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Q.1)Define business research and steps involved in research?

A)Research simply means a search for facts answers to questions and

solutions to problems. It is apurposive investigation. It is an organized
inquiry. It seeks to find explanations to unexplainedphenomenon to
clarify the doubtful facts and to correct the misconceived facts.
1. It is a systematic and critical investigation into a phenomenon.2. It is
a purposive investigation aiming at describing, interpreting and
explaining aphenomenon.3. It adopts scientific method.4. It is objective
and logical, applying possible test to validate the measuring tools and
theconclusions reached.5. It is based upon observable experience or
empirical evidence.6. Research is directed towards finding answers to
pertinent questions and solutions to problems.7. It emphasizes the
development of generalization, principles or theories.8. The purpose of
research is not only to arrive at an answer but also to stand up the test
of criticism.
Types of Research -
Although any typology of research is inevitably arbitrary, Research may
beclassified crudely according to its major intent or the methods.
According to the intent, research may beclassified as:
Pure Research -
It is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to
apply it in practice, e.g., Einstein‘s theory of relativity, Newton‘s
contributions, Galileo‘s contribution, etc. It is also known as basic or
fundamental research. It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or
inquisitiveness. It is not necessarily problem-oriented. It aims at
extension of knowledge. It maylead to either discovery of a new theory
or refinement of an existing theory. It lays foundation for applied
research. It offers solutions to many practical problems. It helps to find
the critical factors ina practical problem. It develops many alternative
solutions and thus enables us to choose the bestsolution.B.
Applied Research -
It is carried on to find solution to a real-life problem requiring an action
or policy decision. It is thus problem-oriented and action-directed. It
seeks an immediate and practicalresult, e.g., marketing research
carried on for developing a new market or for studying the post-
purchase experience of customers. Though the immediate purpose of
an applied research is tofind solutions to a practical problem, it may
incidentally contribute to the development of theoreticalknowledge by
leading to the discovery of new facts or testing of theory or o
conceptual clarity. Itcan put theory to the test. It may aid in conceptual
clarification. It may integrate previously existingtheories.C.
Exploratory Research -
It is also known as formulative research. It is preliminary study of
anunfamiliar problem about which the researcher has little or no
knowledge. It is ill-structured andmuch less focused on pre-determined
objectives. It usually takes the form of a pilot study. The urpose of this
research may be to generate new ideas, or to increase the researcher‘s
familiarity with the problem or to make a precise formulation of the
problem or to gather information for clarifying concepts or to
determine whether it is feasible to attempt the study. Katz
conceptualizes two levels of exploratory studies. ―At the first level is
the discovery of the significant variable in the situations; at the
second, the discovery of relationships between variables.
Descriptive Study
It is a fact-finding investigation with adequate interpretation. It is the
simplesttype of research. It is more specific than an exploratory
research. It aims at identifying the variouscharacteristics of a
community or institution or problem under study and also aims at
aclassification of the range of elements comprising the subject matter
of study. It contributes to thedevelopment of a young science and
useful in verifying focal concepts through empiricalobservation. It can
highlight important methodological aspects of data collection and
interpretation.The information obtained may be useful for prediction
about areas of social life outside theboundaries of the research. They
are valuable in providing facts needed for planning social
Diagnostic Study
It is similar to descriptive study but with a different focus. It is directed
towardsdiscovering what is happening, why it is happening and what
can be done about. It aims atidentifying the causes of a problem and
the possible solutions for it. It may also be concerned withdiscovering
and testing whether certain variables are associated. This type of
research requiresprior knowledge of the problem, its thorough
formulation, clear-cut definition of the givenpopulation, adequate
methods for collecting accurate information, precise measurement of
variables, statistical analysis and test of significance.F.
Evaluation Studies
It is a type of applied research. It is made for assessing the
effectiveness of social or economic programmes implemented or for
assessing the impact of developmentalprojects on the development of
the project area. It is thus directed to assess or appraise the qualityand
quantity of an activity and its performance, and to specify its attributes
and conditions requiredfor its success. It is concerned with causal
relationships and is more actively guided by hypothesis.It is concerned
also with change over time.G.
Action Research
It is a type of evaluation study. It is a concurrent evaluation study of an
actionprogramme launched for solving a problem for improving an
exiting situation. It includes six major steps: diagnosis, sharing of
diagnostic information, planning, developing change
programme,initiation of organizational change, implementation of
participation and communication process,and post experimental

Q.2)Describe descriptive research designs?

A)The research designer understandably cannot hold all his decisions

in his head. Even if he could, hewould have difficulty in understanding
how these are inter-related. Therefore, he records his decisionson
paper or record disc by using relevant symbols or concepts. Such a
symbolic construction may becalled the research design or model. A
research design is a logical and systematic plan prepared for directing
a research study. It specifies the objectives of the study, the
methodology and techniques tobe adopted for achieving the
objectives. It constitutes the blue print for the collection, measurement
andanalysis of data. It is the plan, structure and strategy of
investigation conceived so as to obtain answersto research questions.
The plan is the overall scheme or program of research. A research
design is theprogram that guides the investigator in the process of
collecting, analyzing and interpretingobservations. It provides a
systematic plan of procedure for the researcher to follow elltiz, Jahoda
and Destsch and Cook describe, ―A research design is the
arrangement of conditions for collection and analysis of data in a
manner that aims to combine relevance to the research purpose with
economy in procedure.
The different types of Research Designs are:-
There are a number of crucial research choices, various writers
advance different classificationschemes, some of which are:
1. Experimental, historical and inferential designs (American Marketing
2. Exploratory, descriptive and causal designs (Selltiz, Jahoda, Deutsch
and Cook).
3. Experimental, and expost fact (Kerlinger)
4. Historical method, and case and clinical studies (Goode and Scates)
5. Sample surveys, field studies, experiments in field settings, and
laboratory experiments(Festinger and Katz)
6. Exploratory, descriptive and experimental studies (Body and
7. Exploratory, descriptive and casual (Green and Tull)
8. Experimental,quasi-experimental designs (Nachmias and Nachmias)
9. True experimental, quasi-experimental and non-experimental
designs (Smith).
10. Experimental, pre-experimental, quasi-experimental designs and
Survey Research (Kidder andJudd).
These different categorizations exist, because,research design is a
complex concept. In fact, thereare different perspectives from which
any given study can be viewed. They are:a. The degree of formulation
of the problem (the study may be exploratory or formalized)b. The
topical scope-breadth and depth-of the study(a case or a statistical
study)c. The research environment: field setting or laboratory (survey,
laboratory experiment)d. The time dimension(one-time or
longitudinal)e. The mode of data collection (observational or survey)f.
The manipulation of the variables under study (experimental or expost
facto)g. The nature of the relationship among variables (descriptive or
Q.3)Discuss the four types of measurement scales?
A)Nominal measurement
this level of measurement consists in assigning numerals or symbols to
different categories of avariable. The example of male and female
applicants to an MBA program mentioned earlier is anexample of
nominal measurement. The numerals or symbols are just labels and
have no quantitativevalue. The numbers of cases under each category
are counted. Nominal measurement is thereforethe simplest level of
measurement. It does not have characteristics such as order, distance
orarithmetic origin.
2. Ordinal measurement
In this level of measurement, persons or objects are assigned numerals
which indicate ranks withrespect to one or more properties, either in
ascending or descending order
Individuals may be ranked according to their “socio - economic class”,
which is measured by a combination of income, education, occupation
and wealth. The individual with the highest scoremight be assigned
rank1, the next highest rank 2, and so on, or vice versa.The numbers in
this level of measurement indicate only rank order and not equal
distance orabsolute quantities. This means that the distance between
ranks 1 and 2 is not necessarily equal tothe distance between ranks 2
and 3.Ordinal scales may be constructed using rank order, rating and
paired comparisons. Variables thatlend themselves to ordinal
measurement include preferences, ratings of organizations
andeconomic status. Statistical techniques that are commonly used to
analyze ordinal scale data are themedian and rank order correlation
3. Interval measurement
This level of measurement is more powerful than the nominal and
ordinal levels of measurement,since it has one additional characteristic
– equality of distance. However, it does not have an originor a true
zero. This implies that it is not possible to multiply or divide the
numbers on an intervalscale.
The Centigrade or Fahrenheit temperature gauge is an example of the
interval level of measurement. A temperature of 50 degrees is exactly
10 degrees hotter than 40 degrees and 10degrees cooler than
60degrees.Since interval scales are more powerful than nominal or
ordinalscales; they also lend themselves to more powerful statistical
techniques, such as standard deviation, product moment correlation
and “t” tests and "F” tests of significance.
4. Ratio measurement
This is the highest level of measurement and is appropriate when
measuring characteristics whichhave an absolute zero point. This level
of measurement has all the three characteristics – order,distance and
origin.Examples Height, weight, distance and area. Since there is a
natural zero, it ispossible to multiply and divide the numbers on a ratio
scale. Apart from being able to use all thestatistical techniques that are
used with the nominal, ordinal and interval scales, techniques like
thegeometric mean and coefficient of variation may also be used.The
main limitation of ratio measurement is that it cannot be used for
characteristics such as leadershipquality, happiness, satisfaction and
other properties which do not have natural zero points. The
differentlevels of measurement and their characteristics may be
summed up

Q.4)Difference between Stratified sampling and systematic sampling?

A)Stratified Random Sampling:
This is an improved type of random or probability sampling. Inthis
method, the population is sub-divided into homogenous groups or
strata, and from eachstratum, random sample is drawn. E.g., university
students may be divided on the basis of discipline, and each discipline
group may again be divided into juniors and seniors. Stratification is
necessary for increasing a sample‘s statistical efficiency, providing
adequate data for analyzing the various sub-populations and applying
different methods to different strata. Thestratified random sampling is
appropriate for a large heterogeneous population. Stratificationprocess
involves three major decisions. They are stratification base or bases,
number of strataand strata sample sizes.
Stratified random sampling may be classified into:
a) Proportionate stratified sampling:
This sampling involves drawing a sample from each stratum in
proportion to the latter‘s share in the total population. It gives proper
representation to each stratum and its statistical efficiency is generally
higher. This method is therefore verypopular.
Stratified random sampling enhances the representativeness to each
sample, giveshigher statistical efficiency, easy to carry out, and gives a
self-weighing sample. Disadvantages:
A prior knowledge of the composition of the population and the
distribution of thepopulation, it is very expensive in time and money
and identification of the strata may lead to classification of errors.b)
Disproportionate stratified random sampling:
This method does not give proportionaterepresentation to strata. It
necessarily involves giving over-representation to some strata
andunder-representation to others. The desirability of disproportionate
sampling is usuallydetermined by three factors, viz, (a) the sizes of
strata, (b) internal variances among strata, and(c) sampling costs.
This method is used when the population contains some small but
important subgroups,when certain groups are quite heterogeneous,
while others are homogeneous and when it is expectedthat there will
be appreciable differences in the response rates of the subgroups in
the population.
The advantages of this type is it is less time consuming and facilitates
giving appropriateweighing to particular groups which are small but
more important.
The disadvantage is that it does not give each stratum proportionate
representation,requires prior knowledge of composition of the
population, is subject to classification errors and itspractical feasibility
is doubtful.
Systematic Sampling:
This method of sampling is an alternative to random selection.
Itconsists of taking kth item in the population after a random start with
an item form 1 to k. It is alsoknown as fixed interval method. E.g., 1st,
11th, 21st ……… Strictly speaking, this method of sampling is not a
probability sampling. It possesses characteristics of randomness and
some non-probabilitytraits.
Systematic selection can be applied to various populations such as
students in a class,houses in a street, telephone directory etc.
The advantages are it is simpler than random sampling, easy to use,
easy to instruct, requires less time, it‘s cheaper, easier to check,
sample is spread evenly over the population, and it isstatistically more
The disadvantages are it ignores all elements between two kth
elements selected,each element does not have equal chance of being
selected, and this method sometimes gives abiased sample.
Cluster Sampling
It means random selection of sampling units consisting of population
elements.Each such sampling unit is a cluster of population elements.
Then from each selected sampling unit, asample of population
elements is drawn by either simple random selection or stratified
randomselection. Where the element is not readily available, the use of
simple or stratified random samplingmethod would be too expensive
and time-consuming. In such cases cluster sampling is usuallyadopted.
The cluster sampling process involves: identify clusters, examine the
nature of clusters, anddetermine the number of stages.
The application of cluster sampling is extensive in farm management
surveys, socio-economic surveys, rural credit surveys, demographic
studies, ecological studies, public opinion polls,and large scale surveys
of political and social behavior, attitude surveys and so on.
The advantages of this method is it is easier and more convenient, cost
of this is muchless, promotes the convenience of field work as it could
be done in compact places, it does not requiremore time, units of study
can be readily substituted for other units and it is more flexible.
The cluster sizes may vary and this variation could increase the bias of
the resultingsample. The sampling error in this method of sampling is
greater and the adjacent units of study tend tohave more similar
characteristics than do units distantly apart.
Area sampling
This is an important form of cluster sampling. In larger field surveys
cluster consisting of specificgeographical areas like districts, talluks,
villages or blocks in a city are randomly drawn. As thegeographical
areas are selected as sampling units in such cases, their sampling is
called areasampling. It is not a separate method of sampling, but forms
part of cluster sampling.
Multi-stage and sub-sampling
In multi-stage sampling method, sampling is carried out in two or more
stages. The population isregarded as being composed of a number of
second stage units and so forth. That is, at each stage, asampling unit
is a cluster of the sampling units of the subsequent stage. First, a
sample of the firststage sampling units is drawn, then from each of the
selected first stage sampling unit, a sample of thesecond stage
sampling units is drawn. The procedure continues down to the final
sampling units or population elements. Appropriate random sampling
method is adopted at each stage. It is appropriatewhere the population
survey has to be made within a limited time and cost budget. The
major disadvantage is that the procedure of estimating sampling error
and cost advantage is complicated.Sub-sampling is a part of multi-
stage sampling process. In a multi-stage sampling, the sampling
insecond and subsequent stage frames is called sub-sampling. Sub-
sampling balances the twoconflicting effects of clustering i.e., cost and
sampling errors.
Random Sampling with Probability Proportional to Size
The procedure of selecting clusters with probability Proportional to size
(PPS) is widely used. If oneprimary cluster has twice as large a
population as another, it is give twice the chance of being selected.If
the same number of persons is then selected from each of the selected
clusters, the overallprobability of any person will be the same. Thus
PPS is a better method for securing a representativesample of
population elements in multi-stage cluster sampling.
The advantages are clusters of various sizes get proportionate
representation, PPS leadsto greater precision than would a simple
random sample of clusters and a constant sampling fraction atthe
second stage, equal-sized samples from each selected primary cluster
are convenient for fieldwork.
PPS cannot be used if the sizes of the primary sampling clusters are
not known.
Double Sampling and Multiphase Sampling
Double sampling refers to the subsection of the final sample form a
pre-selected larger sample thatprovided information for improving the
final selection. When the procedure is extended to more thantwo
phases of selection, it is then, called multi-phase sampling. This is also
known as sequentialsampling, as sub-sampling is done from a main
sample in phases. Double sampling or multiphase sampling is a
compromise solution for a dilemma posed by undesirable extremes.
―The statistics basedon the sample of ‗n‘ can be improved by using
ancillary information from a wide base: but this is toocostly to obtain
from the entire population of N elements. Instead, information is
obtained from a larger preliminary sample nL which includes the final
sample n.
Replicated or Interpenetrating Sampling
It involves selection of a certain number of sub-samples rather than
one full sample from a population. All the sub-samples should be drawn
using the same sampling technique and each is a self-containedand
adequate sample of the population. Replicated sampling can be used
with any basic samplingtechnique: simple or stratified, single or multi-
stage or single or multiphase sampling. It provides asimple means of
calculating the sampling error. It is practical. The replicated samples
can throw light on ariable non-sampling errors. But disadvantage is
that it limits the amount of stratification that can beemployed.
Non-probability or Non Random Sampling
Non-probability sampling or non-random sampling is not based on the
theory of probability. Thissampling does not provide a chance of
selection to each population element.
The only merits of this type of sampling are simplicity, convenience
and low cost.
The demerits are it does not ensure a selection chance to each
population unit. Theselection probability sample may not be a
representative one. The selection probability is unknown. Itsuffers from
sampling bias which will distort results.The reasons for usage of this
sampling are when there is no other feasible alternative due to non-
availability of a list of population, when the study does not aim at
generalizing the findings to thepopulation, when the costs required for
probability sampling may be too large, when probability sampling
required more time, but the time constraints and the time limit for
completing the study do notpermit it

Q.5)Distingusih between Coding closed ended structure?

A)Open Ended:

In open ended structure the openess refers to the option of answering

in on's one word.They are also referred as unstructured questions of
free response or free answer.Some illustrations are as belo:

A)What is your age?

b)What is your favourite serial?

Closed ended:

In closed ended questions both the questions and response formats are
structured and defined.Thare are three kinds of formats we observed
earlier,dichotomous,multiple choice and those with scaled response.

Dichotomous questions: There are restrictive alternatves and provide

the respondents only with two answers.These could be yes or no ,like
or dislike or similar or different.These questions are the easiest type of
questions to code and analyse.

Multiple choice:Here the person is given alternatives for response.He

might be asked to choose the one which is applicable.Sometimes these
questions do not have verbal but numerical answers.Most questions
are based on interval or ordinal level.There could also beinstances
when options are given to the respondent and he can select and apply.

Scales:It refers to attitudanal scales that were discussed in detail in the

earlier unit.These questions require simple answers of agreement or
disagreementon the part of respondent.

Q.6)Explain the structure of research report?

A)Research report is a means for communicating research experience

to others. A research report is aformal statement of the research
process and it results. It narrates the problem studied, methods
usedfor studying it and the findings and conclusions of the study.
Contents of the Research Report
The outline of a research report is given below:
·0 Prefatory Items
·1 Title page
·2 Declaration
·3 Certificates
·4 Preface/acknowledgements
·5 Table of contents
·6 List of tables
·7 List of graphs/figures/charts
·8 Abstract or synopsisII.
·9 Body of the Report

·10 Theoretical background of the topic
·11 Statement of the problem
·12 Review of literature
·13 The scope of the study
·14 The objectives of the study
·15 Hypothesis to be tested
·16 Definition of the concepts
·17 Models if any
·18 Design of the study
·19 Methodology
·20 Method of data collection
·21 Sources of data
·22 Sampling plan
·23 Data collection instruments
·24 Field work
·25 Data processing and analysis plan
·26 Overview of the report
·27 Limitation of the study
·28 Results: findings and discussions
·29 Summary, conclusions and recommendations
III. Reference Material
·30 Bibliography
·31 Appendix
·32 Copies of data collection instruments
·33 Technical details on sampling plan
·34 Complex tables
·35 Glossary of new terms used