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You are on page 1of 29

media

Instructor : A. Khaksar Manshad

1

Outline

porous media

• Development of Hydraulic Diffusivity Equation for Flow of a Slightly

Compressible Oil

• Solution

• Applications

2

• The linear, one dimensional, horizontal, one

phase, partial differential flow equation for a 2 P φμc P

liquid, assuming constant permeability, viscosity

and compressibility for transient or time x 2

k t

dependent flow:

dependent, we denote the flow as steady state. The 0

equation then simplifies to: x 2

development in the slab is given by: x

3 fluid

• Transient and steady state pressure distributions are illustrated graphically in

the figure below for a system where initial and right hand pressures are equal:

pressure vs. x

Left side

pressure

Steady state

solution

Transient

solution

x

Initial and

right side

x 2 1 n 2 2 k nx

Px, t PL PR PL exp 2 t sin pressure

L n 1 n L c L

Px, t PL PR PL

x

4 L

Development of Hydraulic Diffusivity Equation for Flow of a

Slightly Compressible Oil and Its Solution Subjected to

Different Boundary Conditions

• Physical model

• Simplifying assumptions

• Mathematical model

– Choosing an appropriate element

– Governing equation

• Mass balance

• Momentum balance (Darcy’s law)

• Equation of state

– Initial and Boundary conditions

• Infinite acting

– Constant rate production

– Constant pressure production

• Finite acting

– Constant rate production

– Constant pressure production

– Solutions

• Laplace space solutions

• Time domain solutions

• Simplified solutions

• Applications (Drawdown (single rate & multi rate), Reservoir limit test, Build up, Superposition (time

& space), …),

5

Physical Model

6

Simplifying Assumptions

7

Mathematical Model-Governing Equation

•Mass balance

V o V t

o A v r r o A v r

o t t

t

k p

v gr

r

•Equation of state

o ob exp co ( p pb )

8

9

10

11

Mathematical Model-Governing Equation

cp

psia

1/psia

1 p ct p

r

r r r 0.000264 k t

hr

ft

12

ct c f c o S o c w S w md

Hydraulic Diffusivity Equation

1 p 1 p

r

r r r t

0.000264 k

ct

propagate in the reservoir. The more the permeability the faster the pressure

wave will propagate.

13

Line-source & Finite-wellbore Solutions

• The solution to differential equations treating the well as a vertical line

through a porous medium .The solution is nearly identical to the finite-

wellbore solution. At very early times, there is a notable difference in the

solutions, but the differences disappear soon after a typical well is opened

to flow or shut in for a buildup test, and in practice the differences are

masked by wellbore storage .

• The solution to the diffusivity equation that results when the well (inner)

boundary condition is treated as a cylinder of finite radius instead of treating the

well as a line source.

Line-source: the well has zero radius Finite-wellbore

p qBo p qBo

r r 0 2 rw hk r r

w

2 rw hk

17

19

Infinite cylindrical reservoir with line-source well

(Range of applicability)

qB ct rw2

p wf pi 70.6 Ei 948

kh k t

The reservoir is no longer

infinite acting

ﭘێووﺳﺗﮫ ﮐﺎﺗﮫﮐﮫ ﻟﮫ ﻧێوان ﺋﮫم دواﻧﮫ ﺑێت:

c r 2

c r 2

3.79 10 5 t w

t 948 t e

Un-Steady state Flow

k k

limits the accuracy of the solution

20

Example 100000%

• A well is producing only oil at constant rate of 20 STB/D. Data describing the well and

formation are summarized below. Calculate the reservoir pressure at radii of 1, 10, and 100 ft

after 3 hrs of production.

rw 0.5 ft hatyyyytawaaaaaa

re 3,000 ft

h 150 ft

k 0 .1 md

0.23

Swi 0

0.72 cp

Bo 1.475 RB / STB

ct 1.5 10 5 psi1

q 20 STB / Day

21

First we must determine whether the Ei function solution is valid for the desired times.

ct rw2 ct re2

3.79 10 5

k

t 948

k

2.35 t 211,900 hr

22

Flowing wellbore pressure

3600

E function

i

3500 Log approximation

3400

p (psia) 3300

3200

wf

3100

3000

2900

2800

0 1 2 3

10 10 10 10

time(hr)

qB ct rw2

p wf pi 70.6 Ei 948

kh k t

162 .6qBo k

pwf t pi log t 3.23

ct rw

2

kh

24

Application: Semi-log Pressure

Drawdown Data

34

Example: Estimate the oil permeability and skin factor from the drawdown data

of Figure 1.34. Assuming that the wellbore storage effect is not significant

calculate:

• the permeability;

•the skin factor;

•the additional pressure drop due to the skin.

100000000000000000000%

35

Solution

Step 1. From Figure 1.34, calculate p1 hr: p1 hr = 954 psi

Step 2. Determine the slope of the transient flow line: m = -22 psi/cycle

Step 3. Calculate the permeability:

36

Assignment #2.a

An oil well is producing at a constant flow rate of 500 STB/day under unsteady-state flow

conditions. The reservoir has the following rock and fluid properties:

rw 0.3 ft

(1) Calculate the pressure at radii of 0.3, 5, 10, 50,

h 100 ft

100,500, 1000, 1500, 2000, and 2500 ft, for 1 hour. Plot

k 0.2 md the results as:

0.23 (a) pressure versus the logarithm of radius;

S wi 0 (b) pressure versus radius

0.75 cp

(2) Repeat part 1 for t = 12 hours and 24 hours. Plot the

Bo 1.4 RB / STB

results as pressure versus logarithm of radius.

ct 1.6 10 5 psi1

pi 4500 psi (3) Estimate the bottom-hole flowing pressure after 10

hours of production.

48

49

50

51

52

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