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Key Check 7:

No significant yield loss due


to pests

Insect pests, Diseases,


Rats, Birds
Golden apple snails
GOLDEN
APPLE SNAIL
Management
Part 1: Understanding the PalayCheck System
Exercise: Counting GAS Eggmass
GAS Eggmass
IMAGINE THIS: Most of the eggs (80%)
become destructive snails that can
consume young rice plants overnight!

So, why do you think we need to manage


GAS?
GAS are:
• prolific
• voracious feeders
Meet GAS
• Freshwater gastropod endemic to South America
• 3 routes of introduction to Philippines
• From Taiwan to Lemery, Batangas in 1982
• Florida, USA to Makati Metro Manila in 1983
• Argentina to Asturias, Cebu in 1984
• Introduced as means of livelihood and to enrich the
protein source in the human diet
• Invaded 3.6% of the total area planted to rice after
6 years of introduction (Rejesus et. Al., 1988)
Meet GAS

• Life span: 2-6 years with


high fertility
• Shell is light brown; flesh is
creamy white to golden
pinkish or orange
• Size depends on the availability of food
• Most destructive stage is when it has grown 10 mm-40
mm or the size of a P5 coin
GAS’s address

• Ponds, swamps, irrigated fields, canals and


water-logged areas
• They burry themselves in moist soil during
the dry season,
• They can aestivate for 6 months, then
become active again when the soil is
flooded
Meet GAS: The Egg
• Eggs are laid at night on any
vegetation, levees, and objects
(ex. Twigs, stakes, etc.) above the
water surface
• Egg masses are bright pinkish-red
and turn light pink when about to
hatch
• Eggs hatch in 7-14 days
Exercise: Identifying GAS Gender
Meet GAS: The adult
• Female GAS operculum is concave: Males have
convex

male female
Meet GAS: The adult
• Adults mate for 3-4 hours anytime of the day
among crowded plants where there is
continuous water supply throughout the year.
• They reproduce rapidly and can lay 1000-1200
eggs in a month.
Meet GAS: The voracious feeder
• Hatchlings grow and mature fast.
Golden apple snails devour at the
base of young seedlings.
• They can consume young plants in
a whole paddy overnight.
• They prefer young plant parts
because it feeds by scraping plant
surface with its rough tongue.
Meet GAS: The voracious feeder

• It feeds on a wide range of plants such as algae,


azolla, duck weed, water hyacinth, rice
seedlings, and other succulent leafy plants.
• They also feed on any decomposing organic
matter.
Damage
• Missing hills
• Floating cut leaves
• 1 GAS/m2 2-3 cm ht = 19%
reduction in yield within 30 DAT
Manong Fred’s dilemma
Manong Fred knows that GAS attacked his rice plants
the previous season. To prevent that from happening
again, he plans to plant many seedlings so that there
would still be enough left when GAS have consumed
other plants. He also wants to flood the field so that
he could kill them by drowning; he will employ a
wetbed preparation method.

Is Manong Fred’s decision right?


GAS Management: ABCDE
A - Attractants and hand-picking

• Before final harrowing,


handpick GAS in the morning
and afternoon when they are
most active and easy to find.
• Use attractants/alternate feeds such as leaves of
gabi, banana, papaya, trumpet flower, kangkong
and sweet potato (75% damage reduction to rice
seedlings)
• Old news paper attracted GAS like other plant
attractants.
GAS Management: ABCDE
B – Biological control, Botanical
• Red ants feed on the eggs
• Birds feed on eggs and newly hatched snails
• Ducks eat the flesh and young shell
• Field rats bite on the shell and eat the flesh
• Human beings eat the flesh when it is properly cooked
(soups, stews, curries, stir-fry or barbecued)
• Long horned grasshopper predated on GAS eggmasses
in rice fields
GAS Management: ABCDE
C - Collection, Canalet, Chemicals as last resort

• During the last harrowing,


construct deep strips (at least 25
cm wide and 5 cm deep) in the
paddies.

• TECHNIQUE: Pull a sack with a


heavy object inside to create a
canalet.
GAS Management: ABCDE
C - Collection, Canalet, Chemicals as last resort

Place a wire or woven screen on the main irrigation


water inlet and outlet to prevent entry of hatchlings
and adults.
GAS Management: ABCDE
C - Collection, Canalet, Chemicals as last resort
• Put bamboo stakes on waterlogged areas in
paddies or near canals for easy collection;
bamboos will be rooms for egg laying
• Collect, cook, then eat the GAS or crush and
feed them to ducks and pigs.
GAS is nutritious!!
A bite-sized golden apple snail contains the following:
• Food energy 83.0 cal Potassium 17.0 mg
• Protein 12.2 g Riboflavin 12.0 mg
• Fat 0.4 g Niacin 1.8 mg
Other food values are
• Carbohydrates 6.6 g Vitamin C, Zinc, Copper,
• Ash 3.2 g Manganese and Iodine
• Phosphorous 1.0 mg
• Sodium 0.4 mg

NEWS!!! Chicharon golden apple snail recipe


has been improved.
GAS Management: ABCDE
C - Collection, Canalet, Chemicals as last resort

When other methods don’t work:


• Use Chemicals: Molluscisides
GAS Management: ABCDE
D - Ducks, Dry land preparation, Draining

• Herd ducks in rice paddies immediately after


harvest up to the last harrowing for the
succeeding crop.
GAS Management: ABCDE
D - Ducks, Dry land preparation, Draining

• Using 900 ducks/ha (Vega 1991) observed 74-


84% decrease of GAS in rice fields after rice
harvest.
• Duck herding before transplanting was better
than herding 14-19 days at one month after
transplanting.
GAS Management: ABCDE
D - Ducks, Dry land preparation, Draining
• Duck control was more effective than mullusicides
• Lasted only for 2-3 days
• More lethal to non-destructive native snails
• Ineffective either because of poor drainage by crawling
out of treated water
• Endosulfan (organochloride) could accumulate in GAS
tissues and maybe biomagnified when taken by humans
(PCARRD Monitor, 2000)
GAS Management: ABCDE
D- Ducks, Dry land preparation, Draining
• Dry land preparation exposes buried GAS which
causes them to die.
• Draining (condition: two 25 mm GAS/m2)
– 21 DAS - 100% alive plantation
– 14 DAS – 90% alive plantation
– 10 DAS – 70% alive plantation
– 7 DAS – 18% alive plantation
GAS Management: ABCDE
E- Energize your field
For defense, energize or strengthen your field!
Follow PalayCheck recommendations
• Follow the standard seeding rate and distance so that
the plants will have sturdy stems.
• Varieties least preferred by GAS: PSB Rc36, Rc38,
Rc40, and Rc68.
• Transplant older seedlings of early-maturing varieties
(especially in low-lying areas).
GAS Management: ABCDE
E- Energize your field
For defense, energize or strengthen your field!
Follow PalayCheck recommendations
• Management Practices:
– Direct seeding – irrigation after 1-2 weeks
– Transplanted – shallow water (4.0 leaf stage or older)
• Maintain shallow paddy water level (2-3 cm shallow)
starting 3 days after transplanting.
• Drain the field occasionally to limit snail mobility and
feeding activity.
GAS Management: ABCDE
E- Energize your field
For defense, energize or strengthen your field!
Follow PalayCheck recommendations
• Basal application of complete fertilizer and urea
incorporated with the soil at recommended rate
during the last harrowing reduce GAS population up to
54%.
• Maintain shallow paddy water level (2-3 cm shallow)
starting 3 days after transplanting.
• Drain the field occasionally to limit snail mobility and
feeding activity.
ABCDE in GAS Management
A Attractants and hand-picking
B Biological control, Botanical
C Collection, Canalet, Chemicals as last
resort
D Ducks, Dryland preparation, Draining
E Energize you field
Yield loss is significant when 10% or more of
the area is damaged by GAS (missing hills, etc.)

In 1 ha field, about 1,000 sq m of damage.

Continuous community action is very


important
CREDITS
Instructional presentation designer:
Ms. Ella Lois Bestil

Sources of technical content/reviewers of presentation:


Mrs. Annie Antonio, Mr. Mario Dela Cruz, Mr. Rolando
San Gabriel

Note:
Adapted from a powerpoint presentation developed by:
Mr. Glenn Ilar, Mrs. Marissa Reyes

You may use, remix, tweak, For more information, visit:


& build upon this presentation
non-commercially. However, always
use with acknowledgment.

Unless otherwise stated, the names


listed are PhilRice staffers.

Produced in 2011
Text: 0920-911-1398