnamasa,
Soma Sacrifices et al by perfonning which, in the manner prescribed, one does not
return to life with body but become a Manu to govern future creation.
In fine, the instruction on yoga Science is for all who aspire for emancipation,
irrespective of whether one aspire to become bodiless or wishes to merge with the
Supreme to cut off the cycle of life.
6
· KaJ:i is kevalam in the sense that it is one and absolute; Kaivalyam is d erived from
kevalam.
7
The three energies are three gu{las viz. satva (Illuminative), rajas (active) and tamas
(inert) energies.
1-1) 39
SAMADIDPADA

active and inert energies, promotes an onepointedness in all those trained


to achieve but waiting for this, is ekiigra or one-pointed mind. That
mental state, which being in an one-pointed attention exercises an
influence to bring about a tranquility of all the first three aforesaid mental
states, with a residual habitual potencies (sarpskiira .Se$0) 8· is Niruddam,

s. The one-pointed mind is the Cognitive (or the Seeded) Spiritual absorption, referred to
in Aph. 1-46 (but cfAph.1-41 to 1-46). The restrained mind, having further
restrained all the residual habitual potencies, (i.e. saf!lSkara .Se~), is the Ultra-
Cognitive (or Seedless) Spiritual Absorption. referred to in Aph. I-51 (but cf. Aph.1-
47 to 1-51& IY-27.).
Now what is samskiira sesa? . Samskiira means all those purificatory
ceremonies [Manu mentions aboui 12 (cf MS.f!-2727)) in connection with a being
right from entry into the womb till its death, i.e. from puf!1Savana, slmantonnayana
till funeral rites. Here, it means the impressions gained of the efficacy of these
saf!lS/car as together with the fear of the consequences of non-performanc~ thereof. It
is habitual, because one becomes habituated in them by virtue of doing them as
one's duty in terms of vedic injunctions. It is residual, because it remains to be
restrained at the end of Cogniti ve Spiritual Absorption. When even this and other
potencies that arise out of practice in the spiritual absorbent cognition, are
completely restrained, the y~gi is in Seedless Spiritual Absorption. .
The yoga or union, as we see it in both the karma krmda and jiifJna klm~a, ts
essentially a mystic approach to attain emancipation. Patanjali, in these apho~sms,
confirms it. Sutras 1-23 to I-29, we shall see as we progress, are more meaningful
for those who are interested in, and quali fied for, the path of mysticism. The
technique in these aphorisms is just japa on Om, the prasthanatray a (A UM) and
meditation on its meaning. This turns the consciousness of the practicant right about
in the direction of his goal, viz. Emancipation, removes all the obstacles and the
complete se lf-surrender does the rest. The long and arduous path of minute ment~l
control, explained in other aphorisms, is by-passed. The mystic path, however, ts
equally arduous, though seemingly simple. .
The problem of spiritual life and self-realization would be all too easy tf
aspirants had only to sit down and make their minds empty in the ordinary way!
After all, is it not that religion scarcely means going to temple or doing worship
with all pomp and sophistry but essentially one of what one does with oneself when
one is so litarily alone all by oneself? May be, it clicks with the intensively intense
practicant but in majority of cases, when indeed the mind is empty and if it becomes
the devil's workshop, what is the means to prevent it from becoming as such ?
Therein lies the importance and efficacy of the aniidi saf!lSkiira (the beginningless
refined concepts of virtue). If the residuary saf!1Skora is not restrained. there is no
emancipation and if there is no emancipation, recurrence of birth is a certainty.
Thus, saf!lSkiira becomes as circulatory as recurrence of birth. both of which is no
less arduous to restrain and avoid .
40 [1-2
YOGASUDHAKARA

the restrained or the positivised mind. Thus it is prudent to discriminate


that, leaving out the first three mental planes, the remaining two planes
are the characteristics of the two kinds of Spiritual Absorption (as
aforementioned).

Now, he (Patafzjali) defines the general characteristics of the two


kinds of spiritual absorption (in the next aphorism) -

min11'1C!Mf.t(l!f: ( ~)
(yogap cit'ta vrt'ti nirodalJ)
(2) Yoga .is restraint of mental operations.

\\l1~4l1t'i4lr:f~~ ~ ~: I 31\1: ~IRcicti~Rifl-etjsfir fiS!~lcl


'il~lf49: 11
Yoga: means restrain of the operations of active and inert energies
of the mind. While, therefore, only illuminative energy pervades the
mi.nd, it is not excluded from cognitive spiritual absorption. [In this state
the mind gives up it exhibitive9 · operations and takes up inhibitive
functions.]

Now, while restraining mental operations, what is the real


standing of Con-Science-Power (citisakti) , which is the very self of
intellectual perception? He, (Patafzjali) , proceeds of unfold it in the next
aphorism -

~ ~: ~'(C'IQScHO?Al"i'( ( ~)
(tadli dra~u!J svarilpe-av~thlinam)
(3) Then the stance of the perceiver (is)
in his own Self (the Real Self)

9
· griihya (recei vable) cf Chart under Aph. I-41.
1-4) 41
SAMADIDPAl>A

% fictfBi ~ ~:, ~ ~~f8~1tl;: ~ fei~q


Wllif: 1i"§li"ilqJ1A flhf2Cfiiiu1fo~fl!~: 1 MR1~1tl;~ar14ii1~ ~ ~
~ "efc=r <q]Cf: II
When all the sense objects are restrained, .(i.e. in that state of mind
where all sense objects are absent), the stance of the perceiver is in his
own (real) self; similar to the effect of removing a colourful red flower as
under a crystal. 10· The Con-Science-Power has only consciousness as its
characteristic content but doe not have the operation of energies (which
are imposed on it).
~ ~ ~ ~R1~1tl;: ~~q1Bli1R1 .flql~~~I~ -
Now then, will there be deprivation of Con-Science-Power from
its own hature, where the mind is in great activity (exhibitive habits)?
There, he (Patafzjali) says -

C!Mff1~cqfi:tan1 (~)
(vrt 'ti-siirfipyam-itaratra)
4. Conformity to the operation elsewhere.

-mrfq Mf8~1Rt>: ~ fCl{t\q Q\c.flc.ff8tea, ~


Rfcfctil\I
~ <"iRi\c=<•PQl"lHI"§> d;f MR1"601lfllfi >1R1~fkla1Gti aGftjtjCfih1-
*il<!:l~ii1q~Cf ~ \Jlql{ffi ~ flhRCfi: I 3lfil ~ fCl~41Bl­
~: I ~ ffl ~1ffi~~l"lBA~ Biifki flhRCfil"lul\ctGIC1fCl~lct1Bli1R1-
ftfu 'qfq: 1 ~ ftl~~ri1~fornu~ MR1~1Rt>: ftj{t\q51ffiie1 lf~~'~
*4{t'q1~f8'8ct cqqfu afbQ*iMRl r~allf*i~JIC1M*iq~ &41@1d ~ 11
Although the unchanging Con-Science-Power is, at all times, self-
established in its own nature, yet when restraining of mental operations
are not resorted to, when sense objects are produced in its sphere and
when sense objects are reflected in it, the Con-Science-Power becomes
the very reflected objects on account of indiscrimination, just as the
crystal becoming red by virtue (of the presence) of the red flower. When

10
- The crystal remains in its own self-contained nature, when the super-imposed red
flower is removed from under it.
42 [1-4
YOGASUDHAKARA

the red colour of the flower pervades apparently the sphere of the crystal,
the crystal does not lose its own nature. 11

it. Conversely, the Con-Science-Power becomes possessed of the states, which are
inseparable from the function of the mind.
It is relevant here to note that all the six darfonas of the Indian Philosophical
systems (viz. Nyiiya, Vai.Se$ika, Saf'flkya, Yoga, Mfmaf!J.Sa, Vedanta Dadanas) claim
the achievement of the summum bonum of life in the final emancipation. Some
modem philosophers think, these are separate and independent of each other. Others
hold, these are not contradictory but contributory to one another. Yet others
maintain, neither schools have any basis for their assertions and that these darsanas
are the successive steps of one and same ladder.
A critical analysis of these different schools of thought is not on the cards of the
dissertations of our commentator. Yet his comments on this and the previous
aphorisms, taken together, demand our serious attention to understand them in the
proper perspective. Against Aph.1-3 he comments that the Con-Science-Power has
only consciousness as its characteristic content but does not have the operations of
energies (gu~as) and on Aph.I-4 he implies that the Con-Scien ce-Power becomes
possessed of the states, which are inseparabl e fr.om th e functions of the mind. Thus
the mind operates only when Con-Science-Power is in association with it. When the
mind disappears (cf Aph.1-51) in Seedless Sp iritual Absorption, the Con-Science-
Power is in plenary glory, self-sufficient ·and most beautiful indeed! The vice versa
is an impossibility! Then, the question arises which controls what? This is exactly
what is indirectly hinted at here.
Yoga Dara.Sna has admitted without much argument the twenty-five Principles
of Sarilkhya including puru$(1 and Patanjali makes no secret that his Yoga Siitra is
composed in the excellent teachings of Samkhya. Thus, his yogic technique is not
based solely on Samkhya but is presented with what is excellent in Scunkhya. The
problem of the relation between puru$a and prakrti is the most perplexing in
Siirilkhya Philosophy. The union of the two is simulated to a lame man of excellent
vision mounted on the shoulders of a blind man of efficient feet for the very purpose
of emancipation. (cf Samkhya Karika 2 1.
~~~ ~~'
~ \44l•if{'l~i1 : wi: II 2 1 II
Though the analogy suffers incongrui ty in as-much-as the lame and the blind
are both conscious in different bodies with a division of labour between them as
regards perception and movement, one of which is lacking respectively in each
other, yet the purpose of a common goal is propped up to support the analogy. Even
then it falls flat. The perceptible (i.e. the intellective essence - mind or buddhl) has
the interest of both enjoyment and emancipation (cf Aph. TI-18). Puru!fO (i.e.
perceivable in conjunction with Con-Science-Power) has no interest except the
interest of perception of the perceivable (cf Aph. 11-21 ). Even according to
Sarhkhya, puru$a is a disinterested and a passive spectator so that, to pursue the
analogy to its logical end, the lame may be carried away otherwise than
1-4) 43
SAMADIDPADA

By the objective of the two foregoing aphorisms (viz. 3 & 4) in the


sense that, by restricting which, the Con-Science-Power appears self-
established in its own nature and, by introduction of which, it appears
deprived of its nature, the definition of the world cit'ta is explained.

~ friile&&{l'"ii ~Ri'11fit<h"11ii1~ -
Now, he (Patanjali) proceeds to say what the mental operations that
should be restrained, are -
~: qfk1U4: fcffise1fcffise1: ( ~)
( vft 'taya}J paiicatayya}J kli~fa-akli~fiilJ)
5. The operations are five-fold; painful and not-painful.

~ a~~~f 3iqlfql ~= >i.-i1011~<il ~ tili:tl;<:j~Jl'"ii m:


q~a<;q1 ~~ ~n:u11ii1: I af~q=t:Fi TI 4::i1~~{l~af~Ci!IMS11~01 I
"ffi: Cf>lct~~:? fcw.l~I 3ifck1~1 : ; ~: ~: fif.?&~I: ~(C'lqlSl-

emancipation according as the fancy of the legs of the blind takes! Sankara
demolishes this analogy by commenting on Brahma Siitra 11-2-7 thus:-
.... .Sltll'1@'114a"41tS{>tH=<i ~GIW"41~fflllf4 T.l" o<ll: ~f4g<"ifqfffi0i"'"llj44Rl : I
41n@RM~ ~ ~ ~'llt11j'4lGtGR~: I ... 4<41f'H~ ~
~ 'illl1Ci441'314 G' swf<fl{ilf"lfi!H"fllfcil(lll: 11
Because pradhiina is non-intelligent, puru$(1 indifferent, and there is
absence of a third (principle) to connect them both, there can be no
connection of the two. And if (their) relation exists on account of fitness
(puru$(1 being the knower and pradhana being the object of knowledge, the
one presupposes the other), liberation is an impossibility because of the
indestructibility of the fitness. The excellence of Supreme Self (Con-
Science-Power), however, is that it has the inactivity from its own stand-
point and driving urge from the stand-point of Maya (the self-expressive
principle).
Swami Vivekananda has, in a couple of sentences explains the chief differences
between Siimkhya and Yoga systems thus: "... the two most important differences
are: first, that Patanjali admits a personal god in the form of a first teacher, while
the only god the Siimkhya admit is a nearly perfected be ing, temporarily in charge
of a cycle of creation. Second, the Yogis hold the mind to be equally all pervading
with the soul, or puru$(1, and the Siirhkhya do not". (Cf Vivekananda's Raja Yoga -
(Preface)].
44 fl-5
YOGASUDHAKARA

R1te1Slt"4lll: fck?~I: ; ~'lB~(1~1: fq~q5lf8te>l5lf!P~I 3'1fcR1~1: I lf'?JN


q~("tjq fctt5~Hlitfck?E!Hi ~: ; Cl~IN fct61!!1 ~ R:il<G:~I ~
it;qfa4 ~ mN: B~lfc:R?E!I 3'1~~1&Cil: 11
The five-fold mental operations are the ordinary transformations
of the mind through cognitions (perception and inference) being
explained later. The object of the plural nwnber (v[t'tayafJ) is due to the
manifoldness of the friendly residence of the exhibitive mind. Wh~t are
they like? They are painful and not-painful. The painful are those
·afflictions embraced by pain, being explained later, which do not get
established in the Con-Science-Power. The not-painful are those
afflictions, not embraced by pain, which are established in the Con-
Science-Power. In any case, painful and not-painful are together only
five.12· Both are to be restrained. The foolish idea that only painful should
be restrained, must be shunned.

Now, he (Patanjali) explains the mental operations by their names


and characteristics in the following six aphorisms -

~q101fccqt:ff:4fq&>t"Gf.t~1~dll: ( ~)
(pramlilJll·Viparyaya-vikalpa-nidrii-smrtaya.fi)
6. (The mental operations are) (1) Real
Cognition; (2) Perversive Cognition;
(3) Fiction; (4) Sleep & (5) Memory.

The end in view of this aphorism is to confirm that there are no


mental operations other than those aforementioned; viz. ( 1) Real
cognition, (2) Perversive cognition (3) Fiction (4) Sleep and (5) Memory.

12
Cf Aph. II-3 & also note 5 under Aph. II-4.
1-7) 45
sAMADmPADA

~: !1q1011f.t (\9)
(pratyak¥J-an umiina-iigamii.IJ pramiiIJiim)
7. The Real Cognitions are: (I) Perception
(2) Inference and (3) Verbal Cognition.

:flo~q SIJ:i1U114Jf8 'lTICf: I q=ctlq~ldl~fCll11$1 ~f8~1:ffi: 51f8~~:


>Pn I d~{Oj '[ffi: !>1'1101!{ I ~ >1'1101fH'll~0&fUTll I ITT ~·uRu;:Fo
~ ftj:aqRi: ~ I ciC!:ICf>l\q:ffi ~f8~1:ffi: >ffif-
~: ~ I ~ ~l;:HF"ll~ ~f8~1Rf)ftj~l~IC1rnf8Cf>I - -
dl&'ll RraqRt ~ 1 ~ ~R1~1Rf): ~ 1 f~·~1'i~R1
- ctRi\j'll'il{ I ITT 51f8~J4lsjfiif8: I ~
CllCf41~fClllJfB4J ctRi\l'l'I: I ITT 5lf8~~: ~: I ~
ti lOi HI fci f8 1i"~:_ oil C!:I &dt 11

The purport (of the aphorism) is that the real cognition are three in
number as aforesaid, viz. perception, inference and verbal cognition. The
reflection of the Con-Science-Power, which is the plunging entity into the
completed operation of the mind, is the consciousness. That it is
instrumental to mental operation, is the measur~ of proof. That very Con-
Science-Power is the common sign of consciousness. There, the mental
operation about the general and specific objects of knowledge through the
sense organs, such as eye etc. (i.e. the five organs of direct perception) is
the immediate perception. In that mental operation the reflecting Con-
Science-Power is the real cognition. Thus, through profound
concentration the quite well known distinguished mental operation by the
special light of the Con-Science-Power is the direct and immediate
perception. The result is, the knower is the Con-Science-Power (i.e. the
citi-sakti).
The mental operation that predicates a proposition by knowledge
determined through distinguishing mark, is Inference. There the reflection
is syllogistic reasoning.
The mental operation that determines the sentence and its meaning
through knowledge of the word and its meaning, is verbal cognition.
There, the reflection is the sense of words.
46 [I-8
YOGASUDHAKARA

Just because inference and verbal cognition are both equally valid
perception, they are not to be related without exception. 13·

fC1q@) f'lU41*11~¥H1%_4S4ffita'l ( l)
(viparyayo mithyii-jiiiinam-atat-rupa-prafi${am)
8. Perversive cognition (contrariety) is false knowledge
established in a form not its own.

fqqlf4 m; ~: I ~ ~ oqqQl'0'51+:h «<I_


3idS!6_'"1Qfate> - ~ ~ q1vHf~ fq~tj a~1Qfc1~a a~901qJ11f% 1
mtt ~ 1 31"ill ;r ftjCfi~sfa~1~: ~ ~m ct;t:4iRlc:qfUs-
'CfRT 64ctt?l\ 1~HCfi6=11~ I ;nfT.i m,
cif.qlN ~ 11

Perversive cognition is on the groWld that it refers to


ascertainment of perceptible. False knowledge, after contradiction, does
not create action. On striving after the inherent reality of the illusory
showing, it is seen that which was real did not enter, but that of a similar
show·having a false nature instead of the real entered, consciousness. The
quality of the perceptible is its own true nature. Hence no unwarranted
extension in doubt. To this created action and contradiction, even the
learned contemplatives are subject. So also in suspicion, which is again
from considerations of further investigation.

$il<~Htj;41M cH{l~l"41 fctCfi(l'q: ( ~)


(sabda-jniina-anupiiti vastu-sunyalJ vikalpalJ)
9. Fiction, following the literal idea, is
devoid of substance.

'-um: fm:' ~ ~S}lqUIH"fl{ \l114~HI cfRj/<[;<!!I qR1fcfCfic:=q: I


31"ffi q1Cflll~Jfh•Hct-d1 'ilR1041M: , ~ ~ I ~
fctqlf4, ~ ~l<~HHj41fficql~ II

13
What the commentator has in mind is the authority of vedic Scriptures.
1-9) 47
SAMADHI PADA

On hearing the pronounced sound, 'Rahu's head', the arising


mental operation, devoid of substance, is Fiction. Hence no unwarranted
extension in the mental operation, following the literal meaning of the
sentence, based on the strength . of the literal idea. So also there is no
unwarranted extension in perversive cognition, since it followed the sense
of sound.

3l'ttlCfSk441€'5~"il ~fi:tf.fS::I ( ~ o)
(abh iiva-pratyaya-iilambana vrt 'ti]J-nidrli)
10. Sleep is the mental operation, seizing
the cognition of absence.

smllla l!M?llqRct dlifu tifu, mrITsii1q>1~ll: 1 cf


qf(tj'qlq:
ftjti4J~cfct1 ~Riffil I ~: '~~'"itiSol~lc+i ;r fctfq~tj~tii( ~
fii{U lfll lj1iq<i_cfCfi(tjl~ffl(tjq_ 11

That inertia, wherein the non-existence of substance was the


experience, is the basis of the cognition of absence. That cognition is the
mental operation of sleep. The recollection (in conscious state) that 'I
have had a refreshing sleep; I have had no knowledge', is from prevjous
experience; hence the mental operation (having for its grasp the cognition
of absence).

3ll'{ttfc:tq41stist'f1q: ~: ( ~ ~)
(anubhlita-vi~yli-asampramo~IJ smrtilJ)
11 . Memory is the absence of destruction,
(i.e. retention) of the experienced objects.

3'1fld~ mR: 3H:iSl~lti : - f'tRIR~~: I


~ ~ ~~mj"it"1Mt14~~'1 ~~BC{1Cfl'1 r~ffill*l~Jla~Rlq~
Olql@lct cqqIB I ~SqF.?1~'1 ~ ~q~s:i~f~l&<lll!Ci m;
~. te: &:I q_ I
48 [1-12
YOGASUDIIAKARA

The recollection of the forefather's experience and the


close scrutiny into such thing as occasioned by their experience is
Memory. (In other words, Memory is remembrance of past experiences).
By these seven aphorisms (5 to 11) from 'mental operations' (vrt'tayaiJ) till
'of the experienced objects' (anubhuta-vi$(lya), the definition of the word,
'operation' (v!f'ti) mentioned in the foregoing second aphorism is
expounded. It should be understood that the word 'restraint' (niroda}J) is
being defined henceforth by the remaining part.

Now, he (Patafzjali) explains about the means of restraining the


five-fold mental operations -

31\4itt&<IH.:ll\4i afiit<l!1: ( ~ ~)
(abyiisa-vairiigyiibhyam tan-niroda/;1)
12. Their restraint comes from practice
and non-attachment.

M*if4 R~Jlctlf;pfa~Jllf~JTitj{~RH:ifh<t{ ~{P~DI ftjfriqllf


~ Sl~IH1$1ql~: fiqlQd I 3ict'R1~\qR<St~ ~ ~: II

By non-attachment, the natural free flow of the mind into that


moving river of mental operations full of affections should be prevented
and, by practice of spiritual absorption, a flooded continuity of tranquility
be accomplished. Restraint of mental operations is, therefore, dependent
on both (non-attachment and practice).

~ \jjq1e:1C11qRi~arans'RITffi ~ ~ ; cfil ~ ~s-am:r


~~-

Indeed minding constantly in prayers may be bestowed with the


status of practice (of spiritual absorption); (nevertheless) what connotes
'practice in restraint', is now explained -
1-13) 49
sAMADmPADA

ml f~t11 ~SCQ.ITT1: ( ~ ~)
(tatra sthitau yatna}J-abyiisal;t)
13. There the practice is the perseverant
effort for steadiness.

ITT ct ci)lfv) I AA Ri~~ R'W:r:, ITT" I 'tj1fffrr £tftr;f ~


~f8qf;tfii:a1~4 '8l{1if1 14. I ~ ~ ~R1Rfih1Chl ~ ~ dffil~: ~
~ ~:Slql~~fi('5 ~ ~ RDC"fl!14l~ci~q dffil~ 311qf4'+oi1;fl-
s'RITT1 ~~a II

'There' means 'in the midst of (practice and non-attachment).


There, the objective of re~traint is (for obtaining) steadiness and fixity.
The locative case (sthitau) is indicative of the purpose for which the
effort is made as understood in 'One kills tiger for his skin' (cf footnote
14). And ttrus, the effort to steady the mind ~should be made by intuiting
constantly m the persevering mind that 'I always restrain the natural acts
of centrifugally propelling exhibitive mind', it is said.

~: *44ii~<t: B~'ilfuBftjao>j)~l'"H:i%1\14~­
~tj~fll l~l~I~ -

(Assuming that) surely, the current exercise (of mental restraint)


started to-day is by itself on unstable ground (and) apprehending how
then the rising of the habitual potencies accumulated from eternity could
be overpowered, he (Patafzjali) says -

14
· Cf Ast .Adh. (PoIJini) 2.111.36: BC('IRlfi:l&><ul ~ 1 ~ 1 F-'ifihilc<fl48<il~ ~ Cffii&l'T 11 The
locative is (sometimes) used to denote the object or purpose for which anything is
done, thus:
~ ~ ~. <a<il~f"fl'.ii"1<9_ I
~m~. -mra~~: 11

One kills the tiger for his skin; the elephant for his tusks, the camari cow for her
hair and the musk deer is killed for its musk.
so [I-14
YOGASUDHAKARA

tr g ~1tiCfilM~~:{f4~t'Cbl<l~fcH11 ~'Ifli: ~ ~)(


(sa tu dlrgha-klila-nairantarya-satkora-llsevita}J drfla-bhami/;l)
14. That (restraint), however, being served for a long
time uninterruptedly with earnestness,
becomes finnly grounded.

~ ~cifl4fflcif ~ cu3Jtl , ~ 'fcie11i;11~ ~


~: ; ~ ~ Ji/OIC!q;~ ~ Rqfil 31\ftm: ; 'ilQIC4~
~ 4I' Ict:' mr 'i<Ect iF1IjBl4ci 14 mlft Bffil I 3IB: ficfr~'i t "1';;:i fqqf
G1%1& ~ 3il~fcia04: 1 om ~ ~ - '3i~ct>\ilr:inHfiCG:f{1ffi ~
W ~ ' mr I 1* fiH41~0441rflSfrr fcifigQ fcf~Ql~~H,
ct~Q41'31 en JI ~f<fil<I.: *14 l+"fl<'AI ftj ftj~~ct>I <?14a£~ l'"1 tj~t<fi1-
~ I 31fil RFd\l11~ftjaoq: I fi(i.hl\ ~: I ~ &lffcfa."iqq:;~r­
~: sm~<i 1 atl11~1~{011~ftja04: 1 ~1tfct>1&1~~fcf~'il~~afi4
~ ~ >!«k5ci<5:@'11N tjiC'5~gB~.1Cflf("tjl{ I ~ ~gfa -
'~ ;:r ~:~ ~()UllN ftjtj/fl!•l(i ' II mr
Should a yogi desire to accomplish spiritual absorption in a day or
a month, (he is mistaken and) it would be like the foolish prattle that 'the
student, who went to study the existing four Vedas, though five days ago,
did not yet return after learning'. For a long time, through years or
lifetime, yoga should be practised. So does the canon rule say, 'having
reached perfection in one of many lives, does one attain emancipation'.
(cf BG. VI-45). Even those who practise for a long time, if they do so
intennittently, then the earnestness generated by yoga would be defeated
by the rising exhibitive habitual potencies during the interregnum. Hence
it (restraint) should be served incessantly. Earnestness (satkiira) means
reverence. In indifference they would only cling to adherence of passion,
scattering of mind etc. It (restraint) should, therefore, be assiduously
perfonned with reverential care. The spiritual absorption served by long-
time practice of yoga with the knowledge of the three means, is the so-
called firmly established ground, which cannot be shaken even by mighty
distress. Here again, the canon rule says, 'wherein established, not shaken
even by mighty distress'. (cf BG. VI-22).
1- 15} 51
SAM.ADHI PADA

312f ~ •u ni ~ ~ ~ I ~ 7CT l!ci41'ioqR1\~Ctf~l!Cl ­


~ ~ I ci~ l'fl~ll l4-~ -

Non-attachment is of two kinds: ( 1) the lower and (2) the higher.


T he lower is four in kind, differing from each other: i.e. (1) subdual of
mind, (2) exclusion, (3) confining perception but to one sense organ and
( 4) controlment. Holding back the first three, he (Patanjali) explicitly
defines the fourth -

~~fuC6futt4fcH~WI~ ct~TI<f>Hfi*11 a:c1~4'l ( ~ ~ )


(dr~.tiinu5ra vika- Vi$(1.ya-vilH1Jaya vasfkiira-samj fi.fi vairiigyam)
15. The conscious controlment of no ardent
desire for visible and scriptural objects
is non-attachment.

~CfiF~'il~4) ftjtjlll zyf: I tj~hhfcPlf~l! 31f:1~: I ~­


;rrfq flfllll1N Q:tDlllli ftjtjChal\a~ ri l!ci4H{~tj\1 i;q~lj cqqfu I <.Rf8T-
~ ~ '31fBi~p1fa
fct ~ fch4fll\Mf<i :1{)~11~1~ fct~lf'!'llM' ~­
~: 1 *Gf~~ ~ fq~4HHi ~run Tf~~~ fctC4i?t4a1cFa:
l:fCfqT Q>CilcFfllSCl~l~I ~ fqtj:q~ oqfa{Ch: I ~~fqq;fq~~:­
©IC"GCf)C"tj~l~ fil ~ qftf'!1\ill 4'i~Rj)Cfll4 1~0 1 - -
~ I ftjQB:lJ(tj q~ncnlt I af~a;4q{ tj{ll ll 4~1'ffiPTillS!ClRCh{tjrj ,, Sl~lci-
fll l"fl :z~:, 3"I ~ >1~1 afl! TI <ii f% \~·1{ 11
The visible objects of enjoyment are (candanadaya~). women,
wine, food , power etc. The scriptural objects of enj oyment are the
attainments to heaven, incorporeal deliverance (videha mukti), absorption
into primary substance (prakrtilaya ) etc. projected by Vedas. Even in the
craving for these two virtues the discerrunent of the reality from the mere
semblance, bring into being the three desiderata of non-attachment. The
efforts to know that 'I learn from the teacher and from sacred book of
what in this world is valuable and what worthless', is subdual of mind. To
consider and d iscriminate the earlier knovv11 blemi she s in one's mind as to
how much is eliminated and how much is still left behind. is exclusion.
52 [1-16
YOGASUDHAKARA

Abandoning the predile.ctions in visible and scriptural objects as


ultimately culminating in distress to establish the zealously active mind
only in that ardent desire is confining the perception but to one sense
organ. Freedom from desire is controlment.
The resultant lower non-attachment, being part and parcel of the
eight component parts of yoga 15· is not only the internal limb of the
cognitive spiritual absorption but also the external limb of the ultra-
cognitive spiritual absorption.
~ Ci~l~H~: q{tj'll'lf41t? -
Now, this internal firmament of non-attachment is the highe~t
non-attachment, says he (Patafijali) (in the following aphorism) -

~ 9;'6t4<9Qlet101&~w4'l ( ~ ~)
(tat-param puru¥1-khyiiteJrgulJ{l-vaitr~IJYam)
16. That which is the complete indifference
to the three energies (gu.vas) arising from revelation
of Puru$(1 is the highest non-attachment
fi>1~1aB41~1B q1c:tj~ :10 l~ll ltGCfll Bi't:l l'i 1f&~n>f'q
~: ~: d'8"ll<!:~ltt~Ul*"l~Cl~I~ tjQw4 c:fCl,
~{IH~M~~: II
Through acute practice of cognitive spiritual absorption, the self,
isolated from the three energies of the primary substance (pradhiina), is
the revelation of Puru$(1, which is direct perception. That, which is the
complete indifference to the activities of the three energies, is, therefore,
the highest non-attachment.
~ R{C'Lll ~ w:rrf~ -
In this manner, having defined practice and non-attachment, he
(Patanjali) tells about the spiritual absorption that can be achieved by
them-
fctttcfifttetHl4'<if~dl*'411'1itlt( tiS4~ff1: ( ~ \9)
(vitarka-viclira-iinanda-asmitii-rllpa-an ugamat samprajniitalJ)

15
· Cf Aph. II-29. These are Yama, Niyama, Asana, Praniiyama, Pratyahiira, Dharana,
Dhyiina and Samadhi. ·
1-17) 53
SAMADIDPADA

17. The spiritual absorption is cognitive because


of the accompaniment of supposition,
deliberation, rapture and egoism.

=BR:1Cf5'~1~a ~ ~ ~ ti" B>1~1a: ~: 1 ~


~ ftjac:h1R(C\~~: - fiftjar.h: fiftjijj{: BH'"G: Blffl"la
~ I ITT 'qlC:H~I . : fiftjac£: I q~ariil~l-
~:cfr(O I'TiiFlfl la:t I ~I'(: B ftjtj It {\Jl f{iij'j ~~ 1ljftj C&B~>!~H~fc&'Tiil{-

~: f!H;e:: I \!)C&B~>!~HlOIQ~~'Tii!Hll~: BIMci: I ITT


ftjacf>fqi.l1u;:c:t ~ 1 ~ Q~o1q_ 1 3if~a1&41
£1~u1£1~1Q:!) ~lq'1l~( B11~1al ~ ~: II
* 1 ~ mw-

He, by whom an existing substance to be investigated is discerned


distinctly, is the cognizer, direct perception being the speciality of the
spiritual absorption. Also, accompanied by four forms, beginning with
supposition, it (the cognitive spiritual absorption) is four-fold . They are -
( 1) Suppositional (savitarka);
(2) Deliberative (savicara);
(3) Rapturous (sananda) and
(4) Pure Egoism (sasmita).
There, the suppositional is the immediate perception of any existing
substance by its manifestation, within the sphere of the sense organs. The
deliberative is the immediate perception within the sphere of the five
subtle elements, the intellect, mind and ego (panca tanmatra,
anta/JkaraIJa). The rapturous is the immediate perception within the
sphere of intellect conditioned by abundant illuminative energy but
intermixed with a little of active and inert energies. The pure egoism is
the · immediate perception within the sphere of the intellect (pradhcma
etc.) conditioned entirely by pure illuminative energy.
In this place both suppositional and deliberative are perceptions fit
for seizing, rapture is seizing and egoism is that which has grasped the
perceptible. The pulling upwards of the immediate perception in these
graspable, grasping and grasper is the cogniti ve spiritual absorption.
54 [1-18
YOGASUDHAKARA

- fisi~1a R{C'Lll q"'tj"'1'llfll'tZ!lH4si~1ali1Q -


Having, in this manner, defined the cognitive spiritual absorption
attainable by the lower non-attachment, he (Patanjali) mentions about the
ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption, attainable by the highest non-
attachment.

fcHltiSfr4lll~ifi'{cf: 1 6 ·~-h:ct>H~ltflS~: ( ~ t.,)


( viriima-pratyaya-abyiisa-pii.rvaf;l samskiira-se ¥JJ:l-anya /;l)
18. The other, being preceded by the practice
of the cessational cognition, has the end
of the habitual potencies.

ftj{ll"li czf<Jl4'll"l: , m<:r ~: Cf1RUi <tC"'3)4'U"ll2f: >l<-lM:


~= tfR:~ fiq1c:ri1i_, af"{~\"{1\Nlrl!: fisi~1a1c:r£1: fifehl'l~l~:
Q~1HHF=hM90Riq;~ Rhifq{C\q~ ~c:c11ct=i*411<c{C'q a1 <:ftsqf.<1 &:1a
msfiQ~lci ~~: 11

Cessation means abstention from mental operation. The motive of


thi s conviction is to persevere to achieve cessation of mental operation.
Its accomplishment is by repeated exercises. That, occurring or ari sing for
the fi rst time, is different from cognitive spiritual absorption. That res idue
of the subdued mind, cleared of all its operations. which has the end of
habitual potencies and which, owing to its difficulty in perce1vmg.
remains in that form, is Ultra-cognitive Spiritual Absorption.

msll10JfiQ~1ffi fefcfm <l"JqQfllll 341ll>lfllll~ , ~ ~­


~: I (f;fIB -

The ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption is of two kinds. They are:


(I ) dependence on objective existence (bhavapratyaya) 17· (2) dependence

16
Samskiira 5e:ya means the impressions gained of the efficacy of purificatOl)
ceremonies, together with the fear of the consequences of non-performa nce thereof.
( Vide note 8 @ pg.39.)
17
Cf Mundakopani.~ad. l-( i)-3, 4 & 5.
1-19) 55
SAMADHI PADA

on systematic process (upiiyapraatyaya). There, the first is fit to be


abandoned by those desiring deliverance of the soul from tecurring births,
about which he (Patanja/i) explains in the next aphorism -

~iUIN4' fuQgS4Cfi fdt'1"4 l.. 1\ ( ~ ~)


(bhava-pratyayal;l videh a-prakrtilayllnllm)
19. Dependence on objective existence is
for the incorporeal and the merger
in primary substance.

~ cFf<~ ftl'i~Ffl q ~ <qq: ~S ftj'CJ I&'l: ~ >I R"l 41 ~ ~


titiR¥j}~>5)stiS1~1a: 1 ~ ~ cirak\~tq1f'i~1i1ci·:p~1 ~ rq~~H1~
3i6qtfi'"i~~~ef>R4~a;:q1~~ Sl~fdtql Ci"l ('tj1ilq"1 lf1 ~"ll"li Sl~Rit'Sl!Hi·
iicfr~"ficfr<fl&: I ~ ~ ftjtjCfl&'llf4iilqltjit{1~'aqR"J1'iti'4)~
~ qaffiRi cqrcf: 11

As creatures in this world come into being, the saying is


becoming, mundane existence and ignorance. The one, whose settled
belief is in this cause, is he, whose ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption is
based on the circuit of worldly life. He too, by promoting his interests
through the gross elements, sense organs and motor organs, achieves
tossing his body and becoming bodiless (like gods). He too, by promoting
his interests in primary substance through the imperceptible, intellect, ego
and the five subtle elements, is completely merged in the intensive cause
and is fruitful in the end.
The purport (of the aphorism) is to show that, owing to the
absence of discriminative faculty, it has been a sleeping mind arid, like
the creeper bending down and standing up every now and then, falls in
the circuit of world life.

Now, he (Patafzjali) explains about the systematic process fit to be


acquired by those who strive after final emancipation -
56 [I-20
YOGASUDHAKARA

·~-s:tcftlf~ffieq1f!tst*1i'{J~ $d~tU¥( ( ~ o)
(sradtlhii-vTrya-smrti-samiidhi-prajiillpfirvaka itare~m)
20. This is preceded by faith, prowess, memory,
spiritual absorption and intellective vision
in the case of others.

~ ~ ~ q{~t41~'iflifa ~: ~ 1 m +i10*ltf~­
cil;flq\J11l!a I ~~ ~ -
'aqR:q'R{t~ ~ ~sfq T.Tfils~: 1

~~ 1.[rIT ci¥l1W>n ~ql'1'1 11' efa" 11 is.

~ T:f ~G&llll'"lqR4cillli cflll'j)ctil~l <qqfu '~~ mlf fiq1~fll&i1fii'


~ I ~ctl~~Tictil~'i (fGT a~lj~l!IR -~Jll~·IR •µp.:f~ I ~ ~· flit"lll
{1~Jljfce>ctfl'"il~l~51fll~ "fl'fu ~ 51~l~f8 I ciC4{cfCfltaB!~l'{cf­
cfilsfi51~1af!~IN: ~ ~~~OS!Cf>fci0~caITSqfifl'i l'"ii 4l f1Hi
~~:II

Faith 19· (sraddha} is the conviction that, for me, yoga


(contemplation) alone is the expedient for accomplishing the highest2°·
object of human life, (i.e. eternal emancipation). Also, faith is born out of
hearing the eminence of yoga. About the eminence of yoga, sm[fi
(Bhagavatgfa) has it thus: 'the yogin is greater than the ascetic, he is
considered to be greater than the men of knowledge, greater than the men
of rituals who perform religious deeds with the expectation of reward, so,
Oh! Arjuna mayest thou become a yogi!'
The determined faith becomes the persevering heroic sentiment of
effort that 'always I will accomplish contemplation'. With such perseve-
rence are they mindful of the constituent parts of contemplation to be
observed in proper order. And by such recollection in memory in the
well-performed spiritual absorption as a result of the introverted pure

18
BG. VI-46 - Kr?fla tells Arjuna.
·
19
· Faith is to believe in what you do not see; and the reward of that faith is to see what
you believe in - St. Augustine.
20
· BG. Vl-46.
1-21) 57
SAMA.Dill PADA

spirit (iitman), there arises knowledge or' bearing the truth in one's self
(!tambharii prajnii).
These (the first four 22 ') precede the ultra-cognitive spiritual
absorption, which is attended with the intellective vision.
In the case of others (mentioned in this aphorism) means, in the
case of the contemplative (who accomplish through systematic process)
mentioned posterior to videha and prakrtilayas (who are dependent on
objective existence, mentioned in the preceding aphorism).

Having, in this manner, laid bare the feasibility of attaining


spiritual absorption by the highest non-attachment, he (Patafijali) defines
the degrees of its quick achievement on a comparison with the degrees of
non-attachment -

ffia+i~•1141q1esc: ( ~ ~)
(trvra-samvegli.nli.m-lisanna}J)
21. It is imminent to the
extremely vehement (yogis) .

~ ~~I'll'{ I a~~IWflHR:il~m ~5fitj'll ~tjtjJllfa1~­


M~ I ~ ffi~fi~'IHIGl~Ht ~: I 3i~~q ~ ~­
~a~: II
Samvega}J (vehemence) qualifies non-attachment. From (the
standpoint of) the difference in the intensity of vehemence, the yogis are
of three kinds thus: (I) mild-vehemence, (2) middle-vehemence and (3)
intense-vehemence. There, the intensively vehement yogis are imminent
to gain spiritual absorption. In other words, they achieve the spiritual
absorption only within a short time.

22
· The systematic process viz. faith, prowess, memory and spiritual absorption, together
with suppositionaJ and deliberative, reflective and non-reflective thought
transformations. Cf Aph. 1-17, 1-41to1-44 & the chart under Aph. 1-41.
58 [I-22
YOGASUDHAKARA

Only about the comparative degrees of the intensively vehement


(yogis), he (Patanali) refers to (in the following aphorism) -

¥!5;q&11fg;(qfS((qi'd(1lSfif fq~jq: ( ~ ~)
(mrcJu-madhya-adh imiitratviit-tato-api viSe¥JlJ)
22. There is also a further distinction
according to the degree of mild, middle
and intense vehemencies.

~ ~Sf~41~a1~~ I (lttj°idD"aH=<q (Cl'll!I ffif~s{­


~ 1 a~C14~41~al~fll ~ ~ Bfu, gJ~aj~11-
~ fl ;+of ril ., ~ cq fa I rn=r: >I fl! ITT fa: ~ 11 f€? rn
Rfcfsr:j R'('"fl'(~ q-
fu'f8cl ~: 11
(The intensively vehement yogis are) (1) the mild intensively-
vehement, (2) the middle intensively vehement and (3) the extreme
intensively vehement. Among them, the highest (i.e. the extreme
intensively vehement yogis will speedily achieve the spiritual absorption.
When, in this manner, one obtains the firmly grounded ultra-cognitive
spiritual absorption of the extreme intensively vehement mode, his mind,
which is incapacitated to swerve again, disappears. Thence, the inward
looking Con-Science-Power (puru~a) stands off in its own greatness
uninterruptedly and incessantly.

23
By using the word 'eva' (only), our commentator's point is that the yogis are of nine
kind, the degrees of mild, middle and intense being built with in each of the three
degrees of mild, middle and intense vehemence. Hear _ Vyiisa's comments on
Aph.21 : -
'ft ~ 7,q <AfiRI ~ I ~ ~ I ii{l"qT - ~ "IE4lq141Sfil"!i'llq14 ~ I
03; %q1<1fo1Fcit1: I~ "lt4ti~'i@lsniE! i1 mi I ~ >1t:4")q1<H'(l\4ISfil"l l>1lql"l ~ I
They, the yogis, are indeed, of nine classes. They are those who practise mild,
middle and intense methods. That is to say, they adopt mild method, middle method
and intense method. There, the mild method is of three kinds, such as mild-
vehemence, middle-vehemence, and intense-vehemence. Sim ilar is the middle
method and intense method.
1-23] 59
SAMADHI PADA

~ aq1lll'"fFl5)4~!(fllfci -
Now, lie (Patafzjali) shows another means of gaining the most
imminent spiritual absorption (in the following aphorism) -

lSfJUlf01!1141il ( ~ ~)
(lsvara-praIJidhanat-va)
23. Or from profound meditation on lsvara.

~W ~: I afB:l;::q\y:J)\l ~ ~ICl<ilftj~l~: I
ciflili;lfl~ciiOJ: ~: I ~mt m
fPil\l~<ilR!:'"ll ~: mm
' $~J4 ~ ~Y«j ' ~
~l\l . ~
fF81{1~r CiLl!AH. "fcl
g'Cl~AjlJcDllCil <qTq: I ~

9)&:h{Y01~1qrnJqfl!. 9)'6~~ ~= Cfi~lj)qq?Ja ~ ~WSj~l~Ch­


Cl<:fT Cfia.11Rfl~ara ~ ~ - a1qct1~ m: H~q~q ~ 1 ~­
~ qf{o1a ~ ciLl!AHl ciC:IU~?CHl'i ~ ~s~ ~
$ f9)Y "t"p<fa I aT"f1'{ -
~ ~ ~ ~ 'l1Jcn" if CIT \\J1fll«"JIY411~ I
~ cilliff1<.Jr"il"90Ri«"l~i ~ ~31Tf1iT II~ I
~ a~41ri ~ ~m: ~i0'41 Ri:ifo1ct11l!A~ 01fchq;tjfc:2h-
fi:si<;1c:isl'rilacti1sj~t:o11ffifllrici?J'{ II

livara (infinitely powerful) is of the characteristics being


explained (in the succeeding aphorism). Profound meditation on the
highest preceptor is the special differentia of abstract meditation. On that.
account, the gain is the most imminent spiritual absorption. The idea is,
the all-powerful lsvara worshipped by means of gratification in the true
sense that 'let this be His wish', verily favours the spirit (puru~a) who is
being refined in th~ fire of the circuit of life.
If it be argued~ how comes the feeling of refin ement fall s to the
share of the spirit, which is non-attached like a drop of water in the petal
of the blue lotus and admitted, therefore, by th e favour of the infinitely
powerful lsvara, it may be said that the agonising acti ve energy is for the
illuminative energy to be refined. It is complimented that even the
60 [I-24
YOGASUDllAKARA

undivided downward-bent spmt, on account of its own elevation, is


refined in the process of the illuminative energy being refined by the
matured deliberative self.
It is said that the refinement of the illuminative energy by the
intellective temperance or by the studied abstract meditation, is to destroy
the active energy. The said self is that identical seizing inert energy
whose mental operation is destroyed.
In this manner, the all-powerful paramesvara by His own self-will
favours the refining spirit (puru$C1), irradiating upon secularism,
scripturalism and traditiona.lism, for purposes of governing the created
body so that it is irreproachable.

en: r-:r: ~ ~m ~fll~I~ -


Here again, he (Patanjali) explains who that lsvara is.

cM:{JtC64ffqq1Cfi1:{Jt~<4<1~)!: gtit:tftt~t:t tm: ( ~ ~)


(klefa-karma-vipliklisayair aparlimr~fillJ puru~-viSe~ lsvaralJ)
24. lsvara is the special puru$(1 untouched by the
stocks of affliction, action and fruition.
fck'5~'1~1fa ~ ~ 11 ~ 3'I ftj 'QI e:ll: I Cfilf fi:rmfir~-
t j ~ I ftjqaia ~ fctq1Cf): ~ \5"11f<Q1TfT'llR!:: I 3il~lU1
$flll ~141: tjfc:f)l{I: I ~\q\11i~lSfilf.?C'5\C: : I fif.<C"> ~ f1 fifil-0 '\5"11q: I
lj)n>~tjf.<0~IFY ttcfCfl10 affif.<01:41,Q& ~ 1 aIB: 9){lf4ftj~1til ~­
~ ~m: 1 ~ tilcf~44~ ~ 3'l'i1fc::fBQ&:si1~a~_f&fi"CtjlfqChfi<h1-
~ ~~04~ 11
To be tormented means affliction (klda), which is being hereafter
explained as ignorance etc. (avidyii). Action (karma) is mixture and non-
mixture of form, being detailed herein later on. Fruition (vipaka) means
completely ripened, being enjoyment etc. belonging to life since birth.
Stock (iisaya)24· means habitual potencies.

24
· Asaya : Cowell renders its meaning dear thus: 'Stock' or 'the balance of fruits of
previous works (actions), which lie stored up in the form of mental depos its or
demerits until they ripen in the individual soul's own experience into rank, yeats and
enjoyment'.
1-25] 61
SAMADHI PADA

Untouched by these, is the unafflicted. But the afflicted is


nevertheless liberated; yet it is bound just like the afflicted because of its
previous afflicted state. 25·
The speciality of Puru$(l, therefore, is that He is ever free like
livra. His omniscience and supremacy should be visualised by His nexus
with eternity, perfection, refinement and pure soul consisting of entity,
thought, cognition etc.

3f?.f 'ITT SP"! IaI'"! IQ -


Now, he (Patafzjali) gives the testimony for the aforesaid position.

nsr f.t<fae14 *~1Jef!1&11Gt'{ <~ 4)


(tatra niratiSayam siirvajfia-bi:jam)
25. There the omniscient-seed is unsurpassed.

~it R~Ja~14 ~cf~tq~ ~ ~ 1 Q>a¥fi ~ - ~­


~1~1;1 R:CR1~1~'1 ~1~011fclri1~ ~IRl~lll(ql(( I llct"ll R1~14 dct"llil'i\lll-
rn f:i:cra~1~'i ~ <.mr fcf:!qRJi1~., ~ 1 3Rf: tTITTT-
~1c;1i:iHrn~f:i:cra~114~1'iclHlm ~ II

There, in lsvara is the ori gin of the unsurpassed omniscient-seed.


It is appropriately said that, owing to our own pre-eminence, our
subjective knowledge (asmadadi jnana i.e. the mistaking of non-self for
the Self. matter for spirit, body for soul, finite for infinite etc.) is an
existence without unsurpassed omniscience.

Should pre-eminence be compared with unsurpassed by a similar


class of its kind, it would be like comparing the magnitude of a jar with
the all-pervading space. lsvara, being the Residuum, settled by inference,
is, therefore, the unsurpassed Knower.

25
· About this connection, Vyiisa in his commentary on this aphorism, says: t~ ~
~ =i 'I.ill ~ 'IIT?ft 1 isvara .neither had, nor will have, any connection with those
bonds.
* ti4~oi1"1f>ifa 41oHH'l 1
62 (1-26
YOGASUDIIAKARA

Now then, is it not, indeed, th~ only characteristic of !§vara? Or is


there also anything besides? No (there is something besides) says he
(Patanjali) (in the following aphorism) -

('1) '{<lq1ql\4 1Fi: q;1~91191c:ra§~1tl ( ~ ~)


(sa) (purve${im-api guruJ:l kiilena-anavacchedat)
26. He is the Preceptor also of all ancient teachers,
owing to His not being limited by time.

~ fPITC!:l1~?il: ~ ~~l<;ll: ~ . 'llB0=flH~lll'ilf~{C'qo1 Chl~'i


m~f{*f~~~{l4
;f\ I ct~=ctl~ -

~ "{Rff ~ ~: {j)~(1:1\cTISfT1 ~ I
~ fctf:iifta1r@ i1{lg~q ~= 11 ~

3ictf8~14~ <ql1Cll'1Ch ~ ~JITT:: ; Chl0'"1HClaj~lfl , '~: Chl&Chl&:


~~:I 3ITT~ ~ <qqfu II

Those previous Creators (Brahma), who were created since the


beginning of creation, were subject to the limitation of time, which is in
the form of months, seasons, semi-annum, year etc. It is said that 'these
delightful, virtuous and very exalted preceptors (subject to the limitation
of time) are also cut to pieces and swallowed asunder by time just as
garuda (the king of birds) does the serpents'. Their deity also, therefore, is
the Preceptor, lsvara only, owing to His not being limited by time. Thus,
'a sentient soul, His is time in the course of time', according to Vedas
(sruti). With these, the great splendour of lsvara is spoken of.

~~~-
Now, he (Patanjali) defines His (lsvara's) appellation -
1-27] 63
SAMADIDPADA

ffi<J ct 11:4 C6 : 'S11J1Cf: ( ~ 1.9)


(tasya vllcakalJ pral)llvalJ)
27: PraIJava (the monosyllabit A UM)
is significative of Him (lsvara).

~ ~wm >fUTCf: >1Ch~o1 ;p:ffi ~s~ >fUTCf ~:


cfftjch)~ ~: II

'Tasya' means 'of Paramdvara's Prar.JGva'. 'Exceedingly being


sounded and praised by this', stands for praoava omkiira (the sacred
monosyllable Om). 26· Vacaka means the conventional denomination.

~~~,w~~~
t141&~q~~f~ra ~ -

Having denominated in this manner the appellation of lsvara and


referring to the earlier statement viz. 'from profound meditation' (cf Aph.
1-23), he (Patafzjali) explains the profound abstract contemplation with its
effect, in the following two aphorisms -

<1¥if4t<fC::~lcFt'{ ( ~ l)
(tat-japaJ;rtat-artha-bltiivanam)
28. Its repetition and the development of its truth.
"ffil: S4~~d"ilfi4~1"f1s~H ( ~ ~)
(tata/;I pratyak-cetanli-adh igamaJ;rapi-a11 tarliya-ablt iiva Jrca)
29. Thereupon, ilie attainment of the inner soul
and the absence of impediments.

l{a¥> cqqffi - Cff<1 >fOlqfll ~ \jfq':, arfiir4ll:fChl0~{rfllfB­


("Cf)llf(tC::2fffl~·M~~:tR ~ ~G~1~fc4a Wc1, -q-~1~a
-q:q ql4&4f4Rlt\q af~;;i&l~, tjltjChfll ~~fB~f~(qJfltj{qRi-
26
. In other word, livara is inherent in Pral}ava, the latter keeping both the relations,
phenomenal and noumenal.
64 [I-28
YOGASUDllAKARA

tjal'1~4iilcHllli <{l~Chl&IRM{<t>lil~ftja1ll1~ cid'R1BF81~'i ~


~ ~ ~m fq~ ~ "ffil
act"l 1<t~ ll IR<H<:\ If4 '1 '"F8~f~ S!6_\l0f IC11 I~ fii l\f~ (tj I 3i ftj tj ll all I aGl2I &ii 414
~ \4%1\lq~l~ ~ I c=Rr: ~: I
5kl1Cfi:llB~ ~, cw:IT: ~: I fiqf;~Hcilll 'Gl'8GHI f:qfu~IRh:
~ ~ R<'"fi{ f:ifcf&i'"!qfct'8a 1 31\1: ~1C1r'8i ~Rfl'ii
S!M&l!N'"fi<llll'qra;~ cqqfu" I aill~Ch ~~UlfUl~Hfll ftj~ltj ~ 11

When the meditation, which comprises repeating Isvara 's PraIJava


in the mind, is firmly practised constantly and earnestly for a long time,
keeping in the forefront predominantly the flow of the intended
independent pure JS-Vara-consciousness, then, of its own accord, - owing
to the degradation of the conventional speech being dissolved in the habit
of speech intended for the unobstructed mind and thought to abide that
continuous mental activity served firmly for a long time, - by that very
propitiousness, the mind becomes thence inclined with close contiguity
towards restraint.
And not being able to obtain lsvara's ease and not being able to
obtain it by recalling to mind one's own self because of its resemblance to
the non-attached pure consciousness, it being without attribute,2'· the
mind becomes per se· the remainder of the habitual potencies like the
unkindled fire bereft of fuel. Hence the acquisition of the inner soul. This
inner soul is the power of obtaining everything.
This Con-Science-Power, which ensures the annihilation of the
impediments, stands still by it own majesty perpetually and free from
impediments.
Of all the mental activities, therefore, there is absence of
impediments in this profound meditation on !svara on a~count of their
complete dissolution. This one is the speciality of the profound
meditation on lsvara.

Cf Tait.Up. II.iv- (1): ll"fil~~ 1 ~lf'tm~


27
1 From whom all words, speech as
well as mind, return, having failed to reach Him.
1-30] 65
SAMADIDPADA

Anticipating the question as to what the impediments are, he


(Patanjali) says in the next aphorism -

oq1f~H'('t:414~4>iliS4q1ssa:1&~1fu<M\llktf!:~f"tlS~­
~S4qf~at€ttR ~'1fu~s;a<1£11: ( ~ o)
(vyiidhi-styiina-sam.Saya-pramii.da-iilasya-avirati-bhriintidarsana
alabdh abh il.mikatva-anavastltitatviini cit 'ta-vik$[!pii}J-te-antarii.yii.IJ)
30. Disease, Unctuousness, Doubt, Inadvertence Sloth,
Incontinence, Wrong understanding, Non attainment of
mental plane and Instability - these distractions
are impediments.

~ ~ ~ ~~lllr~ -fr ~ ~ 4JJi~HHllll fcft;n:


ITT ~~~ll~~R4RrGJl \J~Hl~&lfR:l: I r~-afl!lctJifu;q~ &l!HJ{ I
~'6e&c@fc:~l! lq Jllfu ~ mm: I 31~'81'8flllRBl~'iHIAcqrq;f WiR:
Chill q Ifcfi:h1 :J)'6 C"Cl I<;>! 90 RHI t'5~ l{ I ~sfcRf(l: I ~-
w~r~~ff~<~f'1JO(
I ¥f~~M"dlct"P41~S~
~ ~ fil"a~ISIRit8Hqr~aa(tjr~fll~: 11

Those that confuse and scatter the mind away from spiritual
absorption are nine distractions, which are the impediments of
concentration. Fever etc. caused by the inequalities of the three
detriments of the body (viz. the three humours - gout. bile & phlegm) is
vyiidhi (disease). The inertness of mind is styana (unctuousness). The
immersion of knowledge with a pair of incompatible alternatives is
samsya (doubt). Want of fulfilments of non-violence, truth etc. is
pramiida (inadvertence).
Alasya (sloth) is the absence of exertion of the body, speech and
mind on account of heaviness. Greediness of the mind for sensual
enjoyments is avirati (incontinence). Mistaking one for the other is
brfinti-dadana (wTong understanding). Inability to obtain spiritual
absorption for whatsoever reason is alabda-bhumikatva (non-attainment
of mental plane) . Even after attainment (of the mental plane) unfixity of
the mind on the attained plane) is anavasthitatva (instability).
66 [I-31
YOGASUDllAKARA

~ ·Cfict&ila ~ lflJ1ri1~1Cfi1: ; 3ifq- TI aqs::qc:fru ~~'~ -


These distraction, by themselves, are capacitated not only to
destroying spiritual absorption · but also causing trouble, says he
(Patanjali) (in the following aphorism) -

s:&c(Jlf•H•lU-R·iNtllti*tllfB1%11ftl ~: ( ~ ~)
(dul)kha-daurmanasya-angamejayatva-sviisa-pra.Sviisli
vik~pa-sahabh uvaJ,i)
31. Pain, dejection, trembling of the body
·inspiration and expiration, are the
companion of distraction.

~~:~I l~-
n
q~€fl<11rii'""lm G14ri~9' , fp::if~·ik')'""ll'.l~·il\Jil4(tj~ , ~ lflJ11~·1-
B"'l~ilM 1 m: ~: 1 ~ {:qct>ftj{l~ 1 >ITUT: >r-m-B: 1 "ff TI ~­
fcrom I a:m Cff ;grn) ~1~1ipqCfiftj~fir, >r~: 3il'ff\1lA"fCf>ftj;(1~,
ai~·il\Jl~~ ~:,
''ili.0.,_Cffl~q R-<B~l~CI Jll~lfOI tjlC"J~q_' I
~ ~ ~SjjqOll<°l I 3IB ~ ~:<©1<;41 fcre:ltf: ~ '14C1R°1,
~ <qcFffif'4~: II

The product of the said disease is pain. The following are the
three-fold distinctions of distraction relating to soul (viz. iidhyiitmika
iididaivika, and iidibhautika - pain caused by mind and body, that caused
by destiny and that caused by created beings).
Irritation of mind on non-fulfilment of desire in sensual objects is
daurmanasya (dejection). The movement of all the limbs of the body
(without steadiness) is angamejayatva (trembling of body). This
unsteadiness is hostile to suitable postures for profound spiritual
absorption.
One of the five life-Winds in the body (apiina), which goes
downwards, is sviisa (in-breathing). It is opposed to recaka (emptying of
the lungs). The breath of life (priiIJa) is prasviisa (out-breathing). But it is
1-32) 67
SAMADIDPADA

opposed to inhaling breath (puraka); or rather, sviisa is the antithesis of


suspending breath outside, praiviisa is the antithesis of suspending breath
inside and the trembling .of the body is the enemy of both kinds of
suspensions of breath.
'Not like one who swells up by sighing nor like one who
snorts by making a sound (while breathing) should the
members of the body be fluctuated,' 28 ·
is their prohibition in kumbhaka (suspension of breath), according to the
vedic texts. Hence these pains arise together with distract10ns, which
means they arise in the distracted mind.

Having, in this manner, said about the impediments, ar1u expecting


the question as to how they could be destroyed, he (Patanjali) reiterates in
this case only the earlier mentioned 'profound meditation on lsvara' as the
means.

a&fd~!:i1$'.fqCfia"tq1~: ( ~ ~)
( tat-prati~dh ii.rtham-eka-tat 'tva-abhyiisa.p)
32. Practice of one truth (is the means)
of their prevention.

~ '8l q~q Io Ii fqa)qrcrrt fcFi I ~ 11 ~~ cfafrq ~ JS\t:(TI~Rl q;2foq: I


Q\a5ffi ~ - Q\Chit~q'Titj<J:1rnqRisiCl1Q1tf&1 ~s'R:fm: 1 ~ ~
<;1£fChl0~\'"ftclf!0=hl{{<gJ:!l~ftjaoq: I ail~ftja ~ affli;&JIUllC!:<1l Cll{1""11 :
a:iJJqc:t ftj~1{1'<iai cnR=r 1 a5ttil\ 1

28
· What happens naturally to a practicant is. when he breathes in. the stomach and the
navel area gradually go forward pressing the diaphragm down to enable the lungs to
take the maximwn wind and, at the same time, to acti vate apiina wind, which flows
d ownwards. While breathing out, the whole process is reversed to enable the lungs
to evacuate the maximum wind possible. The fundamental point is that the
breathing in, and out, must be gradual without any artificial force to fluctuate the
limbs.
68 [I-33
YOGASUDIIAKARA

Cll~Filfiqf{~1~ *
~ Cfl-0~&&{ I
"ffif· fuf~~~: ~II~ II
To destroy those troubling distractions, the one truth (that of)
lsvara should be practised. Practice means the efforts to enable the flow
of the mental activity with one truth within the scope of the mind. That
practice should be served firmly, constantly and earnestly for a long time.
If zealously practiced (in this manner) the impressions of dise.ase (in the
mind) go· to destruction in a minute.
'It is enough if efforts are directed towards abandonment of
impressions lurking in the mind and, in the process, _all diseases get
loosened in minutes', so it is said.
31¥ fiq~1a~{t\~Cfl1£Jffiq1lll'"( 'ihft' - ~C"'Qlf2: '~'
~f'4'""ci'i' *f~'8l{1Ch'ilt? -
Now from the aphorism starting with 'maitri' till the aphorism
starting with 'yathabimata' (cf Aph. I-33 to 1-39), in seven aphorisms, he
(Patafljali) explains about the means of obtaining one-pointedness in the
mental plane of cognitive spiritual absorption.

~"1CfifiOllgfu:ffiqa_mnl ti&~: &g;ot11got1fctt1t.:fl oIi


a::t '{ ( ~ ~ )
\:t IcF•U d f~.fi1SH'1 I
(maitrf-karUIJli•muditli-upek~IJlim
sukhha-duJ;ikha-
puwa-apuwa-vi~yliIJlim bhiivanlitalJ cit 'ta-prasii.danam
33. The embellishment of the mind (is ensured)
from constantly promoting friendship, compassion,
joy (and) neutrality, concerning
pleasu~ & pain and virtue & vice.

F.ffi" fu \Pl~~gollq1q: Cht1f5l1Rh;qfl I rn fell{:I~ '8i'iifi~lil;i


f!@l4joi18 '~ f!@\Jild ~ ~ ~ Cfif~~l~RifcP~l~ UlT: I 'fr ~
'fj)'@ \jj Ictfll - fi qIC!:~ g;ii ~I Cf'•h"tj Ifhrd CflC1tflctil Ri I ~
TI 'fiR9~1f01~ ihfl= ~lq~1' '~s~ ~ ii4ll41 :' ~, ~ C"lf'§lci
1-33) 69
SAMADHJ PADA

*<:!Cf1lll~q ~qo;;ifl:tf(i ITT wTI RClcWl I ;i- ~ (111:, ffl1 TI 4\1Ull~tH­


rJtjfqtS:fl{Ol~q1fi~tSllf~q;Jifq f;iqJa 1 f;iqJa :q- <1J11*f~&/r~1 qtif«im-
~ ~l{fBRRCl ~ sifll~fa I (f2ll ~:©lij~la '"Wt ~:-& -wf2ll -q m
~ efc1 Cfif~Bi~41 ~: I ~ :q- ~ ~ Rql{f~tlli~IC:P•frql("fl~I
·~ ,~~m·.,"
~ ~t?1\l I ~ *<:! q yo1..q1 >I ~& ~:"& m ~ ~fll+i >!Chi~ 01
Ch'6Uli ~: f@>llfUl'.1) 'l"ilCl~<:L ~ tj4fRg ~ RClc-18 I ;i- ~ ~: , fci;
TI 5 :fui("Cl>!Rill1r1Cf1*<=l'tlf©("Cl>l~ c:qTsttr f;iqJa 1 ~ ~ ~ cqi1qa1
zym,: - ~~s~ ciWft ~s~ <Sl&Cll'"lj)@ 1
~SM \jj., q H ffi1 cfils~sft:{f ~ B<:fT 11 efc1 I
~ ~llRC[ffi furf 51~l~ffi I (f2ll >llfOH: ~ ~ 1jITTf '1 1jf8'8-
Rr, "YTrf ("Cljf8'8Ri I ~ go<qq1q tf~ \JHlla: I ~ gol!g{I~~
~ 'l"ilCl~<:L ~ <"l~l~'"llll *<=llll1lll>ll1"C1 : ~ ~ I "d"2IT q1fGq9&lf
<qlClll~l!liN q1q1~ciJa I 31(f: tf~ ~ :si~l~Fci I ~
gal!1fl"ltt ~ 'l"ilCll!a: ~ ~: lh&fCirnfh1 ; m~ 4ln1..n ;i-
~, ~ g.,\Jf;:qCf){("CllCl 1 ~ ; Ch1~~~1craf<\Jf;:q~tlcq1R$ TI
~ \lJ;:qHl41~ChflllZJ)ct&'tJ&llfll go<qfll ~ I
~ ~ cqi1C11f {{~Cf11t - 'Cf1lif~~rui lllr11f{'llftj<tifi1a{tj1'\ ~ 1
3Tifr ~?l!lf~cqlq'1l!I \lllifC:Cll~'ilR~:Jl ~ ~4i0J1q'A Bf-r;=q"CJ~Cf11!lcil4~
~ ~: i ct~tj)l>( -
cTI{l~OI Slll~'"I <Sl&lftifl!\J'll CllB'"lll>( I
W-ITTf ~ ~ 4~81Ble\llfll01>( I I~ II
Verily, the mind is choked with passion and hatred, virtues and
vices. In the sleeping and waking states whatever pleasure is being
enj oyed by one-elf, is enj oyed but the peculiar notion of any one to the
effect that 'May all the engendered pleasures be mine'. is passion.
Moreover, the mind is chocked owing to its inability to accomplish
prosperity with the totality of the visible and invisible reality (i.e. relating
to the present and future life). If one were only to develop friendship with
persons, who are comfortable, on the basis that 'All these happy men
70 [1-33
YOGASUDIIAKARA

belong to me', then on realizing that pleasure is produced for their own
self, passion ceases.
Not only passion but also blemish of unendurance, manifestation
of jealousy, envy etc. on another's property, disappears. On disappearance
of passiOn, jealousy and envy the mind becomes as placid as that of the
impure rainwater during the autumnal season.
In the same manner, pain closely adheres to that of the pleasure.
Any one's notion that 'All this pain should not befall me, is hatred.
Moreover, due to incapacity to ward off the revengeful heroic
sentiments29·there is always heartburning in virtuous men. If one were to
show compassion towards the suffering entities in a manner such as 'Like
myself, the disagreeable pain should not befall others', then the
abhorrence in revengeful heroic sentiments disappears.
. Not only hatred but also resistance to painfulness, consequences of
selfish comforts, arrogance operated by pride, etc. vanish. This arrogance
is referred to in Bhagavadg'fta [cf XVI-14 (2nd hemistich) and XVI-15
(1st hemistich)] thus: 'I am the master, the one whose lot is enjoyment. I
have achieved success. 41 am endowed with strength and happiness. I am
affluent and of distinguished parentage. Who else is there to equal me.'
(Daivaurasampadvibhaf{a Yoga). Retreated from both sides, the .mind
then becomes placid.
Naturally, people do not practise moral virtues but practise sin. In
merit and demerit, therefore, contrition arises. If one should delight
oneself in the company of virtuous men, then, with that inclinatio~, one
gets engaged in meritorious acts vigilantly on one's own accord. In the
same way, by neglecting association with sinful ,men, the demerit
disappears by virtue of that very act. Hence the transparency of mind,
free from repentance. 30·

29
· The heroic sentiments are (I) Diinavlra (chivalrous liberality); (2r Dharmavfra
(chivalrous piety); (3) Dayiivlra (heroic compassion); & (4) Yuddavfra (chivalrous
military prowess.
30
· The intention of Patanjali, under this aphorism, is to juxtapose the one set of
quadruple with the other viz. friendliness towards happiness, compassion towards
misery, joy towards virtue and neutrality towards vice. Of course, pleasure and pain
are associated with passion and hatred, with consequential accumulation of merits
and demerits. Apparently, therefore, our commentator seems to have elaborated on
them; but Vyasa puts it succinctly thus: ~ rihff"l l Ctf~ctfii1<:! mWrT 'q'ftq:;tf ~ ~?
ml tic:f>llfii l ~ ~'!§fi'i•i)• 11 q~ ~ ~ ~ ~:~ ~ ~0111 1"'"1$~ ~ a:i~u zi~ft~'{Cla;ll 'l 1 ~
1-33) 71
SAMADHI PADA

Objection: The association with virtuous men is fraught with the object of
gaining good conduct and so yogis are not free from attachment
because of rebirth on that account.
Reply: It is not so. Here, in the case of the passionate man, the cause of
his being born is in fulfilment of his desire. However, in the case of
the ·yogi, his having fallen into being is owing to the merit of his
actions being neither white nor black. And the revered author,
Patanjali clarifies this point by saying further on at aphorism IV-7
thus: 'The action of the yogi is neither white nor black while that of
others is three-fold'.
So, with the development of friendship and with the destroying of
passion etc. steadiness is achieved and the chaste mind obtains rhythm of
one-pointedness. It is said:
'Abandon vigorously false irt'l.pression (ignorance)
by courageous efforts; if thou bindest steadiness,
then practice sufficiently until entering into rhythm.

stiU{=ifc4~HOll~ CfT SllOI~ ( ~ ~)


(prachardana-vidhiira¢blzyiim vii prii1,1asya)
34. Or3 1· from expulsion or
retention of breath.
511DlfC4 ~l{l{j;aJf(ifll
~"6£9~~ &:lri~l<+il~l5'P"i1Ul'i ~: ~:
cncTI:
M~·C?~I ~ft;fcft;:H~ I ~ -q-~if~:S41 ~l:S~P"ff;flQ+:!IOl'iHHltlf lf_f{ctf<4
r-:r~:tir~iil~l51'41Ul'i ~: I {Rtaf!4 cfhhSl'"ilUl'i ~
~ ~: I ~ {~Cfl1\Cfl~l~l'R1ra'l~!OliCf)~q~IOlllfl4~<4
~ I ~ 511Dlfll~ ~ tITTl R:l~~~I: 51~®;fi I ~ ~ ~: -

"11T?flffi: ~ ~ ~ 1 ORS fuTi ~ siti>1ilct>11lf~faqci; ~ 1 How is the purification


of the prosecuting mind indicated by this Science?......There, one should develop the
feelings of friendship towards all living beings, who are engaged in the enjoyment
of pleasure, compassion towards the sufferers, joy towards the virtuous and
neutrality towards the vicious. To him, who thus develops feelings towards all,
white characteristic is engendered with. Moreover, the mind becomes placid. It
obtains the steadiness in one-pointedness.
31
The term 'va' (or) used in this aphorism is suggestive of the discipline of prcu:iiiyiima
being an altemat·ive rather than mandatory. Priif}iiyiima is not the end but the means
of acquiring steaainess in spiritual absorption. Cf Aph. 11-53 .
72 [1-34
YOGASUDIIAKAR.A

~~~~lIBT:I
~f~~~al ~ ~ 5llOIR£1t?l(l II efa"
a:nqqfucffB~'i G~lal -
<:r: 51 IoIqcH *10! ""?\~ "(1 fY ""?\: ~ 1l:Cf IB I
511011*1"1""?\~ <iR: q;Jo4'1 ~1l1al:c;:qif>: 11 ~ I
3IB: 511014'1:*1"1""?\lll: ~lftji:tjlfQIOIR!'I~ ~ frPJQ:Ja I ~
BQfl!~ ;r ~:, ~ ~~l"il~Sfq muT ms:C)~l"lH0=!11' I ifq-q_;
ftj&l'i("tj'i ~ ~ ~ I ~ (~ muT 'i IffF:h~li£9---cHfl a'
~ waoq1~aMR1 ~ , ;r ; ~j("qOl(tjf'4 ~~~'il::t ftjftjfa3a0=!11' I
~ qcfaq1~Qa: 5a1Btj'fl ~ ;r a1CfHl'8l'ifll fci'Qa ; ~
$lO\ll(ll1ql2'cflqct~ctfAIC!:("ll: mW cqqfc:r l ~ ~ - '~
a~1iia : mur: ~1.nci B:1Jcti'5t1 ~ 1 a:rn: >i1011~1iiq120tj'i >Tfll1" R~CG:
Wa" R1~Rf©0~~ Bfhl"(l~ChlQctlq~ ~ ~: 11
PrliIJasya means 'of the wind that has gone into the body (lungs)'.
Prachhardana means the evacuation (of the wind that has gone into the
lungs) gradually outside through the right nostril in the measure of 32
mlitras.n. After having emptied thus and after having filled (the lungs with
wind) in the measure of sixteen miitras through the left nostril, the
retention of that breath thus filled, again by the measure of sixty-four
miitrlis is suspension-within.
Retention of the evacuated breath outside in the measure as
aforesaid is suspension-without. With this ex~aling and ·inhaling breath,
together with the suspension within and without, becomes the three-breath
exercise.
When the movement of the breath is held back as aforesaid by this
three-breath exercise, the impurities of the mind are completely burnt. To
that effect, the vedic text is: 'Just as the impurities are cast off while the
32
Miitrii is identical to nime$a (which means the twinkling of the eye). The time taken
to pronounce one syllable is nime~a. The nonnal time taken for a breath (one breath
consists of one inspiration and one expiration) is, according to the ancient seers,
twenty nime?aS. Also, 2 nime?as equal to one truti, 2 trutis to one lava and 2 lavas
one k?GIJG, so that a k$af}a is equal to 8 nime$aS. Thus, 16 matras equal to 2 k$(1f}as,
32 equal to 4 and 64 to 8.
1-34] 73
sAMADmPADA

~etal ores are being burnt, so also the sinful actions indulged in by the
limbs of the body are burnt by keeping the breath in check. 33 · There,
Vasi$.ta shows the proof, thus: 'indeed, the pulsation of the prana pavana
(life essence wind - causa sine qua non) is the pulsation of the mind. A
wise one should make efforts with steadfastness to wane the pulsating
life-essence. Owing, therefore, to the concomitance of life-essence and
mind throbbing (praJJamanal;spandayoh), the mind is kept simultaneously
in check when the life-essence is held in check. 34·
Objection: - Is it not indeed that the mind and life-essence are not
concomitant union of throl;>bing because, in deep sleep, tpe mind is not
moving while the life-essence is acting?
Reply: - Not so. Because, having dissolved in to the life-essence , the
mind only disappears.

33
· Neither Vyiisa's nor the other five commentaries, Bhojavrt'ti, Bhaviiga1Jesa, Niigoji-
bha.c.cavrt'ti, Ma!Jiprabhiior Candrikii (cf KSS-83 ), have elaborated on .this aphorism
except this Yogaudhiikara (by Sadiisiva, our commentator), which is included as the
sixth commentary in KS-83 . The Hindu thought believes that between the physical
energy and mental ·energy, priil)a serves as a link. Priif)a is not mind nor is i~ lik~ the
gross physical energy; it is a subtle biological energy, which catches the v1brat1~ns
of the mind and transmits them to nerves and plexuses and vice versa the physical
vibrations to the mind . By controlling one, the other can be controlled; in other
words, the mind can control the body. In the very first Dhiiraf)ii (cf verse 24) of
Vijiiiinabhairava this point is adverted to: -
~~ - ~ muTI wm fcrnirf:i'1'il ~ I
dt<lIBrliH<l~I~. "i{Olf?:ftar ft:zj(f: II ~)I' II
Bhairava said :- Parii (highest energy) being visargiitmii (of the nature of letting go
ceaselessly), expresses herself upward (iirdve - from the center of the body to
dviidasiingulaparyantam -cf Sadaiva's comments on Aph. II-50) in the fonn of
exhalation of priilJa and downwards (adhaf} - from dviidasiinta to the center of tne
body) in the fonn of inhalation (jlvaQ). By intent awareness at these two place of
origin is achieved the stance of plenitude (bhairitiisthitif}, which is the state of
pariiSalc.ti or the nature of bhairava), (cf Vinanabhairava by Jaideva) ..
34
What is spanda? It is a highly technical term signifying the Divine Creative Pulsation
System. Abhinavagupta explains thus: ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ f<tJ~Siqa1 <l~'l"kS'iN
~sm efcf... . Spanda mean a somewhat of movement. The characteristic of
'somewhat' consists in the fact that even the immovable appears 'as if moving'.
'Spanda' is, therefore, spiritual dynamism without any movement in itself but
serving as the causa sine qua non (indispensable cause) of all movement.' - Jaideva
Singh cf his translation of Spanda Karikas with K.~emaraja's commentaries {pg.
(xvii) Introduction].
74 [1-35
YOGASUDHAKARA

Objection: - Tb,e vedic text impedes by saying that 'weak life-essence may
be breathed hard through nostrils'.
Reply: - Not so. Because what is intended there, is that the movement of
life-essence is neither more nor less.
Just as so much velocity of breath produced in one who has
climbed up a hill as does not exist in one who is at rest, so also such a
little breath it becomes in one who is near at dexterity in priiIJ{lyiima
discipline. This is only what is meant in the vedic text: 'The life-essence
(prCirJa) having arrived there, should be released slowly'.
Wheri, therefore, the life-essence is restrained in the three-breath
exercise skillfully, the chaste mind, wiped off all faults, attain the one-
pointed rhythm.
fC4ql4C\ttl qr S4tlM~tQ~I im:r: f~ffiRGt~~1 ( ~ '-\)
(vi$flyavatr vii pravrt'til} -utpannii manasa/;I sthiti-nibandhan1)
35. The produced sensations from
objects or manifestations
fasten the mind to steadiness.

,.m~41£ifcilta1£ia1C1fci!ta1~uif\jj@l~0~ ~ f-t=h1fll '8~~1~&1J1~­


U4{CZq¥l~r~1~fq~4cifll: ~: >1Cf"t14: ~n~:tc:q~1: ~ m¥.1 1 t1:t~''Q
~~ lf.1'B: w.mt ~ I~ 11rf l(Chl!lai >11U1alfll~: II

Owing to the controlled contemplation of the mind at the points of


the tip of the nose, tip of the tongue, on the palate, center of the tongue
and at the root of the tongue, there arise quickly the faculties of subtle
· under-standing of the supernatural (divine) aspects of smelling, tasting,
seeing, touching and hearing, which engender confidence in still more
extremely subtle entities like !Svara and thus hold the mind in steadiness,
leading to the state of one-pointedness.

fc:4~ntti1 qr ~lffisqtft <~ ~)


(viSokii va jyoti~atf)
36. And free from grief and in
a luminous state .

....
1-37] 75
SAMAl>HI PADA

3'1~G&&~~;;i ~ ~ dCtjifUfch1~1~i 'g)jifl@l~i


'il~i fil=a~~ ~Hl"d~f8,ifiHf
fiftjlJiJl!1f868ctl jtj~n<:h1 ~n<=h~lr<:! si~Ri{l~"' ~ ~: ~
fiqlGllR1 I cid'kt"""l'i l{Chl£lcti ~ ~: II

When the mind - having guided the opening upwards of the eight-
petal lotus of the heart by means of the practice of recaka (emptying the
breath) and by meditation upon the reality of the mind within the scope of
the luminosity, which resembles that of sun, moon and the electric-like
effulgence in the well-known SU$lfmna nadf35'(artery) established in the
pericardium (karl)ikii) of the heart - acquires freedom from grief as also
manifests absence of grief, thence it acquires steadiness and the one-
pointed state. .

cftcH1•1ft1q£i err~ (~"9)


(vlta-rliga-vi¥ZYam vii cit'tam)
3 7. And the mind becomes
free from passion.

~Chl~'ii ~[la\l'i ~, CR<i ~HlriJPH~ ;ftwt ti~Cfll£lcii


~~:I

35
· The particular artery lying between Ida & Pingala, one of the passages of breath.
Brhannaradfya Pura(la says:
~ ~ ;iTit ~ qf1:&ilfcti11 I
*1:4aqa&11 ~ M12 zilr.:irJa ~ 11
~qzilf.1f{fa ~ ~ ;:im '9; m:l'7TT I
i'1~1Qaqa ~: ~ '7TGffi lfq' II
l{i'1zill'"Gzili:ftA ~ ~ ~ I
~~~'ID~ll
The artery to the right (of the spinal cord) is called Pingala - this has the sun for
its (supervising) deity and is said to be the birthplace of the Fathers (pitf)'om).
The artery to the left is called Ida - it has the moon for its deity, and is said to be
the birthplace of the gods or elementals (devayom). Between these two is the
su~mna, which is a very fine artery, and (its functions are) profoundly esoteric,
and it has Brahma for its deity.
76 [I-38
YOGASUDIIAKARA

By meditating upon the passionless mind developed by sukha3 6- etc.


the yogi's mind becomes free from passion and obtains the one-pointed
state.

{CIQM~J~14t&iat4 err ( ~ /.;)


(svapna-nidrii-jfziinalambanam va)
38. And hang on to the knowledge
of dream and sleep. 37

m ~11('!114 llrii~1~{ ~ ~ ~ llctj)€l \jjll!a, rn ~­


-a~c:i1~~~ ~ R~ B~Cfll!!cii ~ ~: ll

By meditating on any such scripturally fascinating substance as


has been seen in dream and on such delight as· has been experienced in
deep sleep, the mind supported by such objects, becomes steady and
obtains the state of one-pointednes

1.ttatftfqao.:11"iUU ( ~ ~)
(yathii-abhimata-dyiinlit vii)
39. Or from meditation upon
whatever is agreeable to one.

fct ~? m '4?JiiJl('!ll~ ~ ~ , Ci@Hlfi:i:rai:r€1~&


fi~Cfll!ld ~ ~: 1~

36
Son of Vyiisa, narrator of Bhagavata PuraTJa to King Parlk!/it. He developed such a
·
moral stature as successfully resisted the infatuation of the heavenly nymph,
Rambha, to win over passion. He is a byword for the most rigid observance of
continence.
37
· Cf Aph.l- I 0, where it is clarified by our commentator that knowledge of sleep is from
previous experience that is recalled in waking state. Sleep is a mental operation,
which should be restrained like any other operations. Ordinarily, mortal s have three
states viz. waking, dreaming and sleeping, which want to resolve themselves into a
higher unity but fail, that is to say, dream is sublated in waking state and vice versa.
But a yogi enjoys all these states in waking condition, in which these become the
objects of his direct perception, after which he gradually moves towards the
threshold of ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption .

.....
1-39] 77
SAMADHI PADA

Why carry coals to New Castle? By meditating on whatever is


one's desire, which has scriptural aim and divine content, the mind
becomes steady and obtains the state of one-pointedness.

Now then, what is th.e significance of obtaining the one-


pointed.ness by all these means, he (Patafijali) explains in the next
aphorism -

4<q1UJq<q+tgit41;Jis~ ct~TIC61<: (~ o)
(param-aIJu-parama-mahatva-antaJ:rasya vasfkii.ral;i)
40. It wins over (to him) the extreme
ends of the smallest minuteness and
the highest expansiveness

3'1~Chl!lcill414~fll fi.1flfll ~ ~ qr CffijR Rftj~l'"iHfll


4Vll0q""f1: 4VP"lt?~laj) q~flq;1{ls:qfaci1ct1 ~cfrfl~~: II

The mind of a yogi that has attained one-pointedness, entering into


the subtle (minute) or gross (expansive) substances, becomes the
irresistible power to win over the extreme ends of the minutest of the
minute and the highest of the high expansiveness.

~~Cfil!lal41'41~1ql"fl'llhC'51j)MI ctRi'jt<'l~Cfil!lalMCff4&~
fl~l\llfP"ll~: '8~~4 fCl{C\4141~ -

Having, in this manner, explained the means of attaining the state


of one-pointedness, with the intermediate benefits, he (Patafzjali) dwells,
in the next aphorism, on the subject of Seeded Spiritual Absorption of the
significantly increasing one-pointed mental state, fully developed by the
said means -
78 (1-41
YOGASUDHAKARA

q u'i!f~1 ~!f guI!f I !


a:ft uICl:d <M\if ItH:il ct 61
dft¥ida;&l"idl ftq1qfi1: (~ ~)
(k~lJIJ-V[1'teJrabhijiitasya-eva mane}J-grahft,.-.grahal)ll-grlihyeiu
tatstha-tat-aiijanatii samlipat 'ti}J)
41. The transformation of the mind whose exhibitive operations
have been destroyed, consubstantiates, like a transparent gem,
the colour of that on which it rests, in relation to the perceiver,
the means of perception and the object perceived.
~\J\lct*41fllqGlct~ 'El'flkq:)Gu°~4~ \jjq·11i~Gl q'(p llct<tj~q1R:f­
~ l'ffilq:)Rct1 ~, ~ zjla1q~fcf~a'l"1+~·P"l1qRltj')tz1 Rh1tz1 ~ar~~
ct0441~H1:~ {\ll«iifl0~11:(qogJ~q:)I{ ~ci{\llf<1tj)GC'5Z!)C&fi~l(i"!Cfl­
"I~~~~ !ll~!J~Ol!J~l~~ ~ ct~qhf)~ dG~Hdl fq~qqf"<fql~'i
a=aS'i.qa1 ~ {1R1lllqR1: ~$1~1ct*1GlqRiftfll~: 11
Just as a highly polished transparent crystal assumes the red colour
from the contiguous red flower by sublating its own colour, so also the
transformation of (1 ) the diminished mind, shaken of the o perati on of the
active and inert energies, takes up the gross and subtle elements
(graspable\ (2) the ego with slightly blended active and inert energies
takes up the senses (grasping instruments*) and (3) the ego shaken off the
operation of the active and inert energies takes up the great reality (mahat
tat'vam) (Grasper*), in relation to the object perceived, the means of
perception and the perceiver by deserting its own form and consubstan-
tiating the colour of that on which it rests, which is perfect transformation,
and this ~s called the Operative Transformation of Cognition.38

Cf Chart appearing on the next page.


38
Simply stated, it means that the mind having become as 1ransparen1 as a highl y polished crystal,
when a gross element is introduced in its proximity. it transforms itself into that and
manifests as such. So does it happen to subtle elements. the senses and the subject. all of
which are the successive steps (cf. Aph. J. J7) of cognitive spiritual absorption. viz. supposi-
tional, deliberative, rapturous and pure egoism, i.e. gross. subtle. instrumental and subjective
manifestation respectively. Cf chart on the next page for easy understanding. A H this is prior
to, and on, reaching cognitive spiritual absorption. If in fi nitively all-powerful Omniscient
ltvara is brought within the proximity of such a mind, it becomes that! How easily said than
done! Restraining mental operation is not that easy but requires constant. prolonged practice
with faith, sincerity and with absolute intellectual honesty.
1-42) 79
SAMADHI PADA

CHART
[Cf. Aphorism 1-17 with 1-41.]

I - FIT FOR SUPPOSmONAL 5. Sense Organs (I) GROSSELEMENTS


SEIZING (saviJarka) (jif anendriyas) (sthola)
(grllhya)
DELIBERATIVE 3. Subtle elements. (2) Sl!BTLE ELEMENT
[Receivable] (savicllra) Mind, Intellect, Buddhi & Ego (suk~)
(tanmlltras & (I) &(2)
antal)karalJ(JS) GRASPABLE
(J!rahya)

ll - SEIZING RAPTUROUS Intellect conditioned by (2) INSTRUMENTAL


(grahalJll) (sananda) abundant illuminative energy (Receiving instrument)
(Receiving] CLEAR GRASPING
(initially diminished mind).
THOUGHT cgrahalJll)

fII -SEIZER PURE EGOISM Intellect pervaded entirely by SUBJECTIVE


cgrahlla) (sllsmita) illuminative energy. (further GRASPER
[Receiver] NON- diminished mind). cgrahllll)
REFLECTIVE

~ ~l~l~d: 'l:hi~lctflSoll4Rf~I 3fifIT fcrncf>ftj:q1(~4~1ij]fi­


l'.JT'Cffi: f!fcrncfifrifcfacf>f!ftj:ql{Pf fcf:q1r~ ~ f;fN: -
Having said generally, in this manner, of the operative transforma-
tion of the mind, now he (Pataflja/i) says in the next three aphorisms
about the transformations into a positive precept of the uncertainly delibe-
rated upon form, by the four different sorts of suppositional, clear
thought, reflective and non-reflective thought-constructs.

mr ~1<1ti#ti'1fetcn~: {'fct>'101f ~futtcnf (~ ~)


(tatra sabdlirtha-jiilina-vikalpai.IJ samkTrnli savitarkli)
42. There, the suppositional thought transformation
is intermingled with option of word, object & cognizance.
JnfUa ~: J~R~~: J~fUa ~ q(fll(ctl~l~Jfltj{I ~
#llt
ftjCfi("ql~ : ticti101f a1~1 tifcrn'hf ~1114Ri:, ~ ftjCfit'4•frtt1ft1~~1R-
~: 11
80 (I-43
YOGASUDHAKARA

'Cow' is a word, 'cow' is an object and 'cow' is a cognizance. All


three have mutual identity within the scope of the word 'cow'. 39 Those
that have options (of word, object and cognizance), by intermingling
become of the same kind. This mixed up thought-construct, accompanied
with . reason, is savitarka sarnapat'ti, suppositional thought
40
transformation. · This is because of the options being present without
any difference.4 1.

tqfaqfl:uott (<q~q~I;4ct1?.f'it'IR~ f.1fchtC6f (~ ~)


(smrti-pari.Suddhau svarupa-sunya-iva-artha
matra-nirbhiisii nirvitarkii)
43. On complete purification of memory the shining
"truth alone, as if devoid of its own nature, is
clear thought transformation
(or non-deliberative balanced state).
B<SX;~HI~ fqq;f01ct ~~ ~l~Btj:jal ~' ~ flif'ql
~11csx;~1m fqq;("q ~ ~ 1 3IB: Bcfiaqa: qft~Q&l ~ "ffffi
cte:hl4~ fqq)("Y'84 >l&lilct=l'llf~ ~ ~
~MChf0'\ctl~l11~0,q ~ Rfcfaq;r fP"llYfriR("'q~: 11
The verbal convention is understood by the word and idea exactly
in the same manner as they are arranged. The memory thereof proceeds
only from the derived knowledge of verbal testimony. (e.g. the scriptural

39
· When analysed, the characteristics of the word, the object and the cognizance are
different. C/Aph.I-7, where the three means of real cognition are stated. If the
object 'cow' is in memory, the mere mention of the word 'cow' rushes into
consciousness all the qualities of 'cow'. So also mention of the qualities, the cow is
inferred.
4
° Cf Aph.I- 17, where our commentator ha referred to the successive accompanimen~
of cognitive spiritual absorption. Here, the terminology 'suppositional' is used to
distinguish the modification of gross elements as distinct from subtle elements, both
of which refer to 'receivable' (griihya). The same four sorts are adverted to in Aph.
1-20, 1-35 to 38 and 1-41 to 44, culminating in Aph .1-46, where it would be
reiterated that the cognitive spiritual absorption is of four kinds . Also cf .Chart
under Aph. 1-41.
41
Or else it is fiction . Cf Aph. I-9. Fiction, following the literal idea, is devoid of
substance, like the Rahu's head. ·
1-44] 81
SAMA.Diii PADA·

knowledge (of the Supreme Spirit). When, therefore, on complete


purification of the preconcerted memory, the object having become a
positive precept owing to the dissolution of the option of verbal and
inferential ideas in the absorbent cognition and owing to its own self-
m~festation filling the void, it alone will be shining · (as if devoid of
42

option as aforesaid), and this is the clear thought transfonnation -


(nirvitarka) .
dffi;:;q Ill l"i 00<:!~ If8 ~~I fa -

He (Patanjali) assimilates the aforesaid rule in the other cases as


well (viz. savicara and nirvicara) -

l(dact fff4:atHI f.tfcfi.11<1 ~ ~a:qfc4ql41 6£1i~IHI (~~)


(etayaiva saviclirli nirviclirii ca siilqmavi~ya vyiikhyiitii)
44. In the same manner, the reflecti ve and
the non-reflective (thought transfonnations) have
been explained in the case of subtle elements.

CJ:a~ci ftjq;fci-qa~&IChl\ll l fifcrncf>ll1 ~ftjq;f~cH"2[&1Chl\lll


Rfcfacf>?:41 ~ ~ ftjq;f~a~a;:q1~f~<:iJTI+.R1
BfcftjRI 3iftjChfci-Ya~arl1 1~f~ll J Th:H1 Hfcftjl\I ~ Clll©lllctl
~Clalfll~: 11

42
· For the object to shine, there must be a support. This, then, is the transfonned and
reflected inner soul, which has, by suppression, cast aside all impurities. Just as the
vision of the grin without the Cheshire cat for Allice in the Wonderland, it is the
peak experience of a spiritual reality without physical encumbrance. This is the
highest perception. (Cf Aph. 1-29, where our commentator has said that, by
profound meditation on livara, one acquires the inner soul, which is the power of
obtaining everything.) It should, however, be understood here that the intellect
supported by the inner soul is in control of the suppression of exhibitive and
inhibitive habitual potencies. In his commentary, Vyasa says, as a prelude to this
aphorism as follows:- ..... m ;:i Rfcffiq;f ~q1qfii@i'<l{'l ~ 1 ~ ~ct lj4H~l•l1'll'l I "ct-a: ~­
~ ~: 1 ~ ~ '1ctlj4H~H~t:'i<i ~ 1 ... This is a higher perception . Also, this is
the seed of verbal and inferential knowledge. Thence (from this seed), are born the
verbal and inferential knowledge. Also this perception is not co-extensive with the
verbal and inferential knowledge.
82 [1-45
YOGASUDllAKARA

The manifold gross element with options, in a state of mix-up in


the suppositional thought-construct, shines in its own nature on
dissolution of words and ideas of the gross element, which is the clear
thought transformation. 43 · As regards the subtle element, (space time &
cause) whose forms ~e manifested within the scope of the sense organs
with options of non-differing words and ideas of their own, they are in a
state of mix-up, which is the reflective thought transformation and shine
in their own nature on dissolution of words and ideas, which is the non-
44
reflective thought transformation. ·
ffl; RfcftjlHP"llq~'@""'ll~ttjqlcH"iHt{ ? ~ -
Does the non-reflective thought transformation terminate only
with subtle elements? No, says he (Patafljali) (in the next aphorism.

~fctQ4tti illlf~tqifcHU"'i'( (~~)


(sukpna-vi!jtlyatvam ca-alinga-paryavas4nam)
45. And the nature of subtle substance
(has its) termination in absence of marks.

~: f!Glq~ ; ~fcit:p~(tjJir~· w-.1R q4cH=-4f8 I d2fT m -


~stem: ~: 1 a~1e:f4 ~ "ffiTI-sfti ~~1'1'{ 1 ~ ;r
~ $fllf&'i9·:J)iAcl I nci": ~ ~ ~ ~: filifW I ~{>~~ ;r
~: ~ Rfii=aG.1:4rqra ~ 11
In this non-reflective balanced state the nature of subtle substance
terminates in the primordial material substance (pradhiina), having no
marks to trace. This is to say, the ego is subtler than the subtle elements;
subtler than the ego is intellect and in the same manner, the primordial
material substance is subtler than the intellect, which, verily, does not
43
· This is a rehash of Aphorism 42 & 43. Vyasa puts it succinctly: - ~ "ftlli'.~"41 ~ ~ I
~d:G<H1fqq41 ~ ~ ~ 1 l!;Clj'l4'Ra~ct f.:if4a<t<i1 f~&>l!'ltt1f.:i6<lt©41~fct 1 There, the
deliberative and non-deliberative deal with gross substances. The reflective and
non-reflective deal with subtle substances. Thus, the cessation of doubt in both
cases is explained only by clear thought transfonnation (nirvitarlca). In this super
non-reflective balanced state (nirviciira and nirvitarka) the mind is freed from
passion (referred to in Aph.1-37). ·
44
· This includes the equanimous state of sound sleep, which is the direct perception here
to the yogi. (Cf Aph. 1-38).
1-46) 83
sAMADmPADA

dissolve and so, it is described as having no marks. Thence, beyond the


primordial material substance, there is nothing is subtle. But the spirit
(puru~) is not the material cause; it should be contemplated as the
efficient cause in creation.

He (Patafija/i) sums up the balanced state of mind in cognitive


spiritual absorption -

OT~ ~M\11: ~ttl~ : (~~)


(tli eva sabi}alJ samiidhil;l)
46. They are indeed the seeded 45 ·
spiritual absorption.

dT ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ci!l\Ji~"(tjlffi~l\Ji:
~:II

They, the aforesaid four-thought transformations (viz. supposi-


tional & clear in gross objects and the reflective and non-reflective in
subtle substances), owing to the seed being bound by the illuminative
energy devoid of the faculty of discrimination, are called the Seeded"
Spiritual Absorption.

~ fi51~1dlj)qfi&f4lfi51~1ct5)ql451flP'Pj)qfi~tl ~ ~
Rfcf'l:IRIR1~ 1 iqJ41Q -

Having, in this manner, swnmarised the Cognitive Spiritual


Absorption, he (Patafija/i) proceeds to explain about the excellence of
non-reflective thought transformation as a prelude to summarising the
expedient means to the ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption.
45
The four thought transformations trace their support (seed) in the phenomenal
substance (pradhiina) and so the spiritual absOFption also is 'seeded'.
With the seed for future life.
84 (1-47
YOGASUDIIAKARA

f.tfcfii1<cl:t11<@lSU4it'iSl~h:{: (~\9)
(nirviclira-vaiSiiradye-adyiitma-praslidalJ)
47. On the perspicuous intellect in non-reflective
thought transformation, there arises the
spiritual calmness.

~ H q 4;a ~ JfhHfll l{ ~~I l'l~ J:f ~I fl q 12 tj ~ ~


Rfcft=.ll'(fll
~ l'1 HF<OP'q lq!Mfu ~ l~{l~J I:, aftq ~ fll~zm•q ~~fa~ ltll: ~=
@lfa\llflla 11
That non-reflective thought transformation, when practised
dexterously till it ends in the phenomenal substance, becomes the
perspicuous intellect. In that clearness the Con-Science-Power attains
46
tranquility because of the ppenomenal substance having sunk very low. ·
There, in that true illuminative Con-Science-Power, is luculent the
spiritual calmness, having the propensity and property of discriminating
objects by appropriate designation.
M: ~? - Thence, what?
'f!fl\i(i (f5{ ~ (~ l)
(rrambhara tatra prajnii)
48. There, the intellective vision is full of truth
"ITT ~(lq@lffi BC"lll'{ ~
Bfll'"ilC"GI~ ~ 5fCfil~l~ffifc:t
~>rm~:~~:ll
Therein, the asserting genuine spirit bears truth alone (and nothing
4
else) which shines; and so it is intellective vision full of truth. The
\

--
spiritual absorption with a showering cloud of righteousness is born.

He (Patanjali) gives, in the next aphorism, the demonstrated


conclusion of this truth-bearing intellective vision by distinguishing it
from the knowledge of scriptural testimony and inferential cognition.

46
having no (signs) (=marks) to trace (cf Aph. 1-45).
Vyasa, in his commentary, adds: ;i- ~ <ft fqq<1ft1~11'i;tjl St2ffif\fu 1 There is not even the
47

trace of false knowledge.


1-49] 85
SAMADIDPADA

~l:ft14S4*11·i41Ji~ftjq~j fu~lqi,(tjit( (~ ~)
(srutlinumlina-prajfilibhyiim-anya-vi¥Jyli viSe¥J-arthatviit)
49. On account of apprehension of special truth,
its object is other than those of scriptural
(verbal) and inferential cognition.

~OllctfBafct>1q>f!q~ 41r111<"""1ij t4cfcfa 1 3i1'1'"i1::J/iH1ca:rt


~ ctq_R ~I~~ I -8" :q- ~cilj}"lHl\51~ >rn ~IJ:il~~q 1fl:q{llci: I ~
TI 4lr1>ffl1&f Fct~t:PniH~11(hHFii~2f: 11
The yogi accomplishes direct perception 43· in substances subtle
and separated by intervention and by remote distance. These substances
are also known _from scriptural testimony and inferential ~ognition, which
are within the sphere of the generic. But here (in the case of direct percep-
tio) the yogis perception, on account of it being in the sphere of the
specific, is an insight full of truth.

~: >1~1~1 3iB11~1C:H1til~ ~fc;~·("tjfu~~:!4CfilR:("tjql~ -


He (Patafijali) explains (in the next aphorism) what assistance the
spiritual absorbent cognition renders for the accomplishment of the
external essential requisite to ultra cognitive spiritual absorption.

48
This state is not obtained by hearing and theorising, though they are the first few
steps, but obtained by profound practice alone under t he guidance of an adept in
yoga science. Hear what Yama tells Naciketii - cf Kat.l Up. I.ii. 7:
.l)jqo1141fq ~ ~ ~: ~m ~ <i ~ fm.l: 1
-31T~ mnT ~~ ~ss5<if mm ~~1 cwjFrn~ : 11
Even for hearing Which, many cannot reach,
Even after hearing Which, many cannot comprehend,
Wonderful is Its expounder, happy the taught,
Wonderful is the knower, 'when taught by an adept.
cf BG.II. 29:
3llli!lzfqt<1~4ft1 Ciif~ 3ll~ ~ ~: I
3llli!lzfq"'4"1'l;:q; ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ <1if51l II
'It is marvellous', some perceives This (Spirit).
Some other speaks and yet some hears even so:
(Alas!) some, even after having heard,
Remains verily like one who is ignorant!
86 [I-50
YOGASUDHAKARA

O\NI': ~ tcfi Hl S ~Hh'4i I< S4 Rt G19&11 ( l\ o )


(tat-jalJ samskiiraJranya-samskiira-patibandhl)
50. The habitual potency, born therefrom
resists other habitual potencies.

(W.U: 5{~1ltl ~lfl\51~ ~: fi'8=hR:, ~ ;::.11o:lf 14~1"HH4>1(1-


~~~~:ll
That habitual potency, which is born out of practice in the
spiritual absorbent cognition, resists the other uprising habitual potencies.

*i_-tj l{ ™afl\51 ~q ti~ <Ri -


Having, in this manner, explained the external means of the ultra-
cognitive spiritual absorption and adverting to _the internal essential
means to put in efforts to restrain, he (Patafzjali) sums up the seedless
spiritual absorption (viz. Ultra-Cognitive-Spiritual Absorption).

d~IN f.Hl~ ~t.fr.tiltt1Riiaif'l1: ~q1fti: · ( l\ ~)


(tasyiipi nirodhe sarva-nirodhiin-nirblja.fl samlidhi.fl)
51. When even that is restrained, all being
restrained, there arises the
Seedless Spiritual Absorption.

q<~<I' lt B~t>a ftj <1~51 fl!~ '"1 51~1 ti t<hl H=<4 IFY -~ '8 f(])c=q fflf l'i l"1-
51~ 1ti fCh1n:;q BcffqlN ~IC!:~lE!iil~R~~f;f4f\lf: ~ I ~­
~ ~ ~ g:1ajf41g)JHl:ffi B~*1 "1~4R1 I c=Rr: Cf2~R~H­
~ ~ f~R1~1Rti: ~ ~ R\'"fi{ Rfcf&ii:Jqf8'8ct ~ II

By practising cessation of mental operation with the highest non-


attachment, even the inhibitive habitual potencies of the spiritual
absorbent cognition are retrained. On account of restraining all the
habitual potencies that will hereafter be produced by the intellective
vision, there, in the complete horizorrless quiet, arises the Seedless
1-Sl) 87
SAMADIDPADA

Spiritual Absorption. 49 · In that spiritual absorption 50-, when attained, the


mind, unable to rise up once again, disappears along with the habitual
potencies. Thence, the Con-Science-Power (citi sakti) immoveable,
eternal, endless and pure (at it were) on its own majesty, perpetually and
uninterruptedly, is self-established and that is the most Beautiful indeed.

~ S3!lifr<fr13lff)51ana ~1i1~11~
~~
ffittfi:f cm~:
~:II

Hei:e ends the Fist Chapter, Sam4dhi Pada


on the Science of Yoga presented by Pataiijali,
now presented as the commentary named
'The Abrosia of Yoga'

49
Non-attachment is the only means right through at all stages and in the end, only the
·
highest non-attachment wins the seedless spiritual absorption to the yogi. (Cf
Aph.I- 18).
so This is the same as the Ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption.
til~"441~:
{Siidh an apiidal;l]

ON PRACTICE OF YOGA - CHAPTER - II

{ Invocatory Verse ]

q\1 q~~~1R~f~rn1~q;j RtPfa:


fu<;l+~4~l· ~ CfFf q;j~5q1fi0!~ 11
Sizz1ing though in myriad parts
yet one whole in Reality
Such Logos Intelligent, Blissful
and Eternal, do we worship. 1

1. Cf la/ita Sahasranama - Verse 81:


?1ur1! ~ i:g {l MI "h'fl tll •H'l 6fo Cfi I 11
Also cf Prasthana traya - Madhusudana Saravati Smrti.by Pandit T. S ubbariiya Sastri
of Bangalore, 1st Edn.193 I, p. 44 :
3lc::n1~&>iit1~4lfo : 4{iq1rlfo&llrda: 1 4li<h"4!?11: cii:lfciit1tG<i!?11~sit1~1':11 1
w1<~p€i'q'1 •iaf1iCfil(fqqf,,\a : I llt41li <U <ltli!?ll5 ~ i!CXHR!'llt\. I
<!?1iw1101ti41•11,<(.&q~ ~ ~ 1 di:gflq1r1fi1 &1 1a: ll'. t:{q1fa41':11~11 'l 1
4M"cliq1plfa&:ua: l(ll~~Cl§ill1~ : I ~ l:9 U 'l flla: trn1t<ilfo~4tl'Wll : I
11•ilqf-otz4<.,i<!?l~l"li'1~qf5 Ii ~ CiUlf: ~: ~: II
4'tl ll(lf.'!1Uli:k 5'1i!?lti4l'll(ij'1: ~I qofoajf-('fl€"4 ~ <ll':ll'ifl1l1l,
IJ&l'MIPifosi't'l'hM ~1fa i:fqf<fM: II '114~41(i1 Cfifi:!< "1'1 ~qfi1 ~ II
Akara is one part of fire (agm) and is well known as the para vak (transcendental
speech). That is the seed of uni verse, but that is devoid of modification.
That akara by uniting with 10 part of prar:ia expands, wh ich the wise men learned in
science call pasyantl vak (seeing speech).
Payfyantl vak itself becomes in due course madhyamii vak (interlinking speech) by the
union of I 0 parts of the throbbing modifications o f the mind with 50 parts of
moving pra1Ja.
Vaikharl (gross speech) is fonned in due course then, by the interm ingli ng of 25 parts of
pasyantl viik, 16 parts of para vak and I 0 parts of madhyama vak.
Thereafter, vaikharl manifests creatively the leners as brill iant as tens of millions of
suns from 31 to~.
11-1] 89
SADHANA PADA

~ fllql~{~ fll~fffej·ffl~ ~ - ~­
~S!Jlqffql'""lqHffl1qCf<:tCf)till!Cf){Oj >ifu Cilm~·ffl~ Rfll!l4Jll41ti -

Having explained in the preceding Chapter the difference between


the two [seeded and unseeded (cognitive and ultra-cognitive)] spiritual
absorptions, the internal practice (i.e. the promotion of inhibitive
functions) and the end result, now he (Pataiijali) explains about the
extema.l practice of the expedients of yoga, to motivate and counter the
mind that is not fully developed, is still clinging to worldly objects and is
not engaging in the earlier mentioned practice of inhibitive functions: •
Otf: ~IUll~SijUlfbl8'1141f4 Rbl4i4l•i: ( ~)
(tapa}J-sviidhyiiya-lsvara-pra1Jidhii11iini kriyii-yoga.p)
1. Penance, study and profound devotion to
I.
lsvara, are the expedients of yoga.
f%aflia~~1~1;:j (111: I 4Vl4fcl~5f OIC!lk4"'51\i14: ~l~lll: I ~it
C?lMlll ~qlcilf84~~{1*· ~ Chll!ql\S~4;Tifiir;fcfRfffi 'lOlRtlfcl~lti:
~ I ~ ~lfl{C'4~1iri1'1*il'tH~liil Rfllll41'1 ~ ~J"G:fil~Lll­
~~llul'i Fl{C\lZ!;ci '3'll~)Elci'{' $ffiqf<;fll~: I
Penance means intake of agreeable, moderate and pure food (to
keep the body and soul together). Study means the repetition in mind
silently the highly sacred praIJava (the monosyllable Om) ere.2 · Excellent

This world of name and fonn is evolved only by the proper·derivation of the sound
species (var!Ja) and its power and by nothing else.
Cf also Vairavasyarahasyam (the secret of worship) 1-1&2: by Bhiiskararaya:
~ ~ fqq'?f(14lf4 qlffi "!?lfui: I
mil •11aq fuel) 'lPl5i<ll~<lfd i:nfu ~ II ( ~)
msm ~ <l(<lf{Oll'ilcl"i.df.11 I
~~~~ : II( ~)
Cf also St.John: I. I -The Christian Gospel, according to SI. John is: 'In the beginning
was the Word and the Word was with God; and the Word was God'. the underlying
meaning being the very secret of the Christian belief in the power of words and faith
is God.
2
It is not merely muttering the monosyllable Om silently within the mind but keeping in
the forefi-ont of the mind predominantly the flow of the intended independent pure
!svara-consciousness. Cf comments on Aph . 1-28.
90 [11-2
YOGASUDHAKARA

devotion, accomplished by the body, speech and mind in that very great
Preceptor, who, by mere sport, has espoused a highly fascinating stature,
is profound devotion (to lsvara). On account of their being both in the
form of physical activity as well as a means to spiritual absorption (i.e.
union with the Absolute), they are called the expedient of yoga (i.e. the
means to accomplish emancipation); and in this manner, they (the sages
of vedic yore) define life by the metaphorical sense of the term, Life's
Ghee, (Ayurghrtam) as possessing just as the most refined end result of
ghee is inherent in butter (that is to say, butter clarified, results in ghee).
~~~-
What the object is (of the expedients of yoga), he (Patafzjali)
proceed to define (in the next aphorism) -
.-tq1ffl4'iUcFt1v.f: CfM¥1rl'{&i(Uliv.fB ( ~)
(sam4dhi-bhiivanlirthal,l klesa-tanii-kara¢rthal,l-ca)
2. To produce spiritual absorption and
minimise the affliction.
~ Rs:m;1!0i~: 114l1J1~ ~ ~ c=r~ffi:, ~~11P1i
atCfi<ui fuf~&lct1<01l"i~: 114t1J1~ ~ ~ M : 1 q:a~ cqqfa' -
<{] J1Cfll&4{;Jfi ~l'(ljG4f~3i 1Rf~l! 14l JI l~·ljte I~ 'i 3 · ~~II ftj ~ l'(l~­
a 1fl:la1: ~: g;ti~1~a1&:11a1ci1qCC?ci1l!i 1J11a1c:i1 fi'i&Chl~ Cflftia1
'£i Cl ;ffi fa I
The ~se of the expedients of yoga is for the object of accomplish-
ing spiritual absorption and for minimising and enfeebling the afflictions.
It is explained thus: By practising constantly and for a long time the
expedients of yoga viz. penance etc. securely bound by earnestness, the
afflictions become immensely wounded and split and, the off-shoots of

3
· 3!lR: means beginning, commencemenent etc. Jn fine compositi (i.e. at the end of a
compound), it means beginning with, et cetera and so on. In this long compound
ending in instrumental case, there seems to be a printing mistake, it is submitted. It
should read <!tiC111~<"Whie<f>Rl'j4frtiaq1fc::f~lllll'P1'l'j·l jte l ~'1 by the simple rule that in
Sanskrit two vowels cannot come together without coalescing and when any vowel
short or long is followed by the same vowel, short or long, the substitute for both is
the same vowel lengthened. ~ + 3TIR = ~. There is no 3TIR ~ intended here.
Sadasiva himself has used a similar compound in his commentary, cf Aph. H-26 .
11-3) 91
SADHANA PADA

the notorious followers nibbing the Con-Science-Power, are destroyed


lock, stock and barrel.

~ "ff qJ~ll: fch;q;:a ~f448;11llll41~ -


Anticipating the questions, what the afflictions are and how many
they are, he (Patafzjali) says in the next aphorism -

atfettJ1fµ;ta1<1•1ieuf\ff.1a~11: (1m) ~~11: <q)


[avidya-asmitll-riiga-dve~-abhiniveslil) (paiica) klesiil)]
3. Ignorance, egoism, passion, hatred and
clinging to life, are the five afflictions.
~ qJ~ll4Ri ~:~11iq~f8 ~: I "ff q~f42f: II /I
I

Ignorance, egoism, passion, hatred and clinging (to life) afflict the
spirit (puru!j(l) and cause pain. So, they are called afflictions, which are
five in number as adumbrated.

Now, he (Patafzjali) says how ignorance is the primary cause of


ego's associates (in the next aphorism) -

(~)
(avidyll k$Jelram-ut 'tareFm prasupta-tan u-vicchin na-udlirllniim)
4. Ignorance is the field of the following
(whether it is) dormant, emaciated,
separated or exalted.

51f!l{fFRt"icn ~R0?11 ~~lffiia1~ll~: 1 a~1¥j)=a7<~1~ftj'Q1


cq1cf6Yl ~qlf;q : , m a:W ~: I ITT Sl~l{fctj ~­
~: I ~ ~ ~C?lct)\011\ I ftjR:@$jctj ~~ck11
~: I 3Gl\&.i fl~Chlfh:jfrifilq~llfCtlllfct>1R~filf42f: 11
92 [11-5
YOGASUDHAKARA

The ego is possessed of four (potential) capac1t1es of being


dormant, emaciated, separated or exalted (vis-a-vis afflictions). 5 All these
underlie the perversive cognition of the earlier mentioned ignorance
(avidya), which is the breeding ground. There dormancy exists because of
the absence of stimulus to awaken it. Emaciation exists because of
development of contraries to enfeeble the affliction. Separation exits
because of subjugation of the affliction by strong measures. Exaltation is
the action with the inevitable co-operative combination of the potencies 6 '
of close proximity.
31~ IM?l 1fC!{C\44 IQ
Now, he (Patanjali) defines the constitution of ignorance -
~f4fQt'1fi4s: &l"it€ilt{ RfQ~filt{&ttii@tRt<fC1t11 ( 4)
(anitya-a.5 uci-du]Jkh a-aniitmasu nitya-s uci-s ukh a-iitnia-khyiiti}J-avidyii)
5. Ignorance is the mistaking non-eternal, impure, unpleasant
and non-self for eternal, pure, pleasant and Self.
aiaf\l"if{l~f~fcfq4~ ~ 'qqfu 1 ~ - ~R~ ~'IT~l
~: I ~ 4i*1HiCfl{llftjos:r::i1f~~lf&R ~ ~f~Ctj!>I~~: I
~:"@ ~q;q~"iClRa1a,1 tj)©(Ctl~Y : I ai'11,4R ~Ql<!:IC!lfi1~)f~: ~~ftj'QI
'Cltj)&I~~~: 11
From this, i.e. from the bent of the aforesaid aphorism, it can be
said that such a mind is in contrariety. That is to say, pride of eternity in
non-eternal heavenly abode etc.; settled belief of purity in the loathsome
impure body, a veritable reservoir of flesh, blood, puss, excreta and urine;
attribution of pleasure in unpleasant women, food, drink and power; and

5
Separated or emaciated, as long as they are dormant, the affl ictions recur when
awakened by stimu li so that they are only temporarily overpowered but certainly not
destroyed when they are in these states. Cf Aph. 1-5 where the commentator clearly
tells, whether painful or not painful, the affliction must all be shunned and
restrained completely. The afflictions may not be painful in the act but later prove to
be painful and vice versa. For instance, though not painful initially, the sexual
enjoyment becomes painful in the end. The happy-go-lucky youthful life is not
painful but becomes afflicted with pain after marriage when there emerges
attachment and clinging to worldly life. Such is not the case with study and
austerity, which, though painful at the start, becomes not painful in course of time.
6
While this may be overt, the other three are concealed.
11-6] 93
SADHANA PADA

identifying the intellect (Buddhi) as if it were Self with the non-Self (viz.
body et al). This sort of ignorance is of four steps. 1·
3i ftj ~ 11C? ffl"l aIti I~ -
He (Patafzjali) defines egoism, the source of ignorance.
~·C{~f•U>iffltll Cf) l<"i Hct Iff¥id I ( ~.)
(drg-darsana-saktyoiJ-ekiitmatii-iva-asmitii)
6. Egoism is the identity of the powers of
pure perceptivity and the perceiving instrument.
fi (tj g'6 r:p•n {~ l4 f41~Cha1 ~s rfi"l afll ~: 11
A~bution of identity on the basis that 'I am in both Existence 8
(Body et al) and spirit (Con-Science-Power)'', is egoism.

wt R'6Y'Qf8 I
He (Patafzjali) detennines passion -

7
· Cf Vyasa's commentary on this aphorism: - ~ ~ '4qf'4fqQI ~ ct8~1~F'ctl'if4 ~­
~ ~ tirqqjc:f)~ra 1 in<n"~tr'l~11n"'1<::%f1 ~ ~ 1 <i'ilT ~ ~ ~ ~ ffliTI ~:
~: I ~ ~ ;r ~ ;r ~ ffl;g ~ -q:q Oi'R414'"'"lli:B'i"li{'{ I ~ ;r W1TUf ~
514/D!l'•M: I ~ rqQfqq{)d :tll'iHH4fq(}fo II These are four steps of ignorance (non-
science) (avidya). It is the unbroken continuity of affiictions and of the latent karma
with its fruition (prarabdhakarma of Vedanta Darfona). This non-science should be
understood as having dome existence of reality in words such as non-friend
(amitra), and non-cow foot-print (ago~pada). Just as non-friend means neither the
absence of a friend nor a particular friend but some one opposite, viz. an enemy .and
just as non-cow foot-print means neither the absence of cow foot-print nor a
particular cow foot-print but a place only different from both of them, so also
ignorance is neither the real cognition nor the absence of cognition but a contrary
knowledge in intermediate knowledge different from absolute knowledge.
s. Here the word sat'tva is tranlated as 'existence'. It should not be confused with
'illuminative energy' as such. On the strength of the aphorism, it stands for the
power of perceiving instrument, while p urusa stands for the power of the pure
perceptivity, (viz. Con-Science-Power). Power of pure perceptivity is perception and
the power of the perceiving instrument is also perception , the only difference being
that, while the former is the subject, the latter is the object. The identification of
both a Self is egoism. Now hear what Vyiisa says on this aphorism: ~
~Cf~IRti~f.i::~~f•:rnRtiflRla41~q;~{Cl414fl'1flqff11i'11 ~ ~ 1 Purw;0a is the power of
perceptivity and the intellect (Buddhi) is the power of the perceiving instrument;
and turning these two into an identity is said to be the affliction called egoism.
94 (11-7
YOGASUDIIAKARA

tl&li~i4'l 'Ull: (\9)


(sukha-anuiayl ragal))
7. Passion follows the experience of pleasure.
~IM~f4 ~~lftRi'{cf<i ~ Qru11~q') U1T ~:
Passion is that which a person, who knows pleasure through
remembrance of previous enjoyment, strongly desires for the ways and
means of deriving such J;lleasure.
'S;: & ij~lln ~: ( G)
(dul)kha-anllSayT dve~l))
8. Hatred follows the experience of pain.
~:@IM~f!I ctGjfliRi~:m ~ ~ ~ ~:
Hatred is that which a person, who has experienced pain, keeps
running in front of his mind the remembrance of pain and blames .the
causatives of such pain.

~<\'IC118i •sfii ~ ~s"Nf.ta~r: ( ~)


(sarasavll~ vidu~-api tathll racjho-abhinivesa.p)
9. Clinging to life is the inborn sentiment
of self-preservation even in
the wise and exalted men.
~ci'l+i\1: siq16~n01 ~sf4 ~ Jt(Zi"4Gl{C\itil ~iiS11fil~: 1
l{cf\ll;+Uj\ciJ:i{Ul~:~CfCf lfHl~MIR'!cffZ! ~ 31T fBh~'ll ~
~: fi\l114'4H: ~l'O<rq~~1~ifq fq<{)Jn 11T ~ ~ Rfi:lf1Jirffi:o1
mr
S!Cfrfq I;{j ~ ll {C\Yl sNRfcrn 11
The frightening terror (of death) being a habituated continuous
flow of a sentiinent of self-preservation even in the learned in the same
manner as in the case of persons mounted on ignorance is clinging to life.
The meaning is, because of the strength of the potency of experience of
death latent from the previous birth of all beings from the insect to the
learned, the fear (of death) day in and day ou~, in the form (of a self-
11-10) 95
SADHANA PADA

benediction), 'May my disunion not be in the sphere of (the Darwinian


theory of) the body', coming slowly forth as a cause from within,9· is
clinging to life.
~ ~ fcm?r: ~~IFRiffi"H"fH~ 1ftj ~{l~@IC'41
1{cf
~ ""iq'"*ilfll~f<~fiiIBct"f_ I ITT ~ ~ ~'{C?l4>_&;flq1;q­
liTQ -
Having first explained the expedient of yoga (Aph. II-1 ), by
practising which (so it should be understood) the separated affliction are
burnt down to emaciation by the perception of the inherent shining Con-
Science-Power, now he (Patanjali) explains the means of uprooting lock,
stock and barrel those afflictions that remain in subtle form, though
emaciated -

w· SIMSH=taicu: ~: ( ~ 0)
(te pratiprasava-heylilJ slik~lil))
I 0. They, the subtle affiic~ion, are destroyed
with the disappearance mind.

Rl'afll frt<"{cll~CfiRfll ~ ~: 5lf85l~q: I ~ ~: ~:


~~II: I ~'i.&'1icifih1QI~ act=ffCfil'l~ql: ~; ~'1_0~1d ~
ifcFffifll~: 11
The disappearance of mind in its dissolution in the phenomenal
substance is a counter to its return to its original state. With the
disappearance of mind, the afflictions in subtle states are also destroyed.
It should be understood (in other words) with the destruction of the mind
together with its roots, its subtle habitual potencies are also destroyed
together with their roots.

~ f?i&l'ii ~ q;~oflqlll~lt? -
Now he (Patafijali) dilates on the means of getting rid of the gross
forms of afflictions together with their roots -

9
· Here the hint made by the commentator is the theory of rebirth according to Purva &
Uttara Mrmiimsii.
96 [11-11
YQGASUDHAKARA

utl4~41~('i14:. ( ~ ~)
(dhyiina-heyiiJ.rtat-vf1 'tayalJ)
11. Their operations are to be shunned by meditation.

f4;c:i14l~'"i . ~: ~01~1 : ~~l~iill: ~ QIC1641:


~~ 'E4i_0fi::tftl"10~ril4J'C'5ctl ~cFftlfCJ)fhl{_ l I
The operations of afflictions, reduced to a languid gross state by
practising the expedients of yoga, should be got rid of only by meditation
on puru$(1 (here it may be taken as lsvara). And it can be said that, with
the destruction of the mind, together with its roots, the afflictions in gross
state, is also destroyed.10·

~ <$~1i*10&Hlq14 ~ ~ ~ Cfii:f~lllfll cM~IR~H­


~lj)q<;~Tl!~I~ -
Having, this manner, explained the affliction and the means of
their destruction, now he (Patafzjali) guides (the eager students of yoga)
on the causality of affliction in the accumulation of acts (karmiisaya) -

cM~i¥{&: C6¥if~1i(I ~$i!l~IFi1:i:tcla:;ft4: ( ~ ~)


(kle5a-mulal;l karmliSayal;l dr${a-adr${a-janma-vedanfyal;l)
12. The stock of acts, its roots being afflictions,
should be known from the seen-birth
and unseen birth. 11

10
· There is a trifle difference between the gross and subtle state of afflictions. At first,
the gross state of affl iction is brought to subtle state, when they become so impo-
tent as parched seeds, whereafter they are destroyed along with the mind, being
destroyed in its dissolution in the phenomenal substance. Subtle one is a greater
enemy than the gross one. Cf Vyiisa's commentary on this -
~ <:! ~ ~ lIB: <pf Rtpra 'I'~ <iArfl41~'1 m ~, ~
~l"'IS!Fo4~1 : ~ ~: ~ ~ 4t:1S1foq~1 ~ 1
Just as the gross impurities of clothes are first washed off and subtle ones are
removed later by efforts or by (suitable) means, so also the gross operations o f the
afflictions are minor enemies and subtle ones, great enem ies.
i 1. Seen-bir:th means the experience in current birth. Unseen-birth means the
unconsciously suppressed memories of other prior and posterior (unseen) b irths.
11-12] 97
SAD HANA PADA

'll'l~~lf~Ck'5~!R~H: Chifoli ~: · Bf411\: Ch~f~lll: I ~ ~


'=n<t~rr-:IJl,......riirr::tj~~,......;:~11-.-r-ll ~: 3i <t~ \J1 ;:J:p~ ~'il ll ~: I mm) <:rm
'ik~~'lfc1l~aq~m Bx:tR1ur mr 1l:Cf ~ci~l~Ch~&"IB,
~ lit?&ofq{I~ ml: Bcl~~J14~ I fualllf1 ~'f'i{Chlf<~tj)ft(iq2f: II

Primarily caused by afflictions, viz. passion, hatred etc. the


(accumulated) action in the form of good and evil potencies, is the stock
of acts. Those that are to be known in seen-birth are those that are to be
experienced in the present life and those that are to be known as in the
unseen-birth are those that are to be experienced in the future life. In the
first case, it is just as the (noble) Nandikesvara: who obtained all at once
the god's status by means of intensive penance by meditation on l5vara
(while) in the second case, it is just like Nahu$0'S becoming a serpent all
at once by offending the great ascetic (Agatya). The second one
illustrates the cause for heaven and hell. 12

He (Patafljali) says not only about the stock of acts having its root
in afflictions but also about it fruition as well -

12· Nahu$(1 : King of Lunar Race, son of Ay us, grand-son of Punlravas and fat~er of
Yayiiti. The legend has it that when Indra slaughtered Vrtra unrigh'teously he fell
from his high status and Nahu!fa, by virtue of his meritorious deeds while he was a
King on earth, succeeded him as Indra. No sooner than assumption of his kingship
of gods, he became arrogant and went to the extent of commanding the gods to fetch
Indra's wife, with whose beauty he was enamoured, to be his wife. Through the
good offices of Brahaspati, the indignant !ndrani in distress located Indra in the
size of an atom hid in a lotus in Mfmasarovar, who advised lndrani that she should
pretend consent to be Nahusa's wife but should ask him to go over to her residence
in a palanquin carried by the seven ascetics (sapta·r,~fs) so that his end could be
ensured. She did so. When Nahu$a was carried thus by the seven ascetics, he was
not satisfied with the speed with which he was carried. his mind having become
crazy of lndriini. He kicked Agastya, one of the seven ascetics, saying 'sarpa-sarpa'
(sarpa means 'to move' but it also means 'a serpent'). At this insanity of lust and
arrogance, Agastya cursed him when at once Nahu~a fell from heaven and became a
serpent on earth. The point driven home is, those whom prosperity makes arrogant.
meet with destruction.
98 [II-13
YOGASUDIIAKARA

llfo ~ afa:q1Cbl '11k41!qll11: ( ~ ~)


(sati mule tat-vipiika/;ljiiti-iiyu}J-bhogiilJ)
13. When root exists, the fruition thereof (causes)
birth, lifetime and enjoyment (of life).

Ck'S~l~Y ~ '8~q q;i:fo1i ftjq1Ch: ~ I ~ ~ ~:


\l1IR1'1frii ~q(tj[~qf I ~~.HChlc-5 ~~511014)lffJI: I ~k~Fcf~41~
~ Wf I ~ ~ ~:, \lll~11til ~ ~ fcNrrr: I ~~,4-
~: - ~ ~ Chi:fctfh~ '11Cffi:. ftjtjq)@lf41fil~·~
~ Bmtl1Hll~l~q~ ~ ~ efo I

So long as the affliction exist in the form of root, fruition results


as a consequence of action (both good and evil). They are of three kinds.
Birth is of either human-life (with body) or life of god (incorporeal-life).
Lifetime means the union of the life-essence (priiIJa) with body for a
certain allotted span-longevity of time. The indulgence in gratifying the
sense organs with pleasure is enjoyment. There, enjoyment is the chief
and the remainder is apportioned to birth and lifetime. 13• The implied
sense of this and the previous aphorism taken together, .is that in the
existing afflictions there is consequential birth for action 14· and in the case
of one who has burnt (the afflictions) by the faculty of discriminating
objects by appropriate designation, one cannot beget a birth for action just
as a fully parched paddy seed does not yield a sprout.

~ \lllf?•m~l~i ~~(tjl~ LflC?GI~ -


Now about the purpose of avoidance of birth etc. he (Pataffjali)
proceeds to say -

13
It means, there is but one birth for all the accumulated good and evil acts· in the
previous birth. In the present birth itself one can break the chain of several births by
meditating on lfvara and dissolving the mind; if one fails, recurrence of birth is
1
inevitable. Cf Nahu$(1 S case; his meritorious acts as King of Earth in his first life
resulting in the next a5 the King of gods and, in the third, a reptile, consequent to
lust and arrogance in just the previous life.
14
· This refers to the videha, i.e. one who attains to the state of incorporeal existence by
performing vedic rites, etc. cf Aph.l-19.
11-14) 99
SAl>HANA PA.DA

'ff 11e:qfh11qq;&;1: 910?.u91o~gg;<q1tt ( ~ ~)


(te hlada-paritlipa-phaliilJ pulJYa-apulJYa-hetutviit)
14. They, the fruits of pleasure and pain,
are on account of their causality in
virtue and vice.

~ ~: goll~g)Chl: '§)'©4'101: 31golltig)Chl ~:{94'101


'GqRi fcr1:i1~'i1~cH~"i 1fiifll~: 11

They, the births, life-time and life enjoyment, produced by virtue,


become the pleasurable fruits, while those produced by vice become
pallful fruits, the aforesaid divisions of which are meant for the non-
discriminants

Nevertheless for the discriminants, all those are only painful


results, he (Patanjall) says -

q F< o1144a 1qti~ 1<a: .a1o •C!Rt fc:t () !4 liiet


"S:&qct ~ Fc:taFC64: <~ l\)
(pariI,Jllma-tlipa-sams kiira-duJ;lkh aiIJ-g 11 IJa-vrt 'ti-virodh at-ca
dul;ikham eva sarvam vivekinap)
15. Because of painful after-effect, agony and
habitual potency as also because of the opposition in the
functions of energies, all is only pain for the sagacious.

qf{o1p15:"@ 'ffi%:~ fi«t>1<5:'&ll, ~Rfll~: I "ITT ~ {"h'4Pll-


M"ifal<!~lf'q ~€if'q C,fil(Uf golli:t""lj'Blll ct~ ~ a1i:i«l qR1\l1Tll-
m;n ~ ~:€i1Cfiila1R1 qf<u11i:i5:~l ' ~ {li11F~f:if4rj., ~­
~01~CfiR(t'41 fia141fc=GCfi1 sifa~01 qR11J1f<:ia ; m ~ '~ -qrtq, ~
5<1fGH'{ ' ~ ~ ~h'114llfa ; ~ ~:Wl I Ci?.lT ~'©"ii~
ctrfifCfil'l: ~ ~Hflltql f'"ll<fll(tjl ~ ~ ; ~ fi«t>Fl5:~ I
100 [11-15
YOGASUDIIAKARA

~:~4f'llfl fcfi ~ ~01~Ri~D~ :J>UIHi fl("tj'FiFkil"iBi ~ ~:


S!Chl~t>1~Ril'.i1~1R-+iChlf{1lfill"lffii:iq0q;R'5)0qf;H'""a{ qf{u1aHi ~:
~ ~ d~l"6il ficl~q ~ \ljJ[ffi:tjfch;il ~:~,
ftjtjfch'1iifa:iq1;i101fa~Rqlf4'"*1~~\llllf8I a:fd: ~ ~:~ ~ll~R-1 'lW-r: II
The sagacious yogi meets with these pains (i.e. three kinds of
painfulness viz.) the painfulness of after-effect, of agony and o( habitual
potency.
There, in medias pleasure, by non-performance of such
meritorious acts as cause pleasure in the future, the mental operation
arising out of the activity of inert energy in expectation of pleasure in
15
vain, causes pain to the mind, which is the painfulness of after-effect. ·
When the pleasure is being enjoyed, by reason of any physical ailment
(disease), the agonising entity's mental operation goes counter-active due
to the deviation of the active energy from its natural state so that it·
agonizes saying, 'I am a sinner! What a pity! My wickedness!' and this
mental state is painfulness of agony. So also, when pleasure is destroyed,
the act of remembering again and again that potency of enjoyment,
whereby the heart bums is the painfulness of habitual potency.
These pains trouble the restraint .of mental operations in spiritual
absorption. Further, on account of opposition in the function of the
energies, whichever operation, out of the illuminative, active and inert,
brilliantly manifests itself in one who is gratified by sensual pleasures, by
that operation one becomes extremely fickle and agitated.
They, the energies, are incessantly changing and opposing each
other in a state of their being oppressed and the oppressor. On this
account as well, all are merely means of enjoyment, and for the
discriminants of the world, it is pain and only pain. 16 The sagacious one

15
· It is owing to the meritorious acts in the previous birth that one is endowed with an
able and efficient body in the present birth. Continuing to engage oneself in
meritorious acts depend on the body, where there exist the stock of acts as also the
opposing acti vities of the three energies. Also, performance of sacrificial rites
involves, inter alia. killing of animals, which amounts to harming other lives.
16
· What is the root cause? How cessation of pain is to be brought about? Cf Vyasa's
commentary on this aphorism: -.... ~ ~ ~:©t:Pj)C::fq f<i >!'4qafl'31J4fqrn 1 ~
'fi '4'C::~f'll1'GICl~ ~r I <l"m f"lf<'flrtMll<'!i ~ - Wfi <Ji1g1{1U":i ilt1J'll f'"lfct , ~qf'"IC::l4 N VfR.i "'-lg6i:t:~q
OUffi - mITT:: fi @gtii:jtiffi ~ ~ I O:f ~:~: "ITTiro ~: I 5li'.ll'1~(> '1 <il : ~ ~: I
Il-16] 101
SADHANA PADA

is m endless trouble just the woollen thread trouble the eyeball. 17· All
pains are, therefore, to be avoided.

~'"1H111a5:~ ftj~lbll ~ll(tj!OilQ -


Now, he (Patafzjali) points out the distinguishable avoidability of
the pain-not-yet-come -

~ s:&'i"fl~ta'l c~ ~)
(heyam dul)kham aniigatam)
16. Avoidable is the pain-not-yet-come.

3ialafl!
~l!Mfll~: 11

Because of having experienced the pain in the past birth and


because of experiencing the pain in the present birth, both of which
having been, and being, spent, only that pain, which has not yet come, is
avoidable.
~ ~l!QtJ/llQ -
Now, he (Patanjali) gives the cause of the avoidable.

fi<i'l'lf<llf<lP:aq,l r.:i~R11_;l1xt 1 ~: ~"4·<~f'1'{ i.. ..l gnorance is the fertile seed of this great
collection of pain. Perfect insight is the cause of its cessation. Just as in the medical
science there are four arrays such as disease, cause thereof, recovery therefrom and
medicine, so also in this yoga science there are four arrays : they are the mundane
existence, the cause thereof, emancipation therefrom and the means of emancipa-
tion. There, the mundane existence, full of pain, is avoidable (heyal}). The union of
primary substance and the spirit is the cause of the avoidable (heyahetuJ;i). The
complete cessation of the union is the avoidance (hiina). Perfect insight is the means
of avoidance (hfJnopaya).
17
· Ak$i patram iin:ia tantul] iva - Here, the metaphor is that it is only the yogi who is
peculiarly subj ect to this pai nfulness as distinct from other enjoyers. The woollen
thread, let into the eyeball, troubles it by mere touch but does not affect the other
parts of the body. Cf Vyiisa's commentary on this aphorism :~ ft~ 1
~?.11.a1hiru<fu.1tfl~ ~: ms:~~~ 1 11:i1ql!~~. ~ s:~ ~ ~
;::;m Slfaq<al<'{ I
102 [11-17
YOGASUDIIAKARA

sOM~441: ti<il•n ~: (~\9)


(draW,-tjSyayolJ samyogalJ heya-hetu}J)
17. The conjunction of the perceiver and the
perceivable, is the cause of the avoidable.

W ~: ~:, ~ · ~)f~ffrctJOL ~: fizjlJI: ~<H41M"ilct: ;


~ ~KllS!UllfSCfilll ~ - qf{o1a mer 'ITTf R:tffi@l-
'l{Tzj S1R1~f~ailli a~fcttjCfi{C\q1fct?J1q>a: 1 ~ ~ ~ll~ ~:~
~tif{f4?:f: II
The perceiver is the puru!j(l (spirit), who is the external form of
perceptivity. The perceivable is the intellective essence. Their
conjunction is the inherent feeling of possessing proprietary rights on the
body. Moreover, when the mind is transformed by the calling of a variety
of manifold sound etc. through the sense organs, life-essence and the
tubular organs of the body, there, in the reflected mind of the· reflected
object, is made ignorance out of indiscretion. That ignorance ( avidyii) is
the cause of avoidable pain-not-yet-come.

~ 514~llfC1 -
He (Patafzj ali) amplifies the perceivable.

S4ct>1~1fifi~1~R1~ft& '{ftf~~1(4tcf> ~a11qC1•1ftf ({~4'l <~ t)


(prakiiSa-kriyii-sth iti-sllam bh fita-indriya-litmakam
bhoga-apavarga-artham d,.Syam)
18. The perceivable is of the nature of illumination,
activity and inertia; it consists of realities of elements
and senses; its purpose is enjoyment and emancipation.

~: Sl@l~q :, ~ *iIB~41 , ~f8ffllll1~41, OT: \Ei'{'tj{\ii-


fa'"!Bi ~: ~ ~ t j ~ cnf~ ; 1icl~41M<i ~
~ ~KlllfUI ~f~CfiifKllH"l:~ ~
!ll~nrno1(C'q'"f1Cii1 ~: qf{o11ifl ~ a:a~tll~ cqlJll4ctJlf2f ~Jlifl~­
si 41 \J1 €.fl a ~ ~ ll fii flq ?:f: 11
II-18) 103
SADHANA PADA

That illumination which consists of perceptibility, that activity


which consists of progressive activity and that inertia wh1ch consists of
restraint of mind, all of which being the nature of illuminative, active and
inert energies respectively and having kindred nature of their own as
aforesaid, is perceivable. Those elements which have the characteristics
of modifications in their conjunction and separation with the gross fonn
and subtle rudiments, and those senses which have the characteristics of
modifications in their conjunction and separation with subtle power of
sensation and gross organs of senses, both elements and senses of which
being receivable and receiving entity, a transfonning (but inhering as a)
unified whole, is the reality of elements and the reality of senses. The
.purpose of the perceivable is to lead to enjoyment (experience) and
emancipation.

Q\dfll jUl~l!l({'!Cf)~ ~~ll~ qf{o11tj ~ ~~fllf8 -


He (Patafzjali) explains (in the next aphorism) about the divisible
change of the aforesaid perceivable (that is to say), of energies -

FGi~)q1fc.('lqf(l}fq1s11f(;s{i·1f.t 101qctff01 ( ~ ~)
(vi.Se~-avi.Se~-lingamiitra-alingiini gulJll-parvliIJl)
19. The specific, the unspecific, the pure traceable
and the untraceable, are the division of the energies.

M~1t41 ~ar~ll"Hl'lt\YI: ~ fc:lCfll'll :, a:ifc:l~1~1@'"'41~1-


tcmr: ~ si11R1Fct<fl~M: w::f 'l"C@a1Ri f~'J9·~1~ >i<flf8ftjCfll\{C\Y
4~'aftj9' , ~ :!)Dll'"ii ~ ~ ; ~ tj~lft :!)OIHi
4ctff01 3iCf~lftj~l~I ~: II
The specific change of energy is sixteen-fold, that of the five
gross elements, 18' the five senses of knowledge, 19 the five senses of
action 20 together with the (co-ordinating) mind.

18
· Ether (iikiiSa), Air (vayu), Fire (agm), Water (apa/.1), Earth (p[thiv1). These are the
specific forms of the unspecific fonns of subtle rudiments of the gross elements.
19
· Ear (srotra), Skin (tvak), Eye (cak?U), Tongue (rasana), and Nose (ghrai:ia).
20
· Mouth (vcik), Hand (pc11:n), Foot (piida), Rectum (pay u) and Sex (upastha). All these
ten (cf 19 & 20) together with mind, are the specific fonns of the unspecific egoism.
104 [II-20
YOGASUDHAKA.RA

The unspecific change of energy· of the primary substance is six-


fold, that of the five subtle elements,21. together with ego. When all
(existing in the luminous Self) rs dissolved (in the spiritual absorbent
cognition), the purely traceable of the changing primary substance ( ~­
ftjq;1<~4\ ) - is the Great Reality. The untraceable is the primary
substance, which equals in status to that of the energies. Thee four
divisions are the states of energies [cf. Aph. I-1 7 & I-41 and Chart under
Aphorism I-41.]

Having, in this manner, defined at first the avoidability of the


perceivable, he (Patanjali) proceeds to explain about the admissibility of
the perceiver.

W '{Wiitlst: ~sitr S:tfl441iq4>4: ( ~ o)


(dra~fii d,Simiitrap suddho-api pratyaya-anupasya/;l)
20. The perceiver is perceptivity itself; albeit pure,
he becomes the agent of the notion.

rn ~ ~~1ii1~r~ ~ ~: ae&4Cf>ftj ~
~Ri¥q<:"llll fcHl~l~n&~ICl 'd4ll?lqll~ ftjq;{lf8 m 't:lfifo1q_' efd
~l~rtlr'"H: ~ ~ I 31\f: ~: 31qf<o11a:iftl >k"l!:l4
ajCl&J4jq~4f8 I cil4j4~ll?lci<;l,l4M ~ ~ ~ ~: II

The perceiver, puru$[1, is the perceptivity itself. The intellect per


se is not of the nature of cognizance. In its own nature, the mental
operations of the intellect have the tendency of destruction. Based on the
rule that 'the nature of the receiver and the non-receiver (of light) is that

21
Sound (sabda), Touch (sparfo), Light (riipa), Taste (rasa), and Smell (gandha).
These are the unspecific forms of subtle rudiments of the specific form of gross
elements. The qualities go on increasing in the descending order: ether has the
quality of sound alone; that of air has two, sound and touch; that of light has three,
sound, touch and form; that of water has four, sound, touch, form and taste and that
of earth has five, sound, touch, form, taste and smell.

..
11-21] 105
SADHANA PADA

the substratum only changes', the independence of the self (puru$(1) is


forsaken. Even though pure and unchanging, therefore, he (puru$(1}
becomes the agent of the notion. The puru$(1, instrumentally seeing it,
appears to be of that nature, though he is not the same.

Having thus explained about the perceivable and the perceiver, he


(Pataiijali) explains the residual and the residuum of both of them. -

~ ~ Ci~t:t@'ll<'il ( ~ ~)
(tat-artha~ evad,Syasya-atmli)
21. His purpose is the very self
of the perceivable.

The self of the perceivable is the self of the enjoyer, 22 which self is
the very nature of the perceiver, not for his own interests but for the
purpose of the enjoyer's external perception, because puru$(1 hasn't the
quality of mind.

~ ~: >1~1'514 ~ ~ ~a~fl!a~1 ~ R~fqfts~


B~I~~~~-

Certainly, when the purpose of the perceiver is fulfilled, the duties


in the primary substance are without any function; so is it not that the
circuit of life does not obtain? No, say he (PataFzjali) -
22
· The insentient primary substance is incapable of experiencing. Besides, one other
than the object can enjoy the object of experience. Hence the enjoyer, who is no
other than the unspecific egoism.
106 [Il-22
YOGASUDIIAKARA

~ 1ffir =tl!'illl=te H~::t•H=tl!4HUl~I(( ( ~ ~)


(kf11irtham prati na~{llm-api-ana~{llm
tat-anya-slidhliraTJ{ltviit)
22. Albeit destroyed in relation to him, whose purpose
has been fulfilled, it is not destroyed on account
of its commonness to others.
'

~ ~ ~: I ~ ~ ~{l~&'llfciqlf;:d ~lJllqcpff ~
~ ~ >rfu ~ f:i04fqFC'"iN ~{1~1 ..ffcfi1~Ra1(tj1~riE!!4ct1ctRtraa 1
~ ~ Bcl~SH:f'i9·HC!Cf>l~I ~ cmcf: 11

The primary substance 23 · is one; the puru¢ (spirits) are endless. 24 ·


Accordingly, having given enjoyment and emancipation till self-
realization, in a certain case though it is a loss and it has no further
engagement for him whose interest has been fulfilled, in the case of
others, who are in the course of self-realization, it stands off without any
loss because of its commonness to others. In that manner also, there is no
occasion (for the idea) that on one attaining emancipation, all are
emancipated. This is the meaning.

Having explained, in this manner, the perceivable and the


perceiver, he (Patanjali), proceeding to explain about their conjunction,
says -
... tct~tuq&
~:CH:c:tl ~ ~liP.:tl: ... fa!:lij • " I:
g: {0441•
( ~ ~)
(sva-sv4mi-saktyo .p svariipa-upalabdh i-h etu .p samyoga.IJ)
23. Conjunction is the cause of acknowledgment of the
character of the powers both of its own and its Lord.

23
By pradhiina (primary substance) it should be understood here the perceivable, whose
·
external perceptivity is ensured by the perceiver, who is perceptivity itself. .
' Cf sankhya kiirikii 18: '51"1"14{Ujq;{Oi1'1i 51fa f"144 1C( ~ >1¥~ I ~(>t:l~~C'Ci m ~10<1Mq4<11~11
24

The multiplicity of puru?(J is settled only because of birth, death and the (thirteen)
organs of individuals not all being unifonn, the activities being various and also
because of the inequality in the three energies (sat'tva, rajas and tamas) .

...
11-23] 107
SADHANAPADA

ftj~!Rtl{:p"fftj~: ~1fli~1fu>{CR"4cqyq: ~~=a~o'"l~'1


~qff:4a41: ftj~cflq&~J11qqJ~q1 1 ~ ~= ~= B<ilJn
~ ftjQlqid: ~ &ll&llct'"( I ~ ~ ?"ffll"lliiltj ~J~~441:
ftj~q°)q&fa:.R. ~, ~ m cqqfu, tr ~: cti14cti)~ll ~f'31qR·~
~II

Perceivable's own power is the characteristic of the perceivable;


the power of the Lord of perceptivity is the characteristics of the pure.
perceptivity (of the perceiver). Their definitive characteristics are of
cognition and consciousness, with which their acknowledgment is
enjoyment or emanciP.ation (respectively), which cause is the ground for
their conjunction; it is commented upon that the character of the
perception of the perceiver is that of production of knowledge. That, by
whose absence in both the perceiver and the perceivable there is no
acknowledgment and by whose presence there is acknowledgment, is
conjunction, to elevate any one of them (either enjoyment or
emancipation. 25 · This way, it is taught.
~41Jlf<qll2j)41?"f'il~ -
He (Patanjali) also explaips about the means of the conjunction -

~ 8n<fi:tt11 <~~>
(tasya hatuJ.Hlvidy6)
24.Ignorance is its calise
~ ~lfl'lfll ·'i_crt'ffilftjQI ~: CfiRUIMfl'42f: 11
The cause of the conjunction of the inner self with the intellect is
the aforesaid ignorance.

~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ T.f ;fl~qf4Wil~
ID'Rtlt{ II

25
· In other words, there is no embodiment in the absence of ignorance, while on the
advent of knowledge, ignorance is destroyed, consequent to which there is no
conjunction ofpuru~ and prakfti.
108 [11-25
YOGASUDIIAKARA

Hav~ng,
in this manner, explained the avoidable pain and the
cause thereof, now he (Patafijali) proceeds to prove the complete avoi-
dance of conjunction and the cause thereof in the next two aphorisms -

• .... .... • ~ :io-


o~"'llC41t'e41~11"'11~1 m;r ~~~·: cnC4crt'fit_ ( ~ l\)
(tat-abhiiviit-samyoga-abhiivalJ hiinam tat-d,.SelJ kaivalyam)
25. In its absence (absence of ignorance),
there is absence of conjunction, which is avoidance;
that is absoluteness of perceptivity.

~ 31ftj<Q1l11 ~1q1f~'Q1l11 ftj~1~11=a6fia=84lJ1ftj ...n~n ~ ~


~ ~~lPrc:g)mllll~fCi~lffi: ~qe?l!Mfll~: 11

That destruction of conjunction, which is owing to the absence of


ignorance and the destruction of that knowledge26 · which creates the union
of puru$(1 and prak[fi, is avoidance, which itself is the absoluteness of the
eternally free Con-Science-Power.

26
· It means the false knowledge produced by the power of the perceiving instrument.
Ignorance is reduced to subtlety, when the exhibitive and inhibitive habitual
potencies are destroyed in the cognitive spiritual absorption, where the seed for
future life is very much present in the subtlest form (cf Aph. I-48 & Il-4).
Ignorance is the cause of conjunction of the consciousness with it own intellect (cf
Aph. II-24) so that, as long as ignorance remains residual, its re-emergen ce does not
cease. The spiritual absorption with a cloud of righteousness is not absoluteness (cf
Aph. 1-49 & I-50), because the propensity for re-emergence of conjunction is not yet
destroyed. Absoluteness comes about only in the ultra-cognitive sp iritual absorption
(cf Aph. 1-51 ), when even the inhibitive habitual potencies of the spiritual absorbent
cognition are restrained, whereby the mind disappears, unab le to rise up once again.
Hear Vyasa's metaphor on Aph. ll-24: m q;f~(tlugq,'jq1&i1~01'1<;::tll<'.4fct 1 ~ "lt44tfi4'€!liia
~: - -~ . ~ .q '11fir;ft, f'q,'10 '1T::r ~ I ~ ~ ~Sl\'14 f<Pj;i'<m:Slllillf'1fct I
Here, it is un locked by some one with the episode of a eunuch. The stupefied w ife
expressed herself to the eun uch thus: 'Revered Sir, my si ster has a chil d, why indeed
have I none?' He repl ied to her thus: 'I shall produce a chi ld in you w hen I am dead.'
[Here, the stupefied wife is the intellect in perversive conjunction , sister stands for
the intellect possessing revelation of puru.»a and, of course, the eunuch is the ego,
the lower self.l
11-26) 109
SADHANA PADA

fu<lc=:n'&41Rt<fctlclcil ij1;flq1c:c: ( ~ ~)
(viveka-khyiitifraviplavii hiinopiiya/;l)
26. The intellective revelation, being
unwavering, is the means of avoidance.

3iftjtz?Cll ~ ~itjg{i~l!l\'"<h"ll'&'llRi~f<ifll 4lct<"'llf4


~9)Rf'42f: I 317-f ~: - 3'11~{~{'f14{li:fCfilC'51~~ljJiR­
<qJ1 m~~·lj'81~'i ~itj g{i ~ 1;:;q ct l'&'llctlClftj l&ct Illi \Ji ldl ll Iii ftj'.Ql~ll: ~
qJ~ll«i~cHi4l'I~ ff~C'5Cfil~ CfiMcil ~ I ~:tlC'511i:tlC'5Cfi~f~l~lta­
f&q11:hl~ 'Blf&tlla ~ ~ I M~ q(tj(jJljl011'"'4ctl@lfnR~fl~
~ F.ffi Rc:tRfa ~ g<l~fll fr1Jqf<4 ~{t\q51f8is1{t\q
~Cl t"li 'G Cl ffi f8 II

Unwavering of intellective revelation is opposed to ignorance.


Avoidance of wrong conception of the perceiving instrument is the cause
of absolute perceptivity.

The meaning of both aphorisms (viz. 25 & 26) taken together, is


that, by close application of the practice of the eight component parts of
spiritual absorption such as restraint, observance etc. uninterruptedly for a
long time in succession, the ignorance arising out of the wavering caused
by erroneous conception of the perceiving instrument and the five
afflictions (cf Aph. II-3) together with the causal conjunction brought
about by them, are all destroyed at their roots. The happy and/or unhappy
stocks of acts, together with their propensity to fruition, are all destroyed
lock, stock and barrel. And, therefore, when through the practice of
inhibitive spiritual absorption (cf Aph. 1-50 & 51) the mind disappears,
the stainless spirit (puru$0) is self-established in absoluteness.

Now, he (Patafzjali) explains about the magnificence of


knowledge of the liberated spirit (pw·u$0) -
110 [11-27
YOGASUDllAKARA

~ {'4t(1!11 sti"<i"{fii: ~ ( ~ \9)


(tasya saptadhii prlinta-bhumi}J prajiilf)
27. His intellective vision is of
seven-set ground-boundaries.

~ 'Et'511afqtjq;@1a: 9)'6~fll ~ BC{1>1ct>i:u >11ra'1fii:


51q;~u11rJI Hcffer: 4it?ctj~ GTmt m ~Sq~ Gff<.n: m >Im
Sll~"i_f~: '8Ck1Slct>RI I ~: - 'Ei'511ct~tjCf>@la: g;t>~f'q ~
Sl~l"i.~'4 : I 03; ~: . ct>\lfftjljRh'Ei~I : ; ~~.rafq'jfu>'l"f~I: I ct?J211 -
~IC1044f~& m +m ;r fcfifq~lct044kllfel Ril~lfl1Ri:!R11'ct>I I ~1ao4
~ ~ ~ +m ;r fcfifq"'4ti\"dlfa Ri1Qlf!IRqR1f[a1'41 I ~q~­
~ Sllk1044M& ~ dffi ;r, fcf>~~IC(1044ktlfa Sl~1RqR1~ffi~1 I
fcttjq;@1fct&1'G~ ct>ct044f©~ ~ ;r fcf>f~<444 ct>1lf4«flfa fi4c:Q ~fRq-
fu~ I ~ ~ ~f~'8~fi:tR1 ~Tict>RqRRct>I I l1l1 ~~1~41 ~:
~: Sl4\\l\~l'Glql~4 51{l~"f11R1 ~llRqRifiallll I ~ ~011a1afC1-
~q41~o11q~a~~ct><'8 mr
'8Cfi&fctcti~RqRH~F11'41 l Wf ~l<1'-IT
Sll~"{fA~~~fa 11

'His' means the (liberated) puru!jQ (yogi), whose emerging spiritual


revelation has seven-set ground-boundaries, with the end-result of
cessation of mental operation in a high degree. That intellective vision,
which has the ground having seven set boundaries, is the state of final
ground. The meaning of this is that the emerging spiritual revelation of
the liberated purusa is in a state of seven-fold intellective vision.

There, the (first) four are designated .material. freedom (kiirya


vimuktz} and the next three are designated as the spiritual freedom (cit'ta
vimukti) . These are as follows : -

'All that has to be known, has been known and there is nothing
else for me to be known.' This is the cessation of the desire of knowing ,
which is the first.
11-27] 111
SADHANA PADA

'All the bondages that have to be avoided, have been avoided and
there is nothing else for me to be avoided.' This is the cessation of the
desire of avoidable pain and conjunction, which is the second.
'Having obtained absoluteness, all that has to be obtained has been
won and there is nothing else for me to obtain'. This is cessation of the
desire of obtaining, which is the third.
'By gaining intellective revelation, all duties that have to be
performed, have been done and there is nothing else for me to perform.'
This is the cessation of the desire of performance of duties, which is the
fourth.
[These are the four-fold material freedom.]

The intellective essence is for the fulfillment of my interest,


which have been fulfilled.' This is cessation of distress, which is the first.
'The energies of my mind etc. are dissolved and there is no more
sprouting on account of absence of necessity.' This is the cessation of
fear, which is the second.
'Now I am remaining as one essence with only my own spiritual
manifestation.' This is the cessation of all doubts, which is the third.
[These are the three-fold spiritual freedom.]

It should be understood that these are the seven boundaries of the


mental plane.

l£.cffB:i;:q1~ fP"llf%Cifihif'!Oll'f1~·'81~ ~lfltj\IJ4 ~


6i IGlq fB:i;:q I~ ~ Rhll 1lll JTIS~.: I 311tf1T -ac;Tsfq ~­
Rraf4 fi51~1a'81~ri1~121'ffei·lr<:1~1tlt:11~ -
Having explained in the first Chapter (viz. the Chapter on Spiritual
Absorption - Samadhi Pada) the practice of non-attachment to those
whose mind has been brought together for inhibitive function, he
(Patanjali) has explained in the beginning of this Chapter (viz. Chapter II-
Sadhana Pada) the expedients of spiritual absorption for those whose
mind follows its own bent. Now he, (PataPijali) proceeds to explain the
eight-component parts of Yoga for accomplishing cognitive spiritual
absorption by those whose mmd (worse than the earlier said one) still
follows its own bent -
112 [II-28
YOGASUDHAKARA

~1·11w1ital"'l1a::(lfoa~ ~1"1c{lfiaufctclC6@1a: c~ ~)
(yoganga-an u~fh iinlit-aiuddh i-k¥Jye jnana-diptiJrii.-viveka-khyii.te .fl)
28. On destruction of impurity by accomplishment
of the component parts of yoga, the light of
knowledge goes up to the intellective revelation.

~141014llll~·Hll1j'BHl~\1~: cM~l{C':41<ql: ~ ~ \J11;qi:11~,


~Hf4 {I f((14f~{lftj tj Ch@! Ia'ifq al fll ~: I lll J 11~·1 j)'8 I;i \if~~JU
S!~lfll'tHfYfa <qTq: 11
On account of achievement of the component parts of yoga, which
are being explained (in the next aphorism), there is a gradual ruination of
the impurities in the form of afflictions and through the augmented light
of knowledge arising therefrom, it becomes the intellective revelation.
The meaning is that the achievement of the component p~s of yoga27 ·
through purification is the means of accomplishing intellective vision.
27
· Cf Vyasa's commentary on this aphorism in respect of 'achievement of component
parts of yoga, <ll'll;:j·lj'OWl!{!4f4<illiCi)i(Ul'l I <l"(f[ q {:tj~i§Qfl! fq~q,@ I H<fi >llfi<iq,i{Uj ~ ~:
~ ~ cmuPl 11 The achievement of the component parts of yoga is the cause of
separation of impurity just as the axe is to cut a thing w ith ; so also is the cause of
attainment of the intellective revelation just as virtue is of happiness; in no other
way does this become the cause. [To ascertain the correct path, one has to enlist the
help of the scriptures, and dutiful submission to vedic scriptures ensures happiness.]
q;fu ~ Cl)RUT1f;; m ~? ~ - ~ - '<>Nf-lin•~!frl!MC4ffi>fqq,1{5f>f4l!ll{1ll: I fq4) •1 1~(tj­
~: CfiRUi ~ ~ l'Sftn 1•r:i'INR11*il{Uj ~ 'qqfu ~ I f~FaCil i{Uj - ~: ~ WJH~qlt:I{
efn I 34Mi5!lMl&ll{Oj "llm ~fo,IC!lffi2'1 1 ~ I fqq,l\&ll {Uj ~ fq tll!HW{, ~: ~ I
Sfr4<iC!il{O!• \{'l;ili"1t\({q1
h
1'1fll I Sii R
-<i&ll{UI. <ii'
, ll'j\·lj'cil'1qq
' fc' q,@I C1:
' I fq<W
' l&ll{OI. a ~tll:tj~ : I 34~(tjitl{UI.
"llm ~ ~: I~ {'0('\5lf'!14 ~1fi1QI ~' tm ~:~, WT: ~. ~ t\ l'UH~lj I
~ ~ 1 -0<f'"lfrs:::41011'1_ 1 mf.1 ~ ~ 1 ~ mroun mf.1 ~ ~ ~ 1 ~4ni1'1"1 1'j~~qalf'1
~ 4H"'Hl~R'llfC::fct I ~ ;:iq "&lRUT1f.t I mf.1 ~ <i2'11t1"G ci qc;:121\;:a):tqfq ~ I llf'll'~·ijtBl;:j ~ ~
~~efn l
How many causes are there in the scriptures? They are nine, it is said and they
are: - Generation, Continuance, Manifestation, Modification, Confidence,
Attainment, Separateion, Differentiation and Support.
The mind is the cause of generation of consciousness. [Though consciousness
truly is absolute, yet in relation to mind it has birth and death.]
The interest of purw;a is the cause of continuance of mind just a food is of
body. [Puru$G'S interest is enjoyment and emancipation and comes into being till
latter is achieved .

.
11-29) 113
SADHANAPADA

Again, anticipating the question as to what the component parts of


yoga are, he (Patafijali) says -

4'1 f.t4"1ltt"t~IoI141"1Sktf It; l<ttl ( Uil-


!41"t~"l ltt4iS E!lt1Wrf.t ( ~ ~)
(yama-niyama-iisana-prii!Jiiyama-pr_atyiihara-dharar}ii
dhyana-samlidhayaJra${ilu-angiim)
29. Restraint, observance, posture, breath-control, abstraction,
concentration, meditation and spiritual
aborption, are the ·eight component parts of Yoga.

m ~ <:fi1T ~fllqa;lllll41Q I
There, what the restraints are, he (Patanjali) clarifies.

Just as light is the cause of manifestation of form so also consciousness is of


form (of the body, a consciousness illuminates the body.)
Just as fire is the cause of modification of things to be cooked, so also variation
of mind is of difference in substance.
The cause of confidence is just as knowledge of smoke is knowledge of fire
inferentially. [Confidence in existing Reality is because of the undeniable fact of
one's ow'n existence].
The cause of attainment is just as the achievement of the component parts of
yoga is the cause of attainment of intellectual revelation.
The cause of separation is just as the achievement of the component parts of
yoga is the cause of separation of impurity.
The cause of differentiation is just as the goldsmith moulds different shapes of
gold (whose substance remains the same), Thus, about the notion of one and the
same woman, ignorance become the cause of stupidity, aversion the cause of
painfulness, attachment the cause of pleasure and the knowledge of Reality the
cause of neutrality.
The cause of support is just as the body is of senses, which again supports the
body. The gross elements are the support of the bodies, which again are mutually
the support of all other bodies. The bodies of vegetables, animal, men and gods are
supported by one another for their mutual interest.
Thus, thee are the nine causes. Moreover, as far as possible, these should be
applied to other objects (viz. all unconscious things). The gradual achievement of
the component parts of yoga, however, fulfils the cause in two ways only.
114 (Il-30
YOGASUDllAKARA

3iffitil{'i~l{:(tqjgJ'aqfqf<4g1 ~: ( ~ 0)
(ahimsli-satya-asteya-brahmacarya-aparigrahii yamll}J)
30. Non-killing, truthfulness, non-thieving, continence
and non-acceptance of gifts, are the restraints.

~ R~e&Cfilf~ ll1f11;:i lll"i~Ri RqJ~;JJRt <:p:IT: I


a::tl~~I Cfill!ql:S:,_4~M: • ~aHl4rn'8'1i{_ I ~ t1cf~1~aHM'!fl­
~ I ~ q{("tj(tjlrtq~R: I ~~i:!lfi:n~ftj~~'i('\qlll: I 3i4fb~~:
~l{l{f~f841st04f8fhtl~l!Bl't:Hf41Cfil{: I ~ ~ <:Jl1T ~: 11

Non-killing means act prohibited by scriptures, which the yogis


restrain. Cessation of such acts. as are prohibited by scriptures is restraint.
There non-killing mean doing no harm by body, speech and mind towards
all beings at all times. Truthfulness is the non-speaking of falsehood at all
times. Non-thieving consists in not appropriating other's property.
Continence is abandoning the eight kinds of sexual enjoyment. 21· Non-
acceptance means rejection of gifts as a means of enjoyment, except for
mere sustenance of body. These are the five restraints

He (Patanjali) points out (in the next aphorism) the speciality of


those that are fit to be observed by the yogis -

\if1Rta~1q;1&{'iq~Mctfiu~1: ti1f!f'11q1 qg1att'l <~ ~ >


(jliti-desa-klila-samaya-anavacchinnalJ sllrvabhaumll mahil-vraJam)
31. These, applying universally, not rent or limited by
caste, place, time and occasion, constitute the great vow.

28
A$!amaithunam means sexual enjoyment of eight kind; the eight stages in the progress
of a love suit: - ~ ~ ~: ~ ~61'11qo1'l 1 ~S~fI fsfl<i1f.:ls:ifhlq ~ 11
Remembrance, narration, amorous sport, viewing, secret conversation,
detennination, apprehension and (finally) consummation of the act. (Cf Apte' Die.).

...
11-31) 115
SADHANA PADA

rn
\ii IRi~ f~ a I(tj I~CflJOL aRi <16 ~ ~ R&•w•fl fll BI ~ q ftR£9?11 I
~ m~ ~ PP~cttjg;{~l11~1 m Cfllffel" ~ ~f:i~1x:11ra ~~1Cf>101'RIT­
'"iC~R0~1 I ~~~f~Oll?J~ff8{&;01 ~ ~Rb4ti:ilf8 Biilf1Clfi£9?11 I ~
RiqctlSCfW ~: I si1f01it1~ qq~~rq Cf>~l~<Rl Cf>~lfti ~s~ ~
~R&414lf8 \illflll~M~ ~C!fllIBBI gtr.t>01 I ~ Bflll<!:lfl-
5cq;g~f%0;u 3'>~;fllf1: 1 $~q~ wffiJ
\lilflllR~ ~ ftjRa1: ~
461 ~fr1 !'ii fCJ=tX4 ra ~:
Caste means Briihminism etc. (i.e. the four castes, viz. Brahma-
K$(1triya-Vaiya-Sudra). A declaration of non-killing, such as, 'I shall not
always kill animal is limited by caste. 29· That 'I shall never kill animals at
a place of pilgrimage ·o r on the prohibited fourteenth day of either the
waxing or waning fortnight' is limited by place and time. That 'I shall not
kill animals except for the purpose of satisfying gods, BrahmaIJaS etc.' is
limited by occasion. Occasion means restricted opportunities for a
30
particular purpose by convention or as laid down in scriptures.
That 'I shall not kill any living being at any time for any purpose
whatsoever', adequately becomes not limited by the four-fold exceptions,
i.e. caste, place, time and occasion. Thus, in regard to the rest of the four
of the restraints, viz. truthfulness, non-thieving, continence and non-

29
Here Vyiisa puts it like this: w.nmrr Jtj('qqfi(§Sli •fr@Wl<hl'4 ~ ~ mn I There, non-
killing is limited by caste; the fisherman should kill only fish and nothing else.
30
· Cf Laws of Manu: SBE Series Vol.25 pp. 173 & 174: Chap. - Verses 28 to 32 :
(28) The Lord of creatures (Prajopatl) created this whole (world t~ be~ the suste-
nance of the vital spirit; both the immovable and movable (creation 1s) the food
of the vital spirit.
(29) What is destitute of motion is the food of those endowed with locomotion;
(animals) without fangs (are the food) of those with fangs, those without hands
of those who possess hands, and the timid of the bold.
(30) The eater who daily even devours those destined to be his food, commits no
sin; for, the creator himself created both the eaters and those who are to be
eaten (for those special purposes).
(31) 'The consumption of meat (is befitting) for sacrifices', that is declared to be a
rule made by the gods; but to persist (in using it) on other (occasions) is said to
be a proceeding worthy of Rak~as.
(32) He who eats meat, when he honours gods, and manes, commits no sin, whether
he has bought it, or himself has killed the animal, or has received it as a present
from others.
116 [11-32
YOGASUDllAKARA

acceptance of gifts, it should be inferred accordingly. In this manner, the


observance of non-killing and the rest, universally, in all cases cf caste, place,
time and occasion, is the great vow.

Now, he (Patanjall) defines observances -

\Jni4e~qaq:t:et1"lualflud=t11t11"11f.t f.t~it1: c~ ~)
(sauca-santo~-tapaJrsvlidhyliya-iSvara-pra¢dhiinani niyamliJ.i)
32. The observances are purification, contentment,
penance, study and full aspiration after livara.

ilfrii~<kCfl1&4'6f+iT~Cir4 ~ Rtihl~ ~ R<qlOJlfki ~\;q;Jlffi


~: I ~ ~ ~IQJ+i&R~R1: ~x:11~'l'.!1<:Ftlf lraH{~l~lOl&RC!­
fu: I tjffiri) ·;qii1&1'G4Rtlft!: I m: q:;1;q~n~o1it ~ ~'llfl~q~ -
·'~ tWfuT C"fl"~fi:ll~l;qo1 1 ~M: I
~IU\~TI ~ oi si l§>'Ril 4'81'Ri q a=a+ii:c ' ~1 ~ 1

~ ~ +i~ Io IllOJ'tlP~'i i:c I "ff ~ ~ rnfc.rtrr


~~Cf>l'RilRtCf>I~ I ~: ~ f[fcrtrr: I cil~Cfll : ~­
~ Mm: I ~ +i~\~~~~01 I t~ ~ 31fi:r-
~ciHl+i~M~aHi ~ '8C!T'8i Ufi;q101i ~.sit ~ f!i:pfu1&{ I

'Chiii a1 SChl i:i ct1 qrtq ll 6=flDfii ~ 1


~ ~ ftj •=~r84 ~Pl¥>: ChD Rl~Pl ' 11 Wl I
11-32) 117
SADHANA PADA

'3Wf >l~Mtjq;;;j Ci'll~;fjq~d (f(f: I


;r ~ l1~~1=sq stl0lGMq q1~B'{' I efCT I

The aforesaid observances regtilate and. set in motion towards


virtues sans fruits that cause emancipation annulling the fruitful actions
that cause recurrence of birth.

Purification means elimination of external impurities by earth and


water, and elimination of internal impurities such as jealousy etc. by
exuding friendly feelings towards all. Contentment consists in satisfaction
of what one gets. Penance is emaciation of the body.

It is relevant to quote here Yogi Yajnavalkay's saying thus, 'The


best penance of all penances is emaciation of the body by following the
prescribed way of krcchraciindriiyana (i.e. by shunning painful objects of
enjoyment such as women, food, drink, power etc.).

Study means reading (repeating silently within one's mind)


mantras commencing from Giiyatrf. And these mantras are of two kinds:
those derived from Vedas and those derived from Tantriklis (Doctrines of
Mystics) . Those derived from vedic scripture differ in two ways; viz.
those recited in a singing tone and those recited in a non-singing tone.

As regards those derived from Doctrines of Mystics, they are


differentiated in three kinds: viz. a female mantra (one ending with
svaha), a magical formula regarded a male mantra and the third being
neither male nor female (i.e. neuter). Enough with proclaiming aloud of
the secrecy of these incantations (mantras) .31·

Full aspiration after lsvara is self-surrender to Him in the sense of


dedicating all work, whether it is declared or undeclared, to the all-
powerful lsvara, without expecting any fruit of action (i.e. resultant

31
Apparently, this applies to the Doctrine of Mystics.
118 (0-33
YOGASUDllAKARA

benefits). It may be held like this: 'All that I do, whether with or without
desire, whether auspicious or inauspicious, I do it only to place it in you a
directed by you'.

On the injuries caused by the deliberate intention for fruits of the


work, learned men speak of it thus: 'What of penance obtained by efforts
if injured by desire for fruits? It is not for the Lord's satisfaction like the
milk pudding licked by a dog'.

The aforesaid purifications are the five-fold strict observances.

Certainly, in the waking state, when there are many hindrances,


how c~ observance be firmly established? Now, he (Patanjali) says in
the next aphorism -

feMchd41~~ Slfdqa;t'fllct4'( ( ~ ~)
(vitarka-bOdhane pratipak¥J-bhlivanam)
33. Development of contrary thoughts
for prevention of evil ideas.

~ llJ4RllGli{l'ii ~acfirnB1~fi<$)~: '~R&ll~~i(, '3f.fff


Clf<&llfit' 'q{~Gl~lfll ' ~ ~ tlffi, ~41~q(l GJllft
'fifil<l~·l{t:q~ C1Ll!GHl llGlf<ch ~l{Uj~qJlal IBBl~<$i4f4\J11{ ; 9'~~GI­
~: cti10lltf1'1 Cll~l~HI ~:' ~fll~'i Sl<$iROI fcrn~R14~1"4ilq~­
~fll?f: 11

All these restraints and observances are the opposites of


determination to kill etc. When a yogi, who is intent on pursuing spiritual
absorption is confronted with such evil ideas as 'I shall kill this', 'I shall
speak falsehood', 'I shall appropriate other's property', etc. he should
develop contrary thoughts thus: 'I, being burnt by the fire of rebirth, have
come to surrender myself to the practice of restraint etc. abandoning
11-34) 119
SAl>HANA PA.DA

killing etc. If I were to revert to them again (i.e. indulge in evil ideas such
as killing etc.), it would amount to eating one's own vomit just as a dog
licks up his own vomit.'

fq{C\qQCfiRCfiROllCIHH~<!:4l&IR
31lfIT fctacf>101j m-: ~:
~ q;~~1' ~ ~2;qf8 -

Narrating step by step in five significant terms viz. the form, the
mode, the cause, the intermediate divisions and the fruits of evil thoughts,
he (Patanjali) now dilates on these to clarify the contrary thoughts.

rc-n4>f f8ft1«~: fitt4>1R<111"1R<11 fficq&>1Elin&'ifiq;1


i!!ifRUfitif1511 s: &1*1i•U"f"dl6(W)I lffi SIRtqa_:fcqiq"f'{ ( ~ ~)
(vitarkil himslldayalJ kf1a-kiirita-anunfbditli lobha-krodha-
moha-pDrvakil mrdu-madya-adhimlitrli dulJkha-ajiiiina-
ananta-phalll iti pratipak$(l-blzlivanam)

34. Evil thoughts, done caused to be done and approbated


to be done preceded by avarice, anger and delusion,
in mild, middle and intense degrees, are productive
of endless fruits of pain and ignorance; hence
the need for development of contrary thoughts.

f4aCfif rnf11~;q ~ fq{C\qfri~!(I: I m ~ fSt>ICfll\I - m


~, ~ Cfi1fta1, ~ Bffeq~j4lr~a1 ~ 1 a~ctCh1 ~­
'1f{'llf4m cqqfu - ~' 3iq<fa~~~R1 ~' wn ~ftj&1ffiR1
~ I °Q,Cf '1qftjNT ~ fum I ~: ~ f;{fcrtn ~
3-~ 1 a~cfq;1 IBfl1e:4lsft1 ~~(tjlR'il f;{fcrtn ~ 1
~ ~ cti1ftct1jJ:i1Ra1 ~ ~ ;rqm 'GC!alfa IBfll<11: fll(jfci~1f~ife:r
~ctki I ~ 3ffei ~ f;{fcrtn ~ - 12~12~4~12~f{11~-
120 [11-34
YOGASUDHAKARA

3: , ~ ~:, li~al~ ~ctlsH~1ls:1al~ ~ 1 ~


~ ~ ~ cif1C:Ff1cil mm
Bcaf4~1f8ifc:T cqqfu I
~ ct11Ra1j}"lif~a1 ~~Cfll~Tifc1~ mm
cqqfu I q:q+i•F11f~i:qfq lfl~it_I
~ ftjaCflT ~:"& ~:CCfll~CfliL - ~ ~1f;~H=i~14~tj
~ 31rRt ~ SPl~§~lfct ~ ftj acfi~ 1"{0 Ii cq IcFI fl:l f4 2f: I ~
~ %R ."Bfu Rfcfbi1 ll~l~ll: ~ 1 afffia&1 f;:i=aqRct>4~1u
~q~~:ll

Killing et al are essentially evil thoughts; thus at the outset the


characteristic form is pointed out.

There, killing ha three modes, i.e. that done by oneself, that


caused to be done by others and that approbated by saying 'Good. Well
done'. There again, each of them becomes three-fold by virtue of the
causal difference, i.e. through avarice for wealth, through anger on the
pretext that 'evil is done by this', and through delusion that virtue will
result in killing. Thus, killing becomes nine kinds. Avarice, anger and
delusion, each become three-fold by ·virtue of each being mild, middle
and intense degrees. In this manner, killing done, caused to be done and
approved to be done, becomes each nine-fold so that killing as such
becomes twenty-seven divisions.

Also, the mild, middle, and intense degrees become each of three
kinds in the sense of mildly mild, mildly middle and mildly intense;
similarly of middlingly mild, middlingly middle and middlingly intense
and similarly of intensely mild, intensely middle and intensely intense.
Thus avarice is of nine kinds, so also anger and delusion - so much-so-
that the earlier adverted killing done by oneself is of twenty-seven
divisions. In that manner, with killing caused to be done and approbated
to be done, each having twenty-seven divisions, killing as such has all-
told eighty-one divisions. And similarly, this should also be applied to
falsehood etc.
As a matter of fact, ·the evil thoughts yield endless fruits of pain,
hell, ignorance, the immobility of inanimate objects and a state of
Il-35] 121
SADHANAPAl>A

confusion and suspicion. Hence the development of contrary thoughts,


which are inimical to evil thoughts. When the avoidance of evil thoughts
are ensured by setting up against them contrary thoughts, restraints and
observances get settled without hindrance.

The implied sense of this aphorism is that, on settlement of this


through the purification of the mind, liberation is established.

Now, he (Patafzjali) shows step by step the indication of the


accomplishments of restraints, observances, etc. with intennediate results,
arising therefrom -

atfift1S1Rtte1lfi n<'tif.I~ &u41•1: ( ~ ~)


(ahimsa-prati~/Qylim tat-sannidhau vairatyiigalJ)
35. On establishment finnly in non-killing,
(i.e. non-violence, hannlessness etc.) in his (yogi's)
vicinity (there is) abandonment of enmity.

fl~IB*il~lf, a~1ffificfrf'4 ~ m mic:tfcl(ICG:Hi


'TI&:111"!1~0iP•1FY ~<1:=l11'n ~C4a1f4~: 1 q:e:~C41M~f41:ffi qlfBe -

'i:ua{lq tft ~ fclq~1f01 ~ ~ 1


fcf~lf!Mt? - t1C4ff01 ~IA~llf&R' 11 ~ 11

In the vicinity of the Yogi, who is superior to others, who has


achieved firmness by practising non:-violence etc. (in all cases, at all
places, at all times and at all event, cf Aph. II-31) and who has become
non-violent (in the true sense of the tenn), even cows, tigers etc. which
are proverbially incompatible with each other by their own nature,
122 [Il-36
YOGASUDHAKARA

abandon their hostility.n. This is what the saying of Vasi$fha means: 'The
rugged and the soft go to final beatitude in Mother~ all beings become
1
restrained through faith here •

32· In other words, a true yogi exudes around him an occult aura full of love ~d
compassion so much-so-that any being violently disposed or evilly motivated or m
absolute doubt of the efficacy of yoga, approaching his vicinity, is not only made
powerless but influenced to imbibe the exuded tranquility. .
In this century Dr.Paul Brunton, who was thoroughly disillusioned with finding a
real teacher on yoga throughout his wanderings in India in the 'thirties, finally met
Maharsi Ramana in Tiruvanniimalai in South India on the recommendation of
Kiinchi Para~iiciirya, His Holiness Candrasek.harendra Sarasvati. Hear his
experience in his own words. [Cf A Search in Secret India by Paul Brunton - Bl
Pubn. 1970 Edn. pp. 154-156 (1st Pub.in 1934)].
"The Mahar.~·i has been half-reclining under the waving punkh as I enter but he soon
sits up and assumes his favourite attitude. He sits with legs crossed, the right foot
plac~d on the left thigh and the left foot merely fo lded beneath the right thigh ... lt is
really a half-Buddha posture and quite easy to do . The Maha0i. as is his wont, holds
his chin with his right hand and rests the elbow on a knee ; next he gazes attentive!y
at me but remains quite silent. On the floor beside him I notice his gourd-shell
water-jug and his bamboo staff. They are his sole earthly possessions, apart from
the strip of loincloth. What a mute commentary on our Western spirit of
acquisitiveness!
His eyes always shining, steadily becomes more glazed and fixed ; his body sets into
a rigid pose; his head trembles slightly and then come to rest. A few more minutes
and I can plainly see that he has re-entered the trance-like condition in which he was
when l first met him. How strange that our parting shall repeat our meeting!
Someone brings his face close to mine and whispers in my ear, 'The Mahaf$1 has
gone into holy trance. It is useless now to talk.'
A hush falls upon the little company. The minutes slowly pass but the si lence only
disappears. l am not religious but I can no more resist the feeling of increasing awe,
which begins to grip my mind than a bee can resist a flower in all its luscious
bloom. The hall is becoming pervaded with a subtle, intangible and indefinable
POWER, which affects me deeply. I feel, without doubt and without hesitation, that
the center of this mysterious power is no other than the Mahar.:;i himse lf.
His eyes shine with astonishing brilliance. Strange sensations begin to arise in me.
Those lustrous orbs seem to be peering into the inmost recesses of my soul. In a
peculiar way I feel aware of everything he can see in my heart. His mysterious
glance penetrates my thoughts, my emotions and my desires; I am helpless before it.
At first this disconcerting gaze troubles me; I become vaguely uneasy. I feel that he
has perceived pages that belong to a past, which I have forgotten. He knows it all, I
am certain . I am powerless to escape; somehow, I do not want to, either. Some
curious intimation of future benefit forces me to endure that pitiless gaze.
11-36] 123
SADHANAPADA

~'k4S1Mtdlf.4i ktif.41CIH~l~4~'{ ( ~ ~)
(satya-pratiffhllyllm kriyli-phala-asrayatvam)
36. On establishment finnly in truthfulness,
(the yogi has) mastery over action and fruits.
~ ~' ~: ~ ~11fi{lct>l{_ ; o<ffir~ Cfl(Bl~OI
~' ~ "ilqf~fiq'{ I 4JfiH: ~llffalfl&Gl(J(tjl{ Cfl(Bl~OI
~:II

And so he continues to catch the feeble quality of my soul for a while, to perceive
my motley past to sense the mixed emotions which have drawn me this way and
that. But I feel that he understands also what mind-devastating quest has impelled
me to leave the common way and see out such men as he. There comes a perceptible
change in this telepathic current, which plays between us, while my eyes blink
frequently but his remain without the least tremor. I become aware that he is
definitely linking my own mind with his, that he is provoking my heart into that
state of starry calm, which he seems perpetually to enjoy. In this extraordinary
peace, I find a sense of exaltation and lightness'. Time seems to stand still. My heart
is released from its burden of care. Never again, I feel, shall the bitterness of anger
and the melancholy 'of unsatisfied desire affect me. I realise deeply that the
profound instinct which is innate in the race, which bid man to look up, which
encourages him to hope on, and which sustains him when life has darkened, is a true
instinct, for the essence of being is good. In this beautiful, entranced silence, when
the clock st.ands still and the sorrows and errors of the past seem like trivialities, my
mind is being submerged in that of the Maha~i and wisdom is now at its perihelion.
What is this man's gaze but a thaumaturgic wand, which evokes a hidden world of
unexpected splendour before my profane eyes?
I have sometimes asked myself why these disciples have been staying around the
sage for years with few conversations, fewer comforts and no external activities to
attract them. Now I begin to understand - not by thought but by lightning-like
illumination - that through all these years they have been receiving a deep and silent
reward.
Hitherto, everyone in the hall has been hu~hed to a deathlike stillness. At length,
someone quietly rises and passes out. He is followed by another, and then another,
until all have gone.
I am alone with the Maha~i! Never before has this happened. His eyes begin to
change; they narrow down to pinpoint. The effect is curiously like the 'stopping-
down' in the focus of a camera lens. There comes a tremendous increase in the
intense gleam which shines between the lids, now almost closed. Suddenly, my
body seems to disappear, and we are both out in space!
It is a crucial moment. I hesitate - and decide to break this enchanter's spell.
Decision brings power and once again I am back in the flesh, back in the hall."
124 [11-37
YOGASUDHAKARA

The characteristic of actiop is either virtue or otherwise and the


fruits thereof is heaven or otherwise. Mastery over them means the yogis'
mastering it. In other words, it means that yogis have the accomplishment
to bestow the fruits of heaven etc. by merely pronouncing it.

3i~_4Slffitat4i 'lMl4~M¥{ ( ~ \9 ) 33 ·
(asteya-prati~fhiiyiim ratnopasthiinam)
37. On establishment firmly in non-thieving,
all wealth comes to the yogi.

On establishment firmly on non-thieving, all divine-wealth


present themselves before the yogi.

i*&ITi44S4Mtat4i q14Mt\l: ( ~ l)
(brahmacarya-prati~fh iiyiim vfrya-liibalJ)
38. On establishment firmly in continence,
(there is) attainment of vigor.

414R-Om ~ ~~:q4q_ 1 arffio£l R\fa~14 ~ cqqfu


R\f8~1;qBi'1~~11f~•5f011 ;q1f1HI <Ff: ~l~'{Y~~I: W: qt"'>ctlffi 'qfq: 11

Restraint of vigor is indeed continence. On achievement thereof,


unsurpassed power comes into being (for the yogi). The idea is that the
instructions given by a yogi, who has achieved unsurpassed power, have
instantaneous effect on his disciple.

(aparigraha-thairye janma-kathamtii-samboda.IJ)
39. On achievement of finnness in non-acceptance of gifts,
knowledge of 'how' and 'wherefore' of birth (is kindled).

33
Vyasa, Vivekananda, Taimni as well as the Chowkhambha Sanskrit Santhan,
Varanasi, quote this aphorism thus: 3H:cl <isifaie1<ii l4 &<&iiq~f"1 tt_ 1
11-39) 125
SADHANA PADA

q;~fii~fll 'qlq: ~, 'llriilR Cfi2IBT ~= m: ~: ,


'{cflJfriiR cfils~ Chl~~nsfut5 fcfi Chllf'"!Ch{qfilfci Rf~IBllli Bcf+:Jq'i
4lnt'il f!RP~llf ci ~: 11

Kathamtii means the 'how' and 'wherefore'; that is to say, direct


perception of the knowledge of the 'how' and 'wherefore' of the birth. In
other words, the yogi gets a perfect insight into the knowledge of the
previous birth regarding all, i.e. 'What were I?' 'What was my standing?',
'What did I do?' etc. 34·

~~~ Hlli:iffl,1: ~ -
Having, in this manner, explained the results of restraint, he
(Patanjali) now describes the ~~sults of observances -

~ft~IMl§~4JLIHI qln•h:r•f: ('go)


(sauciit-sviinga-jugupsii paraip...asamsargalJ)
40. From purification (there arises) disgust with one's own
body, as also abstention of intercourse with others.

~ntj~liHctl <qlflH: ~ \!F;&l"fY~llctl '12Lfll cqqffi I · -


ftj'iOflcfls<:f Cf1Tlf: I 3hHiiff4~qMf.l~~r;f{;"1{ {'lqR_! ~ il~~~n4-
~: furn mcfil 'il'"ll~~'i ~ ~l@~I((? d~l{ -
''iqfi£9~1ial ®: {'lqki f!RChl ~ I .
~'~~ftil1~~:~TI~11 ' ef<11
~ ftjCfll~ '1:JJLfllcid: q{Cfillll ~di~~" ef<1 ~ti~~f"i~: m
;r CflGlfilGM cqqffi I ~ fqCfillJ5Jf4f '1:JJLfll ;i- ~If~ 'il4a~
RCfGCflROi ~? <1¥11{ -
'~~t_;izrRPI~ ;i- ftj{\l"ilrt "li: s;rq I
ftj{IJICfll<Di ~ fctlq;:;q5qR~lla 11' ~ 11

34
· A true yogi of the great vow is marked at once by the perfection indicated in Aph. 11-
35 to 39, as a result of practice of restraints successfully.
126 [11-40
YOGASUDIIAKARA

The yogi, who practises purification, having seen no purity in his


own body, becomes disgusted with it. The characteristic of the body is
impurity. How on earth, therefore, can the impurities flowing always
from the nine holes and the numerous hair-pores of the depressed body be
washed off?

It is said that the body is made of nine holes, that it exudes


impurities like an earthen pot with water and that neither external nor
internal purificatory aid is found to purify the body.

Thus, one, who is disgusted with his own body, does not have any
inclination, at any time, to have intercourse with others on the basis that
other bodies are also like his. If one is not disgusted with the odours of
his own body, what then?

It is said that the reason for one who is not bothered by his own
body's impure odour, is his indifference to it; what else is there to be said
about it?

He (Patanjali) dilates on the result of accomplishment of the


internal purification -

~~ijfai;\{{1¥49t~Cfil~~f.s:\4~41t't~~f"t4ln:t(qlR -~ ( ~ ~)
(sat'tvasuddhi-saumanasya-ekagraya-indriyajaya-
litma-darsana-yogyatvani ca) ·
41 . Purity of illuminative energy, delight of mind,
one-pointed fixity, sense-control and qualification
for perceiving the Inner-self also arises.
ffrqfll ~ogH£4&4ff~i:JMR~R1: ~:, ITTT: Ull'.l+P.:i fl~(t:h~: ,
Cffi l{Cfll£4 -;l~ "R"ffi iiiltflf~ll\llll : CTR 3ilc:i=l~~f~4JJll~ ~'€itifll8.1T­
~Rl~&:l it a 1~a 1R q\f4\~ ~tp1~1 Cl 1 ~~tjl~ctalf4if: 11
11-41] 127
SAl>HANAPADA

The warding off of the impurities such as jealously, envy etc. from
the mind, which is predominant of iJiuminative energy, is purification.
Thence, the delight of mind springs forth from such an illuminative
energy, so also one-pointed fixity, winning over of the externally
wandering senses, the capacity of visualising the Inner-Self and the
qualification for direct perception of the Spirit. All this, occurring
successively one after the other, one being the cause of the other, is, it
should be understood, owing to the accomplishment of internal
purification.

~hflt1h~•fdq~1'lSIC"Sl"1: (~ ~)
(santo~t-anuttamap-sukha-liibha.(l)
42. From contentment, unsurpassed happiness
is the gain.
fitl~f4q ;qlfiH: ~~0=f>qf~'"*1r;f\f8~14 ~ I ;r ~­
~ ~ tj~P:i&l ~ ftj~fliq >!Ri~c-5 cqqffi~?.f: I a~fh'"l -
'ficfl~lliciql~'i ~ ~IHilf<lf\{J~IJlcil: I
~~'lg)&I dql~~I sif8ftj~l~d II efd I

There manifests to a contented yogi, an unsurpassed internal


happiness, springing forth from the illuminative energy.35 · Besides, the
happiness, on the contrary, pertaining to sensual objects, becomes hostile
as if it were poison. It is said, 'for those, who have arrived at pacified
satisfaction by drinking the nectar of contentment, it acts as an antidote to
the incomparable sensual enjoyment.

Cfi1af~4mWJ:<:aWi:a:i41it4~: c~ ~)
( kliya-indriya-sidd'1 iJrasuddh i-k~lit-tapaalJ)
43 . From penance comes destruction of impurities
and thence perfection of the body and the senses ensues.

Js. Vyiisa quotes here from Mahabharat: ~ ~ ~ cr.;:q ~ ~ I ~


~: ~ ~ 11 ~ 1 Whatever sensual pleasure is in this world and whatever great
divine pleasure is there (in heaven), they are not worth a sixteenth part of the happiness
derived from cessation of desires.
128 [11-44
YOGASUDIIAKARA

mi:f~#,?lf~'il ~~IYIY8;1l!l.("Cfill!f<qlfUll11~fBf~:
~04qfc;asi~~12.f£11fc;(tjfflf~ifc:rnlfll2f: 11 •

On destruction of the afflictions and vices by mortification and


strict adherence to one' own duty, results in physical perfection such as
GQima etc. (more fully described in Aph. III-47) and also in the perfection
of understanding the meanings of substances subtle, separated by
anything intervening and of transcendental excellence.

{'C4taueufu:~~c:rn1ti~4l•1: ( ~~)
(sviidhyiiyiit-i$fa-devatii-sa mprayogalJ)
44. From study (comes) communion w ith
the desired deity.

By meditating through mantras or on the deity, conversation etc.


with such a desired deity is perfected.

fi¥H~ffifca~1SB<Sff01!4141(( (~ ~)
(samiidlii-siddhiJrlsvara-pra1,1idh,iiniit)
45 . From profound devotion to lsvara, (comes)
perfection in spiritual absorption.

~m 3'l Chll-FP"l I fl Ch0Ch4fl l4 qo 11 ct•P"i Ifl! rn f;.,<;:: wnfm~


~ >l1ITT!: Wf ~ 11
By surrendering all work (including the self) to lsvara without
expecting any desire to be fulfi lled, perfection in spiritual absorption is
achieve4. The spiritual absorption itself, which is the fixing of the mind
in abstract contemplation of the true nature of spirit, is the favour (of
lsvara in return) as far as it goes.
Il-46] 129
S.ADHANA PADA

~ Blql""fH4'l01o:<:titRll'41~~~ s:hi:J511C{1it!*i~ ~ at<h&


~ alctc!J~ -

Having, in this manner, explained the results of restraints and


observances, he (Patafzjali) tells about posture, the next in order, (cf Aph.
Il-29), its practice and its result~ -

f~<\i&qlti4'l (~~)
(stliira-sukhm-iisanam)
46. Posture is (that which is) steady and comfortable.

q~~f@Chlf<!:'il lll~~l'i ~ ~ ~{l~f'41cP'lq&l?OlljtqR1-


~ ~ ~Qil0'i~Jfu~C?aruf ~ ~ fiq~a , ~ g)@i:Jl~H~ I
4<llfHlf~~{i\tj TI lll~Cl~'i R~Nal"( -
' a;cfY{lqf{ fq~~ ~ q1~a~. ~ I
~ ~ ~ OljffilAUI TI I
q~IB~ 'qtj~af84~1'4Mcf.Jia~ II ~~ l ~'il II

That posture is the foremost, which gives the practician comfort


with no pain to his limbs, which has the characteristic of non-movement
of the body and which gives steadiness, such as padmasana,
svastikiisand&etc. while one fixes his body.

16
' Vyiba mentions several postures thus: ~ ~ - <IUC11 1RIT'tr-i cTimvi ~ t4f«l<t><0&Hl1
~ ~ lflh1f"l'l<=i t:ffilf.:lt1<'1~efo1t1~'1 ~ ~ ~ :ilf<M41cflf.:i 1 About postures, we say
there. the posture is that whish is steady, comfortable: that is to say, Padmiisana, Vlriisana,
Bhadriisana. Svastika, Dai:4iisana, SopiiSraya, Paryanka. kraunchani;;adana, Hastini!f(Jdana ,
U~.rra-ni$lldana. Samasamthiina, Sthirasuk.ha, Yath asuk.ha, etc.
Swiimi Vivekana nda's view on this aphorism is: 'Posture is that which is firm and pleasant.. ..
Until you can get a firm seat you cannot practice the breathing and other exercises. Firmness
of seat means that you do not feel the body at all. In the ordinary way, you will find that as
soon as you sit for a few minutes all sorts of disturbances come into the body. but when you
have got beyond the idea ofa concrete body, you will lose all sense of the body. You will feel
neither pleasure nor pain. And when you take your body up again, it will feel so rested. It is
the only perfect rest that you can give to the body and keeping it firm. your practice will
remain firm; but while you are disturbed by the body, your nerves become disturbed. and you
cannot concentrate the mind.
130 [11-47
YOGASUDllAKAR.A

Yajiiavalkya, however, describes the posture of Padmasana, thus:


'having mounted over both thighs, the sole of both feet folded in a criss-
cross manner beautifully (i.e. comfortably), enclose both the thumbs in
the palm in inverted order (both hands resting on both knee). Padmtisana
may be the greatly acknowledged one of all postures (i.e. easily the best
from the point of view of comfort).

Sltlr:tilM~l4"?1~'fiqR't\41'( ( ~\9)
(prayatna-saithi/ya-ananta-samlipattibhyiim)
47. By relaxation of efforts and by meditation
on infinite, posture is perfected.

~ -:q ~ ~1fchcti 3W1: I 'l'"H~t?~~dl2ff4'11;11R­


~ c:f: Qlf~ l1m1 3ffil~fcifll ~~I ~ 3Rl1$l ~C?l(~­
~1"4 GB!" ~ ~{lff8 I 410lfiQ~OI ~ ~l'lf~("Cll ~4011qf~ctl
<ns lfi'H '"f1 : ~ q:q 1~ i:i f4l R1 ~ Rra fll l'i ~ fi 141 qRI: 1 (f?.IT lf ~1 n>1 tt-
ri tj q1GCfi!Ol~fi RtGQci I 3idfcil'Rll!Ollfiri ~: 11

Relaxation of effort refers to the temporal remedy. One who does


not let him love wandering, engagement in household chores, going on
pilgrimage for holy dip in holy waters etc. is relaxation. Otherwise, if one
is inclined towards them, his body gets instigated, forcibly standing up to
pursue any of them.
By concentrating on 'I am just like that ananta. the Great Serpent,
who maintains the equilibrium by holding the world on his thousand
hoods', the mind is transformed into infinity. By this, the aforesaid
perfection of posture is obtained unseen. Hence by these two methods
posture is perfected.

ITT11' il:&:i"f fi:tu ra: <~ l )


(tato dvandva-abhighlital;l)
48. Thence there is no attack from the
pairs of the opposites.
11-48) 131
SADHANAPADA

~ ~If!~ ~na1ru1*3J©~:©iiH1ciiiH1Rs:~4~ ~
~:II

On attaining perfection of posture, the pairs of opposites of cold


and heat, happiness and pain, respect and disrespect etc. do not afflict as
before.

He (Patanjali) tells now about the breath-control, which is to be


exercised after perfecting posture.

ttf~:::ftffi stlltBPBlt'ft:flifffifcti3~: SUUlllllq: (~ ~)


(tamin-sati sviisa-prasviisayo}J-gati-vicchedal} prii!Jiiyiimal})
49. After achieving steadiness in posture, the separation
of inspiration and expiration is breath-control.

af~?tH'H~4 imr 51101141ii: 5!Fci~a1 'qqfu 1 tr ~ mm-


fillllffafcrti§c::+;q: I ITT smm- ;rrq ~l@f4 Cll~lFci{l'"l21 '1~ I )f58ru°:
~~: Cfi,'0'ilf4 Cll4lr:f:f!{Ulq_ I a'-fl~cqlfl~Jq ~: >l l0112118: I

CNr m- ~'0'ilf4
m-
~ ~ SUOiillli:t(•U&tl~~ af~~ltl~ {tjCht~5Ch1JPGCh>lCflR~
w~•ta<~•nRffi ~ ~~:; flcf~1fll
qllflf:pfiOJ~ ~: ; ~: >f~!B{t\Y : I etji~~
1

ql<ft<~rt:tf<oi ~: <:f: JSm{t\q: 1 ~:~: ~:, 21r~~0f4q


~ f.:1~.k'>a;q1 S11011&11 ~ 1 Cfi" ~ m~-
4llffctftjaj<'Js~tjf8 ~ ~@;IClChl~I: I
~ ~ ~sftr {tjCf1l[{Chlfl{iaj---CllflR~mi1al ~ ~
~ ~ ~:; 31f~ ~. ~l4>ll01llctfct~c::-
~ I
132 [11-49
YOGASUDIIAKARA

When firmness in posture is attained, breath-control is set up.


And breath-control is in the form of interruption of the movement of
inspiration and expiration. There, inspiration means the leading in the
external air into the lWlgs and expiration is the throwing out the internal
air. Nevertheless, the non-convergence of both the intake of air into, and
the expulsion thereof from, the lungs, is breath-control.
Objection: Certainly this is a general definition of breath-control.
The distinction is that in inspiration, expiration and standstill modes, non-
interconnection accompanies.
Reply: There is no fault in this, because it happens that
everywhere (inspiration, expiration and standstill modes) the motion of
inspiration and expiration is separated.
Verily, expelling air from the lWlgs is expiration, inhaling the
external air is inspiration and lengthening the duration of holding the
breath inside is standstill mode. Just as water is held standstill in a pot, so
also the life-essence is held standstill in the standstill mode. In that
position everywhere (i.e. in all the three modes) the motion of inspiration
and expiration is separated. There is no room for suspicion on this. 37
Objection: Even through there is no motion in standstill mode, in
expiration and inspiration the motion of inhalation and . exhalation is
known.
Reply: There is no fault in this because by intensive practice the
natural equal motion of life-essence with a break is achieved.

He (Patanjali) tells (further) about the practice of priiIJiiyG.ma -

37
· Cf Verses VII-294 & 295 of svacchanda tantra quoted by K!}emaraja in his
commentary on Siva Siitra III-5, p.139 of the English translation of Siva Sutra by
Jaideva Singh: ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~ ~ E!)a;;?J~ii11fqen:zi .:r 11 (294) tq.u_
"'i<Dlls:JEllBllDll<l l'lf{>(Ell ~: I~~ n 'f-l'~ ~: II (295). 'One should breathe
in through the left (nostril) and out through the right. This brings about cleansing of
the nadis (channels) and of the middle nadi, which is the path to liberation. By
breathing in and by retaining or stopping the breath, there are said to be three types
of priinayiima. They are all common and external.
11-50) 133
SADHANA PA.DA

it1811'4•~1'({'d"'lt!Mgv1Cfil&~@•Ufil: AR({~l ~~: ( ~ 0)


(bahylibhyantara-stumbh a-vrt 'ti}J-de5a-kiila-sankhyiibih
paridroo dfrga-suk~a!J}
50. The external, in.ternal and standstill
(priiIJiiyiima) operation, regulated by place,
time and nuinber becomes long and subtle.

~ iill&iqRt, ~ ~: , ~: ~: 1
a~ich) ~~11f~fi:r: ~: 1 ~ - ~ ~ ~M<:ilfulf("ll
'i1+11!1:BljJ@ ~'~~,,~&q4'fi ~: f!i:i1Clla , ~ TI ~ ~­
mn frpffll :qq;Rf~1fll'10q4;ft tj<=:JSi~1cag&q4;ft err fliflllla i "ITT ~
{i::tCfl~4"a'11Ri~I~ °Bfu - ~~ ~I~~ I ~ ~
~ ~ ff&tjl&~., R~aoq~ 1 Wt ~~1q{la;rr 1 )\tjct;Ch10 si101~1~"{141
~ ftj~1rar~~1f<!:flllf~M: Ch10q;(la;rr I 3iffi"H'"il~ sifct~~ ~ ~'
3i1~11n1ii1:8 ftj~1Ri'6=av:11:8 Gi~1Rfll1RM: fi@1q£lan 1 ~ ~m
~\if~14ll 1 ~ ~ ~~1oq1Mftj~1tfi .,,qJ1a:ia, ~ Cfl1C?ti@1-
&11M{qJ1~a ~ 1 ~ ~: >ifl1lfi:i1an ~ fcHC?a<:i1
~~ cqqfu, ~ muTisfi1 ~~IChl0fl@l~f'qifHl ~ ~
~~ fiq'Qa ~: II

Expiration is the external operation. Inspiration is the internal


operation and kumbaka is the standstill operation. Each one of these
should be tested by place etc. (i.e. place, time and number). That is as
follows:

Naturally in expiration, the respiration starting from heart is


terminated at the tip of the nose, travelling twelve inches. And by
practice, however, gradually, the respiration starting from the point of
navel is terminated either at twenty-four inches or thirty-six inches. And
there, when the excellence of expiration is accomplished, the length can
be ascertained for oneself by the movement of navel area of the body. It
may also be ascertained for oneself by the movement of a tiny fibre held
outside the nostril. This is the test of 'place'.
134 [II-St
YOGASUDHAKARA

While practising the operation of expiration, repet1t1on of the


breathing ten, twenty, thirty times etc. is the test of 'time'.
In this month, repeating 10 expiration every day, in the following
month repeating 20 every day, yet in the next following month, 30
everyday, is the test of 'number'. Thus in inspiration also, the same should
be applied.
In any event, in standstill operation, the test of 'place' factor does
not enter. Nevertheless, only 'time' and 'number' factors enter.
Just as a compact material in a gross lump is made long, subtle
and delicately fine by processing (i.e. by heating, stretching and
annealing), so also the life-essence becomes long, hardly perceptible and
subtle by practising with 'place', 'time' and 'number'.
~ ~s;<.f Qr.f>IV"ll~ -
Now, he (Pataiijali) tells about a different operation from the
three modes, recaka, puraka and kumbhaka -
i418)1i4~HfqqlU4qa_ff 38
· ~: ( ~ ~)
(bahya-abhyantara-vi!j(lya-anapek~ caturthl,ll))
51. The fourth is (one) having no regard to
the sphere of external and internal.

4t11~1Rh qf1 fcUilll ..Fd{ Rfi4l•uon ~: ~: 1 G12t1~1Rt>


ql~/"lllf~f+~1{ Rfic:ii:i1ons~:~: 1 {tjr.f>'{\r.f>lcHI~~ ~­
s~f4!"1H: ictt41qan '4'T ~?.ll <qqfd 1 f:i~1a~1R~~~Hi 1:i1cti1R-
~, a~ffiaHi ~ efa" ~: II
According to one's own capacity, after having evacuated air
outside, to retain it outside is external standstill mode. According to one's
own capacity, after having filled air inside, to retain it inside is internal
standstill mode.
Dispensing with both exhalation and inhalation, to practise
standstill mode alone, having regard to the three earlier stated recaka,
38
· As per Piitafzjala YS proper, the aphorism is: iill 6ll'Rl"~'Rfqt1t11~4l ~: 1 ~ means
having no regard and ~ means giving up or discarding. The 'sphere of the
external and internal' referred to in the aphorism is the movement of pra{tll to )2
inches from the heart and 24 or 36 inches from the navel.
11-53) 135
SADHANAPADA

puraka and kumbhaka modes, is the fourth. 39


It is prudent that those who have the defect of being subservient to
sleep practise all the three, recaka, puraka & kumbhaka and those who
have won over sleep, practise the fourth (i.e. kevala kumbhaka ). 40·

Our commentator's point is th~t, dispensing with exhalation and inhalation, the fourth
39
·
operation is to practise only the standstill mode, which is in confonnity with Siva
Siitra, cf verses YII-296 & 297 of Svacchanda Tantra quoted by K$€maroja in his
commentary on Siva Siitra, lll-5 p. 139 of the English translation of Siva Siitra by
Jaideva Singh: 6il'Rl"f1{01 ~ '{401><H1{01 !l 1 R:~ ~ ~ q;yzj1!'31"4"fi<IM: 11 (296)
~ $i!<n:i:q1\l'4i"i~f-i::ll'n:q\1Cl> ~~ ~ ~ ~: 11 (297). 'By the internal one
has to perform the recaka, by the internal one has to perfonn the piiraka and by the
internal one has to perfonn tremorless kumbhaka. Thus, the three internal
prii!J{ryiimas should be perfonned. The transition of prof.la from the heart to the
navel and checking it there, the withdrawal of mind from sense-objects and its
transition to the navel (by the device of pratyahara) - this is the fourth priiTJayiima
known as the calm or tranquil one (supra§onta).'
Now cf also Spanda Karika - Verse I-25 - O'i!I 11ftii""l~1ozi'lf" Sl<?i'1l?l~l'Glt41{ 1 m~'<14<::q'il:
~: ~li!"il~a : II (25 ). 'There the unenlightened yogi, by considering that state a kind
of deep sleep, remains stupefied, while the one who is not covered with darkness of
infatuation is established in that ether of universal consciousness and abides as fully
enlightened'.- Jaideva Singh' English Translation of Spanda Korikas pp. 105/ 106.
40
· Cf Taimni's gloss on Patanjali, the Science of Yoga, 7th Edn. 1986 (It Pub.1961).
PriiQiiyama has to be practised with puraka and recaka (inspiration and expiration)
for a long time, the period of kumbhaka being slowly increased over long period of
time. Such a kumbhaka, wh ich is accompanied by piiraka and recaka, is called
sahita kumbhaka. But after prolonged practice it is possible to dispense with piiraka
and recaka and practise kumbhaka alone. Such priiTJayiima, called kevala
kumbhaka, gives complete control over prof.la and enables the yogi to perfonn not
only all kind of physical feats but also to arouse and direct kuTJdalini towards
different centres in the body. This science is a strictly guarded secret and can be
learnt by a properly qualified cela (an ardent residential student with his preceptor)
from a qualified guro (teacher) ...lt must be clearly understood that these thing are
not meant for people who are leading the ordinary life of the world with all its
desires and indulgences and who naively want the peace and bliss of the inner life as
an addition to their multitudinous enjoyment in the outer world. The door on the
enjoyments and comforts of the lower life has to be shut completely and once for all
before one can hope to make any real progress on the path of Yoga.'
Our commentator, Sada§iva, was an adept in this pralJiiyiima exercise. Cf T.K.Balasub-
ramanyam's reference to the catastrophe that befell Sadasiva in Kodumudi, who had
plausibly gone into instantaneous kevala kumbhaka mode to escape from the
impending catastrophe. The priiTJiiyiima siddhi occurring naturally from the practice
of three-breath-exercise on perfecting yogasanas is one thing, but to go after it with
136 [11-53
YOGA SUDHAKARA

~ 5!011llll'i4i&l'il6
Now he (Patanali) says what the net result is ofpriiniiyiima.

oo: ~ Sfq:ji:tJllcif<UI'( (~ ~)
(tata}J k!jiyate prakiiSa-avaralJilm)
52. Then, the covering of the effulgence is destroyed.

51Cfil~lfll fi<cqflllct<oi ~ R~l&fllrR~g;: ~ ~cHflfll~: I 1


The inertia, which is the covering of the effulgence of the
illuminative energy and is the cause of sleepiness and lethargy, is
destroyed.

lfiC?HH416 -
He (Patanjali) tells about the contiguous result gained by
priitJiiyiima.
41
'!ii(Oii«!HHti ~: ( ~ ~)
(dhlira!Jli-yogyatii manasa}J)
53. For concentration, the mind attains fitness .
".>~TT'T""TTtO,~-:::r:::lr"TT'QirTTO."~::rTT'""'ltTTt':=r:::l°'mT:::l""l'T'hr:t RI =a fl! Iq ~ i"'1 ~I

mi 51101141~'""1 <il:tol<fil~f~l~~I("( a:fl:xo1ct1llfkl&flll~~ Flqlf<d 1'.1rIT


~ ~c.rnlfll~: 11
The dwelling of the mind in the substratwn, the navel wheel, the
heart, the centre of eyebrow, the aperture in the crown of the head etc. is
concentration. There, through breath-control, the mind, bereft of
oscillation worked up by the active energy, and the lethargy worked up by
the inert energy, becomes fit for concentration.
~ ¢fli:J5114"1 51fl!IQl<J0JIQ -

Now, he (Patafzjali) tells about abstraction, the next in order -

an intent of making it an end in itself is another, which, in other words, is ha.tham .


Our commentator himself clears the point in Aph.II-53 that praIJiiyama is a means
to eliminate oscillation created by the active energy, and the lethargy created by the
inert energy, of the mind. So, it need not be an end in itself.
1. ~ "i efff 1TIORi\l{ 1
4
11-54} 137
SADHANA PADA

4
2-fcHqfCtq<tl+is.cilit lititfct+l\qfff>I< $cd~4101i Sk4hU<: ( ~ )f)
(sva-sva-viF)'a-asamprayoge cit 'ta-svrDpa-anuk4ra9
iva-indriylll)ilm pralyllharap)
54. In the ab~ce of union with their own objects, the senses
following as it were the nature of mind is abstraction.

~1<¥P~h;:\q<fP1~1R~11~"41 Rqfda1: ~~1Glff~.h1fq~4'ij­


~c:f;:ffiqrqf8teo:a ~: 11

The meaning of this aphorism is, abstaining from the sensations of


hearing, touching, seeing, tasting, smelling, etc. the five sense organs
(ear, skin, eye, tongue and nose) stand by, imitating, as it were, tlie nature
of mind, 43 · which is abstraction, pratyiihiira.

He (Patanjali) tells about the result of concentration -

42. -~~~­
~l"l"l"CI 11m qidi"'tH'{ i
43
· Other thing remaining equal, the mind is activated by the broadly divisible three
distinct characteristics among other stimulations. Firstly, by the sensations
communicated by the sense organs, which activity is straightaway wholly from the
vibrations of external objects. The next is the sensations ,emanating from memory
stored up by the previous experiences and the third is the anticipatory future
prospect, which again is the off-shoot from the stored up previous sensations, the
latter two of which being essentially internal mental projections. Now this aphorism
concerns the restraint of the first, viz. those sensations that are communicated to
mind by the sense organs of the vibrations of external objects; in other ~ords, the
exhibitive sphere of the mind. Vyiisa comments thus: "(4~i!•Hill<l1•n'll~ ~'Ot<:IMljq)l<
~ . I filij~{IEf f.:rnc:tf;i!<'"l;fl~llil'Ui ~ITT~ll"1llq5q1llJ"'tl<'l~~;d I 1iYU ~Cfl<<l\iill;f ~
aNd"'tl'l'l.t'ldf;:a f'1~~1'11'1'1jRli:t~1;d a~f~ll11'U1 ~=aPiilil f'1<>"1'il~11 ~ 11 In the absence of
union with their own objects, the function of senses becomes, as it were, the
imitation of the nature of mind. On the restraint of the mind, the senses being
restrained likewise, do not yearn for any other means like the conquest over the
other organ. Just as the servantry bees fly and sit with the honey Bee-Queen, when
she flies or sits down, so also the senses are restrained when the mind is restrained,
and this is abstration.
138 [Il-ss
YOGASUDiiAKARA

'ffif: ~ Cl:t4df.s::41011'( ( ~ ~)
(tataQ paramii va$yatli-indriy4IJllm)
55. There (arises) the supreme control
over the sense organs.
~f:s:41011itR1~i&l'1i 1Ri1T q~l!ctl R~, ~~~tX:H:=<~'"d'iSH+l
{ffi~ll
The result of concentration is the supreme control over the fickle
sense organs, their steadiness and non-involvement in the external sensµal
objects, as far as it goes.

m; >3f1&i(Gtj$f&SIOTia cil'l~ll~
l(!11~1Ch<IMf.lllli ~
~i!t•NI«:

~:

Here ends the Second Chapter, Sadan a Pada


on the Science of Yoga presented by Patanjali,
now presented as the Commentary named
'The Ambrosia of Yoga'.
[ VibhDtiplidal)/

ON POWER OF YOGA - CHAPTER - III

[ Invocatory Verse ]

~: ffi;&r: ffiC6.1<E!IC1ctlg)tj"l I
C1"i q14aiflli1j~/ilqf8:!ql~~ 11

By worshipping whom the sages obtained


eight supernatural faculties 1·
To that lustrous Umapati, 2· the dispeller
of darkness, do we pay our homage.

1
· The eight supernatural faculties are:
~ ii ~ ii ~ <61'lqtlli11ol II
(• Read each one supplying "the power of' at the start):
(1) al}ima =•becoming as small as an atom.
(2) laghima = assuming excessive lightness.
(3) praptiJ:i = reaching anything (e.g. touching the moon with the tip of
the finger).
(4) priikamyam = (satyasankalpam) obtaining irresistible will.
(S) mahima = assuming the weight of illimitable bulk.
(6) Wtvam = supreme dominion.
(7) vaSitvam = subjugating by magic
(8) kamavasayita = suppressing all desires.
Also cf Aph. IIl-47.
2
· Umlipati = Maheivara, husband of Umii (Piirvat1) - Piirvati-Parameivarau - Cf
Kalidasa's Raghuvamsa: lnvocatory Verse:
l:lflf\!lf~q ~ qlj\lfSlfiNd~ I~: NITT1 ~ q1t{cflq\qwd II
To understand the word and it sense, I bow unto the parents of the world, Parvati
and Parameivara, the very embodiment like word and it sense.
140 [111-1
YOGASUDIIAKAR

~ '{ctft+i"tll~ ~qf{q~qJ~ldi_Cfl{0112f ~ ~
~ttfcktll!14l'i ~~1a4:_~Cfl4af~q1Cfla~ffo11fl!li{l;:ii ~:@ftj;:i ~
~ ~ ctqt.'°4 ~ ~{ltj@1f8 ~ .lfit1Rq:©c:h ~ffi{~:
~ ~' ~ ~l{Ullft;*"P1"fi'Gi:, Blll4q<!:ql'6lj ci<:!:ql"'d\lh&fc:f-
"ifcilltla ~ ~: ~ ~ ~ II

Having explained in this manner in the previous chapter the


expedients of yoga for purposes of minimising the afflictions that s?and in
the way of spiritual absorption and of producing spiritual absorption,
unfolding step by step the affliction, its source, its activities and the
consequences thereof resulting in birth with avoidable pain, the cause and
the avoidance thereof by the absoluteness of perceptivity arising from
revelation of puru$(1 through the means of the first five component parts
of yoga starting from restraint etc. being the exterior limb of the cognitive
spiritual absorption, now then, introducing the remaining three component
parts of yoga starting from concentration being the interior limb of the
cognitive spiritual absorption and with a view to defining the word
samyama (as practising together concentration, meditation and spiritual
absorption), with its iI1termediate result of illimitable power, in the first
place, he (Patafijali) defines concentration -

a~1d49t4f~-af<'1 tt1<011 <~)


(desa-bandha}J-cit 'tasya dharaIJfi)
1. Concentration is confinement of the mind in one place.
~ ~: 1 a3lltGR Rhif<4 ~: ~1qri err
~l\ulf1illa I Ci¥fil"( 4J'llll~q~ -
l!itf~:J)01¥lfq ~: ~Ri'll\J:tR I
~I {ul f(j)iZl a ~ f~ lffl I~ 11 {'ii ftj ~II{~: 11 mr II
The specific places, starting from substratum (iidhiira) are
mentioned hereinbefore (cf Aph.II-53). Fixing the mind confined 3 · there

3
Here Vyasa says: ~ 6C:<i~o:su&i ~ ~ ~ ~ $~C\"llf<'.! ~ GfT6) ?fl ~
~ ~ ~ efo m\UTT 1 The confinement of the mind by each operation in places
as the navel sphere, the lotus of the heart, the head, the shining part (i.e. the centre of
ID-1) 141
VIBHfm PADA

(at any one place) or in the inner soul, is concentration, it is said. Yogi
Yajfzavalkya says: 'The mind harnessed by quality restraint, has the stance
in inner soul, which is called concentration by the wise and the proficient
men in the science of Yoga'.

He (Patafzjali) defines meditation, which can be achieved by


concentration -

ITTf Sltti~Cfidl"idl 9.4191'{ ( ~)


(tatra pratyaya-ekatlinatli dhylinam)
2. In that place, the unbroken continuity of
cognition is meditation.

ITT ~cthti~~l >1ftp:i~<=fa11ria1 l{&>ftjtp~>ici1~: ~ ~ ~f~nJ


fctRۤ~ \Jflll'""!Hl ~ ~ I d~JO( -
'~ F,:r,::d;:f • •
jtj('51~ ,...,,1"1 <fJ<:f'"ll ~ClClff<"!ll~JOJIQ I
qf<f~li ;:i flriil~ Rlc;H~ ftjR.l~~Q II II efo
There, in the aforesaid place, continuity of cognition is the
uniform flow of cognition on one object. Also, that continuous flow being
interrupted again and again becomes meditation. It is said, 'Lamenting on
all variations of thoughts arising in the consciousness step by step, one

the eye-brow), the tip of the nose, the tip of the tongue or any external objects, is
concentration.
The point is that 'external objects' are not precluded as 'places' by this
commentator, the significance of which (there is nothing in the aphorism itseif to
preclude them) may include idol worship as well, which, inter a/ia, may embrace
distinctive trees, stones etc.. on the idea of iivara or God, whose omnipresence the
idealists feel therein and thereby attain the highest stage of spiritualism, which not
only proves the basis for such fonns of worship in tenns of scriptures, but that this
form of worship of an image is as efficacious as a stepping stone for the successful
climb to the summit by average aspirants, is not gainsaid; for, it is only by some
such means the young mind, in the initial stages, are groomed to give a d~finite
direction towards spiritual aspirations on maturity, which takes place doubtless over
a long period of time in any one's life.
142 [IB-2
YOGASUDHAKAR

should direct one's thoughts towards only just the left over thought and
joy'.•·

The uniform ' flow of intensively uninterrupted meditation is


spiritual absorption, which he (Patanjali) defines (in the next aphorim) -

tt~<:urd°¥i15if.t'4m ('q~q~I~f°iict t1tt1FQ: ( ~)


(tat-eva-artha-miitra-nirbhasam svariipa-sunyam-iva samiidhil,l)
3. That (meditation) itself, manifesting Truth alone
as if devoid of its own form, is spiritual absorption.

~ 'Ull'"l~Cl ~~CflJTiiH<illl ~ ~l""i«i~q~f4Mq ~


fl41ftr4c:ifct 1 a5n>~ -
~~IChlVHlqRl>1C1i~\s~q>f8 fcRT I
ft51~1cifl41~: fC!:llO@Hl'R'llfl51Cfl~ci: 11 ~ 11
'"ll~l~·l~"il{~'fll~: ~lt'"illl; {ti~C!:~ ftj{llil"i(tjl("(I w:rT ~ -
~:m \J11ll4H: 51~l!l ~ I a50=f>t:tf0=f>~Cfl(Oll­
j*fttiH+iaj{o1q ~lP41~'TI~"Hcilll ~: ~: I ~ Q\tjl4<~<1'lf­
~: \4{41i;{q{'fl4~etCfll&l'8 ~ ct1 R {~{\Ji~ 410 ~I ~{Si >I Cfll ~I li ll fl~ ~Cfll­
G'"lCl~~~ll{~51Ul ari~q~{(i{4jCld4H: - I q{~{l'lf­
ci_cfChR<l~>llY~'i cifC!:llN ~ BcfqRIR<l~l~q1\J1: ~ -
d5'ffi~ - '~ qRl~fllfC!:I jl~ICfll{cilll W-mf:
lllB>1~1a'il41tt~ ~ 11'
~ fcriwn ~= 11
4
• Vivekananda says in his book on Raja Yoga: 'The mind tries to think of one object, to
hold itself in one particular spot as the top of the head, the heart etc. and if the mind
succeeds in receiving the sensations only through that part of the body and through no
other part, that would be dhiirna (concentration); and when the mind succeeds in
keeping itself in that state for some time, it is called dyana (meditation).
IIl-3] 143
VIBHUTI PADA

That meditation itself, abiding in the meditated object and


manifesting itself as if standing devoid of it own form, becomes the
spiritual absorption. It is said, 'Should the flow of mental operation of
prayers be without the egoistic pride, the practice of meditation would
increase the cognitive spiritual absorption'.
Here, that the correlation between the subordinate and the
principal (i.e. the meditation and the spiritual absorption) is a perpetual
compactness, need not be doubted because of the slight difference being
noticed. For instance, the interaction of the doer (i.e. the yogi) and the
means of action (i.e. his mind) being the forerunner together of the rising
consciousness, is meditation. Through the elevation of meditation, it is as
if within the interaction of the doer and the means of action that the object
alone within the sphere of meditation manifesting itself (as if devoid of its
own form, cf Aph. I-43), is spiritual absorption.5·
On restraining all mental operations by an attempt to restrain even
that (i.e. the habitual potencies of the spiritual absorbent cognition, cf,
Aph. 1-51) by the practice of the highest non-attachment it becomes the
ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption. It is said, 'The _stance of the mind,
which is devoid of operations, is in making the prayers. This absorption is
to be called after the nomenclature, 'Ultra-Cognitive' · (i.e. beyond the
cognitive).' This division as such should be seen as such.

5
Getting into this cognitive spiritual absorption, is beset with certain definitive obstruc-
tion and this has been lucidly explained by Taimni in his Science of Yoga cf
pp.2 81 /282 : 'When the state of dlryiina has been well established and the mind can
hold the object of meditation without any distractions, it is possible to know the
object much more intimately than in ordinary thinking, but even then a direct
knowledge of its very essence is not obtained and the reality hidden within the
object seems to elude the yogi. He is like a General who has reached the very gates
of the fort which he has to conquer but the gates are closed and he is unable to enter
the fort. What is standing between him and the reality of the object, which he wants
to know? Aph. III-3 , (which means the aphorism under review now) gives an
answer to this question. The mind itself is preventing the realisation of the very
essence of the object of meditation. All the distractions have been completely
eliminated and the consciousness is fully focused on the object of meditation. How
does the mind interfere with the realisation of the very essence of the object? By
interposing consciousness of itself between the reality hidden behind the object and
the consciousness of the yogi. It is this self-consciousness or subjectivity, pure and
simple, which serves as a veil to keep it separated from the object and to hide the
reality he is seeking.'
144 [ill-4
YOGASUDHAKAR

~ ttcfq1~~f! ~:m:o11f~~4 6141@1~ ~ &ICl~IU."51\::fcOlf


tj~i:i<'i~l"llQ -

Having, in this manner, explained in the previous sections (cf.


Aph. III-1, 2 & 3) the particularities of the three component parts of
Yoga, commencing from concentration etc. he (Patanjali) designates
them (when practised on one object) as samyama for brevity in usage (in
the next aphorism) -

Sfq"iji" ~: (~)
(trayam-ekatra samy_amal})
4. The three (practised) together
in one place is samyama.

In one place (practising all the) three (i.e. concentration,


meditation and spiritual absorption) is called samyama6· (a significant
technical term 1in Yoga).

What next? Hence, he (Patanjali) says -

d\$\iil41&~1M1C$: ( ~)
(tat-jaylit-prajnli-lokal))
5. From its conquest, the intellective-vision (arises).
6
· Samyama may be translated as 'holding together' but it would not convey the
significance of the true sense of this technical term. The question would arise:
'holding together what?' Samyama is the continuous passage into the last from the
first, one following the other (that is to say, dhorana. dhyana & samodhi) and
making one in the sense of separating the object from the internal part to behold the
shining Truth, which is attainable by dexterous yogi instantaneously (cf notes under
Aph. Il-35). Of samyama, Vytisa says: ll:<tiftit!<41fbl ~ ~ rn ~ 1~ ~
~ ~ rn ~ 11 The three means, being engaged in one object, are together
called samyama. This samyama is l:he technical term of this trio.
111-5] 145
VIBHUTI PADA

. .
~ fl<4l1fll ~
~cfrll ("'(:l~: 11

On the conquest of fixity through samyama, the beholding of the


absorbent cognition follows, (that is to say, it become the intellective~
vision full of truth.7 ·

Now then, with reference to the point as to applying whereat the


fruit of intellective-vision is begotten, he (Patanjali) says (in the next
aphorism)-

~ ~ fc:tf.t(j}41: (~)
(tasya bhiimi~u viniyogalJ)
6. Its application is by stages.

ercttn>fl ftj ach Rfcf achfl fcrq I\R fcftj I{I~~ ~ <-! '1 ~ ~ f;p•~l JI:
CflctOQ : 1ITT RlR 1fh: ~: 1cfcrcf~-rF1\J1~;fl:a\1'Afrffcf:q1\1Rnwn ~­
ms;:iq~1~1,l"!@1f8lj)flll'Q B~a1~S1wa'"l{t'lqi -
cilfl1<4T~: 11

The application of samyama should be made at all stages of the


earlier adverted grounds, namely the suppositional, clear-thought,
reflective and non-reflective thought transformation etc. (i. e. savitarka,
nirvitarka, saviciira, nirviciira (cf Aph. I-1 7 and 41 to 49).s. There the
applied samyama should be at that stage which is the next to the
conquered stage, with the result that, having produced the faultless
discriminating self through infallibility obtained from the non- reflective

7
Cf Aph . l-48. That is to say, the stage, reached after treading suppositional, clear-
thought, refl ective and non-reflective thought-transformations (savitarka, nirvitarka,
savicara, nirviciira etc.), cf Aph. 1-42 to 1-47.
8
Vivekananda says - 'That should be emp loyed in stages. This is a note of warning not
to attempt to be too fast.'
146 [III-6
YOGASUDIIAKAR

thought transformation (nirviciira) the really shining intellective vision is


produced. 9·
3IB ~ fisi~lctfl~IMS!~llfl ~1<01f~~lfli~'l'i\·Mf4I~ -
For this very reason, he (Patanjali) says that the trio beginning
with dharaIJa [i.e. concentration, meditation & spiritual absorption (sam-
yama)] is the internal limb for the intellective vision of the cognitive
spiritual absorption.
9
· Here Vyiisa says - ;i- ~f"1dl~<'f61<'1'*1ef4 ~ Sli'*l'f>i~ ~ ~ cl<'Ml""'i ~ ~:?
m
{ti<Slfiil~l'11f..,'>lol'tH'f%f<l ~ '11tH'l[61~ 4<fil'tl:tll'11f~~ ~: I Cfi*"11'tl<eff41'"4~qiq 1 JC1f<tlt'l I
~ ~<1·11~<1 ~ m q:cilq1t2l1<1: ~ ? ~ ~ -
~ crriiT mozU ~ 4111tBMdd I
11)~ ~ ~ ~ \'ffi ~I I mr II
Nobody indeed who has not conquered the lower ground (stage) gets samyama at
the higher ground by jumping over the intennediate ground. Because of its absence,
quo vadis his intellective vision.? Nevertheless, for one who has won the highest
ground by profound meditation on livara, it is not necessary to gather knowledge of
experience in lower grounds. On what consideration, it is so? Because of the
achievement by other means as if it were from practice in the previous birth (cf
BG.Vl-42 to 44, see below). Here Yoga alone is the teacher of the first ground and
the next to that ground. How? it is said -
'Yoga (spiritual absorption) should be understood by Yoga (samyama, the
trio). Yoga (one pointed attention) proceeds from Yoga (the expedient of
Yoga). He, who is vigilant with Yoga (in the course of expedients of
Yoga), rejoices in Yoga (union) forever'.
BG. VI-42 to 44: -Spoken by K~na to Arjuna :
~~F~~ 1
~~~'lR~ l l ('t~ )
~ if ~f"*i4)1j ~ ~4~~4i'i_ I
«<ffi ~ mIT 'Ti: ~~ II ('t~ )
'i.qfi<llfl"l ~ ~ ~m ~: I
~ ~ !ti0<¢!t!l1Faqcf(l II ('t't)
Alternatively, he (one who has strayed from the path of Yoga but attained
the regions reserved for the righteous) is reborn haply in the family of
yogis themselves, who are endowed with wisdom. That one should have
a birth like this in this world, is indeed much more difficult to attain.
Oh! Joy of Kurus! (Arjuna), there (in that birth) does he get in touch with
consciousness that belonged to him in the previous life and also does he
put forth greater effort to achieve perfection in Yoga.
By virtue of the self-same antecedent practice, he is carried onwards
even without much effort. A mere wish even to know Yoga takes him
beyond the instructions on Brahman though the sound of Veda.
10-7] 147
VIBHUTI P ADA

S(~q;~Hi ~: I I ( 1.9)
(trayam antarangam piirvebhyal/t
7. The three are internal in relation
to the preceding ones.

1c.ff=ct>1 : tra ll 41 <;ll: tj 51 ~I ct fl! 51 f8 iiF~;Fh51fll8,:PII~51 1 o11 ~ii ~51a.1-


ll st oII fSCflll I ~~~·I fU I; -~~.hi ftj ~ ll ci ll I fl \J1 Ial lfrtj IQ&l{O II~~ ll 4 ~~·­
Mfll~: II
The earlier adverted five, restraints etc. (i.e. restraint, observance,
posture, breath-control and abstraction) are external limbs ·of the
cognitive spiritual absorption because they are related to the destruction
of the obstructions, such as the impurities in the visibie body, in the
respiration etc. These (the three, i.e. concentration, meditation and
spiritual absorption) related to the mental sphere, are considered the
internal limbs because the cognitive spiritual absorption belongs to the
same species (i.e. inhibitive operation).

Also, because the ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption is of a


different species, there being no mental operation (in that state), it
(samyama) is the external limb (of the ultra-cognitive spiritual
absorption), says he (Patanjali) -

<'ICU fQ adg <fi' f.i aff1:11 @"I (l )


(tat-api ba/1i}J-angam nirbrjaya)
8. That also is the external limb of the
seedless spiritual aborption.

fct\311 ctl ll (tjsftr tj51~ 1a11~h·q 1<;ri~1:U qCfi1Ra ll I ~fu:i::~·c.=qiOJ fc4~<G'l I


a~cnqq:;1f{~4~~IG*{~l!Ri_;'4C{il{: '~;;.<;:icfi4fl2RH"'1111Jio;i~1tt4Ch ~ITTt:41i(
~I
148 [111-9
YOGASUDIIAKAR

Even though of different species, because it (samyama) assists


[seedless (i.e. ultra-cognitive) spiritual absorption] by production of the
intellective vision in the cognitive spiritual absorption, its extemality (to
the seedless spiritual absorption) is not incompati,ble (cf Aph. I-20). 10·
With this assistance in view, the author (Patanjali) has made the earlier
adverted aphorism (viz. I-20) reading: 'This is preceded by faith, prowess,
memory, spiritual absorption and intellective vision in the case of others'.

~ '~ <Slfi?Uf R4f\l"I~ ' ~~~ 1 c.€ts~ f:i~: fP"ll~R­


~-

Certainly, it is said, 'that also is the external limb of the 'seedless


spiritual absorption'. What is this seedless spiritual absorption? With

aaet114R~l~ -cqfcfi
reference to this, he (Patanjali) says (in the next aphorism) -

fih114ctttl f.i~)Etqfi 011q: ( ~)


f.Hl!:1Ma.m-

(vyutthii.na-nirodha samskii.rayol] abhibhava-priidurbhiivau


niroda-lak¥JIJa-cit 'ta-anavayo lJ n irodh a-pariIJtimal})
9. The suppressive transformation connected with the mind
9f the suppressive moments is the respective dissolution and
evolution.ofthe exhibitive and inhibitive habits
(i.e. impressions formed during practice.)

~: ~: I ~ :q ~ 41n1>1ll~'i
TTt-51f8-::,+,~:,.....r4 ~ :q ~, nfuW.f.HI frm~H=i~l~J: ~ I
~ ~ RU<q q:ctCh~~ f=c=.if1Yj'l"C£9Ri I msll41~~ir~ ~­
qf{o11lfl f:i;sff\ll: ~ II
10
· Evidently, here Yoga Philosophy doe snot contradict the position of Vedanta Da.fona
in-as-much as the latter establishes that Brahman is self-sufficient, self-manifesting
and not dependent on any action. Our commentator has made it clear in his
comments on Aph.1.20 that seeded spiritual absorption precedes that of seedless, in
other words, on attainment of the intellective vision and on the cessation of the
seeded spiritual absorption, the seedless spiritual absorption emanates.
F'l<l~~ti)fcl ~ I
ID-9] 149
VIBHfJTI PADA

The uprising exhibitive impressions in the mind are the enemies


of spiritual absorption. And while the yogi through his efforts by means
of restraint every day and every moment overpowers them, its enemies,
the inhibitive impressions, manifest themselves. Nevertheless, in that
manner, the act of restraint every moment follows the mind. This, the
suppressive transformation of this kind of mind, becomes the seedless
spiritual absorption when all is restrained 11 • (cf Aph. I-18 12·, 49, 50 &
51 ).

~ '~ qf{u11fii4l IB mcrr ~ fi1R1~1:ffi:' efo '"41~"'1


Rrafll ~ qf{o11J"i5!ql~ q'ffi&:J: ; m ~ qR1>1C4I~: ~:
R{l 06ftjf1~ TI c:n~fiif?'11~1~"tHli1~ - I
11
Vyasa comments on this aphorism as follows : ~ ~ ~ '.Ju1qffif'lfl'1 <t1W<Jt{'IC:i i
f.:mqflo 114: ? 61?4Hf-iilEHit<111<lll<M'Gq5ll5"Gici1 f-iiltlf50jfimi..q<fl f'1-0tlqRDll4 : I 6!!Ci!l1'1tit411~f~:;
~ ~ Slf<l<llNCfli ~ Slf<l<lR<l~ ~ ~: I ~ ~ f.:«NqfRj4'1<N'Gq5l5•lf<l1 O!l"Ci!l1'1tit4il-OR-
~ ~ f.,i1Ei*1t&11<I ~ I~ f..:raq~fn ~ ~ 5ffti~ tit&il<i'42lic4 f.R1tf-
qflu114@:J ti~l<~ri firafim; f-iiltl@itl1 iXll@li'1'{ II When the activities of the energies are
changeful, what then is the nature of the mental transfonnations in the moments of
the suppressive mind? The uprising impressions (exhibitive habits) ~e the
characteristics of the mind; they are not cognitional , so they are not restrained by
suppression of cognitions. The inhibitive habits are also the characteristics of t?e
mind. 'Their respective dissolution and evolution' means that the exhibitive ha~tts
have been destroyed and the inhibitive habits are manifested. 'That the suppres.s1ve
moment is connected with the mind' means that, being otherwise than hab1~al
potency of the single mind in every moment is the suppressive tran~formati~n.
'Then the mind remain with residual habitual potencies' is explained while
describing the inhibitive spiritual absorption.

Swami Vivekananda clarifies this aphorism thus:


'That is to say, in this first state of samiidhi the modifications of the mind have been
controlled , but not perfectly because, if they were, there would be no modifications.
If there is a modification, which impels the mind to rush out through the senses, and
the yogi, tries to control it, that very control itself will be a modification. One wave
will be checked by another wave, so it will not be real samiidhi, in which all the
waves subside, as control itself will be a wave. Yet this lower samiidhi is very much
nearer to the higher samiidhi than when the mind comes bubbling out.'
12
Our commentator, while commenting on Aphorism 1-18 has also explained this
position to the same effect.
150
[ID-10
YOGASUDHAKAR

Certainly, the mind should be said to be always bearing down


modification, based on the principle that 'its nature is indeed subject to
transformation every moment with the exception of the Con-Science-
Power'. There, the flow of operations of the strongly excited mind is quite
obvious but, to the restrained mind, how does it work? Apprehending this
(question), he (Patanjali) replies (in the next aphorism) -

~ s.~11~~1ma1 ~t<fi1utt_ <~ o)


(tasya prasiinta-viihitii samskiirat)
10. ~ts tranquil flow comes from habitual potency.

~ ~MGl\i41~Rrn~ qf~~=a{l=a{ct~I 51\ltj&fci, flM~l~stap)


~ fch~i011"<4R1, ~ ~11Ricf~ ; (fey R~CG:~=a~=au­
~ >rVn1: S!Crn f8 I m C£cf'{cf>!~ Iii \lJ Ra:8 W"IR l!:ctl "a ;j) "a {Sf ~I JOf fl!
C61{01Mf4a: ~ cfilsfq ~: efa' 'qlq: II

Just as fire becomes flammiferous by augmentation of casting of


oblations of faggots and clarified butter, one on the other, and on
diminution of faggot etc. it become a little calm in the first instance and,
later on, grow more and more peaceful, so also more and more abundant
calmness flows into the restrained mind. There, only the habit formed for
the generation of calmness earlier on, becomes the cause for tranquilising
later on. And, therefore, there is no fault in the occurrence of bearing
down tranquility. Thus is the nature (to be understood). •3·

~ ~ R4lsn:p:11f~ fi>1~1atiA1~qf{o11J4-
~ -
Having explained in this manner the suppressive transformation in
the seedless spiritual absorption, he (Patafzjali) proceeds to explain the
transformation in the cognitive spiritual absorption -
13
Here Vyiisa says. f1Ul!tit4ll<lil f1Ul!ti%1<1'41t1412CllQl!(11 stl?IH'l<"llfti'll ~ ~ 1 offi~1v11oil
O'j(t!ll'1Elf4011 ~ ~: mm~ ~ 11 Depending on the dexterity in practice
of inhibitive habitual potency, tranquility flows into the mind from the suppressive
habits. If there be any mental blindness to that habit, then the inhibitive habitual
potency is overpowered by the exhibitive habitual potency.
m-111 151
VIBif(JTI P ADA

~C1~4ilsHttil: a:t4'«"" fih'ffQ {'tq1fttqfl:o11q: ( ~ ~)


(sarvllrthata-ekilgratayoJ:t k~yodayau cit'tasya
samlidhi paril)iimaJ:t) ·
11. The transformation of spiritual absorption of the
mind is the respective decay and rise of
all-pointedness and one-pointedness.

'l\ifl2u1;i ~ ~ fiqf;q~12lf~t:o11f8 I ~
iJl(."'qJ:ll;:j
<~101fll ~ ~'4'"110lYi 41fiH: >lllM~~lt~OI AA AA fiqf~ai
a.:ft<ffi, t(&ll~cil =c:fl~Ri I dl~fiMfifll qf{o11XOi: ~ 11
Mind, being goaded by active energy, takes . up step by step all
sorts of obj~ts. By the skilful effort of the yogi practising the restraint of
the activities of the active energy, all-pointedness decays day by day and
one-pointedness arise. That kind of mental transformation· is called the
spiritual absorption.

Now then, referring to what is one-pointed transfonnation, he


(Patanjalz) says (in the next aphorism) -

14 ·,11=<flR(1~ gl"'4Sk4C4~ R.i~~C61~dl4ROllq: ( ~ ~)


(sllntoditau tulya-pratyayau cit'tasya-ekiigratii-pariIJllmaJ:t)
12. The one-pointed transformation of the mind is the respective
past and present (being) equivalent in the cognition.

~ll~smo:, ~ ctdt!H: >!flqll~fi~Ri: I ~: 5!fl'•P4l Gf


~ 'Jea11ra ~ ~~R::a1strr 'Jt:ofi;q1i:L ~ rit ~~ct' 1~­
Rraqf{o11!4 Q>ct>1£1flf1~a 1 ~ ~: ~ ~Cfll!lat­
qf<o11Ji~ ~: qf{o11'4f~ ~ifqflo11Ji ~f1iAd I ~ ~-
152 [III-12
YOGASUDllAKAR

UW1Tsf4 ' - : ' $("'q~'1 ~ I ~ "lf2IT - ~


~ ~ I a~Hl41<"11'6Cl4R("'ql~'1 qdJ:iHl'6Clf<:f!Cfll'C: ~-
('lll~'ilalal'&l~lct>l'l: 1 ~ Cfil01qfaj?lfll a~q ~flllq~1qf{o11s:fl­
sftf '69J~HRD~fitcnl\lll{~q>ll~' $~~'1 fiJttlla I ~ ~­
Cfil!la1qf{u 11q~Ja.i ollq'841qf{o11i:ff ~-;i~~ 'i ~ lq ~(C'~;fj 41 I

'Santa' means the past, and 'Uditii' means the present, cognition of
the mental operation. Should the consciousness take the same object even
in the present as that of the one taken in the past, then the two (past an~
present) become similar. This kind of mental transformation is called the
one-pointedness. 15· In this manner, these three minds, viz. the suppressive
transformation, spiritual transform.ation and the one-pointed transforma-
tion, are called the characteristic modifications of the transforming mind.
Thus, the symptomatic transformation also, is adverted to by such
a phrase, nirodha-k$(1IJa-chit'tlinvaya (i.e. connected with the mind of the
suppressive moments) (cf Aph. III-9). It is like this: The symptomatic
course of the characteristics of the transformation is three. There (it is
first) abandoning the future path, (second) accepting the present path (and
the third) abandoning that and accepting the past path.
Even though this very thing, separated by time, is the transformed
state of suppression, yet it is praised in chorus as vyutthiina-nirodha-
samskarayor-abhibhavaprlidurbhiivau (that is to say, the respective

15
· Here Vivekananda says: 'How are we to know that the mind has become
concentrated? Because the idea of time will vanish . The more time passes
unnoticed, the more concentrated we are. In common life we see that when we are
interested in a book, we do not note the time at all ; and when we leave the book, we
are often surprised to find how many hours have passed . All time will have the
tendency to come and stand in one present. So, the definition is given; when the past
and present come and stand in one, the mind is said to be concentrated.'
The editor of Vivekananda's glossary, Swami Gambhlrananda, sum s up all the three
aphorisms, 9, 11 & I 2, thus: 'The distinction among the three kinds of concentration
mentioned in aphorisms 9, 11 & 12, is as follows: In the first, the disturbed
impressions are merely held back, but not altogether obliterated by the impressions
of control which just have come in; in the second, the former are completely
suppressed by the latter which stand in bold relief; while in the third, which is the
highest, there is no question of suppressing, but only similar impressions succeed
each other in a stream.'
111-13) 153
VIBHUTI PADA

dissolution and evolution of the exhibitive and inhibitive impressions


formed during practice). 16·
Thus, the transformed state of spiritual transformation and the
one-pointed transformation is worth being inferred from the tw~ (the
previous and the present aphorisms) (cf Aph. III-11 & 12).

~ qf{UJll'f~lf fi4i:ufu~ffiqj)Cflll'f : 'fi4+i~~'il~-


511f8~~1fc1 -

With a view of explaining the power of samyama in the hitherto


described three transformations, he (Patanjali) shows, at other places, the
aim of samyama -

~ '{df.s=:~! ~~OficH•$>.41qf<o11ttl ~l@'littl : ( ~ ~)


(etena bhiltendriye~u dharma-lak$f1.na-avasthii-pari¢mii
vyiikhyiitii/;l)
13 . By this, the transformations of the characteristics,
symptoms and states in the elements and in the senses
have been explained.

~~~~~~I~~~­
~ ~ ~ - ~l@lcil S::~~ I: I (f;f 'i~qfli
~fi:fuj) E!C:ICfll{yf{o11ii) ~qqf{o11+i: I ci~Cf ~ ~-
flll~'i q dl'f 1"1 l'ttjfcflCfll'(: (i(qf{fll l~'itctla l't"1:1 qfb:~Ql ~ 0 Iqf{o IPi: I
ci~tj EIC:fll ~ ~ qf{o11i:fls~1qf{o1p•i : I 3IB: ~ qf{o 1 1~;ft
fu ~ ~ RIR1~1ij:)f{f8 ~: 11
It should be seen that, by the aforedescribed three mental transfor-
m ations of the characteristics (symptoms and states), the modifications in
the elements and in the senses vis-a-vis the substratum, have been
explained.
There, the substratum in the form of earth, when transformed into
a jar, is its characteristic transformation. The acceptance of the present

16
· Cf Aph. III-9 .
154 (III-14
YOGASUDIIAKAR

path of that very characteristic of the jar, is by abandonment of the future


path, on abandoning which it has seisin of the past path, whicp is its
symptomatic transfonnation. This modification of the jar itself from
moment to moment is its transfonned state.
In a nutshell, therefore, it nature is indeed subject to
transformation every moment with the exception of the Con-Science-
Power.

The characteristics have these three kinds of transformations. He


(Patanjali) shows it substratum (i.e. the characterised substance) -

~11~1r~a1aNa~lf~qfiq1ffi Qiff <~ ~)


(siinta-udita-avyapadesya-dharma-an upliti dharmt)
14. That which follows the past, the present and the
unpredictable characteristics, is the substratum.

~: ~dc:t11~1\I a:rffic:rr: , ~ '5'kSl~{Olf~a•41ql{1fcu~1


qdJ:iHI: 31oqq~~41: ~Rf;{t':qo1 'l<:!:fe>~ ~ ~ 3i;=jl'lcil: I
a1~a1o:t1214~ct<;R~141qJ4H1~1sj4~frll~Ri , m s tj4j41ctl ~, ~
1'uf~os1'?.lP:n"1'i<:!:lfu:fh"?•p!f: 11

Here, .Santa means the past-performed functions, udita the present


acceptance gladly to fetch water etc. and avyapadesyii (unpredictable)
means the ener_gy in yet unmanifested form inhering earth etc. of the
substratum. Just as the incessant clock follows and passes over revolvll}g
inexhaustibly, so does this consequential following of the substratum with
the aforesaid functions (of the past, present and the unpredictable). It
(substratum) is just as the powdered (earth) and the lumped (earth), being
the inherent part of earth etc.

+~q;~ ~: qf{o114~~(tj q;) ~gJh~a 3W -


Now then, on what the cause is for the manifold transformations
for one substratum,-he (Patafijali) now clarifies (in the next aphorism) -
111-15) 155
VIBHUTI PADA

di"fl;:q(ij qflo11in~fil ig: .( ~ ~)


(krama-anyatvam pari1Jiima-anyatve lzetulJ)
15. The differentiation of succession is the cause for
the differentiation of transformation.

~ ~ofNos4l: Nus~24lcfc::Cflq1&4l : q1cifq#q~q~p~(tj


<t~C:fJ"iH~Cfiflll ~ ~: qf{o11BHi ifOlfi{l'ii 'E":!Bfu1114~(tj ~@f4Cfl: I
t;!\qJ4"1IJl(1qffJ"iHl<fla1~ ~l1@~01qf{o11J"i1~ci:i ~ ~ I ~
~Dl4'lUl'llll ci21al01i ~qf{o11l1~~011ci~1qf{o11i:i1~ci:i ~II
The powdered earth succeeds to a lump, the lump succeeds to a
cup and the cup to a jar, suggesting that the only one and the same
characteristic of the powdered earth is the cause of the differentiation in
the transformation of form being seen successively one after the other. It
should be understood that, in this manner, the yet urunanifested, the
present and the past paths are the differentiation in transformation of
symptoms in succession. In this manner, it should be known that, in every
~uccessive moment of the jar (under production) there is hardly visible
but subtle transformation, which is the differentiation of the successive
transformation of states.
~ ~ ~ 31T 41~~J:Jlcii: fic:p1f<:! ci"dffi:q(.l
q~f)Cf)l{~l4"11ll ~ -
Having, in this manner, explained the aim of samyama, he
(Patafljali) proceeds to explain till the end of this Chapter the power of
samyama for the purpose of suggesting subjugation of various objects of
senses-"·

17
· As a prelude to succeeding aphorisms, Vyiisa say thus:~~ ~: ~~~ 1
~ Slf<l'llf"l&ll: ~ q~'fl'llf"l&ll 3l 4 R'if'! I~ "' ~ 'Wf<lj'll~'1 Sll Ndq<Rj'fml~JcU : 1 '~­
~: '4fturri:fts~ ~I ~~ ~ ~ Glif'1<F->fct1: ' II~ I I 3lO) 'llTfiR 3%'1fi4Ml"lf4
~"jft'fla1if54foqf1~ ~ ~ ~ 11 The mind has two characteristics: the visible
(parid~!ii) and the invisible (aparidr,<;fi i). There, the visible is the cognitional one;
the invisible is the substance itself. Further, the invisible ones are only seven,
proved by inference to be in existence in the s ubstance itself: 'Restraint, peculiarity,
habit, change, life-force, activity and power are the invisible characteristics of the
mind'. Henceforward, the subject of samyama is described for the yogi, who has
attained all the component parts ofyoga, to get the desired object.
156 [111-16
YOGASUDHAKAR

qf<o11qstl4fil4q1~rtla141i1t1*114¥( ( ~ ~)
(pariIJlima-traya-samyamii.t-atlta-a n ii.gata-jii iin am)
16. From the samyama on the three-fold transformations,
comes the knowledge of the past and the future.

~rna~a qaj: atx:H1'k11~ll ~s~: ~ ~:, ~ ~­


a;ia llC:ff141~4 qf{o llit~~ tj l!it l~i) f11;{Jsffi a HI' I C"f cH°1fl la;i I0tllil <qqfu I
Rl*i*i=ctj m R*i'fa:
~~ \'51«14li0i0>1R1~~ tjll~'i
~ ~ S!CilUlq~q~ wf \51Hla1Ri 'qlq: 11

The substratum has three characteristics. These three paths, the


not-yet manifested, the present and the past, are in them~ these become
the states; so, out of samyama on the forms of the three transformations
of characteristics, symptoms and state, direct perceptio n comes to the
yogis of the substance of the past and the future. The illuminative energy
of the mind indeed has the inherent disposition of shining spontaneously
on all manner of things. On destruction of the connection of the
impurities of active and inert energies by samyama irrespective of
authority, 18 one knows all. This is the meaning.

:/iai;idS4f4l4141f'ia{tH IWI~ IR"f Cfi (ta&~cqm­


fil4qlfftcf~afio*114'( ( ~ \9)
(sabda-artlta-pratyayiiniim-itaretarii.dhyiisii.t-samkara}J-tat-
pravibltii.ga-samyamii.t-sarva-bfl uta-ruta-jfziina m )
17. The sound. the object and the idea are commingled because
of cohabitation with each other; from samyama over
thei r divisions comes knowledge of all li ving beings.

-~ inR~m inRFrt ~ ~flll~IC'5Yf0sct ~1~1451fe1-


l!HIMC"f{a{l~IBlffiCflt ~: I ~ qofcx:i'Wii ~ Y~Oll'W4 qrq<f
~1~1Rqfll1 m~CflMRi ~1~aftjfl; 31"2it ~cx:i1Rqf=czfl ~~~afCfJ:f!
~l~\Jit=4lS~: ~ efc1 ~l'idfqf{ ; ~ "lf: "S!fcrmTr: ~11~1Rf>~
18
Here, our commentator has in his mind the authori ty of the scriptures.
ID-17) 157
VIBHUTI PADA

f~ CG:'RI ffA ;aj ''"Pi Iffi cf~l&;I ~cHttChl\*!_tjcfl ~ ~ <i C1~11;i


cqqffi, ~iti:i2fqa fifll<~ ~ ~ \J1Hlffif'42f: II

Cow is a word sounded, cow is the meaning of an object and cow


is an idea, ideated in the consciousness; hence well-known knowledge of
cow, from the child to the learned, from the commingled sitting of one
upon the other of the sound, the object and the idea.
The suggested sense by implication of the letters, is the word; the
suggested sense by the implication of word is the sentence; its
encompassed power is the informing, which is the true nature of sound.
Object means the expressed primary meaning and the indicated
secondary meaning. This is the true nature of object.
The meaning of the sense objects proceeding from the sound is the
idea, which is the true nature of knowledge.
Accomplished through samyama in every division with the
science and the expedient, knowledge of all sounds etc. of all the living
beings, of birds etc. is subjugated. The meaning is that one who practices
samyama on sound, meaning and idea understands that certain sounds of
the birds etc. agree together with a certafo object.

't'ifttii(+iia_iit'C6(Uiit'{ciG11M*11"1'{ ( ~ 6)
( samsklira-slik~tkara IJlit-piirva-jlitijiiiinam)
18. From direct perception of the habitual potencies
comes the knowledge of the former birth.

~: fJ2R1CfJ~l~C1q:, ~: ~:'l51~C1q : , efd ~


fitchl<lf~.h1~Gf: icf\J1'41Y{AHIBfila1: ~ I ~ ~clttj'j)fi:la~ ~ tj4q.,
~ d~9)("tj'i 'fCflllY'lChl4l{cf\J1;:qq{AH141: ~ cqqffi I ';j"
~ '8W>IH~lfli1Ci:fl2f ~ ~ ~1~4llll{_; flljGi"*'IB%l{tj4-
~ icf\J1'41B1a.110*i1.Uc=<ra: ~ fll"l~fl'"l 11

The afflictions born of personal experience are the causes of


memory of afflictions. Those born of acts are the causes of pleasure and
158 [III-19
YOGASUDllAKAR

pain. These two kind. of habitual potencies are the characteristics of the
mind.
They (the potencies) are the uninterrupted series of accumulation
from former births. By practising samyama over the heard, inferred and
directly perceived causativeness, there arises the direct perception of the
accumulation of habitual pot~ncies of one's own and others.
How, by practising samyama on habitual potencies, there is direct
perception of former births, need not be doubted. It is sound that from
samyama on habitual potencies there is direct perception of the origin of
former births, which is because of their union, possessing continuity on
account of their uninterrupted succession.

fu@"*1VH~ -
He (Patanjali) tells about another accomplishment (in the next
aphorism) -

SH~ti{Olf q(~'t1*1i"f'( ( ~ ~)
(pratyayasya para-cit 'ta-jniinam)
19. Knowledge of the mind of others (is directly
perceived on samyama of their notion).

By making samyama on the notions of another mind, there is


direct perception of the knowledge of other minds.

~ B~1n11~1Cih1\ra i;j~ ;m:rra;i 1(tj")l{q r&fi Y<Rl=a fl 1e.11 ~' {1~1 c»-
kl01~ 1~ ~ ? ~ -

Now then, by means of direct perception of the habitual potencies.


there is direct perception of their uninterrupted continuity (in the case of
the individual consciousness). Is there (likewise) knowledge of support
(objects of other minds) by direct perception (of the knowledge of other
minds? No, says he (Patanjali) (in the next aphorism) -
111-20) 159
VIBHVTI PADA

19
·:f ~ (1('{"1f(J;k1;j (1~jfctq4}~fl('Cff(( ( ~ 0)
(na ca tat siJ.-iilambanam tasya-avi~yTbltiitatviit)
20. But not its support, which not being
the object of samyama.

4'lRraq1:;i ~ ; '810~ri fiftji:p:j TI ;i- ~'


cH"410~'1fC41~1<1?C41fl I ;:r W r&>ffej·lfu:'il~la filllOJ5lfi : '8lir~ I ~
q{f-t=:rd ~ -'~'4~'1 ~l~f'41~Gl•:ff fchAl0~'1flif8 fqfifd ~
~ ci6*il&'i141&1"4ri l:i1Hlf8 I \1Jllfo:ct'dllf1 ~ ~
~ fc1~1~: II
Only other's mind is directly perceived but not its support and its
object, because its support is unknown. Indeed, there is no thrust-like
samyama into the unknown (support in other's mind) by means of
traceable mark (as in a proposition). If one, having known the other's
mind, gets direct perception by mean of samyama of what the support is
(in other's mind), then he understands only that support for the time
being. 20· The peculiarity is that there is always direct perception, however,
in emotionally integrated minds because of their identity.

Cfiilf'(C\qti4iutt{~iij]~lffi>~fl) ~~:
!JICfi l~lltiS44lltS ~Etf..'( ( ~ ~)
(kliya-rupa-samyamlit-tat-griihya-saktiJ;rstambhe cak~u.(1
prakiisa-asamprayoge-antadhiinam)

19
· In Vyiisa's commentary, this aphorism has not been taken as one of Patanjali's but
quoted as a comment by Vyasa on the previous aphorism 111-19. Our commentator,
Vivekananda and Taimni have treated this as a separate Patanjali aphorism proper.
20
· Here, Vivelcllnanda says thus: 'He would not know the contents of the mind by
making samyama on the body. There would be required a two-fold samyama, first
on the signs of the body and then on the mind itself. The y ogi would then know
everything that is in that mind.
160 [111-21
YOGASUDIIAKAR

21. From samyama on the form of the body, on stoppage


of the receptive power and for want of contact with the
light of the eye, the body becomes invisible. 2 1·
Chlllf4 ~~dl514J\llcfl ll~qiOffta aftii;ajtqJil~H~ ~q~ ~­
~4Tij]cil'j)~&l'41: "ffif>: ~ 51f8~;0 "B'fu ~ ~,
~~~~:II
When by making samyama in that form (i.e. rupa, the subtle
element) which is prompting to the eye (the discernment) of the body, the
favourable receptive power of that fonn by other's eye is stopped, that is
to say hindered, there is no knowledge (to others) due to it (the body of
yogi) not being the object of perception for other's eye; hence the
invisibility (of the body). The invisibility of the yogi's body to other's eye
is accomplished as desired by him.
dffiit;::(;j=:-ilf8R!:~1R1 -
He (Patanjali) assimilates elsewhere the principle stated here -

12
·~ ~l<IEJ~ttf"i~ffi'( ( ~ ~)
(etena sabda-iidi-antardhiinam-uktam)
22. By this, the disappearance of sound etc. is explained .
~ ~lll ~l«SGfll~f{t'·qn:p 1;:m;IT B'4~1¥7-i l?J ~ IQJ(tj fBf.;,<;\{ifhl
ii cfrfi R1 tj R!:a oq l{ 11
It should be understood by this (i.e. by the principle of the
foregoing aphorism) that the accomplishment of non-receptivity (in
others) of sound etc. is achieved by practising samyama on one' own
sound, touch, light, taste, smell etc. , is explained.

21
Invisible to others but one does not thereby cease to exist otherwise.
22
· Cf Bengali Baba' English translation of Vyiisa' Sanskrit commentary on Yoga Sutra
of Patanjali, p. 79 of 1982 Edn. Vyiisa has not treated this as an aphorim proper but
his comment at the end of the previous siitra is 'etena sabdiidyantardhiinam uktam
veditavyam' (i.e. by this it should be understood that disappearance of sound etc.,
has been mentioned). Vivekananda, Taimni and our commentator have treated this,
and Aph. m-20, as separate aphorisms.
III-23] 161
VIBHiTTI PADA

mqa:>q f.t<(C\qd')q ~ cn+f a('{'j4q1(t\4(1'1'1*11"1'l ( ~ ~)


(sopakramam nirupakramam ca karma tat-samyamiit-
apariinta-jiiiinam)
23. Action is quickly fruitive and slowly fruitive from
samyama, whereupon the knowledge of death is perceived.

«lq~tj ~fi:f'lftjq1~ q;if, f:i~q~tj ~ RHftjq1~ Cfilf ~


~ fi;q~;:i ~l(l::hl'll:afuq1q:;µ:i11~1sq{1;JlsctBH~ (ff4"

~Hi:tJjf&:F~~Slj)q:)Cfll~ ~ q:;1c:iftj<:ilJI ~ ~ cqqffi II

Sopakrama is that action which fructifies quickly and


nirilpakrama is that action which fructifies after a long time. From direct
perception in these two by samyama (comes the knowledge) of the limit
of the longevity of the life (i.e. the time of death). In other words, there is
direct perception of the knowledge of the country in which and the time at
which one's disunion of body (death) would occur.
~ 4{01*i_i!q:)Jilt? -
In relation to the ordinary death indication, he (Patafijali) say (in
the next aphorism) -

n.3Tfti~ qr ( ~ ~)
(ari~feblzya.IJ va)
24. Or from unfavourable symptoms
of approaching death.

31f{qrllfill;:ffi("'llf{~1R ; - 4{UlfC'5fi·IR
~ qr ioi{Ul~l;:j ~q("'lllflf11;:fls~~: 11
The unfavourable symptoms (i.e. ill-omens) of approaching death
are like the terror caused by an enemy. The symptoms of death are three-
fold (which are) adhyatmika etc. (i.e. adhyatrnika, adhibhautika &

23
· This is not treated as a separate aphorism either by Vyasa or by Vivekananda nor by
Taimni but quoted by all of them along \'.rlth the previous aphorism . Consequently,
the latter two co.unt the total aphorisms in Chapter lil as 56, while our commentator,
by virtue of treating this as a separate aphorism, counts 57 in Chapter 111.
162 [111-25
YOGASUDIIAKAR

adhidt;iivika). From them, the knowledge of death occur even for yogis, is
the meaning.24 ·

(maitrT-iidi~u
ballini)
25. By making samyama on friendship etc.
comes strength (power).

4=x•ufC!:9) fillq~ ~ ~&1R cflllif01 cqqRf, ~lfTJn >11f01q1=;tt4


~@q>{: ~~ctfa, ~:@l~CG:aT cqqfu I ~1~~1'81;:(0f'41';tl{ I ~ ~
~ fchf,:t ct"! 4 f«1, fill 41 '4 IC( IfC::<:'ll 2f: 11

By making samyama on friendship etc. there comes strength (~.e.


power), by means of which the yogi becomes happiness personified, kind-
hearted and an eradicator of pain in other beings. He (the yogi) is
indifferent (i.e. neutral) only towards one who is unconcerned. There is
no power united with it (i.e. neutrality) on account of samyama therein.

~ gf~an..,1a.1f.4 ( ~ ~)
(bale$U hasti-ballldim)
26. Among strength, the strength of elephant etc.

~fkl~j!i4<1~1i ~ a~1tj1 fi""PffctlR ~~IR 4lf1H: ~­


'CTRl, ~*1fq ~: '8cf'814V4ffG<:'ll~: 11
24
· Vyiisa says in respect of this ,aphorism thus: - ~ ~ f,ifqti4ft1!!41Elllf<4'1<Mlftl~fo•MI~­
~ "l' I MMlf('tlci; ~ ~ f4fuct1*loif Of ~ ~ ~~ -;r 1ITT'fu I dill~~fMi ~­
~ N<fitflctl'11'1C11'1q;*'11M4fc1 I Mlfll~fl:(cf; Wf'11'1*'1ifffi<;;i;:ql ~ I ~ ~ tiiffllN~ .. ~
"'11'11f44<1"'d:(4f~af>ifo 11 The three-fold unfavourable symptoms (ill-omen) of
approaching death are adhyatmika, adhibhautika & adhidaivika. There, iidhyiitmilca
(relating to body and mind) means one does not hear sound after closing one's ear or
does not see light after closing one's eyes. So also adhibhautika (that caused by
other beings) means one sees the officials of Yama (the god of Death) or sees the
arrival of one's past ancestors suddenly (in the present). Similarly, adhidaivilca (that
coming from gods) means, one sees suddenly the Heaven or the Perfect ones
(siddhas). Or one sees everything topsyturvy or by all these (ill-omens) one knows
that death is near at hand.
IIl-26] 163
VIBHUTI PA.DA

By making samyama with imagination on the strengths of an


elepltant, Hanuman etc. (Rama 's disciple, whose strength is legendary),
their strength becomes manifest in the yogi; the meaning is that the mind,
of its own accord, has all the power.

S4<f('Ql&lifi;<Q1.-.1~~ctmafcu11~>E!~i::tq_ <~ \9)


(pravf1i-llloka-nyllslit-suk~-vyavahita-vipr.akr~fa-jiiiinam)
27. Through application of the effulgent manifestation
comes knowledge of the subtle, the obstructed
and the dis~~- sense objective.

~lfatl4dl ~ I ~ GtTSlll'llMlchl lilllrcHl&~4


R4~r~t1=rci ~ ~ q{J41oc:m~1 ~cx:ic~Fc?a ~ ~
qcf;:acffJ:cf!llf'il~1 ~ ~l~IBt~ql~~j ~ ~ ~ ; ffl\IMlCfl-
tj Sf 4} ' II Ci2: I~ ~ I8;11 6*i l{q f~ff4 2f: II

Pravrt'ti means the effulgent manifestation as adverted to before


(cf. Aph. I-36). By projecting the lustre of the effulgent manifestation,
that is to say, by the support of the luminosity of the pure illuminative
energy of the intellective essence, on the subtle infinitesimal atom etc. on
the hoard etc. concealed in the womb of the earth and on the remotely
grown elixir etc., in-between or inside Meru (mountains), their
knowledge becomes the direct perception (of the yogi), just as the summit
of a mountain is perceived by the advent of the sun-light.

'JC1"1*114 ~ fi4q1(( ( ~ l)
(bhuvana-jiiilnam surye samyamlit)
28. By making samyama on the sun (comes)
the knowledge of the universe.

~~1111f~~iQ~lP{«1l'llff>fri ~ 8lctl41~ AldOsJ4us0 'Eilfl'll~~lf 1-


m R:ffl iltj;{~I :J)q'ilR ~: I ~ ~­
USM~ll~ ~'tj'iffi rnf.GJt~iZ!a "
164 [IIl-29
YOGASUDHAKAR

By making samyama on the glittering orb of the sun wreathed


with thousand of rays such a SU$Umna (one of the seven principal ray of
the sun supposed to supply heat to the moon), the undivided conspicuous
mind perceives directly the fourteen regions of the universe. 25 · In this
(yoga) Science, this direct perception of whole world is said to be the
attainment of Madhumati (supernatural faculty).

~ ctHC61&{~*11"1'{ ( ~ ~)
(candre tiirakii-vyuha-jfiiinam) 26
29. (By making samyama) on moon comes the
knowledge of arrangements of stars.

~ tl~RCfi\~~ ~ *4R~~l~~ti ~ I
~ ~I q Cf)(tj Irj ct=i ll ii Ifkfl 18,11 (tj") I~ ;r if crnl R1 'l1fCr:

25
· Vyasa enumerates the fourteen regions thus: - ~: t1«k'>lq,l«l':licilil: ~ ~
4Jqf<('ilq ~: I ~~~"'31<1<'4 ~ !l(i'i~'l(11{fqf<Qi!S~: I '('1'0: tR: ~: ~ lfTR-
~ 'ffiq;: I ~: ~ 4tic;?T<flf«fqf<l'j ~: iimlT ''Ht''>lct1tacilf5)cti: ~ efo I 'ill~f(>l'{f'1Chl
'ffiq;: l!l'Jtlqfq{'l'lffl ~I '4TB:~ t<IRt"g'ihl fzyf oru ~ 'SNIT' mi ti!lt:liB'liii: I o:! lcilil<iqgcff< ~:
qD4(iJ1(Cfi"i.'ll(I q'\t1f6<'51 •k'llf'lt"SICfil ~l i14:3lftrer 'l(i1 Cfil<'5iat<Jq(i(q4{il-0<qiii1 Mf!.'ll~olf'1('1 1 : I <l""l ~­
~:~: 3lffeR: Cfie:'.'ll~<.'fefq;1e41~"4 ~ I ffi1T 4{il(1<'5(t1Jaf51of5~of5fq(1 f5CH"51oC?41olC?J<9QJf'l
~ ~ 1 Its (i.e. of the universe) expansion comprises seven regions. There,
beginning from Hell up to the back of Meru (the pole of earth) is bht1-loka.
Beginning from back of Meru up to the Pole star decorated with planets, asterisms
and stars, is the terrestrial (bhuvar-loka). T hen , above that, the divine region (svar-
loka) is five-fold; the region of Mahendra is the third. The fourth is the mahar-loka
of the Creator, Brahma, which is of three-fold thus: janaloka, tapoloka and
satya/oka. The short verse (on thi s point) is, 'the reg ion of Brahma is of three-fold:
maharloka of the Creator; Mahendra is called the suvaf_I; in the sky are stars and on
the earth the creatures'. There in the Hell, six great hells encamped one over the
other, which have firm foundations respectively in earth, water. fi re, ai r, ether and
darkness; these are Mahakala, Ambar/,,·a, Raurava, Mahiiraurava, Ka/asutra and
Andhatamisrii, where the beings, who are to suffer pain consequent to their own
actions, are born after having cast their long life of difficu lties. Thence the seven
26
P~tiilas_: viz~ Mahiitala, Rasiitala, Atala, Sutala, Vita/a, Taliitala & Piitiila.
Vyasa, Vivekananda & Taimni quote the aphorism as 'candre tara-vyuha-jniinam'.

.....
ill-301 165
VIBHOTI PA.DA

By making samyama on the disc of the cold-rayed moon j..n


relation to the ascension and descension of the asterisms, (the yogi) gets
direct perception of the definite settlement (arrangements) of the
~terisms. Because the sun overpowers the light of the asterisms,
samyama on the sun does not yield direct perception (of their
arrangements). This is the-state.

~ a~Rt~l"i'l <~ o)
(dhruve tat-gati-jiiiinam)
30. (By making samyama) on the Pole Star, (comes)
the knowledge of the motion of the Pole Star.

~ fiC4i:tl'C11~i ctl{C~ilOlj 7Tffl \J1Hlf8 - 3l"fft cll<Cfil'fil ~


~1Cfi'"l'il41 ~~alcF~it:HltHi llajctlf8 II

By making samyama on the Pole Star, (the yogi) get to know the
movements of the stars; that is to say, which star goes along with which
planet and from which point to which point. n
2
'· The last two aphorisms deal with the general law, which regulates the spatial relation-
ships of the heavenly bodies and their relative movements. In this connection,
Taimni says: - '...It is well known that motion is a purely relative thing and it is not
possible to define ·or detennine absolute motion . We can measure motion only in
relation to another object, which is fixed . This is the law upon which all other laws
of motion are based. Now there is only one star in the sky whose position is
relatively fixed and which is, therefore, considered as a symbol of fixity. This is
called Dhruva, or Pole Star. This star may, therefore, be taken to be a symbol of the
fundamental law of motion referred to above. By samyama on Dhruva is, therefore,
meant not samyama on the physical star which bears that name but on the law of
motion, of which it is a symbol.' '...Those who are familiar with the philosophy of
modern Science, will recall how Science is always aiming to discover a simple and
fundamental law, which underlines a number of diverse laws working in a particular
sphere. Such a search is based on the intuitive perception of the fundamental unity
underlying manifestation. All laws of Nature operating in different spheres and
apparently quite unrelated are really derived from the progressive differentiation of
a single comprehensive Law, which expresses the working of Nature in its entirety.
That is why it is possible to integrate minor laws into more comprehensive laws
progressively and by performing samyama on one aspect of a law to acquire
knowledge of all other aspects.'
166 (111-31
YOGASUDHAKAR

Having, in this manner, described the external accomplishments


(of sense objectives), now he (Patafzjali) proceeds to explain the
accomplishments relating to the Self -

011F\4ii4di ctittt~g~l"i'l ( ~ ~)
(niibhi-cakre kiiya-vyiiha-jiilinam)
31 . (By inaking samyama) on the navel circle (comes)
knowledge of the anatomical & metanatomical
constitution of the body.

Cf>lllf4 ~ ~ iifOlt<Cf>l&:i G~l~t?q_, ar~aj4i:u­


~ ql("1N"alfu:fi~tj~1ftj~l~ \l!Hlct1fl4~: II

By making samyama in the centre of the body where the navel


circle known as maQipuraka (a mystical ·circle) with ten petal is situate,
(the yogi) gets to know the distinct arrangement of gas, bile etc., of the
body.

CfiOdifq 41fNqltflR<tM: ( ~ ~)
(kaIJ.tha-kiipe k~ut-pipiisii-nivrt'ti/;l)
32. (By making samyama) on the pit of the throat above
epiglottis (comes) cessation of hunger and thirst.

f"l@l8~l'l~ta1&.fluof4 ~qlCf>I{: ~sfuf, ~ s11011~: ~­


~ 'qeffi: I ITT fill'il"arnqRr4qalfl4~: 11

Below the tongue-tonsil is the gullet of the throat (like a well),


where, owing to the friction of the life essence etc. hunger and thirst
occur. By making samyama there, their cessation is brought about.
m-33) 167
VIBHUTI PADA

tif•ufii ~l.f'l ( ~ ~)
(karma-nlicjyam sthairyam)
3 3. (By making samyama) on the kiirma-nii¢
(tortoise tube) (comes) steadiness.

Cfi0(3~41G~~l,8.ifu" <tiJO!fCf)l{I Cfil~?ll~f«i I ~ BllJO!lrjdllftj~­


~ ~=at4 ~ ~: II
Below the gullet, at the chest, there is a certain nerve, like the
form of tortoise. By making samyama therein the mind entering that
nerve accomplishes its steadiness.

'{d"'f41ffifq f~«~f:t'l ( ~ ~)
(mfirdha-jyoti~ siddha-darsanam)
34. (By making samyama) on the cerebral light (comes)
the vision of siddhas (the perfect ones).

fm:Cfiql0~l~0~ ~ '§)~~141Jll~lfct{ ~: I ITT


tj4J:iltt'1 R:~ ~~~I ~rjiffOISl"TI ff!CIG\l'i~~l!HM q~l!a1fll2f: II
In the cleft of the head-skull there is shining the cerebral light
(murdha-jyoti), owing to the union of the su~mna nerve with what is
known a brahma-randhra. By making samyama there, the light of the
mind contained in the body is unsheathed, by which (the yogi) sees even
the invisible perfect ones.

suffiiiliil ~ (~ 4)
(prlitibhlit·vii sarvam)
35. And by hyperaethetic knowledge,
all is known.

ftjtjq:;•@!Hf8M' QB&:lloi B~l{cil{Cf)~ I ~ ~ f~llGlcf1


Sftj@:fl~G<Hitjcfl ~ d"lt?Gl~OI \lfIB ~ m;f <qqfu I cift"llg:I
GfT7ft ~ \JiHIRt I ~ ~G(l'~lj~tjCf)l{IOISl~ ~ ~: q~llfd,
c;;:Rflf~: II
168
[111-36
YOGASUDHAKAR

The knowledge of discrimination indeed is the highest


intellection, the rescuer from the circuit of life. For the purpose thereof, in
the samyama that is being made, there arises indications of the
development of the highest intellection by hyperaesthesia, which is the
spontaneous intuitive knowledge28· (hyperaesthetic), known on mere
inference. And by this, the yogi knows all, just as, prior to the rise of the
sun, one sees the whole world by the heraldic luminosity of ArwJa, (the
legendary charioteer of the sun).

~ Rii'ii~~q_ (~~)
(hrtfaye cit'ta-samvit)
36. In the heart, the knowledge of the mind.

~ ~ Mtt~l~ fi~l"ilffitjlfi"iMttf'4 fffqot:qffifll~: 11


By making samyama in the cognitive abode of the lotus-bud-
shaped heart, facing downward 29-, there comes the thorough knowledge of
the indwelling mind.

~•f(et g~q 41 U~"?f I~ c61 ofci1: Skt~ ~I fq ~tit cq)ly:


Q<l?:4f~12fti~q1~~Q*1i"1'( ( ~ \9)
(sat 'tava-p uru~yoIJ-atyanta-asamkfr IJay o IJ pratyaya-avise !fO
bhogalJ pariirthiit-sviirtlt a-sa myamii.t-p urU!j(I-jfl ii.n am)

28
The English word, intuition, as pointed out by Taimni in his Science of Yoga (cf Pp.
·
334 &335), suffer imprecision to match the meaning of the Sanskrit word, pra(ibhii,
in-as-much as intuition in Western Psychology connotes absence of reason ing in the
apprehended Truth, while pratfbhii, has the element of transcendental character in
the apprehension of Truth. Here absence of reason does not arise because the
perceiver is in direct perception of the perceived, transcending relativity in the state
known as the fourth mental state (turiyiivatha). Vyiisa explains thus: · smft'G ;i'l'l1 ~
ofi~&i"1t4 ~ ~ 1 That which is a prior form to the knowledge born from
intellective discrimination, is known as priitibham, the rescue r (from the circuit of
life).
29
Cf Niiriiyal}asukta, second hemistich of verse 6 viz 'i~'!'}::>1•;ltfl~J~J>;: ¢ iiiitQ&t'lg&'( 11
m
with Ch. Up.Ch. 8.i. l : - ~ "lfo:<::liftii'Sl~~{ ~ ~ ~Sff"l?i"fl{iCfil!?l~ff"i""l<!:..,!!!o4
~ fclf,;i~11f@oqfi:ffc1 11 Facing downward, the heart resembles the lotus bud. That,
which is a small iikiifo (space) within the small lotus-shaped mansion in the City of
Brahman, should be ought after; that, indeed, one should desire to know .
ill-37) 169
VIBHUTI PA.DA

37. Cognitional uniformity of the extremely distinct


intellective essence (buddhi) and puru!j(l (self) is
experience (enjoyment) on account of another' (perceivable's)
interest; knowledge ofpuru!j(l comes from samyama
on the interest of the self (purusa ).

1~ k~=H1~i:ti("tj., 1~raRi;;;i414: >1~ ll I ftj ii ti1 1r=&4f<a114:


~:~lfl~>lfll~: ~'tl~fll >tfci~kl!llfi;M\ftj~'J~: *il{t'czj >!Ri~~~HI er:
'§)«ilQl{lq:, ~ mrIT 1f:&'8'-IT ~~l!("Cll~HI~: ~~fl! ~: ~: I
(H:J4lflH:l~fC\e)11\l\ll:SI~~~: ms;:i~~~: ~: I ITT ~­
~~~@ ~ <qqfcf I ~ ~ ~ \J1HIR1 I ~ g'i~fal
~: ~IQ~ll~;ql'l~raftj:(l~ '111cf: II

That conjunct intellective essence and self with their respective


state of enjoyability and enjoyer, their absolute distinction
notwithstanding, which have cognitional uniformity owing to the
modification of the intellective essence with consciousness of pleasure,
pain and delusion, is because of the reflection of the grasper, without
distinction of Puru!j(l (Con-Science-Power), whose identity of form is
through the reflection and on whom happiness etc. is superimposed.

That enjoyer, who is the left-out existence of puru!j(l, is the self of


the intellective essence, which has another's interest on account of it
being the perceivable.

Different from another's interest, different from the enjoyer and


different from the insentiency, therefore, is the inherent disposition of
cognition, being the own other remainder of the puru!j(l. By making
samyama there, there is direct perception of Puru!j(l. Puru$(1 knows that
perception also. Again there is no relation of knower and the knowable,
170 [ID-38
YOGASUDHAKAR

because of the extreme distinction between the state of the knower and
the state of the ascertainer.30·
~ tj4&if4 ~~tf81a;ilfi:hl'llBll''lfTCfT: f~;;[j~q~~f4Rt -

Now he (Pataiijali) illustrates the prior state of accomplishments


through this samyama of this direct perception of Puru$(1 -

rnr: sufi1i1JJ11cto1aa:... 1a:~1R:c:m~cthtf Gt1tt~ <~ ")


(tatal;l priitibha-sriival)(l-vedana-iidaria-tisvada-viirtii jiiyante)
38. Thence are born hyperaesthetic hearing, touching,
seeing, tasting and smelling.

fc;&1~l~!!IQch ~ ~~1*4 41rHI ~ ~ ~ ~


~lqOIMfu a1f~Chl zj'm cqqffi ·I ~ ~101~ q1Jf8 fi~f!qlq~l{_ 11

When the ear of the yogi (who practises samyama on the direct
perception of .Puru$lJ) takes hold of divine sound, then it becomes
hyperaesthet:;;ally auditory to what is mystically harmonious. Thus, it is
worthy of inferring the other hannonious blending of divine smell etc.

30
· In this. connection, Vyasa says thus: - ;r ~ ~~<ofr•l~"1 ,.r,ti~lt'l'1 1 ~ ~ J ~ ll:?f ti
~ tqlCGlq("IX<l1 ~ I ~ ~ - fCl~llCll<tR $:; fci;;iHil.l1RFct 11 Also, the Puru~ is not
seen by that puru!j(J's cognition, which is the illuminative energy of the intellect.
Puru!f(1 Himself sees that cognition to be the support of Hirn. So indeed, it is said
thus: 'Oh! By what, is the knower is to be known?'
Taimni (cf 'The Science of Yoga') comments thus: - 'When the consciousness of
puru~ man ifests in the realm of prakrti, it appears as awareness of the Not-Self and
this awareness, which expresses itself through the action of the sattva guQa, is called
buddhi... When the pure consciousness of the puru$(1 is associated with prakfti, it
becomes increasingly conditioned as it descends plane by plane ... The Puru~
remains quite separate from it, though His presence stimulates the awareness
through buddhi. Th is awareness becomes more and more vivid and simulates more
perfectly the consciousness of the puru!j(J as it is expressed through the increasingly
subtler stages of the gw:ias, but there can be nothing common between the two; for,
the former is a pure product of p rakrti, while the latter transcends prakrti altogether.
The two are quite distinct... Experience is always in the realm of prakrti and Puru~
cannot be the experiencer.'
111-39) 171
VIBHUTIPADA

Then this yogi is one who is fully satisfied. (In this context),
posing the question, what else is there for him to be achieved, he
(Patanjali) replies -

'ffeq1!119qe•1f ~·~ MC6:4: ( ~ ~)


(te samlldhau-upasargli vyut'thline siddhaya]J)
39. They are obstacles to the spiritual aborption and
are the accomplishments of the exhibitive mind.

-ff s11R1iil~4: ~ 34'fi'lf ~ ~ I 3lfil


~ "ff ~: I ~ ~ flil'd~I ~: Cliif
1ld1lflldlM41(1_ ? ~ &Jl~Sl~4'i'"fRo1 Cf'd~~m ti'iffa I ;:r ~
*41tii~1'4 aq11cfki I am TI &j)'d~I~ fff GG:41 ~ I
q:a~qlM~~ihl{ I
'~oqJi~~lq)le'J~lffil!4: ~ rflf.S:~I: ·1
q{Jil~qGS!lcm rflq3icfkl q;r~ II
ff4i31&1~B~ll'"f11C:ll~&I~ ~ ~: I
~ ~ for~q1aj14i irnftjrjri ~ 11' efo 11

These hyperaesthesia etc. become the prepositional obstacles in


pursuit of the fruit of spiritual absorption. Hence, those, who are desirous
of final emancipation, should overlook them as unworthy of regard. If one
has desires in them, he is one who has strayed away from final
emancipation, ·and how he would become one who is fully satisfied?
There is indeed no full satisfaction without acquiring full confidence i~
one's own Self.

Moreover, they (the hyperaesthesia) are not conducive to self-


realization. But yet they become the accomplishments of the exhibitive
mind. And, intending this, it has been said -
172 [IIl-40
YOGASUDHAKAR

Wealth, mantras, actions, time and power,


accomplished by successful sadhus,
Are of no avail to any one,
on reaching the feet of God.
Extinct with all desires in profit
in favour of self-realization,
How can his immersed mind entertain
the pursuit of (lesser) accomplishment?

Having thus described the power of direct perception through


samyama up to the real inner Self, now he (Patanjali) tells about the
(power in the) form of action -

-~4ii(Uj"~~l&'611H:iih~:tlii.4 fihH"Q qu1H1ua~1: (~ 0)


(bandha-kiiraIJll-saith ilyiit-praciira-samvedan lit-ca
cit 'tasya para-sarrravesalJ)
40. On relaxation of the cause of bondage and by the
knowledge of the channels of activity (the nerves) (comes
the power of) entering of the mind in another's body.

~ &(IM~ftC?fll ~'afll ~~1<1<111~ fici):tj'i ff!l!Ri<if~: I m:<:r


q;rort ~ I ~: fill~'i ~~ cqqfu ; >li"Hfll~'i Rh1MRi
~ '"llslfiEl: , afll1N fill~'"! ~ ~ cqqfu ; m"R:ff Rraflf
Y{Cfil~ ~ 'lflqf8 CIT ~ cqqfu I f:qa11f;qf~l!IDl!N fcf~IRi ~
~Hl\l1Mtkll2f: 11

The all-pervasive mind, when it stands contracted within one's


own body, is in bondage. The reason for it is virtue and vice. By making
samyama in these two, the mind becomes relaxed. Yracara means the
activity of the nerve channels, along with which the mind moves. By
making samyama on this also, perfect knowledge of the channels of
III-41) 173
VIBHUTI PADA

activity arises, with which the mind enters another's live, or dead, body.
Following the mind, the senses also enter (that body) just as the
(servantry) bees (follow) the Queen Bee (wherever she goes).

dC(l:tGfql\J\itci4iCf>OC::Cf>lfu:ti:Hifi· 3dfilkt5 (~ ~)
( udlina-jaylit-jala~pailka-kaIJfakiidi~u-asarlga utkriinti}J-ca)
41 . By conquest of udana (comes the power of) non-
contact with water, mud, thorn etc. and death at will.
;g)JIY1~\jtjl(?lq5c:<l~ ~ 1Ri\Jl1cf~l<ql~I, m
l("iJ"f'RlKlllOli
~ 51011q1'i1Rfi~1fiic4qR~;qa I a:;fiGHfll 31T 'ilfll~IGI ~1-01~:
fillil"'i \J1lll\Ni&IR6:ff!Uil m7ft C'5~(tj15qfl 'li0Ri, ~~lll lROi" -:q
I'
~ $fl!S!f: 11
That mode, which is predicated by the word life, which,
simultaneously with all it sense, goes up like the flaming fire, is the one,
which is subject to different influence of action, that is the acknowledged
representation of priil)a, apana etc. (viz. priil)a, apiina, vyana, udana and
samiina). There by making samyama on udiina; whose expansive mode is
from the tip of the nose up to the head, the yog i goes up on account of
levity by conquering non-contact with water etc. The meaning is that he
obtains death also at his own desire (will).
ff¥1i•Ntlll\NC4M"i'{ (~ ~)
(samiina-jayiit-jvalanam)
42. By conquest of samana (comes) radiance.
a:flijC::lUC::Hlfil ~: m: (i"flT q~nq)l{l~IMRCf><:!~IU~&;:j
cqqfu- I ~ 'i I:fil <irTI' 15q &bt q ~fll a ~: 11 .
The stance of samana is from the heart up to the navel sphere. By
bringing it into subjugation the fire in the contiguous area of the navel
sphere becomes radiant. By this, the yogi appears radiant. 3 1·

3
The interpretation of jvalanam as effulgence does not appear to be correct. In the
1. ' •• •

first place, no one- has ever heard of yogi in a lwninous condition, and even if one
were found in such a condition, this could hardly be the result of the deliberate
exercise of a siddhi ...' says Taimni in his 'The Science of Yoga' (cf p. 347, 1961
Ecin .). Apparently, this view is developed by assuming jvalanam to mean blazing
174 [ill-43
YOGASUDIIAKAR

~SllCfil:{ll"4l: ~d4~H:i4iitf(ai ~ (~ ~)
(srotra-OkasayolJ sambandha-samyamat-divyam srotram)
43. By making samyama on the relation between (the sense of)
hearing and (the element) ether (comes) divine hearing.

3i 1~ct>I Rct>f4 Iftl ·~=i~~sft:(f ~


tj4'11f~Olj ~~f~4 cqqffi I ~ f~&.Hl<iGl"1Jlq\5\J1Hlffifi4~: 11

(of gastric fire). This is a bit far-fetched and runs counter to the aphorisms
buttressing this one. ls it suggested that a yogi should fill his stomach to the brim
with all and sundry before entering samyama on samana Jest it should fail him to
increase the intensity of the gastric fire to the extent required to digest the amo\lllt of
prepacked food in the stomach? Would not a yogi fall at once from the high
discipline enjoined by the components of Yoga, restraint and observances, where
excess intake of food is a prohibition? A happy man in a crowd is like a lamp lit in a
dark room, says Robert Louis Stevenson in his Virginipus Puerisque. This sort of
luminosity or radiance is always found in a true yogi. There is no warrant in the
aphorim to invest jvalanam with the meaning, blazing of gastric fire, and then
pitchfork on it luminous condition as a physical phenomenon.
Vyiisa comments on this aphorism thus: ti'il'1"1'11$>q~..; 1 f"1?1ti'll'1~"1ti ~ ~ ~ 11
Blowing upon the conquered brilliance of samana, he (the y ogi) shines.
Also, samana not only assimilates food but also circulates in the body from. heart to the
navel sphere, covering stomach en route and, by itself, it is one in the group of five
airs. Bringing samiina into subjugation, or 'blowing upon the conquered brilliance'
or for that matter 'mastery over samiina', has the element of winning it over and
uniting it .with priit,1a appropriately to subserve self-realization and final emancipa-
tion, as, after all, priit,1a has five state like the mind, say sruti and smrti. First hear
sruti and then smrti:
Tai. Up. I. 7 (1,2 & 3): ~~od=nRa! ~sa1=n<~e11: 3!flJ'!!sd~tQ~ ~ 1 3m! ~ ~
~ ~ I $Ml'tl'f'l( 1 3h1i~l!Cll( 1 ~ ~~ ~: lfl!!'f: I ~: '*'! ~ ~ I • 13!'(
1ll11nftlt ~ 1 ~ ~ "!R!<<i1"'l 1 q "ST ff ~ 1 ~ q "io.f!.11"'1fM t 1 Upon the
clement - earth, intennediate space, heaven, major and minor points of the quarters,
fire, air, sun, moon, star, water, herbs, large trees, ether, corporeal body (one should
meditate). Thereupon (one should meditate) on one-self - priit,1a, vyiina, apiina,
udiina, samana, organs of sight, hearing, thinking (mind), touch, skin, flesh, muscle,
bone and morrow. The seer, who revealed this by intuition, having grouped the
various objects, declared that the whole universe is based on a five-fold principle
and that one set of five preserves the other set of five.
Brahma Siitra II. iv. I 2 - q~~fM;flqi:qf~~'1H 1 ~ ~ 1 It is taught that Priit,1a has five states
like the mind.
111-44) 175
VIBHUTI PADA

There is a relation between the sustenance of the self-


consciousness _of hearing and of containment of the ether. By making
samyama there, the sense of hearing becomes divine (power of) hearing.
By that, the yogi· understands the divine sound at the same time.
ffiltllffil~itil: eat~~lf'ftMgq&H=tq1qft~l<til~i•i¥f"I'( (~~)
(kliya-iikasayo.fl sambandha-samyamiit-lagh u-tiila-
samiipat 'telJ-ca-iikiisa-gamanam)
44. By making samyama on the relation between the body
and the ether, whereupon becoming light like cotton fibre
Movement, (there comes) passage in space (ether or sky).
~: fi41Ji ~ &13)Ch14l ~ 3i1Ch1~n fcnrllB , (f{1 ...,...a;'TT'To1~fa'""'.::~na'
"CJ~lriilff0'5J:f'9:@!1), ~ ~ ffi Jl"t:@ctl~~: II
By (making samyama and) winning over the union between the
. body and space (ether) and having become (as a result of samyama) light-
bodied, the yogi disperse in space. Thence, he walks on the slender thread
of the spider's web, afterwards on the rays of the sun and thence he goes
wherever he wants. 32
atf6<Cfif{;q(1j ~fi:tifgtfq~fJI ffif: Sl~l~llCHUI~: (~~)
(bahilJ-akalpitii vf1'ti1J-mahii-videhii tatap
prakiisa-iivaralJll-k~a.{1)
45. The great disembodiedness is the external activity
which is unimaginable. (By making samyama there)
there (comes) the destruction of the covering of light.
mfts~ m
~ m ~fi.;qR1: m ct>fc-<lal fcl~~l&:ll I ~
~$1Cf qf{fl!1~ me, ~ ~ m ~ ~~4Rt ~;qqCf>fc-<la1 lim-

32
· Interestingly, Taimni explains this aphorism thus: 'Akafa-gamanam refer to the well-
known siddhi of transferring the body from one place to another via Akasa... It
involves resolving the particle of the body into space at one place and then
reassembling them at the destination ... 'Akiifo-gamanam must be distinguished from
appearance of a materialised body formed by kriyii-fakti at any distant place. In the
former case it is the original physical body of the yogi, which is transported to
another by the combined process of dissolution and materialisation. In the latter
case, the original physical body remains where it was and a second artificial body is
temporarily materialised in another place round a nirmiil}a cit'ta (IV-4). The
techniques of the two process are different...'
176 [IIl-46
YOGASUDIIAKAR

fcl~~l@I I ITT fitqlilc"Q<:fl1~1~n08"'! ~f18"'! CR'5:z11fe.i:i01: ~ ~


~:11
That external activity of the mind, which abides the body with
egoism, is called the imaginable corporeal. When, however, abandoning
the ·body and egoism, the mind, of its own accord. is in external activity,
it is the unimaginable great disembodiedness. By making samyama there,
all impurities such as affliction etc. (which are the coverings) of the
luminous intellective essence, are destroyed.
f<!&Hcf(a:q({~ 1;ql41dchq <A l4 'i l<tN1 l4:
(~~)
(sth iila-svariipa-s ak~a-anvaya-arthavat 'tva-samya mat-bh iita-jaya-tJ)
46. By making samyama on the gross, the manifestative, the subtle,
the correlative and the purposive, wins mastery over the elements.
~ T.r fq{t\tj T.r ~ "tj1;:q;q~ :q- q~a1f:1 ~
{t'qlfOI l ITT ~qdl~q:;4'4: ~1~1~1oi~ qf{~~'4'41ri q0i{ I ~
Chlfdr<:!f:l~ru;q~\011Bcb1ac=q0arrrr 't"<:l{t'4i{ 1 -w arii1~1f01 ~ 1
{"qChl4 Chl\Dlctj'il~dl~•F<P:l! 101:;p:p{ I ~'llqq1f~HfllA~ :J)DIR'8-
-q$!fq~'{ I ~ q~{t\q~ ~01Fc:~qo1 filllil~C"11R 41filBCflfqljflt"1fUI
~ ~ cfrflljfllRo;q ~tjf'll~: 11
These five 33· viz. the gross, the manifestative, the subtle, the cor-
relative and the purposive, are the forms of the five elements. There, the

33
These five fonns are the four states of the energies
· (cf Aph. 11-19) and the purpose of
the perceivable (cf Aph.II-18).
34 . •
Panclkara!Ja of elements. Cf Table below:
POPORTION OF ELEMENTS MANIFEST A TIVE
Transfonned Charac-
Gross teristics. Qualities
112 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 Prthivl Hardnes Sound, Touch.
Form, Taste & Smell.
1/8 1/2 I /8 I /8 I /8 Apa!} Viscidity Sound, Touch.
Form & Taste.
1/8 1/8 1/2 1/8 1/8 Agni Heat Sound, Touch
& Form.
1/8 1/8 1/8 1/2 1/8 Viiyu lncitant Sound & Touch
1/8 1/8 1/8 1/8 1/2 Akafo All-pervasiveness Only Sound.
111-47] 177
VIBHUTI PADA

(progressive) deficit seen one by one of the qualities spoken of sound etc.
is the gross. The (respective) characteristics of hardness (earth), viscidity
(water), heat (fire), incitant (air) and all-pervasiveness (ether) is the
manifestative.
The five subtle· elements (smell, taste, light, touch and sound) are
the subtle. 34 ·
The correlative by its own state of both cause and effect is the
three guIJaS (illuminative, active and inert energies).
Acknowledgeability of experience (i.e. of enjoyment & suffering)
and emancipation, depending on the energies, is all-pervasiveness. By
making samyama on these five forms of gross etc. step by step, the
elements become the follower of the yogi's determination, like the cows
following their own calves.

Now, granted the conquest of elements, what else is here? He


(Patafzjali) answers (the question in the next aphorism).

ms f"01q1Rst1~cqfq: ct>1tt~q'i1;a¥if.1~~ (~\9)


(tataJraIJimlidi-prfidurbhiiva.tJ kiiyaJrsampat-tat-dharma-
anabhighiitaJrca
4 7. Thence, manifestation of atomic nature etc. perfection of
body and non-infliction of injury thereto by the
characteristics of elements.

d'C1T ~a\Jill1~T1nHlsf01qm~q~1rno.s:ll: ~ 1 q{lOJIOJtt~­


C'tj14fU1111 I ~ ~ I C[&Musqf:3~ctj C'5ftjlOJI I ~Dqfi~ftj Tffti1r I
3'1~flll . il~¥P~f;j mf({r: I fk>qfiq:;01Cf4 5l1Cfll~'{ I iraf1ll'°ictj
qfS!IC'tji{ I 'i_ct~~C'tji:n~l<10=!'{ I ~~ I ~ >lllfll'"filR
- I +q{C'qfillt:flPllChl~'{ I 31Cl~l~l1Cl~l~~llBlll11-
RIB fcrlwl: 1 Cfllllfiq&~ a~<;:ih~fll q:;1fa;;q1fc!:~if\rif4-
tmi~ lfl fJ Ioil ~a \Ji ll lfe'fl '6tQ ffi f4 2f:

,_
178 [111-48
YOGASUDHAKAR

There on conquest of elements, the eight-fold great


accomplishments, such a atomy, etc., manifest to the yogi. Becoming as
minute as an atom is atomy (aIJima) . Omnipotence is mahima. Lightness
like a lump of cotton fibre is laghima. Heaviness like the meru (mount) is
gharimii. Touching the moon with the tip of the finger is praptifJ.
Determined will of truth is prakiimyam. Restraining the elements through
dynamic direction is vasitvam. Creation of the element is fsitrtvam. These
are the eight powers.
Here, the division is, all these (beginning with GIJima and) ending
with praptil} are accomplished by making samyama on the gross form,
prakiimyam by samyama on the manifestative form and the remaining by
.samyama on the rest of the three fonns (i.e. the subtle, the correlative and
the all-pervasiveness.
The perfection of the body is being described (in the next
aphorism); here, it means that non-infliction of injury by the
characteristics of the element, namely hardness etc. is the yogi's
accomplishment as a result of the conquest of elements. 35·

He (Patafzjali) proceeds to explain about the perfection of the


body-

'(C\4("1)1qU~Gt(J)cbH:ig:t:fCqlf.t Cfil~~q<t_ (~ l)
(riipa-lavawa-bala-vajra-samlzananatvani kaya-sampat)
48. Beauty, charm, strength and adamantine
hardness are the perfections of the body.

~:tw:f ~I flqf~·B1""<:4 C'51q0lli{ I cftGf ~ I cf'A~q


th.H '"f l1 Cl l! Cl °t~l "lffll a~ Itj) cNH:i t?+frCI l{ ; ~ ~ j/I R) Sf r~ <G:t( 11

That, which is lovely to the eyes, is form. Charm is wm>re•all the


limbs of the body are beautiful. Strength means power. Adamantine

35
· The point is that the earth does not resist the yogi's body by its hardness so that he can
pass through any hard stone, the water does not wet him, fire does not bum him etc.
111-49] 179
VHUfUTI p ADA

hardness means that state in which all limbs of one's body are arranged as
compact as any hard adamantine and that which is well known in
Hanuman.

Having described the conquest of elements, together with the


result thereof, he (Patanjali) proceeds to explain the conquest of senses,
together with the result thereof -

!46a'~*'qif~a1;q41dcti€*~h:tqlf~f~4\if4: ( ~ ~)
(grahana-svariipa-asmitii-anvaya-arthavat'tva-samyamiit-
indriya-jayalJ)
49. By making samyama on the cognitive reception,
real nature, egoism, correlation and purposefulness
(comes) the conquest of senses.

~ *4{C'4itfµia1;qcits~ ~ q~a1R ~~1Rq~f~~101i


{C'41NI I m ~lii!:IRJfltj{I ~ !l~Olt:( I ~ QCfll~ICflc:=q~ I 3iff4ctl
fllf<:"tjCfil~Cfil'l: I ai-=<4~1~q~ oq1@1a I ~ q~f~R:\~{C'q~ tjll41R-
f~lll51lll «qCfctlfll2f: II

Cognitive reception, real nature, _egoism, correlation and purpose-


tutness are the (representative) forms of the sense organs, ear, skin, eye,
tongue and nose. There, the operations accompanying the sound etc. are
the cognitive reception. Real nature means illustration. Egoism means the
spirited "I"-ness. Correlation and purposefulness are as explained before
(in Aph. II-46). By making samyama on these five forms of senses, there
is the conquest of senses.

He (Patanjali) says what (comes) next -


180 [111-50
YOGASUDHAKAR

'ff'ffi' q .(jGI fct &.i fct Cfi <oI'I Ic:t : S4!'4 I"'i GI ll 5 (~ o)
(tata}J manojavitvam vikaral)ll-bhliva}J pradhlina-jaya}rca)
50. There arise swiftness as thought, state of
immediacy and also conquest over phenomenal substance.

q;:i)\ljfqc:tj Cfllllf'4 i:i;flq~j'cilfl Jlf8('51'lf: I ~: CfllllR{-


~1011flif~l!IOll4Mi:Ja~~ICfll('5fcf ~1~1qaft ~R!('Sl'lf: I ~: 51qlf8ftj-
~ q~ICGit I ~: fBC&ll: Cfl{OIY:©Cfl~{C\q\J1l!IUlf1H: ~­
~: 1 ~ 3if014m1: >rt'll'"1\llllH11: me&4lsr~~11~ ~:
tVnll~ 1 ~ ~ q:q;~~nm- ~ rr~ >1~Cfl~a1: rfie&ll: ~c;;:a
~~:~~: II
Manojavitvam (swiftness as thought) mean the attainment of the
unsurpassyd speed of the body like the swiftness of the mind (to think).
State of immediacy means the attainment of functions of the senses
independent of the body regarding specially desirable time and space.
Conquest over phenomenal substance means control over the
modifications of the primary substance. These perfections arise to the
yogi out of the conquest of the real nature of the five senses.
These perfections, starting from GIJimii and ending with the
conquest of phenomenal substance, are praised as Madhupratika in this
Science of Yoga. Just as any part of honey is sweet, so also each and
every one of these perfections is sweet, hence Madhupratika (that is to
say) equivalent to honey.

~ Bll41#i<&l&HI fcf CiCfl@lf<1~ ~H~lllfBo.c;,l{f'l~ ~


ftjtjCfi@lcl{ql~{fB<&1<~1g)41~ -

Having, in this manner, explained the perfections of (the power in


the form of) knowledge and (the power in the form of) action for the
purpose of (achieving) the intellective revelation through the faithfully
made samyama, now he (Patafijali) proceeds to describe the intermediate
accomplishment of the intellective revelation -
III-51] 181
VIBHVTI PADA

ff~gijqi•:t•Ht1@uffiq151~ ftcf'iflctlfi4&51Q(tj ffcf*11Q~ ~ { ~ ~)


(sat 'tva-puru~-anyatii-khyiiti-miitrasya
sarva-bhliva-adhi~fhiit{'tVam sarva-jiiiitrtvam ca)
51. On discernment of the distinction between the illuminative
essence (of intellect) and (the lwninous inner) Puru$(1 (comes)
the supremacy over all states and the omniscience.

'i_ctl~f<C1fql2f'8l!q'"i R{'RH\llffi~lS•k5f4 Rh1f4 ~ <=Httctil{-


B~l{C\q1sq(~(I'~ ~ fi~~~~4lfcfClCh@1R1: fig)(q'Cla 1 arii1~fq
d~'8fll lflf1H : ~ M &jqfil'4&lq~l!ICi"IChHi ~-
011q{C\q101i ~IMqC!:l¢hGOIJO( I flct~IQc1 a~l~q ~IHflf~a1&1q~~llmif­
~ ft21C1Hi ftjtjCf>~l;i ~ ~ I ~ ftj~Tictil ;w:r fut&: II

To the firmly established illwninative essence (of the intellect)


and the luminous Puru$(l (the inner Self) through the control called the
lower non-attachment, conquered by the mind, which has banished the
impurities of active and inert energies by the earlier enunciated samyama
on the interest of ~e (inner) Puru$(1 (cf Aph. III-37), the intellective
revelation of both springs up together.

Being in discernment of the di stinction between the illuminative


essence (of the intellect) and the (luminous inner) Self, there arises to the
yogi omnipotence in the sense of ascending like a Lord upon all causes
and effects of the all-formative energies.

Omniscience is the discriminative knowledge of the causes and


effects of the all-formative energies with their inherent characteristics of
the past, the present and the indefinable and this is also accomplished to
the yogi. This perfection is known as the sorrowless one.

Now he (Patafzjali) proceeds to tell about the chief perfection of


the intellective revelation.
182 [ill-52
YOGASUDHAKAR

?tl<IHU«N ~qa(}\Jt~ ~ct~'( ( 4 ~)


(tat-vairligyiit-api do!jll-bfja-k!jllye kaivalyam)
52. On destruction of the defect even from that
non-attachment (comes) liberation.

~ ~~flq:;1;qj ~ ~{IJtql"a~IT'lafcltjq:;@41a1cifY ~ ~":inoi


cqqfu 1 ITTr: ficfsiraqfll«iii~ -cR ~{1J;qii1~ ~
~~1~1'511~ zyei~1fe?Cfl<'"GIR ~ ~ >l~«i Jl"i:@Ri I ~ ~
~G'1_"tlcH:iS1~1aq~Cl~'il~ tjfCfiR~tkll&fq~~~ R4f\llfl'"11'f.ft ~
~ICG:l41~f8~1:ffi: ~{t':qQf8fdllt\4 Cl:icit'4 ~: ~
~h•cf)l{~l~l&'ll fufu: 11
By remaining non-attached to the perfections of sorrowless state
(viz. the omnipotence, omniscience etc.) even that very intellective
revelation, which is the cause thereof, becomes the highest non-
attachment.
Thence, at the end of all ascertainments, the seeds of afflictions of
the overburdened Puru~ who has taken refuge in the highest non-
attachment go to destruction along with the mind, incapable of
germination like the parched paddy seeds.
On their destruction, wh~n ·the firm ground of the ultra-cognitive
spiritual absorption with the unpredictable residue of the habitual
potencies is obtained, the pure Con-Science-Power (Purw;a) is self-
established; that is to say, liberated from the energies. 36 .
This is said to be the perfection with the residue of habitual
potencies. 37 ·

36
· This refers to the fifth mental plane, defined a the restrained mind (niruddam) by ollr
commentator at the outset, cf Aph.I-1.
37
This is known in Vediinta as Miiyii, the self-expressive principle. Vivekananda's
commentary on this aphorism is succinct, quintessential and revealing; and he says:
'He attains aloneness, independence and becomes free. When one gives up even the
idea of omnipotence and omniscience, there comes entire rejection of enjoyment, of
the temptations from the celestial beings. When the yogi has seen all these
wonderful powers and rejected them, he reaches the goal. What are all these
powers? Even omnipotence is a dream. It depends on the mind. So long as there is a
mind it can be understood, but the goal is beyond even the mind.'
ID-53) 183
VIBHUTI PADA

He (Patafzjali) tells the reason for repudiating the obstacles, which


are produced here now -

f\Ql;;gqq:;au) ~§·("¥f!f1Cb<Ui $Hf.tE!ISfft§·lt( ( ~ ~)


(sthiini-upamanfralJI! sanga-smayii-akara{J(lm
punar-ani~µi-prasangiit)
53. On invitation by gods (celestial beings), non-adoption
of association and pride, due to the possibility of
connection with the evil again.

tj(tjl'l: '©(?q4l ~'"ict1Rw<li1 ~: >1~1~RHR1~1-


4lfiH:
~~ I ITTro: ~ >ICIRi'"il:fl ~ fchM\NlHIRl I fi4~'i ~­
f~~lfOI ~ af\)•~pn~fu:ffi~: I ~cl~~"ll!l ~{)~41fiH§41ttf<l­
~: I '("isuC{1 ~~&Hffi q(~\PlHiq~~~: I ~ msm
'3flctrij)fhl M&1~1~1Cf)~~l~= I ~ :I
~l'Q~ ~qf:i14~0114lnt I 3IB: qft~t41fual~: ~: ~ l~l~M:
~1Cf<.4a 5114Mtl)l{ - '~ ~ ' $~1'84dll{ I «·P irre::~ (~ctl+{ I
ct>l4:tl~4 ~ I ~s<:f ~: I H~llHM~ \J1\l~f?j)R l\OIJ:( I ~ CfiT+rt
~' ~ I ~ miR ~ amffifi: ; '~ ~ ~: ' m; ~~
~ Cf)ff&q; ; ffll ~ ITT -zyf ~lq~(( - '~ fifll(l~·Rtq~ qjqil{41'i:
. . . 4l'l>!<{lqq0~ I ~ QWlllfl+4l ~-
~: 51f8qan: 1 m ~(?tj~ ~: q)~~~4Rilct: "9:f: ¥ :
Si~L{lfi4 :8'81\§)a~: ~l("i"ll'ifli~;fl1~fl{? 3IB: ~f«i Cf: ~~fl~"4:
1iqOl\J1'15114;fli)oan ftj~~'Ri:' efd I ~ Rf~: ~: ~
cq Iq ~ 1J ~ m Hif8"i lf1 ~ tj aI'4, ct ~I '84 ~ g•"HR ti 51 fl \J\ll ct I
('1:µ:jfffl'j\+f"P'l4J\cf>'(Uj cliq~l;:~Hl~Rql\UICfli\O lfifll~: 11
184 (111-53
YOGASUDllAKAR

There are indeed four types of yogis; they are: prathama kalpika,
madhubhumika, prajna-jyoti and atikranta-bhiivanfya.
There, the first one is one, who is only practising (the trio
discipline of) samyama and knows nothing else. The second one is he,
who is desirous of conquering the elements and senses after having had
direct perception through samyama. The third is he, ·who is intending
direct perception of Puru$(1; having conquered the elements and senses.
The fourth is one, who has had the revelation of Puru!jQ and who
has succeeded in the highest non-attachment. This one is illustrious, great
experiencer, finally liberated in the present state of life, one without
obstacles, doubt and stain.
The third one, who has conquered the elements and senses, is
uninfested by the great god, Indra etc. The first one is a yogi who is unfit
for an invitation by gods.
The remaining second, therefore, is susceptible to be entreated by
the mighty god like Indra thus: 'Oh! yogi. Sit here. Be comfortable in this
abode of Heaven etc. This virgin is charming! This enjoyment is the most
delightful! This elixir prevents old age and death! This (vehicle) will
move to whichever place desired!

Thus being importunated, one should not attach himself with ·


friendly intercourse and should not pride himself (by saying) 'Ah! How
great my yogic splendour!' But there, he should contemplate the defects
in this manner: 'Being burnt in the horrible fire of the circuit of life,
somehow, I obtained the light of yoga, which is the destroyer of the
darkness of afflictions etc. These winds of sense objects, originating
from desire, are its opponents. How indeed can I, after obtaining the
vision, be deceived and how can I again subject myself, the fuel , to the
blazing fire of the circuit of life. Hence, farewell to them, the drearns-
Iike; those sense-objects are fit to be begged by the miserable people'.
Thus should the overburdened yogi resolutely contemplate in spiritual
absorption.
Should he associate and pride himself there, he becomes a fallen
yogi and there is the possibility of connection with the evil again. Non-
adoption of association and pride (in the enjoyments held out by the gods
etc.) is the means of prevention of obstacles towards (achieving)
liberation.
ill-54] 185
VIBHUTI PAl>A

~fdlMl2ffill+il~'tl~~l;i ~ I ~ ct~ql~­
fillJ:ll'dlCl\e:C1ffi641~ -

Earlier (cf Aph. ill-37), it has been said that knowledge of Puru~
comes from samyama on the interest of the Self. Now, he (Ptafzjalz) says
(in the next aphorism) that the same happens by another samyama -

~Uiddf>'icll: ~qqjfs;\act>Gt ~ ( ~ ~)
(k$01Jll-lat-karmayo/;I samyamiit-vivekajam jiiiinam)
54. From samyama on the moment and its succession (comes)
the knowledge born of discrimination.

~: Cfi1&fcrq1~1: ~: ~: 1 3F4 TI :t{af~4: ~:


a;1Ulfi'{~~q1 3H4~1: I ~ ffl ~ ~ C:HtlB1' I ct~l4Bfl"ll(<{ct:
a;lUT: a:t~~{: 8;lUT mr~ ~ ¢f)q~ cffqfqlf~ ~ tj4q1~ra~­
urt ~ ftjtjch) ~ I ~ ~j'14rn>4~1~~~qH1Bl&il0*>1<l 'ffiC«f
~: II

The real moment is the impenetrable division of tin:ie. But others,


such as muhurta (a duration of 48 minutes), are the divisions of time, an
aggregation of moments, the unreals. The aggregation of moments is not
substance. There, by making samyama on the moments (on the lines) that
this and that are the moments of the former and later one and that they are
the successions of the continuitY, the reality of difference is
discriminated. By this, is born the direct perception of the (elemental)
ether down to the (spiritual) Puru~ simultaneously.

Now, he (Patafzjali) proceeds to tell about the peculiar subtle


element of this real perception -
186 fill-SS
YOGASUDHAKAR

'iflM&a,iOl~il<::t•Htl=tchU~iilif44'{'<1H: s.Rtqffi: ( ~ ~)
Uiiti-lakF1J11-desai}J-anyatii-anavacclzediit-
tu/yayoiJ-tatalJ pratipat 'tip)
55. Thence, (comes) the perception of two indistinguishable
things, which cannot be differentiated by species,
sign and place.

~ fu ~ ~ ~~~~ciq: I ITT ~ ~ ~ ~-
4IJITJl¥14l'51h=lll ~: I ~~1'511R1"Rrt 9)044!Jftjl: ~~
~: I ~ tl~~l{14&cti4l: l{cTI'l"HIR~~1ih~1~<R~: I
~ ~4fr1;ll ~ Ch'i~~cf~~l~41l>k'>Chlj)~Hlli0Ch~~
fcl;:c:if4hHIJ:ict>CflJ:irll&IF8tll 4lfi1rll q~al{ , a <il'll 4&cti4l{l 4 0Cfi(tj\J1 lf41
~qqf{J11011re:~ ~ ~ tlf""P•n'51ff2"!1Rf4F<qa1;q1 3HCl:t:i§<l<R~­
l!l'di."1 t<ifill~ ul:filp"l\JifcltjCfl~ Hl~q lrll 0=!Sl al f8 4ff11 rn ~Cl fll fll ~: 11

Indeed, in the world of experience, the causes for certainty of


differentiation are three. There, two similar cows indistinguishable by
place and feature can be differentiated by the species. Two similar cows
indistinguishable by place and species, can be differentiated by the
feature of blackness, witness etc.

Two similar fruits of emblic myrobalan (Amalaka) indistinguisha-


ble by species and features can be determined from their different places
of origin. When, again, for the sake of testing the knowledge of the yogi,
some embelic fruits of the East are placed along with those of the West,
they closely adhering that of the other, the yogi is carried off because
indistinguishability, and the consequent uncertainty in these two similar
emblic fruits, cannot be differentiated by the distinctions of the specie, the
effect of the feature and place of the emblic fruit. Hence the yogi strikes
back the difference only by the knowledge of discrimination born out of
samyama on the moment.

~ ftjtjCf)~l'ifll ~ ~ ~ ~>!Chi{ ~­
till"llr<QA~ltl)J:Jm -
111-56] 187
VIBH{JTI PADA

Having, in this manner, described the peculiar element of the


knowledge of discrimination, now he (Patafijali) proceeds to explain its
general mode -

dl<cb ftcffitqq_t1dl!41fc:ttt~qR;q ~ fuclq>Gj ~ ( ~ ~)


(tiirakam sarva-viFyam sarvathii-viFyam-akramam
ca-iti vivekajam-jiilinam)
56. The knowledge of discrimination is the
rescuer, has the sphere of all objects and all conditions
and is successionless.

8.1 uItj ll Ji~ ~ ft cfcHtifq {C' qftj ~ lj • ft cf>i Cfil{ftj ~ 4 ~-


ff~tjlqJllfB(tjlRh4RfiPI{ aRl!ffif8 dl'(CfiB~l'( ~ ~
Cfi'lci&IJi&Cf>q R4cfft'iQl&i4'i(iif4~: 11

Vivekajam jn{mam (knowledge of discrimination) means the


knowledge born out of samyama on moment. Sarva-vi$(1J'am (the sphere
of all objects) means the knowledge of all elemental forms of all
substances. Sarvathii-vi$(1)lam (the sphere of all conditions) means all
modes of all elements. Merged in the reality of Puru$[l, one crosses the
ocean of life and so, that knowledge is called the rescuer. Akra11X1m
(successionless) means the support of all aggregation at the same time
just as an emblic fruit is held on the palin of a hand.

Now, he (Patanjali) proceeds to show the result of the


discriminative knowledge -

ei€4~ijq4): :af.s:e1'4 a,C4(Y4'{ ( ~ \9)


(sat'tva-puruFyo.fl suddhi-siimye kaivalyam)
5 7. On coincidence of purity of both
the illuminative essence (of the
intellect) and the (luminous)
Puru${1 (comes) Absoluteness.
188 [ill-57
YOGASUDIIAKAR

RHO{i fli"i ~H\JFRI Al lOi('') ~ ~;f~'8 'Ctj ~ fc:t tj cfrl§Q Ifl! I fi fCf) I{ ~ ~ ~
'8cl<!Rt~fllctj ~: I ~~~IN Rft4~0G:~ ~ q;f("q(il1l'l~l~&-i
~: I ~ ~ ~: ~f~'81~ "f1fu itq~ g~ti&:llf'!j("q?lq{tj{IJ~UI
'8Cfi('S<!"aRq~ ctctictctj) J IR qit 5'jtj Rt ~1-ffi:
*4~q51f8~1~ c'tcifli ~: ~ ~ >lChl{oflc=q?tl41
~~&:llC'lll q{tj{p;q~l{I q{l"iq~ itcifli C?'RIB ~ q{l0ict1c=q<f1{ II

Purity means that state of the intellective essence, panished of all


impuriti~s of active and inert energies, where there is absence of
operation of the residual habitual potencies (brought about) through
intellective revelation. Purity also mean the absence of the then
superimposed enjoyment on Puru$(1, the eternally pure.
And thus, when there is coincidence of purity in both (intellective
essence and Puru$Cl), there is Absoluteness (i.e. freedom). In other words,
the feature of self-establishment in its own form of the immovable,
eternal, pure and infinite Con-Science-Power (citi-sakti), destroyed of all
modifications and of the consequential . enjoyment therefrom by the
highest non-attachment generated through the revelation of Puru!j(J is
Absoluteness, which is accomplished (to the yogi).
The meaning is that, when, in whatsoever manner, the highest
Beatitude is generated through the revelation of Puru!j(J by the highest
non-attachment, Absoluteness is achieved.

efff ~iif<H"1~f~51ana 4Ji1~11~


~~
fQ "{fa q Ia::
fi'ilt('1:
Here ends the Third Chapter, Vibhtiti Pada
on the Science of Yoga presented by Patafzjali,
now presented as the commentary named
'The Ambrosia of Yoga'.
[Kaivalyaplida.IJJ

ABSOLUTENESS-CHAPTER-IV

[ Invocatory Verse ]

cft<m~ ~Blfi14 ~M~~l&~c:&>V{ I


~~~I+~~ 41Rl\J\il!lfct~fg;j)ql~~ 11

Squatting on Virasana'· together with


Samvitf- sign of His shining hand,
Granter of joyous emancipation, Him do we worship,
for granting us light of pure consciousnes.

1. Viriisana means paryankagranthibandham, the bending of the legs crossways under


the body in sitting posture. Vasi$.ta defines Viriisana thus: ·
~ 41<'1~<fiftil1_ fq"4f<ih.i TI ~ I
$d(f~~~q)~ <il<IB'1~Gl8d'l II
Squatting on both the thighs, the lower legs being crossed over each other in a
particular posture (same as sukhiisana).
2
· Samvid = A particular stage of yoga to be attained by retention of breath, comprising
supra-consciousness, samvidmudrii: One of the twenty-four ways of intertwining
fingers to represent occult meaning and magical efficiency.
190 [IV-1
YOGASUDHAKARA

Having, in this manner, described in the previous Chapter the


internal limbs of the spiritual absorption, the clear conception of the trio
of concentration etc. signifying samyama and, through faith, the
perfections (of powers) in the form of knowledge and in the form of
action for the purpose of (obtaining) revelation of Puru$(1, which yields
freedom, now he, (Patafzjali) elucidates, in the first place, the five
accomplishments (janma-siddhi etc.), with a view, principally, to
illustrating the very form of Absoluteness (Emancipation) -

\it~~qfitq;ji(N: ~qlfii\itl: f~ag:~: ( ~)


Uanma-au$(1.dhi-mantra-tapa~samadhi-jiilJ siddhayap)
1. The accomplishments are born of birth, herb,
incantations, penance and spiritual absorption.

'.l1"i9it ~lc{i11J:i1Chl~l11'"Fllr~mf~: I ~ n•w•HI~:


("lf\YC!l!I lO\IOs&.:11c{l1i Chllllkfuf~: I ip;:i~~\lfu:: ; a\Nl~'i Cttiifil<!:fOT-
'"ilf~fflf~: 1 ~1£l\~TIEl011Rci1 "Oq; ; *1 fcf>s1fl1-:.i1~l"ii ~. I ~­
~:I I

The accomplishments by birth are those of the birds flying in the


sky (naturally by virtue of birth as bird). 0!}Qdhf (herb) means elixir etc.
(made up by means of herbs), by devotion to which there was the
accomplishment of Mcu;davya etc. (MiiIJdavy a is patronymic from
Mal)du). Mantra means the incantation of T[ipurii (i.e. Durgii) etc. by
resorting to which some achieved atomy (aIJimii ) etc. TapalJ means
extreme emaciation of body, by which Vi.~vamitra3 accomplished
miracles. The accomplishment born of spiritual absorption has been
explained in the previous Chapter.

~ ~-~Hfll11\l'tj;:!l~o4 :~ ~wU l1'j~~~'i ~q0=ll"JJl-


4Rf"j)41§!:lll!fl ; o(."tj')2fll ? J:ij~~fll ~q~ltl\ICfil~OI qf{o11Jili4lJll~­
~ l ~ l~l 6 -

3
The Jegendry 8,si who held tournaments of miracle w ith Va.Sista, whose ackn owledg
ment of him as a Brahmarsi having been the bone of contention.
IV-2] KAIVALYA PADA 191

Now then, they narrate that it was through the splendour of


penance in worshipping the all-powerful Parame§vara that Nandi§vara
went, to become god, with his body. How was that? Apprehending that
the human body is unfit for digestion of god's food, he (Patanja/i) says
(in the next aphorism) -

\illf4"d<4RUllq: SC<!if41'{<1t( ( ~)
(jatyantara-pari¢map prakfti-iipiiriit)
2. The modification into another species is by
filling in of material substance.

~~1'11~4: ~~~~I : 51~c:"1'4: I dTtIT ~ ftj~~l'iC141 ;ro'-


~~~1q4tj 'Cl Il{<ICG:"lfRRM"d lj-O~'ilCI '4tjlj>ltj ~11\J\Jllfll~\qf{o lllfl ¥«l
~:II

The primordial substances up to earth are material substances.


They are being found everywhere because they fill up the limbs and
organs of human body etc.; on account of their entry into the human
limbs by obliging the efficient cause of virtue etc. the modification of one
species into another is connected. This is the meaning.

';fj >1$f4i'i.U ~~fRfrifli=a~lla.ffi ~=a*4C11~ >1C1ffCfi(tji{ ; ffi1


"ff;:f? ~ ~t!1qR1: , 3i4R"il6:1~1q1a1Rfl!1~1~1~ -
Now then, it is a fact that the filling in of the phenomenal
substance has some design on account of the cause of virtue etc.

Objection: Let it (i.e. virtue etc.) have causality. What is wrong in it?

Reply: No. It is not on desirable footing because it is leading to an


erroneous conclusion.

Apprehending this, he (Patanjali) says -


192 [IV-3
YOGASUDHAKARA

f.tfli:aqsecil'ltifi stfictl"ii q{o1-i\a:~ "ffil: a)biCfich'l ( ~)


(nimit'tam-aprayojakam prakrflniim varalJ<l-bheda}J-tu
tata/;l k~trikavat)
3. Th~ efficient cause is not effecting the material
transformation; it merely comes from removal of obstacles,
just as a farmer (does in his fields ).

frrUS8H1i@sfq ~~ Q\tjl"illlci: 5l<"fcflrJj QqdCfl: l ~~{Ioli


~ a~~1~-m: 5lqclCfl $~~~a;q1 ~: SlCIRCh "efc=r ffiQ&l""fi: I
31Cf: S1<t>al'1i ~GfRcfi f:ifird , ~ SlqctCfli{_ , ci(tj")l<fCtjlCl 1 ~ TI mrr
Rfth11~<01~ ~ ~ · ~ cqqfu 1 ~itu11't:p:fr;H1:8 Sl<"facq :
~;q~q ~C11RqR011~ 51ciJ;fl 1 ~ ~: <fl~lc:ie51 \lk5t<41?1a~~11f~­
~ ~' M: -qm: ~ ~ Cfl~Rlctj:;~l'll~{ QqJ2f,
a~fc;~~: II
Even the godless (atheist) Sankhyas accept that only the object of
human pursuit (dharma, artha, kiima and mok$G) is the cause of the future
material transformation. However, for us who are godly, lsvara is the
exemplified originator, to elucidate which He is the originator of the
objects of human pursuit. This is the conclusion.
The exciting cause (i.e. actions performed by human beings) of
virtue etc. is not, therefore, the instigator of the intensive cause (i.e. the
function of the energies, satva, rajas and tamas) of the pheno menal
substance, because it is the effect. But yet, by the efficient cause the
bondage disappears. When virtue removes vice, the phenomenal
substances by themselves roll on towards divine transformation. It is just
in the same manner as the cultivating farmer removes the obstacles to
irrigate fields at a higher level (by reaching the desired level of water in
the one where it is being let in), when the water by itself flows from one
field to another.
~ ~ ~J1q~~}11~ ~{~l~f~f44la , ~ ~ Chfl"l lM=ctlR
tqq"fflflla ~ -
Now he (Patanjali) says how the minds (of the created bodies) are
produced when the yogi fabricates many bodies for the purpose of
simultaneous experience -
IV-4] KAIVALYAPADA 193

f.t qfo Ifthu :::t4 n:inu ¥Otl5f It( ( ~)


( nirmifl)Q-cittiini-asmitii-mii~riit)
4. From pure egoism alone proceed the.fabricated minds.

4lJ151~1q1Ri~ra mr Rl4fa11R Rl~1R 4ln1fict>("q1~.,si~flll't


'llC'Cfil;qqC::~Cf>l(IMS!q1dlJ1fl!rct ~: 11

The yogi fabricates by the intensive force of his spiritual


absorption, and so they are called the fabricated minds. On account of the
filling in of the phenomenal substance being under the volitional study of
the yogi, the minds are born to the fabricated bodies from egoism just as
the fabricated bodies are produced.4·

Apprehending that, in that case, there is non-accomplishment of


experience on account of different intention, he (Patanjali) says now -
4
· Taimni comments on this aphorism thus: This is an exact replica of the 'natural mind',
in which he (the yogi) functions normally and rem~ins in existence so long as he
wills it to be maintained. The moment the yogi withdraws his will from the 'artificial
mind', it disappears instantaneously... The automation that is involved in the
creation of 'artificial mind' cannot be adequately understood unless we have a clear
grasp of the natural law enunciated in Aph. IV-2 & (3)
Vivekananda comments thus: 'The theory of karma is that we suffer our good or bad
deeds, and the whole scope of philosophy is to reach the glory of man. All the
scriptures sing the glory of man, of the soul; and then, in the same breath, they
preach karma. A good deed brings such a result. and a bad deed such another; but if
the soul can be acted upon by a good or bad deed, the soul amounts to nothing. Bad
deeds put a bar to the manifestation of the nature of Puru$a, good deeds talce the
obstacles off, and the glory of the Puru$a becomes manifest. The Puru$f1 itself is
never changed. Whatever you do never destroys your own nature, because the soul
cannot be acted upon by anything, only a vei l is spread before it, hiding its
perfections. With a view to exhausting their karma quickly, yogis create kiiya-vyuha
or groups of bodies in which to work it out. For all these bodies they create minds
from egoism. These are called 'created minds' in contra-distinction to their original
minds.'
194 [IV-5
YOGASUDHAKARA

S4ftM~ S44'Gtc6 fitiiqq;if~~QI'( ( '-\)


(pravrt 'ti-bhede prayojakam cit'tam-ekam-<ineke~m)
5. In many varied activities the single mind
is the leader of the many.

fr1 ma n:ra 1"ii ~ r+.rn q 4; mm ~ ,11 1~ 0si ~ R1 rq il tj Rlf 1Ji4>


Rfiftfla ; ~~-:q~~: II

The leader of the fabricated minds is the yogi's single mind, which
has fabricated them for his own experience to conform to the specially
controlled activities, with which the experience and its continuity are
connected.

w;i "1"'41RM: fBf~q~Cfl>1q:~H~<:m l°BCG:l""ftHi q:§fql41R


fih11~~rnct1R I ~ ~ ~ ~f<flltl)l"il~ -

In this manner the attendant five kinds of accomplishments of the


.mind have been described, to elucidate the five accomplishments, such as
accomplishments at birth etc. (cf Aph. IV-I). Now, he (Patanjalz)
proceeds to define that part of the mind which seek emancipation -

'ffir Uf l.. llfq•u~I~'( ( ~)


(tatra dhylinajam anliSayam)5'
6. Among these, meditation-born {mind)
is without stock.

~ ~ 'Jlriil~R:i<G:fi:.l~~ lfctF"llfilftiCG:fi:.l"a'"{ , <"1G"il~l4 cM~l­


Cfli:fftj yICfll ~I lf ~flf q qq 'f4) nj ~ q ffl f'4 ~: 11

Among these accomplished minds, such as accomplishment by


birth (viz. herbs, incantation, penance & spiritual absorption, cf Aph. IV-
1), that which is accomplished by spiritual absorption is without stock,

5
Asaya is fully defined, vide Note 24 under Aph. 1-24. Here aniisayam means 'without
stock'.
IV-7] KAIVALYAPADA 195

where there is absence of afflictions, of action, of maturing of fruits of


actions and of stock and this sort of accomplished mind becomes
qualified for emancipation.

May the yogi's mind be in the manner aforesaid. Anticipating the


question as of what kind its action is, he (Patafijali) proceeds to say -

6
t4lfil"iMfu,..f'iio~Qlit (\9)
'Cfiqfij(ff)ct>Wi
(karmas uklakr~r;iam yoginaJ;rtri-vidh am-itare¥im)
7. The action of the yogi is neither white nor
black, while that of others is three-fold.

CfilR:ICfl4 ~~ct(tjl~wl{ 1 f:i~c& ~till?{ 1 fii~ ziwctitilll{ 1


ct~cif.4l!Ma{~p:p;flfiHI tjq'Qa I ~ ~ ~ wrt:@R1 I ct~l{ I
'~ ~ R~~'if\q1)' ~ I
~ golfq1q1'Rlf ~ ~scm: 11 ' ~ I
~ lfl'lf;qlR~<G\(tjl~~ru1ftjstq ftjffict(tjl~w(tj~tjf8 ~ , ~ ;
3iCfll R:I (tj IMQ I~ o11 ~~ru I(tj I~ I ~~h1 ~f~fqtjq;&i IR1 g:l{I
~Cf)q)('5Cfl~Z!)wq;rui 4lfiH: ctiffll~: II

Action with expectation of fruit is apportioned to good and bad


action) and so, it is called white. Prohibited action is black. The mixture
of both is suklakrsnam.
These a~~~e to others, namely the non-yogis. And these yield
three kinds of life. It is said: 'by good action one obtains godhood; by pro-
hibited action one goes to hell; by the one between the two (i.e. good and
prohibited actions) one gets human existence uninfluenced by one's
power.'

6
' Vyasa, Vivekiinanda & Taimni quote 'karmiisukliikmiam'. Our commentator appears to
treat the whole compound as yielding the meaning of 'afok/a ' and 'ak~r:ia', for, he
counters the argument why 'akr!if.ID' (non-black) cannot be called 'sukla' (white)
q;qfl{11*>11itil1'l ~ I
196 [IV-8
YOGASUDIIAKARA

Even though yoga is a guiltless act (that is to say non-black -


ak!$IJatvam) because it is a non-prohibited act, can it not be called white
on account of its prescription as such? Not so. Because yoga is action
without desire; the appellation, asuk!akr$1Jam, (neither white nor black) is
purposive.

The meaning, therefore, is that the action of the yogi is neither


white nor black, as his aim is only emancipation through purification of
his mind and through intellective revelation.

Now, he (Patafzjali) proceed to explain about the manifestation of


the fruition of stock on its association being tied down to the
manifestation of.action -

dd~fs;:q1Cfilj1Ull4iilct1fi:IOl4Rtictf~:1141q_ ( G)
(tataJrtat-vipilka-anugu¢m-eva-abhivyakti.p-vilsanlinilm) 1•
8. Therefrom comes the manifestation of potencies
congenial to their fruition alone.

7
· Vasanii, samcitakarma, Residua - All these are synonymous, meaning the heaped up
potential human desire. While commenting on this sutra, Vivekiinanda says:
'Suppose I have made the three kinds of karma, good, bad and mixed, and suppose · I
die and become a god in heaven; the desires in a god body are not the same as the
desires in a human body. The god body neither eats nor drinks; what becomes of my
past unworked karmas, which produce as their effect the desire to eat and drink?
Where would these karmas go when I become a god? The answer is that desire can
only manifest themselves in proper environments. Only those desires will come out
for which the environment is fitted; the rest will remain stored up. In this life we
have many godly desires, many human desires, many animal desires. "If I take , a
body, only the good desire will come up, because for them the environments are
suitable. And if I take an animal ~ody, only the animal desires will come up and the
good desires will wait. What does this show? That by means of environment we can
check these desire. Only that karmii which is suited to and fined for the environment
will come out. This shows that the power of environment is a great check to control
even karma itself.' (Cf RY by Vivekananda).
IV-9] KAIVALYAPADA 197

CfdT ll~~Ra~ftj~l~ChCh4on{'1"'d{ - ~
afu:q1Chlj:!OIHl4CI Cll*4'11'iltiM&1Rh'4crfu, ;r ftj{ICG:HIMfll~: I ~­
~ ~ Fffi ~~cat ~ ~ cqqRr a1*41itfii&1fh1 ~­
Jl~fa <qrq: 11

Just as it is true of the contiguous manifestation being excited to


fruition according to the nature of the earlier adverted three actions (viz.
white, black and admixture of both), so also it is true of the manifestation
of potential human desires being congenial to their fruition according as
their nature but not in contradiction.

On attaining godhood, the potential human desires become latent


as if in slumber. The meaning is, if human desires manifested, there is no
union with Divine experience.

+:tja1 ~ ~q~lf<;lll;:i:m~=&&l<~~l'il'i'"fi{ Ch~ ~


9)""Fl{\Jj rii '"<:! M~ \ill ;a ~ fll I~ I~ I~ -

Now anticipating the question as to how, in that case, these


potential human desires, interrupted by a thousand Divine lives, manifest
again in the human life, he (Patafrjali) answers -

iitiM~~ICfilt"S&4cdin11•uqau"t~lf ~Rtfi~H41~cti•tcNRtlt( ( ~)
(jliti-desa-kiila-iry1avahitiiniim-api-linantaryam
smrti-samkiirayo-!rekarapatviit)
9. There is no immediate succession (to desires)
even though separated by species, space & time, because of
identity of the memory and the habitual potencies.

~ ~ ~ ct14011 llffX"l~riOJR ~: fifi:la1 7:1T C11*4'il«11Bi


1J1riic@2i11 <l<Plf~~~l'i Ch0Hlci'i ~ CllCIIBciHIJ:JN ci\J\Jllctl~'i Chlturr
aM 11 rii R "Tf: ~ Bfu ~ Chlfun \Ji riOJ 'i 1iiMolfctiH1i:iI'i;a4
~Ri~l{I 'lflJll~~tl)("tj cqq°fu I ~:? fliR1BWJl\4J{ct>~q~1~ I ~
198 [IV-9
YOGASUDIIAKARA

~1~q~g:1 {IJll~cf> lf~§~l({i'il Wffi ~ ~~l.f_: I ITT Rfi~lfi%1{:


Rfllll({i'il qf{oia: ; ~l'ifif<hR: fJif'41({i'il, 31;-.i•H:i'l<h1:Us~kl"HI qf{o1~
~ f'iR1'8%RG4l{~~~Cfiftj~4c=tj;:i tjCfi~4i:tjl~H~lf~l~ci: Cf>llfCf>l-
{011'!1<:t ~"11al4tTI: ~, ~ ftj\l11cfl4~} I ~ ~ ~ fi%1'lt4
ftj~qCfil4Cfilf<cqq I 41~l!R1; "ff~I (tj ~2 lj)iiCf \llfi'l<hl{I ~"1 ~ 'll=Fij"iCi-
(lfflll 4~Rfll~: 11

In this beginningless circuit of life, those potencies (residual


human desires) that are the accwnulated experience by whatever action in
whatever life-state, though separated by a crore of life-states separated by
the place of heaven (far away situate) and separated by (time) a hundred
kalpas (i.e. the periodical dissolution), yet on reaching once again another
life-state in consequence of action in that very species-life-state, the
manifested life-state being the effect of that very action, those residua
become the cause of experience because of their immediate succession
through memory. How? Because of the identity of the memory and the
habitual potencies.

Those ceremonial actions and knowledge or preponderate


passions, which stand by their own power, are the habitual potencies.
There, the potencies of ceremonial actions, which mean the purificatory
ceremonies (right from entry into womb till death) are ripened into a self
of action, the potencies of knowledge are transformed into a self of
memory and other are ripened into others accordingly.

Thus, in this manner, on account of their identity with non-


different and in identical objects, they are in immediate succession,
having the characteristic of cause and effect in one and the same species
and not in different species. Nor, indeed, does the immediate succession
produce in its interposition (between different species-life-state) different
cause and effect in the interrupted fruition of habitual potencies. In such a
condition, after having united with a potency to produce the present
species-life-state, there is no transgression into dissimilar memory.
190 [IV-1
YOGASUDHAKARA

Having, in this manner, described in the previous Chapter the


internal limbs of the spiritual absorption, the clear conception of the trio
of concentration etc. signifying samyama and, through faith, the
perfections (of powers) in the form of knowledge and in the ·form of
action for the purpose of (obtaining) revelation of Puru$(1, which yields
freedom, now he, (Patanjali) elucidates, in the first place, the five
accomplishments (janma-siddhi etc.), · with a view, principally, to
illustrating the very form of Absoluteness (Emancipation) -

'it""i~lqfi:l'i~tN: tf'ilrit'iti: f~lliltt: ( ~)


(janma-au~dhi-mantra-tapaJrsamiidhi-jiilJ siddhaya}J)
I. The accomplishments are born of birth, herb,
incantations, penance and spiritual absorption.

~l~'illOJICf>1~1'18'ilf~fBfc6:: I ~ Hilll'ilf~:
"1"-i--11
afficilH q1os041c{l'ii q:;1~1Rrnf..s:: 1 i:i~~g\1~: ; a\Nl~'i Cfi~i~~f01-
G1Rfflf~: 1 ~1t1\~n~o11Rc:h m : ; ~ fcr~1fli::i1<l'ii fufo&: 1 ~­
~: 11

The accomplishments by birth are those of the birds flying in the


sky (naturally by virtue of birth as bird). 0$0dhz (herb) means elixir etc.
(made up by means of ·herbs), by devotion to which there was the
accomplishment of MiiQdavya etc. (MaQdavya is patronymic from
MaIJdu). Mantra means the incantation of T(ipura (i. e. Durga) etc. by
resorting to which some achieved atomy (aIJima) etc. Tapal) means
extreme emaciation of body, by which Visvamitra3 ·accomplished
miracles. The accomplishment born of spiritual absorption has been
explained in the previous Chapter.

~ ~~{'8C!Rl'tHIRaq:~ ~~ 1"ljtill~~., ~cfrql•P1-


TTq-~-6!J a ; a(i:f)~'l ? i:tj~~~
. . . .q~1-&:1......l~ll....... ~q~1-0\1~Ra1 qfla11i:i1ll1'11~-
fll1~1~1~ -
3
Th~ legendry ~i who held tournaments of miracle with Vasi~ra, whose acknowledg-
ment of him as a Brahmarsi having been the bone of contention.
200 [IV-11
YOGASUDIIAKARA

~: ; ~: ~ ' Rralil~:, ~l<IRCf>lil&k4"il"l ; ~=


fl~~lacqlt( 3il~'l~'l"f14'86=hl'll~rui ~1~·4l J 11;jj1ftj e&qftj(lCf>&0i lflll a:ci§~
'flfu' Cf)l{Oll'il'i~ltjltl)~~ ~tjctlfll~: 11

These residua are not beginningless just as Puru~ (Con-Science-


Power); nevertheless, only as effects do they flow perpetually without
beginning. By putting an end to the cause thereof, therefore, its excision
takes place instantly. So also~ the cause is indeed the egoism of the earlier
and earlier potencies being characterised by ignorance.

Moreover, the residua have the cause of rotation on the basis of


the feelings of ego that: 'I am a human-being, this is to my liking and this
is not to my liking'. These are also the attraction and aversion. These two
become virtue and vice through favouring one and disfavouring another.
And that experience is the residue.

These residua are again associated with rotation. In this manner


the beginningless wheel of rebirth incessantly revolves. There, afflicting
actions are the causes of residua. Rank (i.e. species of life-state) years
(i.e. the longevity of life-state) and experience (i.e. the enjoyment of
happiness and sorrow) are the effects. The mind is the basis, while the
sound is the support. All these are held together.

When they are cut off by the enemy of ignorance, viz: intellective
revelation generated by the eight components of yoga with zeal
uninterruptedly and reverentially, the residua are put an end to, owing to
the absence of their cause.

+=cffR1i i."11C(~lfli C(lfHHPji.£°§~: ; 1%1j)i;"GRHtta1"1i ttal"ii err?


1 i."11C(~l'Q:, ~ ~ 1 ~: ~l~l~t:llOI~ fllff<i ; 1TfCr ffi:ffilf :
~ ; ;:r mfl~llll~f8~1tl>~t<01Ri ~ ~ ~ ~1R041~1~
~1fui~qu1 t<fS!Cflffi ~'QAHl'il~ctlMCl!Rh~t<"!RiRflll~l~'il~ -

Now then, let putting an end to the residua be there, as far as it


goes. Is resurrection for a non-existent or for an existent thing? It is not
IV-12) KAIVALYAPADA 201

for the first because it is an impossibility. Indeed, it is a non-exiting thing


like the hare's horn. It is also not for the second, because, here again, it is
an impossibility. There i$, indeed, no resurrection for the Con-Science-
Power, it being the very natU.re of existence. Anticipating the question, in
consequence of which resurrection is a possibility, he (Patanjali) says, it
is only the stock (of affliction etc.) in one's own substratum in the fonn of
energy that manifests, which is resurrection -

a:ttftdHl~id t(4~qffis~!4'1GICl{i:tfo11'l ( ~ ~)
(atfta-aniigatam svriipatal)-asti-µdhva-bhediit-dharmal)iim)
12. The past and the not-yet-come (future) exist in Reality
on account of the difference of paths of the characteristics.
3idla1;:i1,1a ~4\lllcl ~ ~IRh{t':qo11~C1 I ~­
qe:~e:4l4l~RFt>44~d I ~ ~ ~ ftj?Jl4HfCllt1~~1"1~­
~ , ;r ; ~qfo11iFtl'kil?J~ ~ I ~ ~:~­
Glv:f'MR1
qH'Fil~~ ~Chl'CiHf~llqf<o11ii~ft('5 ~ mniaP"ilq~ ~ ~63)1'AH I
a=cq~ I~ Wd ~ >!tj ~Id >!ct~l<"iFil ~ ~"iaj&.TR­
~1 \jff4 Cfitl0!4 9)~ ~I 4'8'1 ~a~ I" ~·HI Cl Ja ~: 11
Bringing into existence of the characteristics of the past and not-
yet-come (future), is in the substratum itself in the form of energy. So,
resurrection is understood from what is meant by saying that it manifests
from the substratum.
Now then, in that case, if it is held that, because of the existence
of the bond of residue the pursuit of knowledge of the Reality is useless,
the answer is in the negative because of the destruction of the path of the
characteristics of the future.
It is said that, in the path of the present, the mind, with variegated
desires leading to painful experiences through its own authoritative
innumerable modifications, is bound, having gained enjoyability. .
One, who is progressing in the knowledge of the Reality,
however, having been caused-to enter the unauthoritative path of the past,
though right, yet by discharging one's duty towards the interest of Purusa
and turning away from ~he seed of rebirth over again, becomes a fully
satisfied one, who does not revolve again in the circuit of life.
202 [IV-13
YOGASUDIIAKARA

Now then, it is said to exist in Reality. What is that Realilty? He


(Patanjalz) explains here -

~ CQffi~a,ill 1011tc11::t: ( ~ ~)
(te vyakta-slik$fllli gu¢tmana.I))
13 . They being manifested and subtle,
are of the nature of energies.

~ ~: , ~ ~: ; ~ 4~Gi~4l
~21Kftji!~l"fll :J)O ll(Gl'i: B~(\Jlf<it:i: '€G~q lf<1d'Fflf8CfifCI Ift!:~~: 11

The manifested is the path of the present. Subtle are the paths of
the past and the future. They are of the nature of the energies, from the
phenomenal substance down to specific divisions of energies. They are of
the nature of illuminative, active and inert energies, possessing the
characteristics of evolution.

Now then, suspecting that there cannot be a watertight compart-


mentalisation of each of the three energies of the phenomenal ·substance,
he (Patanjali) says -

qf<o11~Cfitc4i&\ftti1i€4¥£. ( ~ ~)
(pariIJllma-ekatvat-vastu-tat 'tvam)
14. The reality of the substance is from
the unity of evolution.

~ ~ ~{"il~Cfi: qf{u1114:, <.Tm ~&qRftjf!,l"il~Cfi: Sf~qqf<­


U1111: _I ;r ~ mw
liff!ctUMl(IOll~Cfi: qf{o11~ : ~lf~Ri qlill"l; cl~lit~·i­
~ I jOll~i ~ (9(qf{u114f4Cfi~l~«JJ.fl 4~Gl~~­
~~Cfi(tj ~~a ~: II
IV-15) KAIVALYAPADA 203

Indeed, many is seen evolved into one, just as the soil, the wick
and the fire, are altogether transformed into a unity named the lantern.
For that reason, earth, gold and milk, together, should not be predicated
as of an evolution into a unity because there is absence of correlation of
the different limbs. (The contrary is evident in the feature of the lantern).

Because the energies, with correlation of their different


characteristics, have unity of evolution; the great reality of substance, is
connected with the phenomenal substance.

~ ~fU1Cflfq~l"1l(ii&>ftj=a1RHRti ~ ~1~tjf8 ~ ~
5k'41~ -

Now, referring pointedly to the traditions of the Buddhist doctrine


of momentary conception (according to which the universe perishes and
undergoes a new creation every instant) and that of the non-existence of
any substance different from mind, he (Patanjali) says -

• C1~{'11i:asw fiht.q«ht<ilfcf'4ffi: 1?.n: ( ~ l\)


(vastu-sllmye-api cu 'ta-bhedlit-tayolJ-vibhktal;l pan th Ill))
15. Because of the difference of the mind (as regards many
puru$[.ls) about the identity of the substance,
the way of these two is different.

a4Jf4~1"11(iiCfiftjflqf{j~l~: -~ Nm lfllf: I ¥f:? ~:


dtfGos1~: ~m ftj=aHi ~ 1 ~ ;n<:IT ~: ~M~l4
'fi4~1 "5=&ftj~1;1 Chl~*4 ~ fc:lqlGfc:l~I~ R5*iP4~q}ijl­
fct~H"l ; 'fiCl~l"l 'm ~ ~ m lfGTiftr ~' ~f4~IMctfc:lqllS1f4M­
~1011~cf> q@~cf> fq~HMRi ~: I am
~ fc:l~l~l(iich ~ ~ ;
~ g; df'il~?i :!Ul5!llqfto11&1 ~ fq II
204 [IV-16
YOGASUDHAKARA

Their (that of the Buddhists) momentary conception of substance


of the mind is different. How?

One and the same woman is conceived differently, because of the


difference of the mind. That is to say, a woman to her husband is a
concept of happiness, to the rival a concept of pain, to the passionate a
concept of despondency owing to non-obtainment of the pleasure of
possessing her, to the ascetic a concept of indifference, whi le all say, 'She
who was seen by you, was also seen by me'.

In this manner owing to the different understanding of the


unimpeded object (viz. the woman), there have been many conceptions on
one substance and this is their difference.

All concepts are, therefore, not substances. However, the transfor-


mation of the three energies is different from the above.

Now then, may the substance be different from knowledge. And


on the discourse that knowledge is dependent, he (Patanjali) says -

~ .aCfiRhtd~ ~ aa:stit101cfi ~ fci; ~ ? ( ~ ~)


(na caika-cit'ta-tantram vastu tat-apramtiIJakam tadii kim syiit ?)
16. And if the substance were not dependent on one mind
(in regard to one puru?a) what would be its cognition then?

c:i·~oi1Cflf:crafl! mw ~2:Clf1, ~ ~~ q201R'.1 ~ ct~ftl


SlG......l~Ol.......
31...... ch fcfi ~ ? ~ fllifC!:fll~: I ~ ~~1qfu: ~'1«1~~f~ ms"lffi:i-
- l(Cflfll am~ s~~ '1 ct~ ll q H <:tj l"cil I ct fJ1 I~ct>RI­
~ Cf«j, ffl:i TI Rralfafht {<rn~fiifa ff!Q&I{ 11
When one mind is receiving the perception of a pot, if the mind at
that time is distracted by cloth etc.. would that object become non-
cognized? Not that it was not cognized. And it is not desirable also. On
IV-17] KAIVALYAPADA 205

seeing it over again and by getting the right understanding of the


unimpeded pot_one gets the right perception of the pot, and even if one
were distracted from seeing it, because it has been seen by another, the
pot is cognized.

Substance, therefore, does not depend on one mind. The


conclusion, however, is that redundancy of the mind is independent.

Now then, he (Patafijali) says that the mind, with its self-
consciousness and all-pervasiveness, knows everything at all times -

as;q<1•11qa_:t(Cll~'itflt ~ *11fll*11d'l ( ~ \9)


(tat-uparliga-apek¥Itvlit-cit 'tasya vastu jiilita-ajirlitam)
17. Owing to the dependence of the mind on the colour
thereof (of objects) the substance is known or unknown.

t1cfJ1a("tjsftr ~ ~ ~ ~Ri~Bri ~1~{01 B"Q ~ ~


Clf1'"H~~q ~ ~ I ~ ~Kl!QOllfSChl!I ~ ~ qfti;{jq<ffi
a~.+1 ~ , ~54'lffi ~ <qqfu ~: 1 ~ ~ qf{o11M
~1a1~1aftjC4~i:'tjl~l~l~Cl~Ri f~<fcifll qf{o1p:i(tjsjAl'i:!* ~qffif4-
~: I I

Although the mind is all-pervasive yet, where in the body it is


engaged in a particular substance along with fully bound body, it is there
that it has knowledge and riot elsewhere. (In other words unless the ego is
ensconced in a body, it receives no knowledge. Also, when engaged in
one thing the mind can attend to that particular thing alone and to nothing
else, except that it may shift its attention to others as often as it desires!).

And thus the substance, by which the mind, sense organs and
nerves are coloured, becomes known; that which is not coloured, remains
unknown.
206 [IV-18
YOGASUDHAKARA

The meaning is that, by inference, it can be said, the mind is


changeful just as a ~dent of fruti whose mind is modified by the known
and the unknown objects of the fruti.

Now why the Self also should not have modification m this
manner? He (Patafzjalz) answers in the next aphorim -

~ dflitfij<H"<t&qt: g'6ttft!ilqR011itl(( ( ~ l)
(sadli jiilitli}J-cit 'ta-vf1 'tayaJrtat-prabho.fl
puruFSya-apariIJlimiit)
18. The operations of the mind are always known to its
Lord on account of the changelessness of the puru$<J.

~sqf{o11tj1 ~ ~m~(tjl<"l ~ $ ~ ~ ~ ~ I ~
~ ~: qf{o114l flll'cic;I qf{o11qµi Chlc;lf"il(tj)c=qltjl~i RhictttJ"'fi
~ ~1a&.i ~~I 31(;: ~ ~IQ(tjlc;qf<u11l"fl ~ ~: II

Puru~ is changeless because of constant knowership, not this V;1ay


or that like the mind. If that puru~ were to change, then there would be
no constant knowability of the changes at some time or the other of the
mental operations. Owing to constant knowership, therefore, puru$<J is
changeless.

Now, may the momentary mind be luminous with intent on


securing its own interests; why with puru$(1 besides? He, (Patafzjali) says

':f ('f ffCt 'I Iti (\~RH€f I(( ( ~ ~ )


(na tat-svabhiisam drsy atviit)
19. This (the mind) is not self-luminous
because of its perceptibility.
IV-20) KAIVALYAPADA 207

'CRT~ {C\qcH1 ~f8qt( '~@~i( '~s~ '~ .q lf.l:' mr .


~~l!CtjlMfi ~ ("qSltf>l~i tj" ~ ; fct TI ~1R1ITT11~~4> ;r
a:ifDl<=h'"(, 'm~ '"ffi=r ~II
'TJllsform is a pot'. In an identical step, on account of its
perceptibility such as, 'I. am happy', 'I am angry', 'My mind is peaceful',
etc., the mind does not become evident by self-lumination. Nevertheless,
the perceiver, who is different from the Self, is not momentary; it may be
said of him as of the reflexive recognizer such as 'I, the very person'.

Moreover-

l{Cli"iia ill'it414ct~1<01'l <~ o)


(eka-samaye ca-ubhaya-anavadharal,Jilm)
20. (Because of) unacertainment of both (perceiver and
perceivable) at one and the same time.

~ ~ ~ fllh1GI c:JGITT~fil~lfl\Sf'"4\ll~Ch~ ~­
~s~ ~ ftjfifll tjl~~1~tf>r~~q ~ ~
';f' ~ I dfi'!I~~~ ~ ~ ;i- M'dM~~: II

If the mind should be the illuininator of both itself (the


perceptible) and the other (the perceiver), then on account of the non-
existent disposition in a single moment of the mind with the object and
the object with the mind, to grapple and reflect on those being imagined
and produced, there would be no experience of ascertainment between
both (i.e. perceivable and the perceiver) at one and the same time. (In
other words, the perceivable cannot be the perceiver).

Puru$(1, himself, therefore, is the illuminator of the mind as well


as the obj ect and not the mind.
208 [IV-21
YOGASUDHAKARA

~ l1T ;n+f ~i:tj~ ~>!Cfll~lt{ fihilw:fi°tu I >!Cfll~~a It{ fc6


~tjUl("41~1~1Q -

Now, let not the mind be saddled with the name of self-luminator.
May it shine by another mind! Why with Puru$[1 besides? Anticipating
this, be (Patafzjali) says -

Niil"d<'i~~n-a· f!W;\~<MSH'IW: fi!fitt'i4i<~ <~ ~)


(cit'tiintara-d,Sye buddhi-buddheJratiprasanga.IJ
smrti-samkaraJrca)
21. (Assumption of) another perceptible mind is
reductio ad absurdu.m of intellect
after intellect and confusion of memory.

~ ;f1&1fa>'ThFc ~ f-crn1~01 ~' ~ ~ 1Cl@IC""lcfi


f~'di:t~l!I ~' '81~~~("4f8>1fHt: ~ fci:i tjl'iw:fi~fil'ill4j~
I
fh:"'4'"l~fil:a~al"'li ~: smilf8 1 ~~ ~fifilfa ff!OG:t{ 11

If the mind, which has darkness etc. , within it range, should be


seen by another mind, then it should also be an intellect different from the
intellect of the mind; then that must have another intellect and so on ad
infinitum. Thus, it would result in reductio ad aburdum.

Moreover, by endless experience of several minds, there is endless


several memories that obtain confusion of memory. The conclusion,
therefore, is that the mind is brought to light by the Con-Science-Power.

~ ~~fa~ Iffi f~ Rhll ICfclCflB <ql' II B iJ q I(tj)~ <TiflIT

~lf4f~("4ci 31m -

Now, due to the impossibility of union of the immutable and


eternal Con-Science-Power with prior actions, how the mind is brought to
light by the Con-Science-Power? On this, he (Patanjali) says -
IV-22] KAIVALYAPADA 209

Ntt<safcn:ia:aq141~«1Cfi1<a1q't1y ~!~&«::t'l ( ~ ~)
( cite.IJ-apraJisamkramllyllJrtat-likliratli-llpat 'tau
sva-buddhi-samvedanam)
22. The immutable Con-Science has the perception
of its own intellect on entering into relationship
with the form of the latter.

~ qf{u11fliC€4l~fcG:ctfC1fll ffi>~~I ~ fi51~Ji: {1iif~, ~


~ Rlfd~1ffi~f"6a~ 51f8fis:nit: fi514JJ1 : 3i4ROllM(tjlc:t_ I alfif ~
~: ~fC?~ stffi~~R;qf8~1tl;~ot;,1 51f8~~ ~ ~ ~=~.H~l(f;Rctl­
~ ~ mn~~;fc&fitj~~ <qqfq I f~"C0llll~lf€?Ctj{1~~ · ftj5qlffi
~ Rl~lf4M~"'iq€Jit_ 11

Just as the intellectual reality has union with a pot etc., through
transformation, there is no such union of mutable intellectual reality to
the Con-Science-Power, because of its unchangeability.

But yet, when the Con-Science-Power reflects in the intellect after


the manner in which the sun is reflected in running water, the intellect
gets the relative form of Con-Science, when it becomes conscious of its
own experience.

It is an irreproachable statement that the mind is brought to light


by the Con-Science in association with the received image of Con-
Science and coioured by it.

Now then, in that case, how some are deluded into taking that the
mind itself is the Con-Science-Self? Anticipating this, he (Patanjali) says
that the delusion is' because of the seed (of rebirth) -
210 [IV-23
YOGASUDIIAKARA

sO{ii~41q<ffi ftlW ~ctfW'( ( ~ ~)


(draf!r-drSJ'a-uparaktam cit'tam sarviirtham)
23. The mind, being coloured by the perceiver,
and the perceivable, is onmi-objective.

m sU[<t~lli_YlS~ ftjti~ ~ <"1fflqf?.fir_ 1 m ~ct=iiR%Zll~­


~a1fliq ~ ~~q{:ffi ~~ftjti4 'q'Cfffi I ~Kl!l~~JU <t~4Jqhf> ciGICfil{
~ I ~ :q- ~Jl!~l<l~IChl{ ~: @1~qf{o11'"1~'llCi"lch ~
~~l!itf4 ~PIR1~kil~~l~f8 m'lciHi Wl: I 'm ftjtjfch'il Rra~
· lTIU.'fdl!I cifl"llG;4} ~ feflChd&q $ 'lTI'Cf: 11

Omni-objective is that which is composed of all, the perceiver.,


perceivable, form, purpose and object. There, because of the presence of
the pure consciousness, on arrival of the colour of the perceiver very like
that of pure consciousness, it becomes the object of the perceiver.

The colour of the perceivable conveyed through the sense organ


become its form. So also, the mind, which is the experiencer of the
experiential sound etc., and of the changing characteristic of pleasure and
pain, though perceivable, is taken as the Self (Atma) because of the non-
difference of the reflection of the pure consciousness, which is the
delusion of the saugatas (refers to Buddhist monks and atheists).

The meaning is, through the experience of the mind, a different


enjoyer from that should be accepted by the discriminants.

And, therefore, there is an enjoyer other than mind, says he


(Patafijali) -

...
IV-24) KAIVALYA PADA 211

a~t'i~4cUtt"tlfitf!i'l'lf4 tRNf ~t;t'4CfilR&.tlt( ( ~ ~)


(tat-asamkhyeya-vlisaniibi}J-cit'tam-api
par4rtham samhatya-kiiritviit)
24. Although variegated by innumerable residua
(potential desires), the mind acts for another
(the Puru$(1}, because it acts in combination.

~ Cfi~~ICfi4ftjq1Cf)qlfi'"llfiH+"fllMf~ ~@l'fll~ · -
~ ~ RS!llM ~ R~q:qfla~ct<rit1q~1~ til'll4q'IT ~
-qmf ~n1qq ;i- ~ I Cflf+il~ ? ~ ~~f~lllf~fi~&i1ftfiifi{f&(tjl
~'llKCfillfct>IR(tjltj_ I ~r:+ifM(ql Cfll4Cfllft a~HI~ ~ - ~qGrjl~I
(Hl"flfi;tj=a1G~~Glfi"tl iiht>1fffif8 ~ 11

Even if variegated by endless afflictions, fruition of action, and


potential desires (viisaniis), the mind is the imagined enjoyer on
endowment of happiness etc.; even so, the mind is not the enjoyer but
only enjoyable for another's interest because it succeeds in reflecting on
the attainment of the purpose of the other's natural·interest in experience
and emancipation.

On account of what? Because, put together, the mind, the body, all
sense organs etc., joining in a combination, act for experience. That
which is joined for action, is for other's interest, just as a house etc., is in
the interests of Devadatta.

From this, the conclusion is, there is another different from mind,
which is the pure Con-Science-Self, the enjoyer.

~ si1fi~·cfi qf{fii:Jllll ~ Cl;qf'!'i R{C'4f4tl arilH~J4~Cfl1floi


~~f4f8

Having, in this manner, concluded the contingent explanation,


now he (Patafijali) proceeding to examine Absoluteness, shows its
qualified authority -
212 [IV-25
YOGASUDIIAKARA

f4~t4~Wf=t at1C44\ilct'qlct"t1f48~Rt: <~ ~)


(vi.ie~-darsina fitma-bhiiva-bhiivanil-vinivrt 'ti.IJ)
25. The cessation of the Investigation of self-existence
comes to the seer of the distinct truth.

cr_cffihftjtj&;., ~;g\~~: ~s~flifct ftj~1~~~f'"1 3il~iil~


~ ~ f\l1~1:e1 fctfYiqJa , ~ r~~1'814l,11ct. , ~ crcf"1rii'frt>a-
qflq1~., ctfi:iRJi~IBI f t, m~ cqrcf: 11

To the seer of the distinct truth by means of the earlier adverted


discrimination that the Puru${1 being different from the intellect, is the
Ego (I), the investigation of self-existence comes to an end. Having
known this (i.e., having realized Puru$(1), further investigation ceases. 8·

One whose investigation into the ultimate reality proceeds from


the meritorious acts in the previous life, has the prerogative. This is the
meaning.

Now, referring to what kind of mind the seeker of Reality has,


after the dawn of distinct truth to him, he (Patafijali) says -

a. This is the fourth kind of virtuous men : ( I ) artafJ (one distressed); (2) jijniisul} (seeker
of knowledge); (3) arthiirthi (seeker of enjoyment) and (4)jnani (the wise): Cf BG.
VJII-16 :
~~llf~:~~ I
m R;i~1 1<eifea w-ft ~ ~ 11
Four kinds of righteous people, Oh! Arjuna,
are devoted to me;
The distressed, seeker of knowledge, seeker of enjoyment,
and the wise, Oh! Bull amongst the Bharatas!
IV-26] KAIVALYAPADA 213

~ fuactif.tw ~c:n~st1~..m ~ <~~)


(tadli viveka-nimnam kaivalya-priigbhiiram cit'tam)
26. Then the mind, inclineq towards discrimination,
has the load of absoluteness in front.

l{cli$~li;lqltiic:q~i:ie:~114j 4~tj fctt:t4R~ B~ I UIPlilVil«ltt_,


aR<;1;ir ~ lllPH~ fctClChR~ ~~~~44)fcftjch) R~&il&kl~­
~ lfflq mr_.; fct Ct ChR &:s MR1 GJlCRl 1 3lCT -q:q cl;q ~ mTilros~
ci~q~~lnffi ~q~4l01q~I~ 'Gcicil("'ll~: II

That mind, which was earlier inclined towards the load of the
circuit of life on account of hovering round the fringe of the Real Self but
mistaking mind to Real Self, has now ceased to roam; the yogi's mind
now inclined towards discrimination of the perceiver and the perceivabie,
has the hold of the ground to rest on discrirrifoation. For this very reason,
the one and the absolute, whose stance had been irregular has tenninated
in its fruition.

<met ae:1t<4 ~: ~ ~tj~l("'lla 3W -


When that is the case, why there is awakening of other notions?
On this, he (Patanjali) now says -

aRua! Sl~ltl~HINI ti~l{CQ:J: ( ~ \9)


(tat-chidre$U pratyaylintarli1,1i samskiirebhyalJ)
27. In the interregnum, other notions come
from the habitual potencies.

fc.1tjq;~1fuq\fql~ ~ og)r4HBW>R~ fctClCh©41-


R1R0ae:iMOlltli~: ~("'ll~l~\lfDI ~Cl~("'ll~: II

Subsequent to occurrence of intellective revelation, at every


instant, the uprise of the perishing habitual potencies become the other
notions that manifest in the consciousness during the interregnum of the
intellective revelation.
214 [IV-28
YOGASUDllAKARA

Now then, what is the means of avoidance of these habitual


potencies? He (Patanjali) now answer the question (in the next
aphorism) -

i;l:tihti ~('IC.1§'di'{ ( ~ t,)


(hlinam-e¥Jm k/esavat-uktant)
28. Avoidance of these is just as described
for (avoidance of) afflictions.

~211fc1'Q1R~~11 fc1tjCfl&llf41 ~: r-:r: ~.%1{ ~ ~, ~


O'j)~Hfif:f>RI 31fl:r g){l~&'llf8~J~ ~ tqq;:Jjf142f: 11
Just as afflictions of ignorance etc., are burnt by th.e intellective
revelation, in consequence of which the habitual potencies are not born
again, so also even the awakening habitual potenci~s burnt by the
revelation of Puru$[l become impotent characteristics that are incapable of
germination.

Now, even though established in the intellective revelation, the


mind is still in the habit of uprising, the means of restraining which-he,
(Patafljali), shows (in the next aphorim) -

SH:i@:l i~ s <43> tfh~fQ fttftal a


Fctact>@:l i @fq ~ 14: ft" Ifir: ( ~ f( )
(prasamkhyiine-api-akusTdasya sarvatha viveka-kytJJe}J
dharma-meghalJ samlidhi}J)
29. Even in the highest intellection, one who is
all-bestowing 'On the intellective revelation,
without taking interest or usury, obtains the
Cloud-of-Virtue Trance (i.e. Dharma-Megha-Samiidhi)
IV-30] KAIVALYAPADA 215

ftjtjq;&041Ri{q ftj~flq;~q1~\q;&1rij@ ~ >IB&4HMf104d I


ct~IN 3i~*ilc;f4, ~fR"icl~ ~ *il~ctlR1 ~ "UXT:, a~J~ctf44
ftjh"flf4, 31Cf ~ m ~qff'"l""ll fcltjq;@41cl: f f: 3i~C!lwi ~
ctci~Cfl& ~ fu~ffifd ~4~~1©4: ~: II

The intellective revelation, being itself but a different form about


to yield sorrowless state,9· is possessed of the highest intellection.

Even there, one who does not hanker after usury, 10• which means
one who does not lie in wait passionately to collect interest (kusfda-raga
means the passion of lending money on interest) but forsakes and
becomes indifferent to it and is all-bestowing wholeheartedly on the
intellective revelation that yogi only becomes a neither white nor black
virtue, on whom the fruit of Absoluteness pours out, which is known as
the Cloud of Virtue Trance (DharmaMegha-Samadhi). 11 •

What then? He (Patanja/i) says further -

'ffif: ctM~l<tiiff.t~Rt: ( ~ 0)
(tatalJ klesa-karma-nivrt 'tilJ)
30. Thence the cessation of afflictions and actions.

Then, (that is to say) on -the dawn of the Cloud of Virtue


(righteousness) there is cessation of the stock of afflictions, together with
their resourceful actions.

9
· Cf Aph. IIl-5 1 - Visokii siddhi.
10
· Cf Aph. IIl-50 (Madhupratlka) with Aph. IIl-53. There is no necessity of anything
i.e., in the shape of power for the attainment of wisdom in the case of the fourth
type ofyogi (atikronta-bhiivanlya)
1
'- Cf Aph. 1-48 - 8tambhara prajna
216 [IV-31
YOGASUDIIAKARA

At that time, what happens? He (Patanjali) says -

~ tlqfq(Uiii(J;lq('i~ ~1'1~1'1*41~~'4(;q'( ("~ ~)


(tadll sarva-iivara{Kl mala-apetasya
jif llnasya-linantylit-jiieyam-alpam.)
31. The knowledge, bereft of covering impurities,
becorlling infinite, the knowable becomes a little.

3il~OqRl fil~Mf2'llq\Oll {\:lifdif!4~1: W~ICfilf~q1 lfffi: I ~


~ ~ 3ilq\Ol4&1:, ~4~~011qafl1 ~l'ifll fcF{!41C@l&1Cfif4H'?tl-
"$:f ~ 1J1R @'fllaqG&G~q 'qqffift42f: 11
The mind chooses impurities in the form of afflictions full of
active and inert energies and so they are called the acts of covering. And
all these are covering impurities, which are removed by the Cloud of
Virtue. The pUrified intellectual range of knowledge becomes infinite and
because of this, all the knowable becomes trifling small just as the firefly
in the sky. 12·

Thence, what? He (Patanjali) says further -

12
· Commenting on this aphorism, Vyasa quotes:
tl~~~'l - •a:r.m 11f014fq&h14'1~f't?Ui:lt1Cl I
~ Slc::G'J'3'd4f.j\li!S'4'{"1tlf~fa II
The blind pierced the pearl,
The fingerless threaded it,
The neckless wore it,
The tongueless praised it.
The point is that the intellective revelation is indescribable (anirvacaniya) just as the
vision of the grin without the Cheshire Cat for Alice in her Wonderland, the peak
experience of a spiritual Reality without physical encumbrance. This indefinable
cognition is the basis of Vedanta
IV-32] KAIVALYA PADA 217

on: C@dlf.4f=ti qf<o11iufi¥H'iq1fi<t1011"tl'l ( ~ ~)


(tata}J krtlirthlinlim pari¢ma-krama-samliptir-gu1Jlln4m)
32. Thence, having fulfilled the interests, there is
termination of the succession of changes to the energies.

m:IT ~4~~lf>&1"ia4<~<1n~1~ct>1+*1~H1"'d{ ~Ctct>&41ffi R();&I-


~ ~a1~fo:ti ~ Rs::11Rrn1sm ctj)J11qc:pf(C'q: ~ ~
tf~ffilt{t~j fittjlk~OIHi JiQ~IQ~Chl{al~OI Gf: qf<ullJial'i: ~
'8 it If4=r4C1 al fl! ~: 11

Then, as a result of the Cloud of Virtue (Dharma-Megha-


Samadhi) possessing the essence of the highest non-attachment confined
to the intellective revelation, the succession of changes of the energies
(sat'tva, rajas & lamas), whose. interests in experience and emancipation
have been fully satisfied, terminates.

Referring to what is succession, he (Patanjali) says -

$OIS4M4l•ft qf<o11q1qu::af.t'4f6J: in'f: ( ~ ~)


(k~IJll-pratiyogTpari¢ma-aparlinta-nirgriihya}J kramalJ)
33. The succession, related to moments, is determined
by the cessation of change.

~OISffalflJfi ~ ~ ~{C\qR~O\il : I ~ siR14lfi1~ R(C'4Cf>1


'n
~ "8' ~a ISf fa l!fl I ~ e;1 fO lct>4Ro11 in.t>i:fl if "'d Olf : I 03f WlTUf 'llfturr-
if Iq\I ;+i R3'1fij] mr I ~ MO:SE!lCh41C?""{Ofq;u11"'fi ~
~: flrtrs: 3i4ll~: q;ur mr
1ql':a<1qM~~u1rt ~ Rti!isq ~
if Cf "fft flf~: 11
218 [IV-34
YOGASUDllAKARA

The specific form of succession is the related moment. The


correlation observed in moments, is the corresponding moments. Thus,
should the successive change of moments be thought of.

There, the measure is determined by the cessation of change. Of


the earth, the lump, the jar, the cup, the powder and the atomic particles,
the real transformation in the earlier stage is the lump and later stage is
the atomic particles; and laying hold on the termination, the succession is
determined.

What will be the result of the termination of succession in the


change of energies, he (Patafzjali) says here -

g~•.nti:e1;q Mi ~o 11 "1 i S4 R1 SH'i C4: ~ C4 t'li ~•cf('\q S4 Rt ta I


C{T fi:.tfd~1Rt>RR1 ( ~ ~)
(puru~rtba-sunyliniim guIJiiniim pratipraavalJ kaiva/yam
svarapa-prati~fhli
vli citi-sakteJriti)
34. The resolution in the reverse order of the energies,
bereft of Puru$CJ'S interest, is Absoluteness, or the
Con-Science-Power is self-established.

~ CflllfCfli{UiifJ"Fii 101Hi ~ QR!Qf!q: ~:


ctcfflf~' rilf8~1Rh: ~ ~}&lfi~·fikf<fqJqf ~: fq{C\qQfct'81
~ qr ctqfli ~ I $Ri~I<: ~11~qf<­
fil"llMMct'il2f: 11

The reabosrption of the energies, which performed the experience


and emancipation as a causative and effective self, into the primordial
substance, is Absoluteness. Or the Con-Science-Power, occupying the
highest place, eternal, pure, independent, in it own power, self-
established, bereft of any association once again with the intellect etc.,
attains Absoluteness, which is the ·most beautiful indeed.
IV-34) KAIVALYA PADA 219

The word, 'iti', indicates the terminus of the science.

46it141c0aiilBIQ ~~ffiojf \jqjUfqiet_ I


;;m~ ~ ~ *41MQltql~'il'1~ 11 ( 0
~ qq <i111t1<f0ilffl'1i2tf d2tll4~'{ I
~: <tJ441Cfllt( cffef <i!i1~~1Cfll'{ 11 ( ~)
qiufl~*l.~llMdl 'ilil~~RhCfl'iif~Cfll I
~ ~ ~.if1{Ui4i>~ II 0)

By enlisting whose grace the ocean of


life could be crossed;
May my obeisance be to that Teacher, the
sun, who dispels one' own ignorance. (I)
Where am I and where is the depth of
the Yoga Science, yet did I complete
The commentary, Yoga Sudhakara
thro.ugh the grace of my teacher. (2)
The Aphorisms composed by Phanindra
and added with my words,
I tender the oyster garland
at the feet of my teacher.

~ ~4{J:f~ti4rt.liJ!Cfll'i:lilf*lq<'i~l~~tl{*4ffiq1<1;;si~q jq{jlful'1
'3ft~Gil1i~'S\m*4f41 fcl<R4a14i 8i'l'i~adlf&S1ofta 41i11m~
~i~Sl4'i:l'114<'11'i~~ ~ ~
~q("l0!41<: ~: II

Here ends the Fourth Chapter, Kaiva/ya Pada


on the Science of Yoga instituted by Patanja/i
in the excellent teachings of Sankhya,
now presented as the commentary named,
The Abrosla of Yoga
at the feet of his Guru, Paramahamsa Parivrajakaciirya
Sri. ParamaJivendra Sarasvati with great.reverence
by Sadasivendra Saravati.13·

13
· SadaSivendra Saravati (avadhiita) attained Beatific union with the Supreme Being at
Nerur in Trichinopoly District of Tamil Nadu.
BIBLIOGRAPHY

Appayya D~ita by Dr. N. Ramesan, former Secy. to Govt. of Andhra


Pradesh, Hyderabad, p.p. 11 ,i2.
Apte, Vaman Shv~ p.p. 37, 114.
~tadyayi of Pru;tini. p.49.
Balasubramaniam, G.N. p. 29.
Bala:subramanyam T.K. (SadaSivendra Sarasvati -A sketch), Vani Vilas
Press, p.p. 16, 135.
Bengali Baba' English Translation of Vyasa' Sanskrit Commentary on
Yogasutras. p.p.30 160.
Bhagavadgita. p. 56, 69,70, 85, 146, 212.
Bhavan's Journal. 9.
Bharati, Abhinava Nrsimha, Sankaracarya ofSarada Mutt, Sringeri. p.17.
Brahma sutra. p.p. 24, 43, 174.
Brhadarru;iyakopani~ad. p. 8.
Chandogyopani~ad. p. 168.
Christian Gospel (NT) (St. John). p. 89
Coomarawamy (Dr.Anand) p. 4.
Cowell p. 60.
Gambhirananda. p. 152
l<..aµiopani~ad p. 85.
~emaraja p. 1, 4, 73, 135.
Lakhman Sarup (Introduction to Nirclcta) p. 21, 22, 33.
Lalita Sahasranama, p.88.
Macdonnel (A History of Sanskrit Literature) p. 37.
Mahadeven V. (Vidvan). p.11 .
Manu. p. 39, 115.
Mundakopani$3d. p. 54.
Narayru;ia Siikta. p. 168.
Paul Brunton. (A sketch in Secret India). p. 33, 122, 123.
Prasthanatraya (Madhusiidana Sarasvati). p. 88,89.
222 BIBLIOGRAPHY

Raghavan Dr. V. p. 10, 29, 33 .


Raghuvamsa by Kfilidasa. p . 139.
~Veda. p . 21, 31,
Sankara; The Age of - By T.S. Narayana Sastri. p. 11 .
Sankara Bhli$Ja,_p. 24.
SBE Series (Laws ofManu). p. 115.
Sridhara Ayyaval caritram by Swaminat.ha Atreya. p. 13, 19.
Sridhara Stutimani Mani Mala (Grant.ha) by T.M. Narayana Sastri. 13.
Siirlkhya Kiirikii, p. 42, 43. 106.
Siirikhiina Srauta Sutra. p. 21 .
SayaQa p. 22.
Siva Sutra. p. 2, 6, 135.
Spanda Karika by Jaideva. p. 73, 135.
Svacchanda Tantra. p. 132, 135.
Taimni l.K. (The Science of Yoga). pp. 33 , 135, 143, 165, 168, 170, 173,
174, 175, 193.
Taittirlya Samhita. p.38.
Taittirlyopani~. p.28, 174.
Tantraloka. p.2.
Tilak, Bal; Gangadhar (The Orion). p.37,38 .
Vairavasya rahasya by Bhaskararaya. p. 89.
Vijnanabhairava (by J.Singh). p. 2, 4. 73.
Vivekananda (Swami) (Raja Yoga). pp. 32, 33, 43, 129, 142, 145, 149,
152, 159, 209, 193, 196.
Vyasa B~a. pp. 58, 61, 70-7,1 , 81 , 82, 84, 93, 96, 100, 101, 108, 112 &
113, 115, 127, 137, 140-141, 146, 149, 150, 155, 162, 164, 170,
174, 216.
Yaska. p. 22.
Yogasudhakara - Edited-with notes in Sanskrit by P.V. Sivarama Diksitar,
1st Edition, 1983.p. ll.
Yogasudhakara - Tamil Translation by Yogi R. Subbaraya Sarma, 1st
Edition, 1984. p. 9.
Yogasutram by Mahaf$hi PataFzjali (with six Commentaries) published by
Chaukhambha Sanskrit Sansthan, edited with note by PaJ;tc;lit
phunghiraj Sastri,.(Kasi Sanskrit Series).pp. 7, 73 .

---00: 0:oo---
GENERAL INDEX

Abhinivesa: Clinging to life. p. 91.


Definition of. p. 94
Abhyiisa: Practice. pp. 48. 49.
Ahimsii: Non-killing - Definition of - p.114.
Aliriga: Absence of Mark; ·Untraceable. pp. 82, 103-104.
Ananta: The Great Serpent, Endless, and Infinite. p. 130.
Antariiya: Impediment. pp. 63 & 64.
Definition of - p. 65.
Aparigraha: Non-acceptance (of gifts &c.), Result of. p. 114. 124-125.
Apavarga: Emancipation, Liberation. p. 102-103 .
Asmita: Egoism, pp. 53, 91-92.
Definition of - p. 93.
Asteya: Non-thieving. p.114. Resulting in acquisition of Divine
wealth. p.139.
Avidyii: Ignorance. pp. 60, 91-93,
Definition. p.92.
Avisesa: Unspecific. p. I 03-104.
Adyiitmika: Miseries caused by self (n11nd and body).
pp. 25, 66, 161-162.
Adhibhautika: Miseries caused by created being. pp. 25, 66, 161-162.
Adhidaivika: Miseries caused by Destiny. pp. 25, 66, 161-162.
Asana: Posture. One of the component parts of Yoga. p.113.
Definition of - p. 129. How perfected - p. 130.
Atma: Self - pp. I 05, 210.
wifma-bhiiva-bhiivana: Self-existence. p. 2 12.
Asaya: Stock; Accumulation of habitual potencies. pp.60-61.
Katmiisaya: Stock of Acts. pp. 96-97, 194-195.
Ayurgh{tam: Inherent piritual potencies. pp. 89-90.
Bhoga: Experience; Enjoyment. pp. 102-103.
Bhuta: Elements - pp. 102-103.
Definition - pp. 102-103.
Pancfkarana of- p. 176.
224 GENERAL INDEX

Brahmacarya: Continence, pp. 114, 124.


Buddhi: Intellect p. 205.
Cetana: Percipient; sentient, intelligence.
Pratyak-cetana: Inner soul. pp. 63-64.
Citi Sakti: Con-Science-Power. pp. 8, 25, 40-45, 58, 84, 150, 169,
182,200,201,208,209,218.
Citta: Mirid. pp. 36-40, 136- 13 7, 203-211 ,
Definition of - pp. 41- ·
Concentration of - pp. 140-141.
Embellishment & steadiness of - pp. 68-77.
Nirmtina cit'ta - (fabrication of) - pp. 193-194.
One-pointed transformation of - pp.151-153.
Cit'tavimukti: Spiritual freedom. - pp. 110-111.
Dhlirar;ili: Concentration - p. 113.
Definition of- pp. 141-142.
Dharma: Characteristic (of the mind) - p.38, 153 .
Virtue - pp. 56, 191, 192.
Dharma Megha: Cloud of righteousness p. 84.
Dharma Megha Samadhi: Cloud ofVirtue Trance. pp. 214-215.
Dharmz: Substratum; Characterised substances. p.154.
Dhyana: Meditation - p. 113. Definition of- pp.141-142.
Dra$_tii: Perceiver - pp. 102, 104-105, 210.
D(Si: Perceptivity pp.1..04-105.
Drfyam: Perceivable; Perceptible. pp. 102, 105, 206-210.
Duf:Jkha: Pain. pp. 66-67, 68-71 , 99-101. Defmitiaon of - pp. 66-67.
Dvamdva: Pair of opposites. pp.130-131.
Dve$[1: Hatred. pp. 68-71 - One of the afflictions - p. 91.
Definition of - p.94.
Grahana: Receiving, Grasping, Seizing. pp.53, 78-79.
Gfhitr: Receiver, Grasper, Seizer. pp. 53 , 78-79.
Grahya Receivable, Graspable, Fit for Seizing. pp. 53, 78-79.
Gur;ia: Energy (Retention of experienced objects) - p.47-48, (Possessing
characteristics of evolution) - p.202, (Tennination of the succession of
changes to Energies) - p. 217 . Definition of - pp. 103-104.
-Sat'tva: Illuminative - 37-38, 78, 102-103, 106.
-Rajo: Active energy- 37-38, 78,,102-103, 106.
-Tamo: Inert Energy
GENERAL INDEX 225

Hiina: Avoidance - pp. l 01,


Hlinopiiya: Means of avoidance. 101, 10.8, 214.
Heya: Avoidable. pp. lOi , 102, 108:
Heyahetu: Cause of avoidance. pp. l 01-102.
lndriyli: Sense organs. pp. 102-103. Definition of - pp. 103-104.
ltvara: Infinitely powerful entity·- pp. 25, 59-60, 63-64, 89-90,
116-118, .128-129.
Apellation of lsvara. 63 .
ltvara pranidhiina: Profound meditation o~ lefvara. pp. 59-60.
Full aspiration of lsvara. l l 6-118.
ltvara vlicaka: Significative of Conventional denomination of l§vara. p.
63 .
Jivan mukta: Liberated Self. pp. 110-111 .
Kaiva/ya: Liberation, Emancipation, Absoluteness, Freedom. pp. 38,
108-109, 182, 187-188. 213-218.
Kaivalya Priigbhiiram: Load of Absoluteness in front. p.213.
Karma: Action. pp. 195-196
Cessation of - 215
Karmtisaya: Stock of acts. pp.96-97.
Karmaviptika: Fruition of stocks of afflictions - (livara unaffected by
them) pp. 60-61 .
Karya vimukti: Material Freedom - Four in number, viz. Cessation of
desire of (1) knowing, (2) of avoidable pain & conjunc-
tion (3) of obtaining and (4) of performance of duties.
Cit'ta Vimukti - Spiritual Freedom. Three in number - viz.
Cessation of desire, of fear and doubts. pp. 110-111.
Klesa: Affliction - pp.60-61 .
Definition of - p. 91.
Causality of - pp.96-97.
Cessation of - pp. 215-216.
Fruition of - p.98.
Minimising - pp. 90-91.
Shunning of - p. 96.
Uprooting of - p. 95.
Kram a: Succession. pp.155, 185, 217.
Kriyii Yoga: Expedients of Yoga. pp. 89-90, 140.
K$GI)G.' Moment. pp.186, 187, 217-218.
226 GENERAL INDEX

Nirodha k$GT}.a: Suppressive moment. pp.148-149, 151-152.


Linga: Pure traceable (State of guI).a). pp.103-104.
Maha vrata: Great vow. pp. 114-116.
Mantra: Incantation. pp.190-191.
Maya: Self-expressive principle. pp.183-184.
Nahu~: (story of). pp.96-97.
Nirbfja: Seedless. pp. 86-87, 147-148.
Niodha: Restraint. pp. 86-87.
Nirviciira: Non-reflective. pp. 81-82.
Nirvitarka: Non-deliberative (Clear) p.80.
Niyama: Observances. pp. 113.
Definition of - pp. 116-118.
Pada dvamdva: A pair of opposite word. p:36.
(Reverentially) a pair of feet. p. 36.

Parif).iima: After-effect; Modification; Change,Transformation. pp.99-


100, 156, 217-218.
Avastha P: Transformed state. pp. 153-154.
Dharma P: Characteristic transformation. p 153.
Ekagratii P:One-pointed transformation. pp. 151-153 .
Lak~f).a P: Symptomatic transformation. pp. 153-154.
Nirodha P: Suppressive transformation pp. 148-149.
Samadhi P: Spiritual transformation. pp. 151.
Pradhiina: Primary/Phenomenal/Primordial substance. pp. 42-43, 52,
82-83, 106.
Prajiipati: Sacrifice, Yea'.r, Hirarwagarbha. pp.36-38.
Prajfiii: Intellective vision, pp. 56-57,'84, 144-145.
Prakrti: Matter, material substance; Dr.fyam=perceivable. pp. 169,
191-192.
Prakrtilaya: Merger in primary substance. pp. 51-52.
Pramiif).a: Real Cognition; Testimony. p.45.
PraIJ.ava: OM. (Monosyllable). pp. 63, 89-90.
Priil)Ciyiima: Breath-control. 113, 131-132; Definition of - 134-135.
Fruits of - p. 136.
Prasthiinatraya: 'Om' (AUM); praQ.ava - pp. 39, 88.
Priitibha: Hyperaesthetic knowledge. pp. 167-168, 170.
Pratipakf?{J bhavana: Contrary thoughts. pp. 118-121.
GENERAL INDEX 227

Pratyaya: Consciousness; Cognitional; Notional.


AbhiivaP: Cognition of absence. 47.
Bhava P: Dependence on objective existence. p.55.
Upaya P: Dependence on systematic process. p. 55.
Viriima P: Cessational cognition (or abstention from mental opera-
tion). pp. 54-55.
Pratyiihiira: Abstraction. p. 113.
Definition of - p.137.
Fruit of - p.136.
Purusa: Individual soul, Atman, Spirit. pp. 60-61;
Is not the material cause, p. 82;
But the efficient cause in creation? p. 82;
Is perceptivity itself pp. 104-105;
Is the agent of the notion. pp. 104-105.
Conjunction of perceivable and the perceiver. pp.106-107;
Cognitional uniformity of buddhi and puru$(l, pp.169-170.
Intellective revelation of - pp.187-188.
Puru~ kyati: Revelation of Puru$(J. pp. 52, 140, 188.
Riiga: Passion. pp. 68-71 , 75, 91.
Definition of - p. 94.
]!.tambharii: Full of truth. pp. 56-57, 84, 85.
Samadhi: Spiritual Absorption.
Aspects of S- p.53 .
Asamprajniita S- Ultra-cognitive spiritual absorption. p.54.
Samprajnata S- Cognitive spiritual absorption. p.53.
Sabija S- Seeded spiritual absorption. p.83.
Nirbfja S- pp. 86-87.
Samapatti: Transformation (assuming an original fonn).
Nirvicara: S. =Non-reflective thought transformation. p.81.
Nirvitarka: S. =Non-deliberative balanced state. p.80.
Saviciira: S. =Reflective thought transformation. p.81.
Savitarka: S. =Suppositional thought transformation. 79-80.

Samskiira: Habitual potencies. pp. 37-39, 54, 150, 182-184, 197-198.


2 13 .
Samskiirase$(1: Resuidual habitual potencies to be retrained at the end of
the cognitive spiritual absorption. -p.39.
228 GENERAL INDEX

Samyama: The trio of concentration, meditation and spiritual


absorption, in one go. p. 140. Definition of - p. 144.
Sananda: Rapturous. pp. 53, 79.
Santo!j{l: Contentment. pp. 113-115.
Result: Gaining of unsurpassed happiness. p. 127.
Sarvajnat[fva: Omniscience p. 181 .
Sasmita: Pure egoism. pp.53, 79.
Sat'tva: Existence; intellective essence; buddhi pp .. 93 , 169, 188.
Satya: Truth. pp. 114, 123-124.
Sauca: Purification. pp. 116, 125-126.
Result of internal purificatiori. p. 126-127.
Savicara: Deliberational (Reflective). pp. 53, 79, 81-82.
Savitarka: Suppositional. pp. 53, 79-80.
Siddhi: Accomplishment.
A$.ta Siddhi: Eight supernatural faclllties . p. 139.
Kaivalya Siddhi: Accomplishment of absoluteness. pp. 187-188.
Madhupratfkii Siddhi: Perfection starting from AQimii and ending with
the conquest of phenomenal substance, (equivalent
to honey). p. 180.
Siddhi pafzcaka: Five accomplishments. (janma-siddhi). p.190.
Vifokii Siddhi: Accomplishment of sorrowless state. p. 181 .
Of external accomplishment of(Power oO:
Knowledge of past" and future. p. 156.
11
of all living beings. p.156-15 7.
11
of the former birth. p.157-158.
fl of mind of others. p.158.
" of death. p. 161.
" of subtle, obstructed & distant objects. p. 163.
fl of the universe. pp. 163-164.
" of the arrangements of stars. p.164.
" of movement of stars. p. 165.
Becoming invisible. pp. 159-160.
Elephantine strength. pp. 162-163 .
....Of internal accomplishment relating to Self:
Knowledge of the constitution of body. p. 166.
Power of seeing perfect beings. p. 167.
Conquest of hunger and thirst. p. 166.
GENERAL INDEX 229

Conquest of steadiness. p.167.


Conquest of hyperaesthetic knowledge. pp. 167- 168.
Knowledge of the indweijing mind. pp.168-169.
Knowledge ofpuru$(1 (spirit). p. 169.
Ofpower in the form of(action):
Entering the mind of another body. pp.172-173.
Levitation. p.173.
Radiance. p.173
Divine Hearing. pp.174-175.
Passage in space. p.175.
Destruction of afflictions. pp.175-176.
Mastery over elements. pp.176-177.
Ai;Uma etc. (8 siddhis). pp.177-178.
Adamantine hardness. pp. I 78-179.
Conquest of senses. p.179.
Conquest of thought & phenomenal substances. p.180.
Sm[ti: Memory. pp. 56-57.
Definition of - pp.47-48.

Sukha: Pleasure pp. 68-71 . 127.


Definition of - p.94.
Svadhyaya: Study (self-study). pp. 89~90, 116, 128.
Tanmatra: Subtle elements. pp. 79, 103-104, 176-177.
Tapas: Penance. pp.116-118 Fruits of - pp.127-1 28.
Vairiigya: Non-attachment. pp. 48, 57, 111.
Definition of. pp. 51-52.
Two-fold nature of - pp. 51-52.
Apara V: Lower non-attachment. pp.51-52, 181.
Para V: Highest non-attachment. pp. 52, 86-87, 192.
Vastu: Substance. pp. 46-47.
Vasana: Heaped up potential desires - Residua
Sailcita karma. p.196.
Vi de ha: Incorporeal. p.55.
Vika/pa: Fiction. pp.44, 46-47.
Vik~pa: Distraction. p
Symptoms of.- pp. 66-67.
Prevention of - pp. 67-68.
230 GENERAL INDEX

Viparyaya: Perversive cognition. p 46 ..


Vise$G: Specific pp. 103-104.
Vitarka: Evil ideas, thoughts etc. PI?; 118-119.
Vivekaja Jnana: Knowledge born of discnmination. p.185.
Viveka Kyati: Intellective revelation. p. l 09-111, 180, 187-188, 199-200,
214-215.
Vritti: Mental operation p.40-4 7.
Definition of - p.43-44.
Yama: Restraint. p. 113.
Definition of - p .114.
Yoga: Union: Definition of - p. 36-40.

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