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# PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS

STRESS ANALYSIS

 INTRODUCTION
 OBJECTIVES
 PURPOSE
 REQUIREMENTS
 PROCEDURE
 CONCLUSION
INTRODUCTION
WHAT IS STRESS?
 Stress=Applied force/Cross Sectional Area
 Strain=Change in dimensions/Original
dimensions.
 Stress of a material is the internal resistance per
unit area to the deformation caused by applied
STRESS-STRAIN CURVE
IMPORTANCE OF PIPE STRESS ANALYSIS

##  Uniform Piping Layout

 Support Locations
 Pipe Flexibility
OBJECTIVES

##  What is STRESS ANALYSIS:

It provides the necessary technique for
Engineers to design piping systems without
components & connected equipment.
 OBJECTIVES:
The Layout & Design of Piping shall be made to prevent
the followings:

##  1.Piping Stress in excess of those permitted by the

Codes
 2.Leakage at Joints
 3.Excessive forces & moments on connected
Equipments.
 4. Excessive Stresses in the piping supporting elements
 5. Excessive with thermal Expansion & Contraction
FORMAL ANALYSIS IS NOT REQUIRED

##  Duplicates or Replaces without significance change,a system

operating with a successful service records.
 Can readily be judged adequate by comparison with previously
Analyzed systems.
 Thumb Rule:
Dy/(L-U)²<=K1

## D=Outside Diameter of the Pipe in mm

y =Resultant of total displacement Strains
in mm
L=Developed length of Piping between Anchors in m
U=Anchor distance,straight line between Anchors in m
K1=208000 Sa/Ea in (mm/m)²
Sa=Allowable Displacement Stress in MPa
Ea=Reference Modulus of Elasticity in MPa
PURPOSE

##  Safety of Piping & Piping Components

 Safety of Connected Equipment & Supporting
Structure
 Piping Deflections are within the Allowable
limits
STRESS ANALYSIS FLOW CHART
Preparation of Critical Line List

Documents(Isometrics)

## Run,Checking the Errors & Warnings

Generating Reports
REQUIRMENTS
 CAESAR-II,AUTO PIPE,PIPE FLEX,CAE
PIPE(Stress Analysis Software)
 Critical Line List
 GADs(General Arrangement Drawing)
 P & Ids(Process & Instrument Drawing)
 Isometrics
 PMS (Piping Material Specification)
 Others(Dimensions,Valve Weights)
PROCEDURE

 MODELLING
 STRESS ANALYSIS
 STRESS REPORTS
STRESS ANALYSIS

 StaticAnalysis
 Dynamic Analysis
 Slug Flow Analysis
STATIC ANALYSIS

 Buried(Underground)
 Flange Leakage Test
 API 610(Centrifugal Pumps)
 API 617(Centrifugal Compressor)
 API 661(Air-Cooled Heat Exchangers)
 API 560(Fired Heaters for general Refining
Services)
STATIC ANALYSIS

##  WRC 107/297(Vessel Stress & Nozzle Loadings)

 B 31.G(Remaining Strength of Corroded Pipelines)
 Expansion Joint Rating
 AISC(American Institute of Steel Construction)
 NEMA SM23(Turbines)
 SIFs Intersections & SIFs Bends
 HEI Standards(Rotating Equipment Nozzle)
STATIC ANALYSIS

 Stress Reports
 Restraint Summary Reports
 Displacement Reports
 Selection of Supports
 Wind,Wave,Earthquake Consideration
DYNAMIC ANALYSIS

##  Natural Frequency Calculation

 Harmonic Analysis
 Response Spectrum Analysis
 Time History Analysis
SLUG FLOW ANALYSIS

 Spectrum Method
STRESS CATEGORIES

 Primary Stress
 Secondary Stress
 Peak Stress
STRESS CATEGORIES

## 1.Sustained External 1. Local yielding 1.The additional stresses

forces and minor distortion due to stress
& moments can satisfy the intensification in
conditions which highly localized area.
2.Prevent plastic caused 2.Stress due to notch effect
deformation & bursting the stress to occur. (Stress concentration)
2.Thermal stress
ALLOWABLE STRESS
Smax=1.6(Sc+ Sh)
Sa= F(1.25 Sc + 0.25 Sh)
Sa=Allowable Stress
Sc=Cold Allowable Stress
Sh=Hot Allowable Stress
F=Stress Range Reduction factor for Cyclic
Conditions
CYCLES F
7000 and less 1.0 (20Years)
7000 to 14000 0.9
14000 to 22000 0.8
22000 to 45000 0.7
45000 to 100000 0.6
100000 and over 0.5

1.Sustained Loads(Pressure & Weight)
2.Occasional Loads(Earthquake & wind)
Expansion,Seismic Anchor
movements,Building Settlement)
CODES
 B31.1(Power Piping)
 B31.3(Process Piping)
Petroleum Plant
Refineries Plant
Chemical Plant
Pharmaceutical Plant
Textile Plant
Paper Plant
Semiconductor & Cryogenic Plant
 B31.4(Pipeline Transportation)
 B31.5(Refrigeration Piping)
 B31.8(Gas Transmission & Distribution System)
SUPPORTS
 Restraints
 Guide
 Limit Stops
 Anchor
 Hanger
 Trunnion
PIPE FLEXIBILITY

##  The Purpose of Piping Flexibility Analysis

is to produce a Piping Layout that cause
neither excessive stresses nor excessive end
reactions.
PIPE FLEXIBILITY
Parameters to be Considered for Flexibility Analysis:-
• The Appropriate Code that applies to the system.
• The Design Pressure and Temperature.
• The Type of material.
• The Pipe Size and Wall Thickness of each Pipe Component.
• The Piping Geometry including movements of Anchors and
Restraints.
• The Allowable Stresses for the design conditions set by
appropriate Code.
• Limitations of forces and moments on Equipment Nozzles set
by API, NEMA or the equipment manufacturers.
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface Toolbar
customization
drop-down

## Thumbtack for input pane.

Clicking will scroll the input into the
frame, giving more space for the
plot.

## Tear Away Indicator

(double-click
anywhere in the box
to activate)

## Input pane caption bar. Double-

clicking will float the pane for
Aux Screen Selector (Not tearable, but left-
“CAESAR II Classic Mode”
clicking and dragging will alter the order. Order
change is not persistent)
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface
These buttons…

## …toggle these for each

selected item(use the
Selection Operator or right-
Navigation click on something on the plot
buttons –
First,
previous,
next, last Perform the “List/Block” operations

## Duplicate last element

CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

Individual lists
may be
opened,
closed, or
Drop down undocked in
arrow allows their own
selective windows.
opening or
closing of
individual lists
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

## – Design-your-own spreadsheet with

“tearables”
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

containing only key
data.

## – Design-your-own spreadsheet with

“tearables”
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

## Select element and

choose operation…

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

## Add restraints (or

any other
auxiliaries).

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface
These buttons…

## …toggle these for each

selected item(use the
Selection Operator or right-
Navigation click on something on the plot
buttons –
First,
previous,
next, last Perform the “List/Block” operations

## Duplicate last element

CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

Individual lists
may be
opened,
closed, or
Drop down undocked in
arrow allows their own
selective windows.
opening or
closing of
individual lists
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

## – Design-your-own spreadsheet with

“tearables”
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

containing only key
data.

## – Design-your-own spreadsheet with

“tearables”
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

## Select element and

choose operation…

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

## Add restraints (or

any other
auxiliaries).

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Graphic editing
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

– Walk-through
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

## – Interactive error checking

Activate Error Checker Closes Error Check output (re-running will re-open)

## CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

Summary from Error Check
(only updates when error
checking is complete)

## Output from Error Check (selecting each line

with a node number will highlight that element
on the plot and switch the piping input screen
(or floating parts) to the appropriate page).
Errors are displayed in red, Warnings are green
and Notes are blue. Clicking on a column
header will sort based on the data in that
column.)

Input/Error selector (holding left button and dragging will detach windows)
– Interactive error checking
CAESAR II 5.00 Interface

## – Interactive error checking

Automatic Generation of Stress
Isometrics

##  Isos developed using “de-facto standard”

Isogen
Piping Code Changes

## – New codes – EN-13480, GPTC/192, Z662

Ch 11
Piping Code Changes

## – MAJOR revisions – B31.3, B31.8

Piping Code Changes

## – “Minor” revisions – B31.1, B31.5, B31.11, ASME NC, ASME

ND, CODETI, TBK 5-6, API-610
MODELLING
MODELLING
MODELLING
MODELLING
MODELLING
MODELLING
MODELLING
MODELLING
MODELLING
MODELLING
CONCLUSION

##  Pipe Stress Analysis is Very important &

Useful for Piping in Petroleum
Refineries,Chemical,Pharmaceutical,
Textile, Paper, Semiconductor &
Cryogenic Plants as also in Off Shore &
On Shore for Safe Working.
THANK YOU FOR YOUR
PATIENCE