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Human Health and Disease

1. 1. INTRODUCTION Health - It can be defined as a state of complete physical, mental and

social well-being. When people are healthy, they are more efficient at work. Health is
affected by:– •Genetic disorders – heritable defects of parents to offspring. •Infections
•Life style including food and water we take, rest and exercise we give to our bodies,
habits that we have or lack etc. Diseases can be broadly grouped into infectious and non-
infectious. Diseases which are easily transmitted from one person to another are called
infectious diseases. Among non- infectious diseases, cancer is the major cause of death.
Drugs and alcohol abuse also affect our health adversely.
2. 2. Common Infectious Diseases in Humans Pathogen- Pathogens are the parasites that
enter the human body through various means, then multiply, and interfere with normal vital
activities. Bacterial Diseases Bacteria are prokaryotic, unicellular microorganism that are
found everywhere. Bacteria are found in the soil, water and air. Bacteria are also found on
human skin and in the digestive tract- • Bacteria can enter other body systems and cause
infections or disease. •Bacteria can enter the body through a cut in the skin, the respiratory
tract or the digestive tract. 1) Typhoid:- •Pathogen − Salmonella typhi •Spreads through −
Contaminated food and water •Site of infection − Small intestine •Symptoms − High fever,
stomach pain, headache, loss of appetite, constipation, and intestinal perforations in severe
3. 3. 2) Pneumonia:- •Pathogens − Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae
•Spreads through − Droplets/aerosols released from infected person, sharing of glasses or
utensils. •Site of infection − Alveoli (gets filled with fluid, difficulty in breathing).
•Symptoms − Fever, chills, cough, headache, lips and nails become grey in severe cases.
4. 4. Viral Diseases A Virus is a small particle that contains proteins and heredity material
(DNA or RNA), but is not alive. •The virus is surrounded by a protein coat, or capsid. •A
virus particle can not eat, metabolize food and can only reproduce inside a cell. •Outside
the cell, the virus particle does nothing and remains inactive. 1) Common cold:- •Pathogen
− Rhino viruses •Site of infection − Nose and respiratory passage. •Spreads through −
Droplets released from coughing or sneezing, or contaminated objects. •Symptoms − Nasal
congestion and discharge, sore throat, cough, headache, tiredness.
5. 5. SOME COMMON UPCOMING VIRUS DISEAES Ebola Virus Ebola virus is a very
dangerous virus. It causes a hemorrhagic fever called Ebola virus disease. "Hemorrhagic"
means that the victim will bleed a lot, inside and outside their body. Humans may spread
the virus to other humans through contact with bodily fluids such as blood. Initial
symptoms include fever, headache, muscle pain and chills. Later, a person may experience
internal bleeding resulting in vomiting or coughing blood. zika Virus Zika virus disease is
caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus
disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin rash, conjunctivitis, muscle and joint
pain, malaise or headache. These symptoms normally last for 2-7 days. There's no vaccine
or specific treatment for the disease.
6. 6. 1) Ringworms:- •Pathogens − Genera Microsporum, Trichophyton, and Epidermophyton
•Spreads through − Towels, clothes, comb (Fungus is acquired from soil) •Symptoms −
Appearance of dry, scaly lesions on various body parts with intense itching. Fungal
7. 7. Protozoan Diseases •Protozoan's are unicellular or colonial organisms. •Many animal-
like and fungus-like protests can cause human diseases including African sleeping
sickness, malaria and yellow fever. •Some protists require an animal intermediate, such as
a mosquito, to enter the body. •Sometimes protists enter the body through the digestive
tract from contaminated food or water. 1) Malaria:- •Pathogen −Protozoan Plasmodium
vivax. •Vector − Female Anopheles mosquito •Symptoms −Head aches, muscle pain, high
fever. During fever the patient feels chill and shivering. •Mode of spread-This disease
spreads by the bite of infected Anopheles mosquito. Only the female Anopheles is capable
of spreading the disease because it sucks the blood of man.
8. 8. Life Cycle of Plasmodium •Plasmodium requires two hosts to complete its life cycle.
•When female Anopheles mosquito bites a healthy human being, it releases Plasmodium,
which lives in its body as sporozoite (infectious form). •The parasites multiply (asexual
reproduction) in the liver cells and finally burst the liver cells. Sporozoites are released in
blood. •Parasites enter RBCs and further multiply (asexual reproduction) here and finally
burst RBCs also. •Bursting of RBCs is accompanied by release of a toxic substance called
haemozoin (associated with fever and chills). •In the RBCs, only sporozoites change into
gametocytes (sexual stage). Gametocytes multiply. •When the diseased person is bitten by
a female Anopheles mosquito, gametocytes are introduced into the mosquito.
9. 9. •Gametocytes fertilize and develop inside the intestine of mosquito to form sporozoites.
•Sporozoites are stored in the salivary glands of mosquito and are released into the healthy
person who is bitten by this mosquito.
10.10. 2) Amoebiasis:- •Pathogen − Entamoeba histolytica •Vector − Housefly •Site of
infection − Large intestine •Symptoms − Constipation, abdominal pain, cramps, stools with
mucous, and blood clots.
11.11. Diseases Caused by Worms 1) Ascariasis:- •Pathogen − Round worm, Ascaris. •Spreads
through − Water, vegetables, fruits contaminated by faeces of infected person. •Symptoms
− Internal bleeding, muscular pain, fever, anemia, blockage of intestinal passage.
12.12. 2) Elephantiasis (filariasis):- •Pathogen-Wuchereria (W.malayi and W.bancrofti)
•Spreads through − Bite of female mosquito vector •Symptom − Chronic inflammation of
the organs, usually the lymphatic vessels of lower limb. This enlargement of legs gives the
disease its name as Elephantiasis.
13.13. Immunity What is immunity? The ability of body to fight the disease-causing
organisms is called immunity. Types of immunity Immunity is of two types − 1) Innate
immunity 2) Acquired immunity
14.14. AIDS AIDS (Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome) ,Caused by HIV (Human
Immunodeficiency Virus) [HIV is a retrovirus (RNA virus)]. Transmission of HIV occurs
through:- •Sexual contact with infected person. •Sharing infected needles (as in case of
intravenous drug abusers). •Transfusion of contaminated blood Infected mother to child
through placenta. Time lag between infection and appearance of symptoms − Few months
to many years (5-10 years).
15.15. Even infections which could be overcome easily start aggravating. Diagnosis of AIDS :
− By ELISA (Enzyme Linked Immuno Sorbent Assay). Treatment :− No permanent cure;
antiretroviral therapies can prolong the life of patient. Thus the number of helper T-
lymphocytes progressively decreases in the body and weaken the immune system.  The
macrophages continue to produce virus that enters the helper T-lymphocytes.  The viral
DNA gets incorporated into the host cell’s DNA and directs the infected cells to produce
daughter viruses. When HIV virus enters the host cell, the virus enters into macrophages,
where RNA replicates and forms viral DNA by the help of enzyme reverse transcriptase.
How does AIDS infection spread?
16.16. Symptoms of AIDS
17.17. Prevention of AIDS:- •Ensuring use of disposable syringes. •Screening blood from
blood banks. •Advocating safe sex. •NACO (National AIDS Control Organization) and
many NGOs are doing a lot to create awareness among people.
18.18. Cancer The process of development of cancer is called oncogenic transformation.
•Cancer cells divide continuously to give rise to mass of cells (tumor). •Tumor caused by
abnormal and uncontrolled cell division. Tumor are of 2 types − 1.Benign Tumor
2.Malignant Tumor
19.19. 1)Benign tumor :− Remain confined to their original location and do not spread.
2)Malignant tumor:− Cells divides and invades new locations by getting transported
through blood to distant sites. Metastasis:- Property of malignant tumor to invade the
distant body parts, thereby initiating formation of new tumors.
20.20. Causes of cancer:- •Carcinogens − Physical, chemical, and biological agents that cause
cancer Example - ionizing radiations (X-rays and gamma rays), non-ionizing radiations
(UV) •Oncogenic (cancer-causing) viruses − They have viral oncogenes (cancer-causing
genes). Sometimes normal genes in our body called proto- oncogenes get converted into
cellular oncogenes that cause cancer. Diagnosing cancer:- •Biopsy − Suspected tissue is cut
into thin sections and examined microscopically •Radiography-CT scan (computed
tomography), and MRI (Magnetic resonance imaging) are techniques of diagnosing
cancers. •C T Scan − 3-D imaging of internals of an organ is generated by X-rays. •MRI
Scan − Pathological and physiological changes in a living tissue are detected by using
magnetic fields and non-ionizing radiations. •Immunological and molecular biological
diagnostic techniques can all be used to detect cancers. •Identifying certain genes, which
make an individual susceptible to cancers, can help to prevent cancers.
21.21. Treatment of Cancer:- 1. Radiotherapy − Tumor cells are irradiated to death. Also,
proper care is taken for protecting surrounding normal tissues. 2. Chemotherapy − Drugs
specific for particular tumors are used to kill cancer cells. They have side effects such as
hair loss, anemia, etc. 3. Immunotherapy− Biological response modifiers such as α-
interferons are used. They activate the immune system of patient and helps in destroying
the tumor. 4. Surgical – Cancerous tissues are surgically removed.
22.22. Symptoms of Cancer:- •Weight loss •Fever •Fatigue •Pain •Skin color changes •Loss of
Appetite •Nausea
23.23. Prevention of Cancer:- •Don't use tobacco. •Eat a healthy diet. •Maintain a healthy
weight and be physically active. •Get regular medical care.
24.24. Drugs Commonly Abused Drugs:- 1) Opioids (Heroin) 2) Cannabinoids 3) Cocaine 4)
Nicotine 5) Drugs Normally Used as Medicines:- •Drugs like barbiturates, amphetamines,
benzodiazepines, LSD (Lysergic acid diethyl amides) are used as medicines to help
patients with mental illness and insomnia. •Morphine: It is a pain killer which is used for
patients who have undergone surgery, but it is also abused. Alcohol / Drug Abuse:- Alcohol
/ drug abuse normally starts in Adolescence. Adolescence is the period during which the
child becomes matured. It is between 12–18 years of age.
25.25. Age group more prone to Pneumonia-Infants who are 2 years old or younger and
people who are 65 years old or older. Treatment-With appropriate antibiotic therapy. 
Prevention- Proper vaccination. • Good hygiene • Don't smoke  Age group more prone to
Typhoid -It is common in humans of the 1 to 15 years age group. 2) Pneumonia:- 
Treatment-With appropriate antibiotic therapy, there is usually improvement within one to
two days and recovery within 7 to 10 days. • Vaccination.  Prevention-Preventing typhoid
is all about avoiding contaminated food and water. • Peel all fruit and vegetable skins
before eating. • Cook all food thoroughly and eat it while it's hot. Investigation 1)
26.26. Age group more prone to Ring Worm- Equally common in all age groups.
Treatment- Antifungal creams or ointments • Antifungal tablets  Prevention- Keep skin
and feet clean and dry. • Avoid touching pets with bald spots. • Items such as clothing, hats,
brushes and towels of an infected person should not be shared with others  Age group
more prone to Common cold- It is common in children of the 6 to 10 year old. 4) Ring
Worm:-  Treatment- Pain relievers • Decongestant nasal sprays • Cough syrups 
Prevention- Wash your hands often. • Cover your mouth and nose when sneezing or
coughing. 3) Common cold:-
27.27. Prevention-Proper disposalAge group more prone to Malaria-Children under 5 years
of age. 6) Amoebiasis:- Treatment-With appropriate antibiotic therapy. • Vaccination 
Prevention-Eradication of vector • Keeping the surrounding clean 5) Malaria:- Age
group more prone to Amoebiasis- Most commonly affects young adults(ages 18–35
years).Treatment-With appropriate antibiotic therapy. of faecal matter of the patient.
•Vegetables and fruits when used raw, should be thoroughly washed. •Water should be
boiled before drinking.
28.28. Age group more prone to Elephantiasis-It is observed in all age groups from 10 years
and above.Treatment- Surgery • Diet and activity. Prevention-Eradication of vector.
Age group more prone to Ascariasis -It is most common in children of 10 years old or
younger. 8) Elephantiasis (filariasis):- Treatment- Medications • Surgical intervention
Prevention- The disposal of human faeces by underground sewer canals is an efficient
measure to prevent the spread. • Washing of vegetables and fruits before eating help to
keep away the eggs of the worm. 7) Ascariasis:-
29.29. BIBLIOGRAPHY This project is made by using the analytical data provided by the
following reference books and websites: 1. Wikipedia (Encyclopedia) 2. Google 3. Google
Images 4. NCERT Textbook of XII