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New constructional steels structural stability

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786-791, 1996

Copyright © 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd

Printed in Great Britain. All rights reserved

S0141-0296(96)00008-9 0141~)296/96 $15.00 + 0.00

ELSEVIER

structural stability

Yuhshi Fukumoto

Department of Civil Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka, Japan

High strength, high fracture toughness, longer fatigue life, high cor-

rosion resistance and better weldability are the users' demands for

new constructional steels. In this paper, the mechanical properties

of newly developed steels are reviewed and the ultimate plate

strength and ductility in compression with different models of

material properties are presented. Copyright © 1996 Elsevier

Science Ltd.

Keywords: new steels, high strength steel, low yield ratio, ultimate

compressive strength, plate elements

mately 40 N/mm 2 higher yield stress is obtained by the

Recent advances of technology in materials science have TMCP method than by the normalizing process. Reduction

made it easy to respond to user's needs on high perform-

in the Ceq value improves the welded joint toughness and

ance steels in naval, offshore, civil and building structures. reduces the preheating temperature and heat affected zone

Under a severe natural environment, thicker steel plates of hardness. TMCP high strength steel can be applied to

50-100 mm are required for large scale structures to have increase efficiency in welding fabrication.

high strength, high fracture toughness, longer fatigue life, In buildings and bridges, the user's needs in mechanical

high corrosion resistance and better weldability. Such properties of constructional steels may be summarized as

properties and high productivity are made partly possible

follows.

by introducing a new thermo-mechanical control process

(TMCP) with a controlled rolling and accelerated cooling (1) High strength steel with low yield-to-tensile strength

process instead of the conventional normalizing process. ratio (LYR) to assure the inelastic deformation

TMCP is also known as the thermo-mechanical controlled capacity of structures under earthquake motion.

rolling (TMCR) process or the controlled-rolling (CR) pro- (2) Narrow variation of yield stress which assures the

cess. design calculated sequence of plastic hinge formation

Figure 1 shows the improvement of weldability of in the structures, holding a constant yield stress level

TMCP in relation to the carbon equivalent Ceq values of from medium to thick plates.

(3) A low-yield steel which exhibits a yield stress less than

600 - - Plate thickness : 5 0 - 1 0 0 mm conventional mild steel (SM400, A36). The low-yield

stress with high ductility behaves like a 'fuse' which

550 -- ~ ~ ~ ~ _ Normalized

~ can dissipate seismic energy while the rest of the struc-

ture remains elastic or undamged.

500 (4) A high Young's modulus steel which has a higher than

TS normal value, produced experimentally by applying a

E 450

cold-rolling process in manufacturing. High Young's

TMCP~]~ Normaliz¢d

Z modulus provides great benefits in the structural func-

~ 400

tions.

~ 350

2. High strength steel with low yield-to-tensile

strength ratio (LYR HS steel)

250[- I I I I I I I I Stress-strain curves which are constructed from the tensile

0.30 0.32 0.34 0.36 0.38 0.40 0.42 0.44 0.46 coupon tests, are schematically shown in Figure 2 from

mild steel to quenched and tempered high strength steel.

Ceq=C+Mn/6+(Cr+Mo+V)/5+(Ni+Cu)/15 (%)

The steel grade of SM400A is equivalent to ASTM A36,

Figure I TMCPsteeland improvedcarbonequivalentCeq SM490A to A441, SM570 to A572, and HT780 to A517.

786

New constructional s t e e l s and structural stability: Y. Fukumoto 787

800 .~ HS780 strength steels.

/ sM.o \ From equation (3), Eta is governed by Fy/1.7 when the

yield ratio is limited by YR <--_0.77 (= 1.7/2.2), that is,

¢~ SM490 Fu --> Fy/0.77. The dotted line in Figure 3 represents equ-

ation (4) which connects (Fy, F , ) = (235, 400) for mild

40O steel and (685 and 885) for new LYR HS steel. This

straight line is given by equation (4).

2O0

Fy= 0.928Fu- 137.8 (MPa) (4)

0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Strain (%) LYR = {1.08 + ( 148.5/Fy)}-1 (5)

Figure 2 Stress-strain curves of different steel grades Figure 4 shows Fy-YR the curves of equations (2) and

(5) and the plotted points indicate the values of Fy and

It is apparent for any class of steel that if the strength YR using the minimum yield and tensile strength; both are

increases, then the yield-to-tensile strength ratio (YR) also specified in the indicated material standards. Target values

increases and the elongation decreases. YRs for the above of the LYR high strength steels in steel manufacturing are

four steel grades are 0.65, 0.74, 0.86 and 0.91, respectively, plotted for comparison with equation (5). Equation (5) can

from the tensile coupon tests. A stress-strain curve of low- serve as a target line for the future development of the

yield stress steel is also given for comparison. new steels.

Figure 3 shows the plotted yield stress Fy and tensile The uniform strain at the tensile strength F~ is determ-

strength F~ from the results of 1612 tensile coupon tests. ined by the following equation considering the strain hard-

The regression analysis gives the least-squares line, equ- ening effect3:

ation (1), with the correlation coefficient R = 0.963 as

shown in Figure 32. YR = Fy/F~ = exp [--e n (lneo + 4.3)] (6)

Fy = 1.205F, - 245,6 (MPa) (1) where the true strain en is expressed by the uniform strain

Eu as,

or YR is given by

en = In (1 + Eu) (7)

YR = Fy/F. = {0.83 + (203.8/Fy)}-1 (2)

Equating either equation (2) or (5) with equation (6), eu-

The Honshu-Shikoku Bridge Authority (HSBA) specifies Fy relations can be obtained for the conventional steels and

the allowable tensile stress for high strength steels consider- for the LYR HS steels. The HSBH specification simply

ing Fy and the values of YR. For quenched and tempered defines the linear relation of E,-YR relationship as

high strength steel HT780 (Fy > 685 MPa, F, > 780 MPa

for t = 8-75 mm) steel, the allowable tensile stress Fta is Eu = 0.60 (1 - YR) (8)

given by the smaller value in equation (3).

Figure 5 shows the e. - Fy relationship for the conventional

Eta = Min (Fy/1.7, F J2.2) (3) and LYR HS steels with the tensile coupon test results for

various steel grades. The dotted curve shows the e u - F y

where the material safe~:y factor is 1.7 for Fy and 2.2 for relationship using equation (8) in place of equation (6).

In Figure 5, test points C) of the conventional steels are

well distributed along the e u - F y curve showing the uni-

. .~!// N=1612

form strain eu decrease with the increase of Fy. Test points

800 ., ~-!~:."

• of low yield ratio steels which were conducted at Osaka

Fy=l.205 Fu-245.6 ,,.,~,./ // University are small in number and more test results would

~" 640 . . ~ / //

Conventional steel

¢'~ "f !.0 - • LYR YR=lI(0.83+203.8/Fy)

LYR, t=100 mm / . /

0.9

>~ 480

t~ ~.~.]~v

.~..~...,:./,- Fy=0.928

- Fu-137.8

0 OEC _ ~ Ve

. .- , :,"(, . "~ 0.8 - ,, ASTM ,,

" >:: :" -

DIN ~ q,.~-"O""-.

0.7 V NF 'N.

0 6 ~

~ Low YR steel

0.6 - - j~cI D LYR=II(LOS+I48.51Fy)

f n - ~n

160 ~ "

~'''f i , i i i 0.5 I I t I I

., 2~10 400 560 720 880 1O0 300 500 700 900

Fu (MPa) Fy (MPa)

Figure 3 Plotted Fv-f ~ relations from 1612 tensile coupon tests Figure 4 Yield stress and yield ratio relations

788 N e w c o n s t r u c t i o n a l steels a n d s t r u c t u r a l s t a b i l i t y : Y. F u k u m o t o

0.3 ~- o Conventional steels

• L o w YR HS steels

t(mm) 6-12 12-40 40-100

=. t X •

SNB

400B

Fy min/Fy max(MPa)

Fu min/Fu max(MPa)

235over 235/355 215/355

400/510

0.2 --O ~ 3 0

~ ' ~ • LYR steel yield ratio (%) 80% less

SN 490B Fy min/Fy max(MPa) 325over 325/445 295/415

Fo min/F u max(MPa) 490/610

yield ratio (%) 80% less

0.1 -- ~Conventional steel

....... /o o

H S B A steel ~" 550 --

oO

0 I I I I I [ UmucZ

300 400 500 600 700 800

500

Yield stress Fy (MPa) I D a u SN490B upper bound

Figure 5 Yield stress and uniform strain relations

a~

450 B* /

i a

be needed in the high strength Fy = 650 MPa class steel.

The present e u - Fy relation will serve as a target curve in

order to produce more reliable low YR high strength steels.

v

9 400 U[i. 1 °

:n:n41n.

DElia

3. Narrow yield stress range steels ~., 350

processing methods to allow steel producers to meet the 300

_/L

material requirements in the specifications. SN490B lower bound

The yield stress variation depends largely on chemical

compositions and on the rolling conditions, and the vari- 2s0 I I I t I / / I

o 10 zo 30 40 5o Ioo

ation can be controlled in order to meet the required quality

control of the product. In the material specifications, only Plate thickness (mm)

the guaranteed minimum values are specified in the yield Figure 6 Plate thickness and yield stress relations

stress and their actual yield stresses are usually much higher

than the specified values and thus the material ductility may

be reduced. On the other hand, since the tensile strengths and 40 mm of conventional steel. New standards can con-

have their lower and upper bounds in the specifications, the trol high yield stresses for medium plate thickness.

variation of the tensile strength becomes less compared to The narrow yield stress range steels of SN 400 and SN

the yield stress. The coefficients of variation (COV) of Fy 490 grades for a plate thickness of 16-30 mm are manufac-

and Fu can be listed from the published statistical data tured under carefully controlled rolling conditions. Statisti-

including the effects of plate thickness and steel grades cal data are obtained from the mill yield tests (Table 3).

(see Table 1). The COV values of the new narrow yield stress range

JIS (Japanese Industrial Standards) has been preparing a steels are less than half of the conventional steels. The

new material standard for building structural use to specify characteristic yield stress Fyk, that is defined by 5% prob-

the maximum and minimum bounds of the yield stress vari- ability less than Fy~, can be increased by 14% for the nar-

ation and the recent draft specifies the following guaranteed row range steel of C O V = 0.0407 compared to the conven-

values for two steel grades SN 400B and SN 490B. The tional steel of C O V = 0.110.

range between the maximum and the minimum bounds Eurocodes No. 8 Structural Design in Seismic Zones

maintains a constant value of 120MPa from t = 12 to states that for dissipative parts of earthquake resistant struc-

40 mm of the two steel grades as shown in Table 2. tures not only the lower value but also the upper value of

The maximum and minimum yield stress levels shown the yield strength shall be specified when the material is

by the solid lines are given in Figure 6 and are compared ordered and sufficient control must be taken to avoid over-

with the test results 1 of the conventional similar strength strengths 6.

grade steel. The dotted line is for 315 MPa between t = 16

Table I Coefficients of variation of Fy and Fu Table 3 Measured COV of mill yield stress of SN 400 and SN

490 steels

COY

No. of Standard

F~ Fu specimens Mean deviation COV

Itoh 2 0.110-0.116 0.060-0.063 class 310 286.6 11.67 0.0407

AIJ LSD S 0.090-0.103 0.037-0.041 SN 490

Narrow range steel 0.0407, 0.0408 class 109 371.2 17.78 0.0478

N e w constructional steels and structural stability: Y. Fukumoto 789

(b)

700 1.4 B A-2

A-3

6OO 1.2

A-2

A-3 1.0

5OO

eL

FIFy=B(~/~y)n

4OO B-I A-2 A-3 0.8

Fy (MPa) 596 423 450 B n

3OO 0.6

YR 0.88 0.70 0.77 B-I 0.891 0.076

200 0.4

%t(%) 1.40 0.48 1.00 A-2 0.894 0.133

100 eu(%) 8.9 12.0 13.4 0.2 A-3 0.808 0.132

_ I I I I I I

0 5 15 25 l0 20 30

Strain (%) (~l~y)

4. U l t i m a t e plate strength o f L Y R H S steel Table4 Maximum plate slenderness and related mechanical

properties of steel

4.1 Plates in compression A-2 A-3 B-1

In elasto-plastic finite displacement plate analysis, the dif-

ferent material stress-strain curves obtained from the ten- ~p)max 0.66 0.55 0.51

sile tests and the idealized models, as shown in Figure 7, (130%) (108%) (100%)

are used to compare the ultimate strength and ductility of Est(% ) 0.48 1.80 1.40

the plates 7. These curves represent B-1 as a conventional YR 0.70 0.77 0.88

HS steel, and A-2 and A-3 as LYR HS steels with different

yield plateaux and yield ratios. After the onset of strain

hardening, the fitted fonnula is used for the strain-harden-

HS steel. In Figure 8, the mean ultimate compressive

ing range until the uniform strain eu is reached.

strength curve is obtained analytically using the measured

In the analysis, the same magnitude of welded type

initial imperfection data.

residual stress pattern and of initial deflection of plate are

adopted for the simply supported square plate.

4.2. 1-section in bending

Figure 8 shows an example of the analytical results of

the plate strength for different material properties. Post- The coupled strength of flange and web plates of 1-section

yielding strength is due ~:o the strain hardening effects. The in bending are analysed by the elasto-plastic finite displace-

maximum plate slenderness for Ap)maxfor the yield strength ment theory 7. A stub beam is analysed to prevent the

Ny are influenced by the strains at the initial strain harden- coupled effect with the overall instability of the beam.

ing Est and by the yield ratio as listed in Table 4. In the In order to compare the analytical results, the same mag-

abscissa, Ap is defined by, nitude of welded residual stress pattern and of initial distor-

tionat shape of the cross-sections are specified for B-l, A-

2 and A-3. Plate slenderness ~pf and Apw of the flange and

Ap = ~ y / F c r = 0.526 (b/t),v~Fy/E (9)

web are defined, respectively, as,

~pf =\/Fy/Fcr)f = 1.61 (b/tf)~yy/E (10)

The maximum b/t ratio limitation can be relaxed by 30%

in low YR HS steel A-2 compared with the conventional ~pw = ~F~"y/Fcr,w -- 0.0463 (htltw)~ylE (11)

1.5 -- where Fcr)f and Fcr)w are elastic plate buckling stresses of

the flange in compression (the buckling coefficient

A

A kf= 0.425) and web in bending (kw = 23.9), respectively,

A Zx

^~-... Euler's curve and b the outstand flange width. Mu/My-Ttpw and Mu/Mv-

l.O Apw relations are determined for the specified flange plate

slendernesses Apr,tw = 10 mm and Af/Aw = 1.5.

0 B-I

z LX A - 2

Figure 9 shows an analytical result of the ultimate bend-

ing strength for the material properties B-1 and A-2. As

0.5 _ O A-3

compared with the conventional B-1 steel, A-2 steel dem-

Nu/l'qy=(O.7/kp)0"865 (Xp-~0.7)

onstrates high bending capacity for the specified flange and

web Ao values. The maximum width-to-thickness ratios of

0 I 1 I

cross-section which deliver the plastic moment Mp are

0 0.5 l.O 1.5 determined from the intersecting points of the strength

curves and Mu/Mp = 1 as shown in Figure 9. Combinations

of the maximum width-to-thickness ratios of the flange and

Figure 8 Analytical results of plate compressive strength for web plates for My and Mp are listed in Table 5.

different material models The maximum plate slendernesses in the yield cross-sec-

790 N e w constructional steels and structural stability: Y. Fukumoto

1.5

B-I 0 _kpf.=1.0 1.5 r (a)

• ~p:.s / A-2

\ • _~p:.6

1.0 / B - L ~

~? 1.0

0.5

o _~:.8

13 _kp~--0.6 ~pc--o.4 ~p,,~.6

A o I(XXXXY//X//q I I

Xpf=0.4 [ I I 0 5 10 15

0.5

0 0.5 1.0 1.5 O/ep

hpw B-I VS. A-2, hpf=0.4, -kpw=0.6

Figure9 Analytical results of maximum strength of I-section

in bending

1.5 F (b) A-2

Table 5 Combination of maximum width-to-thicknes ratios of

flange and web plates for M v and Mp sections

Mp section My section

~pw how

Apf A-2 A-3 B-1 A-2 A-3 B-1 o.5 ~ ~p~--o.4 ~pw~.6

0.8 0.547 0.386 0.395 0.850 0.871 0.914 0 5 I0 15

0.6 0.665 0.540 0.540 1.175 1.133 1.138 e/oP

0.4 -- 0.591 0.587 -- -- -- A - 2 VS. A-3,kpf=0.4,'Xpw=0.6

1.5

tion for the three steels are apparently the same ones. How- (c)

ever, for the plastic cross-section, A-3 and B-1 give similar

slenderness values compared with A-2 which has low yield- B-I A-2

1.0

to-tensile strength ratio and a short yield plateau.

0.5

The energy dissipation index Umax can be defined by the

area under a M-O curve up to Mmax showing a shaded area

kpf=0.4 "~pw=l.0

in Figure 10 where M is the end moment and 0 is the end

0 I I

slope of the stub beam. Figure lOa, b and c shows the Umax 10 15

area for various combinations of the plate slenderness ,~pf 0/6p

and ~vw values. Figure lOa and b shows M-O curves of A-

B-I VS. A-2, ~pf=0.4, kpw=1.0

2, A-3 and B-1 for ~pf = 0.4 and ~pw = 0.6 giving the full

plastic moment. The energy dissipation ratio of U,~,x for B- Figure 10 Strength of I-beam in bending

1, A-2 and A-3 is 1 : 2 . 9 4 : 1 . 0 3 . For ~p~--0.4 and

~pw = 1.0, the cross-sections of B- 1 and A-3 are terminated

by the coupled plate instability before reaching Mp. The thus the energy dissipation index Umax can be increased

Umax ratio for B-I, A-2 and A-3 is 1 : 5.81 : 1.02. In both considerably by lowering the yield-to-tensile strength ratio

cases, M/Mp--O/Op curves and thus the Umax values are and the small value of Apf = 0.3 for the sub-panel plate

similar for B-1 and A-3 sections. The A-2 plastic section when the stocky stiffeners are provided. The effects of the

possesses a large energy dissipation of approximately 3 stiffener parameters in flexural, torsional and extensional

times that of B- 1 for ~pf = 0.4 and ,~pw= 0.6 and of approxi- rigidities on the ultimate strength and ductility of the stiff-

mately 6 times for ~pf = 0.4 and Apw = 1.0. ened plates are discussed.

The advantages of A-2 can be obtained using the con-

ditions that the steel has low yield ratio and short yield 4.5. Framed structures

plateau before strain hardening sets in. Kuwamura '°-~3 demonstrated the advantages of low YR HS

steels in the application of earthquake resistant building

4.4. Stiffened plates structures. The results show that the low YR HS steels exhi-

Nara 8'9 discussed the ultimate compressive strength and bit a larger energy dissipative capacity in the buildings

ductility of longitudinally stiffened plates with different where plastic deformation is required as a source of energy

mechanical properties of steel including low YR HS steels. dissipation. Kuwamura '°:~.'4, discussed the yield stress

The numerical analyses are made for a constant value of variation as a predominant influence on the plastic failure

Fy = 450 MPa with the yield ratios of 0.60, 0.65, 0.70, 0.75 mechanism of the earthquake resistant multistorey struc-

and 0.79 and eu = 10% and 20%. The ductility capacity and tures. Sequences and locations of the plastic hinge forma-

New constructional steels and structural stability: Y. Fukumoto 791

strong-column structures, due to the much higher variation

of the maximum yield stresses, and thus cause an unexpec- 1 Ohashi, M. et al. 'Development of new steel plates for building struc-

ted performance of the structures. tural use', Nippon Steel Technical Report No. 44, 1990, pp 8-29

2 Itoh, Y. 'Ultimate strength variations of structural steel members',

Doctoral Dissertation, Nagoya University, 1984

5. Conclusions 3 Sato, K., Machida, T. and Morikawa, T. 'Room temperature ductility

of steel subjected to prestrain during weld thermal cycles', J. Japan

Modern innovative technologies in steelmaking have been Welding Soc. 1969, 38 (3), 279-290 (in Japanese)

adding high performance quantities to conventional steels. 4 Galambos, T. V. and Ravindar, M. K. 'Properties of steel for use in

The thermo-mechanica] control process method is one of LRFD', J. Struct. Div., ASCE 1978, 104 (ST9), 1459-1468

5 AIJ 'Standard of limit state design of steel structures (draft)', Archi-

the technologies which produces easily weldable steels with tectural Institute of Japan, 1990

good fracture toughness properties and high strengths for a 6 Structural Eurocode No. 8, Structures in Seismic Zones, 1988

plate thickness up to 100 mm. 7 Fukumoto, Y. and Nishimura, N. 'Application of high performance

The behaviour of plate elements in compression and I- steels in structural engineering', Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research

sections in bending is discussed to stress the effects of the Report No. 0255510, MESC, Department of Civil Engineering, Osaka

University, 1992

different stress-strain curves of HS steels. Target values

8 Nara, S. and Fukumoto, Y. 'Evaluation of ultimate strength and duc-

of the mechanical properties of HS steel with low YR are tility of longitudinally stiffened plates under uniaxial compression',

established in relation to yield stress-YR-uniform elong- Proc. of Annual Technical Session, SSRC, Chicago, 1991, pp 391-

ation. 402

A material guide to produce mechanical properties of 9 Nara, S. 'Elasto-plastic collapse of compressive stiffened plates with

high performance steels is proposed. HS steels with low various steel properties', 43rd Nat. Cong. of Theoretical & Applied

Mechanics, Japan, 1994

Y R can exhibit higher ultimate strength and larger ductility 10 Kuwamura, H. and Kato, B. 'Inelastic behaviour of high strength steel

in the plated structures compared with HS steels with high members with low yield ratio', Proc. 2nd Pacific Structural Steel

YR. Further studies are needed on the relations of the plate Conference, Gold Coast, ASIC, 1989, pp 429-437

slenderness parameters, YR and the length of yield plateau 11 Kuwamura, H. and Kato, B. 'Effect of randomness in structural mem-

for the plated sections. bers' yield strength on the structural systems' ductility', Z Construct.

Steel Res. 1989, 13, 79-93

The COV values of the narrow yield stress range steel 12 Kuwamura, H. 'Mechanical behaviors of high Young's modulus

are less than half of the conventional steel. Characteristic steel', Proc. of 3rd Pacific Structural Steel Conference, Tokyo, JSSC,

values of the yield stress can be increased for the new steel 1992, pp 265-271

depending on the values of the chosen probability. 13 Kuwamura, H. 'High performance steels for earthquake resistant

Further discussions are needed from the user's side to building structures in Japan', in Stability and ductility of steel struc-

propose the optimum raechanical properties which would tures under cyclic loading, Y. Fukumoto and G. C. Lee (Eds), CRC

Press, Boca Raton, FL, 1992, pp 49-66

provide the desired high performance behaviour in steel 14 Kuwamura, H. and Sasaki, M. 'Control of random yield-strength for

structures. Advanced metallurgical technologies can mechanism-based seismic design', J. Struct. Engng, ASCE 1990, 116

respond to these requirements. (1), 98-110

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