Psychology Lecture Notes – April 26, 2007 Causes of Mood Disorders: You Tell Me… - Biological -> genetics/heredity and

brain chemistry - Social -> stressful circumstances of people’s lives - Attachment -> problems with close relationships - Cognitive -> particular habits of thinking and ways of interpreting events o Depressogenic attribution style o Rumination - Psychoanalytic -> o Feelings of loss o Anger turned inward - Learned helplessness - Evolutionary Theory o Depression is an adaptive response to goals that are unattainable - Vulnerability – Stress model -> individual vulnerabilities interact with external stresses or circumstances. Schizophrenia - Class of disorders in which severe distortion of reality occurs o Decline from a previous level of functioning o Disturbances of thought and language o Delusions o Perceptual disorders o Emotional disturbances o Withdrawal - Psychosis: an extreme mental disturbance involving distorted perceptions and irrational behavior; may have psychological or organic causes. o Also seen in cocaine psychosis and crystal meth psychosis - Delusions o False beliefs, often of grandeur or persecution, that often accompany schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders. - Hallucinations o Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation.  Auditory, visual, tactile - Positive Symptoms: Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral excesses; e.g., o Hallucinations o Bizarre delusions o Incoherent speech o Inappropriate/ Disorganized Behaviors - Negative Symptoms: Cognitive, emotional, and behavioral deficits; e.g., o Loss of motivation o Emotional flatness o Social Withdrawal o Slowed speech or no speech

Types of Schizophrenia - Paranoid: Preoccupation with delusions or hallucinations, often with themes of persecution or grandiosity - Disorganized: disorganized speech or behavior, or flat or inappropriate emotion; infantile behavior - Catatonic: immobility (or excessive, purposeless movement), extreme negativism, and/or parrotlike repeating of another’s speech or movements - Undifferentiated: many and varied symptoms - Genetic predisposition o The risk of developing schizophrenia increases as the genetic relatedness with a diagnosed schizophrenic increases. - Structural brain abnormalities o Decreased brain weight and volume - Neurotransmitter abnormalities o Especially increased dopamine activity - Prenatal abnormalities o Damage to brain: chemical, physical injury - Vulnerability stress model (stresses of the environment, etc) Personality Disorders - Disorders characterized by inflexible, maladaptive personality traits that do not permit the person to function appropriately as members of society - Narcissistic Personality Disorder o Exaggerated sense of self-importance - Borderline personality disorder o Characterized by their difficulty in developing a secure sense of who they are

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