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The Continuous-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.


9. (D) x( t) � � X [ k]e j�kt

SOLUTIONS �
k � ��

� j� �
� j j � j
� 2e 4
e j ( �4 ) �t � e 4 e j ( �3) �t � e 4
e j ( 3) �t � 2 e 4 e j (4 )�t

1
T 2
A � 2( e � j ( 4 �t � � 4 ) � e j ( 4 �t � � 4 ) ) � ( e � j ( 3�t � � 4 ) � e j ( 3�t � � 4 ) )
� A�( t) e � dt �
� jk� t
1. (D) X [ k] � ,
T �T 2 T � 4 cos ( 4 �t � � 4) � 2 cos( 3�t � � 4)

A � 10 , T � 5, X [ k] � 2
10. (A) X [ k] � e � j 2 �k , �4 � k � 4
4 4
sin 9 �t
1
T 2
1
T 4
x( t) � �e � j 2 �k
e j�kt � �e � j 2 �k ( t �1 )

� x( t) e � dt � � Ae � dt
� jk� t � jk� t
2. (C) X [ k] � k � �4 k � �4 sin �t
T �T 2 T �T 4

T
11. (D) X [ k] �|k|, � 3 � k � 3
A � e � jk� � t � 4 A � �k �
� � � � sin� � �
T � � jk�� � � T �k
4
� 2 � x( t) � � X [ k]e
k � ��
j�kt

� 3e j ( �3) �t � 2 e j ( �2 ) �t � e j ( �1 ) �t � e j (1 ) �t � 2 e j ( 2 ) �t � 3e j ( 3) �t
� 4�
� A, 0�t� � 6 cos 3�t � 4 cos 2 �t � 2 cos �t
2� 3
3. (B) T � 2� , �� � � 1, x( t) � �
2� �0, 4�
< t < 2� 12. (A) x( t � t� ) is also periodic with T. The Fourier
� 3
� 4 �k � series coefficients X1 [ k] of x( t � t� ) are
jA � � �
2� 4� 3 j �� ��
1 1
� x( t) e dt � �
� jkt
X [ k] � Ae � jkt dt � �e � 3 �
� 1� 1 e� j k� � t�

� x( t � t� ) e � � x( �) e
jk� �t � jk� ��
2� 0 2� 0 2 �k � � X1 [ k] � dt � d�
T T T T

� e � jk� �t� X [ k]
2� � � A, � 1 � t � 0
4. (C) T � 2, �� � � �, x( t) � � Similarly, the FS coefficients of x( t � t� ) are
2 � A, 0< t<1
X 2 [ k] � e jk� �t� X [ k]
1� �
1 0 1
1
X [ k] � � x( t) e � jkt dt � �� � � Ae � jk�t dt � �0 Ae dt ��
� jk�t
The FS coefficients of x( t � t� ) � x( t � t� ) are
2 �1 2 � �1 �
Y [ k] � X1 [ k] � X 2 [ k] � e � jk� �t� X [ k] � e jk� �t� X [ k]
jk� � jk�
A �1 � e e �1 � A
� � � �� (1 � ( �1) k ) � 2 cos ( �� kt� ) X [ k]
2 �� jk� � jk� �� jk�
x( t) � x( � t)
2 13. (A) Ev{ x( t)} � ,
� jt
�e �e jt
� �1 2 jt 2
5. (A) sin 2 t � �� �� � ( e � 2 � e �2 jt )
� 2j � 4 The FS coefficients of x( t) are
2� 1 1
The fundamental period of sin 2 ( t) is � and �� � �2 , X1 [ k] � � x( �t) e � jk� �t dt � � x( �) e jk� �� d� � X [ �k]
� TT T T
�1 1 1 Therefore, the FS coefficients of Ev{ x( t)} are
X [ k] � �[ k � 1] � �[ k] � �[ k � 1]
4 2 4 X [ k] � X [ �k]
Y [ k] �

2
7. (C) x( t) � � X [ k]e j 2 �kt
� je j 2 � t � je� j 2 �t
� e j6 �t � e � j6 �t

k � ��
x ( t) � x *( t)
14. (C) Re{ x( t)} � ,
� � 2 sin 2 �t � 2 cos 6 �t 2
�k k
The FS coefficient of x *( t) is
� �1
� �1 � jkt �
�1
8. (D) x( t) � � X [ k]e
k � ��
jkt
� ��
k � �� � 3 �
� e � � �� �� e jkt
k�0 � 3 �
1
X1 [ k] � � x *( t) e � jk� �t dt � X1*[ �k]
TT
�1 � jt
e 1
� x( t) e
jk� �t
� 3 �
1

4 X1*[ k] � dt � X [ �k]
1 � jt 1 j t 5 � 3cos t T T
1� e 1� e
3 3 X1 [ k] � X *[ �k]
X [ k] � X *[ � k]
Y [ k] �
2
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UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System

� 10 � � � 4� � 18. y[ n] � x[ n] � x[ n � N 2 ] , (assume that N is even)


13. X [ k] � cos � k � � 2 j sin � k�
� 19 � � 19 � (A) (1 � ( �1) k � 1 ) X [2 k] (B) (1 � ( �1) k ) X [ k]
19 (C) (1 � ( �1) k � 1 ) X [ k] (D) (1 � ( �1) k\ ) X [2 k]
(A) ( �[ n � 5 ] � �[ n � 5 ]) � 19��[ n � 2 ] � �[ n � 2 ]),|n|� 9
2
1 19. y[ n] � x *[ �n]
(B) ( �[ n � 5 ] � �[ n � 5 ]) � ��[ n � 2 ] � �[ n � 2 ]),|n|� 9
2
(A) � X *[ k ] (B) � X *[ �k ]
9
(C) ( �[ n � 5 ] � �[ n � 5 ]) � 9��[ n � 2 ] � �[ n � 2 ]),|n|� 9 (C) X *[ k ] (D) X *[ �k ]
2
1
(D) ( �[ n � 5 ] � �[ n � 5 ]) � ��[ n � 2 ] � �[ n � 2 ]),|n|� 9 20. y[ n] � ( �1) n x[ n], (assume that N is even)
2
� N � � N �
� �k � (A) X �k � (B) X �k �
14. X [ k] � cos � � � 2 �� � 2 ��
� 21 �
21 � N � � N �
(A) ��[ n � 4 ] � �[ n � 4 ]),|n|� 10 (C) X �k � � 1� (D) X �k � � 1�
2 � 2 � � 2 �
1
(B) ��[ n � 4 ] � �[ n � 4 ]),|n|� 10
2 Statement for Q.21-23:
21
(C) ��[ n � 4 ] � �[ n � 4 ]),|n|� 10 Consider a discrete-time periodic signal
2
� 1, 0 � n � 7
1 x[ n] � �
(D) ��[ n � 4 ] � �[ n � 4 ]),|n|� 10 � 0, 8 � n � 9
2
with period N � 10. Also y[ n] � x[ n] � x[ n � 1 ]
Statement for Q.15-20:

Consider a periodic signal x[ n] with period N and 21. The fundamental period of y[ n] is
FS coefficients X [ k]. Determine the FS coefficients Y [ k] (A) 9 (B) 10
of the signal y[ n] given in question. (C) 11 (D) None of the above

15. y[ n] � x[ n � n� ]
22. The FS coefficients of y[ n] are
� 2 �� � 2 ��
j �� �� n �k � j �� �� n �k
� N� � N� � 8 �� � 8 ��
(A) e X [ k] (B) e X [ k] 1 � j� � k �
1 � � j� � k �
(A) � 1 � e �� 5 �� � (B) � 1 � e �� 5 �� �
(C) kX [ k] (D) �kX [ k] 10 � � 10 � �
� � � �
� 4 �� � 4 ��
16. y[ n] � x[ n] � x[ n � 2 ] 1 � j� �k �
1 � � j� �k �
(C) � 1 � e �� 5 �� � (D) � 1 � e �� 5 �� �
� 4� � � 4� � 10 � � 10 � �
(A) sin � k � X [ k] (B) cos � k � X [ k] � � � �
� N � � N �
� 4 �� � 4 ��
� � j �� �� k � � j �� �� k �
(C) � 1 � e � N � � X [ k] (D) � 1 � e � N � � X [ k] 23. The FS coefficients of x[ n] are
� � � � � �k �
� � � � j � j ��� 10 ��� � �k �
(A) � e cosec � � Y [ k], k � 0
2 � 10 �
17. y[ n] � x[ n] � x[ n � N 2 ] , (assume that N is even)
� �k �
�N � j � j ��� 10 ��� � �k �
(A) 2 X [2 k � 1], for 0 � k � � � 1� (B) e cosec � � Y [ k], k � 0
� 2 � 2 � 10 �
� �k �
N 1 � j ��� 10 ��� � �k �
(B) 2 X [2 k � 1], for 0 � k � (C) � e sec � � Y [ k]
2 2 � 10 �
�N � � �k �
(C) 2 X [2 k], for 0 � k � � � 1� 1 � j ��� 10 ��� � �k �
� 2 � (D) e sec � � Y [ k]
2 � 10 �
N
(D) 2 X [2 k], for 0 � k �
2
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The Discrete-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.8

Statement for Q.24-27: 29. A real and odd periodic signal x[ n] has fundamental

Consider a discrete-time signal with Fourier period N � 7 and FS coefficients X [ k]. Given that

representation. X [15 ] � j, X [16 ] � 2 j, X [17 ] � 3 j. The values of



X [0 ], X [ �1], X [ �2 ], and X [ �3] will be
DTFS ;
x[ n] � � ���10
X [ k] (A) 0, j, 2 j, 3 j (B) 1, 1, 2, 3

In question the FS coefficient Y [ k] is given. (C) 1, �1, �2, �3 (D) 0, � j , �2 j, �3 j


Determine the corresponding signal y[ n] and choose
30. Consider a signal x[ n] with following facts
correct option.
1. x[ n] is a real and even signal
24. Y [ k ] � X [ k � 5 ] � X [ k � 5 ] 2. The period of x[ n] is N � 10
�� � �� � 3. X[11] � 5
(A) 2 sin � n � x[ n] (B) 2 cos � n � x[ n]
�5 � �5 � 1 9

� X [ k]
2
4. � 50
�� � �� � 10 n �0
(C) 2 sin � n � x[ n] (D) 2 cos � n � x[ n]
�2 � �2 � The signal x[ n] is
� � � � � �
� �k � (A) 5 cos � n� (B) 5 sin � n�
25. Y [ k] � cos � � X [ k] � 10 � � 10 �
� 5 �
1 1 �� � �� �
(A) ( x[ n � 5 ] � x[ n � 5 ]) (B) ( x[ n � 2 ] � x[ n � 2 ]) (C) 10 cos � n � (D) 10 sin � n �
2 2 �5 � �5 �
1
(C) ( x[ n � 10 ] � x[ n � 10 ]) (D) None of the above 31. Each of two sequence x[ n] and y[ n] has a period
2
N � 4. The FS coefficient are
26. Y [ k] � X [ k] * X [ k] 1 1
2
X [0 ] � X [ 3] � X [1] � X [2 ] � 1 and
( x[ n]) 2 2
(A) (B) j2 �( x[ n]) 2
2�
Y [0 ], Y [1], Y [2 ], Y [ 3] � 1
(C) ( x[ n]) 2 (D) 2 �( x[ n]) 2
The FS coefficient Z [ k] for the signal
27. Y [ k] � Re{ X [ k]} z[ n] � x[ n] y[ n] will be
x [ n] � x[ �n] x [ n] � x[ �n] (A) 6 (B) 6|k|
(A) (B)
2 2 �
j k
(C) 6|k| (D) e 2
x [ n] � x[ �n] x [ n] � x[ �n]
(C) (D)
2� 2�
32. Consider a discrete-time periodic signal

28. Consider a sequence x[ n] with following facts : � 11� �


sin � n�
1. x[ n] is periodic with N � 6 x[ n] � � 20 �
� � �
5
sin � n�
2. � x[ n] � 2
n �0
� 20 �
7 with a fundamental period N � 20. The Fourier
3. � ( �1)
n �2
n
x[ n] � 1
series coefficients of this function are
1
4. x[ n] has the minimum power per period among the (A) ( u[ k � 5 ] � u[ k � 6 ]), |k|� 10
set of signals satisfying the preceding three condition. 20
1
The sequence would be.. (B) ( u[ k � 5 ] � u[ k � 5 ]), |k|� 10
20
� 1 1 1 1 1 � � 1 1 1 �
(A) � ... , , , , , ...� (B) � ...0, 1, , , , ...� (C) ( u[ k � 5 ] � u[ k � 6 ]), |k|� 10
� 2 6 2 6 2 � � 2 3 4 �
� � (D) ( u[ k � 5 ] � u[ k � 6 ]), |k|� 10
� 1 1 1 1 1 �
(C) � ... , , , , , ...� (D) �...0, 1, 2, 3, 4, ...�
� 3 6 3 6 3 �
� � ************
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The Discrete-Time Fourier Series GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Chap 5.8

�� 17. (C) Note that y[ n] � x[ n] � x [ n � N 2 ] has a period


11. (D) N � 7, � � � ,
7
� 2 �� � 2 �� � 2 ��
of N 2 and N has been assumed to be even,
3 j �� �� kn j ( �1 ) �� �� n j (1 ) �� �� n � 4 ��
x[ n] � � X [ k]e
n � �3
� 7 �
� 2e � 7 �
� 1 � 2e � 7 �
Y [ k] �
2 N 2 �1

� ( x[ n] � x[ n � N 2 ]) e
� j ��
� N�
�� kn

N n �0
� 2� �
� 4 cos � n� � 1 � 2 X [2 k] for 0 � k � ( N 2 � 1)
� 7 �

� ��
18. (B) y[ n] � x[ n] � x [ n � N 2 ]
� � j �� �� k
12. (C) N � 12, � � � , X [ k] � e � 6 � � � 2 �� N
� j �� �� k �
6 Y [ k] � � 1 � e � N � 2 � X [ k] � (1 � e � j�k ) X [ k]
� �� � �� � �� � �
6 � j �� �� k j �� �� kn 6 j �� �� k ( n �1 ) � �
x[ n] � �e
k � �6
�6 �
e �6 �
� �e
k � �6
�6 �

� 0, k even
��

� 9�
� � 2 X [ k], k odd
� sin �� 3� ( n � 1) ��
j ( �4 ) ( n �1 ) j ( n �1 )
e 6 � 1�e 6
� �
� � � � � 4 �
� �
j ( n �1 ) � � � � 19. (C) y[ n] � x *[ �n]
� 1�e 6 � sin � ( n � 1) �
� � � 12 � 1 N �1
� 2 ��
� j �� �� kn
� � Y [ k] �
N
� x [ �n]e
n �0
* � N�
� X *[ k]

��
13. (A) N � 19, � � �
19 20. (A) With N even
� 2 �� N
� 10 � � � 10 � � j �� ��
X [ k] � cos � k � � 2 j sin � k� y[ n] � ( �1) n x[ n] � e j�n x[ n] � e � N� 2
x[ n]
� 19 � � 19 �
� 2 �� N � 2 ��
N �1 j �� �� � j �� �� kn
2�
1 � � j ( �5) 19 k
2�
k�
2�
� � j ( �2 ) 19 2�
k� 1
� �e
� � e
� j ( 5)
19 �
� � �e

k
� e
� j(2 )
19 �

Y [ k] �
N
�e
n �0
� N� 2
x[ n]e � N�

2� � � � � 2 �� � N�
N �1 � j �� �� n �� k � ��
1
By inspection �
N
� x[ n]e
n �0
� N� � 2 �
� X [k � N 2]
19
x[ n] � ( �[ n � 5 ] � �[ n � 5 ]) � 19 ( �[ n � 2 ] � � [ n � 2 ]),
2
21. (B) y[ n] is shown is fig. S5.8.21. It has fundamental
Where |n|� 9
y[n]
��
14. (A) N � 21, � � � 1
21 9 n
2� 2�
� 8 � � 1 �� � j ( �4 ) 21 k � j(4 ) k �
21 �
1 2 3 4 5 7 8 10 11
X [ k] � cos � k� � � e �e �
-1
� 21 � 2 � � Fig. S5.8.21
1
Since X [ k] � � x[ n]e , By inspection
N n�N
� jk� �n

period of 10.
� 21
� , n � �4 � 2 ��
x[ n] � � 2 1 9 � j �� �� kn

�� 0, otherwise n � { �10, � 9, ......9. 10} 22. (B) Y [ k] �


10
� y[ n]e
n �0
� 10 �

� 2 �� � 8 ��
1 � � j �� �� k8 � 1 � � j �� �� k �
� 2 �� � �1 � e � 10 � �� �1 � e � 5� �
1 N �1 � j �� �� kn
10 � � 10 � �
15. (B) Y [ k] �
N
� x[ n � n ]e
n �0

� N�
� � � �

� 2 �� � 2 �� � 2 ��
N �1
1 � j ��� N ��� kn � � j �� �� kn � j �� �� kn �

N
e � x[ n]e
n �0
� N�
�e � N�
X [ k] 23. (A) y [ n] � x [ n] � x [ n � 1]
� 2 ��
� j �� �� k
� 10 � Y [ k]
Y [ k] � X [ k] � e X [ k] � X [ k] � � ��
� 2 �� � 4 �� � j �� �� k
� j �� �� 2 k � � j �� �� k � � 5�
16. (C) Y [ k] � X [ k] � e � N�
X [ k] � � 1 � e � N� � X [ k] 1�e
� �
� �

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UNIT 5 GATE EC BY RK Kanodia Signal & System

� �� � ��
j �� �� k
� 10 �
j �� �� k
� 10 �
29. (D) Since the FS coefficient repeat every N. Thus
e Y [ k] e Y [ k]
� X [ k] � � �� � ��
� X [1] � X [15 ], X [2 ] � X [16 ], X [ 3] � X [17 ]
j �� �� k � j �� �� k � �k �
e � 10 �
�e � 10 � 2 j sin � � The signal real and odd, the FS coefficient X [ k] will be
� 10 �
� � � purely imaginary and odd. Therefore X[0 ] � 0
�j � j �� k ��
� 10 � � � �
� e cosec � k � Y [ k] X [ �1] � � X [1], X [ �2 ] � � X [2 ], X [ �3] � � X [ 3]
2 � 10 �
Therefore (D) is correct option.

24. (D) � � � , Y [ k] � X [ k � 5 ] � X [ k � 5 ] 30. (C) Since N � 10, X [11] � X [1] � 5
10
� j ( 5) � n �
j ( �5) n � �� � Since x[ n] is real and even X [ k] is also real and even.
� y[ n] � �� e 10 � e 10 �� x[ n] � 2 cos � n � x[ n]
� � �2 � Therefore X [1] � X [ �1] � 5.
8

� X [ k] � X [ k]
2 2
Using Parseval’s relation � 50 �
� �
� j k �j k � N k � �1
�� � �e 5
�e 5 � 8
25. (B) Y [ k] � cos � k � X [ k] � � � X [ k] � X [ k]
2 2 2 2
X [ �1] � X [1] � X [0 ] � � 50
� 5 � � 2 � k�2
� �
8

� X [ k]
� � 2 2
1 � j(2 ) k j ( �2 ) k� X [0 ] � �0
� �� e 10 � e 10 �
� X [ k] k�2
2� �
Therefore X [ k] � 0 for k � 0, 2, 3, ..... 8.
1 � 2 �� � 2 ��
� y[ n] � ( x[ n � 2 ] � x[ n � 2 ]) j �� �� kn 8 j �� �� kn
2 x[ n] � � X [ k]e � N�
� � X [ k]e � 10 �

N k � �1

26. (C) Y [ k] � X [ k] * X [ k] � y[ n] � x[ n] x[ n] � ( x[ n]) 2


� � j ��� �� ��� n � 2 ��
j �� �� n �
�� �
� 5� e � 10 � � e � 10 � � � 10 cos � n �
� � �5 �
� �
x[ n] � x[ �n]
27. (A) Y [ k] �Re{ X [ k]} � y[ n] �Ev{ x[ n]} �
2
31. (A) z[ n] � x[ n] y[ n] � ��
DTFS
� � X [ l ]Y [ k � l ]
k �� N�
��
28. (A) N � 6, � � � , 3

6 � Z [ k] � � X [ l ]Y [ k � l ]
l� 0
5
From fact 2, � x[ n] � 2
n �0
� Z[ k ] � X [ 0 ] Y [ k ] � X [ 1 ] Y [ k � 1 ] � X [ 2 ] Y [ k � 2 ] � X [ 3 ] Y [ k � 3 ]

� 2 ��
� Y [ k] � 2 Y [ k � 1] � 2 Y [ k � 2 ] � Y [ k � 3]
5 j �� �� ( 0 ) k
1 1 1

6
�e
n �0
� 6 �
x[ n] �
3
� X [0 ] � ,
3
Since Y [ k] is 1 for all values of k.
Thus Z [ k] � 6, for all k.
7
From fact 3, � ( �1) n
x[ n] � 1
n �2 32. (A) N � 20 We know that
� 2 ��
5 j �� �� ( 3) k
1 1 1 � 11� �

6
�e � 6 �
x[ n] � , X [ 3] �
6 6 � 1, |n|� 5 � sin � k�
n �0
� � ���
DTFS ;
10 � 20 �

By Parseval’s relation, the average power in x[ n] is � 0, 5 �|n|� 10 � � �
sin � k�
5 � 20 �
P � � X [ k] ,
2

k�0 Using duality


The value of P is minimized by choosing � 11� �
sin � n� �
X [1] � X [2 ] � X [ 4 ] � X [5 ] � 0 � 20 � � �DTFS ; 1 � 1, |k|� 5
�� 10
� �
Therefore � � � 20 � 0, 5 �|k|� 10
sin � n�
� 2� �
�� �� 3n
� 20 �
1 1 1 1
x[ n] � X [0 ] � X [ 3]e � 6 �
� � ( �1) n � � ( �1) n
3 6 3 6
� 1 1 1 1 1 �
x[ n] � � ... , , , , , ...� *********
� 2 6 2 6 2 �

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