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BINOMIAL THEOREM

C1 Binomial Expression :
Any algebraic expression which contains two dissimilar terms is called binomial expression.

2 1 1
For example : x  y , x y  2
, 3  x, x 2  1  3 etc.
xy ( x  1)1 / 3
C2 Statement of Binomial theorem :
If x, y  R and n  N, then :
(x + y)n = nC0 anb0 + nC1 an – 1b1 + nC2an – 2b2 + .... + nCran – rbr + ... + nCn a0bn
n
or (x  y )n   n
C ra nrb r
r0

Now, putting y = 1 in the binomial theorem


or (1 + x)n = nC0 + nC1 + nC2x2 + .... + nCrxr + .... + nCnxn
n
(1  x )n   n Cr x r
r0

Practice Problems :
1. Using binomial theorem, indicate which number is larger (1.1)10000 or 1000.
2. Find (x + 1)6 + (x – 1)6. Hence or otherwise evaluate (2 + 1)6 + (2 – 1)6.
3. Show that 9n + 1 – 8n – 9 is divisible by 64, whenever n is a positive integer.
4. Using binomial theorem, prove that 6n – 5n always leaves remaining 1 when divided by 25.

C3 Properties of Binomial Theorem :


(i) The number of terms in the expansion is n + 1.
(ii) The sum of the indices of x and y in each term is n.
(iii) The binomial coefficients (nC0, nC1.......nCn) of the terms equidistant from the
begining and the end are equal, i.e. nC0 = nCn, nC1 = nCn – 1 etc.
C4 Some important terms in the expansion of (x + y)n :
(i) General term :
(r + 1)th term of (x + y)n is Tr + 1 = nCrxn – ryr
(ii) Middle term/(s) :

 n 2
(a) If n is even, there is only middle term, which is   th term.
 2 
(b) if n is odd, there are two middle terms, which are

 n 1  n1 
 th and   1  th terms.
 2   2 
(iii) Numerically greatest term in the expansion of (x + y)n, n  N
Let Tr and Tr + 1 be the rth and (r + 1)th terms respectively
n
Tr = Cr – 1 xn–(r – 1) yr – 1
n
Tr + 1 = Cr xn – r yr

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Tr 1 n
Cr x n  r y r nr1 y
Now,  r 1
 .
Tr n Cr  1 x
n r  1
y r x

 n  r 1 y n1 x
Consider
Tr 1
 1,   1, 1 , r  n1
Tr  r x r y x
1
y
Practice Problems :

2n 1 · 3 · 5 ... ( 2n  1)
1. Show that the middle term in the expansion of (1  x) is · 2n · xn, where n  N.
n!
2. Show that the coefficient of the middle term in the expansion of (1 + x)2n is the sum of the coefficients
of two middle terms in the expansion of (1 + x)2n – 1.
3. Find the value of r, if the coefficients of (2r + 4)th and (r – 2)th terms in the expansion of (1 + x)18 are
equal.
4. If the coefficient of (r – 1)th, rth and (r + 1)th terms in the expansion of (x + 1)n are in the ratio
1 : 3 : 5, find n and r
5. The 2nd, 3rd and 4th terms in the expansion of (x + y)n are 240, 720 and 1080 respectively. Find the
values of x, y and n.
6. Find the coefficient of x5 in the product (1 + 2x)6 (1 – x)7 using binomial theorem.
6
3 1 
7. Find the term independent of x in the expansion of  x 2   .
 2 3 x

8. Find the coefficient of a4 in the product (1 + 2a)4 (2 – a)5 using binomial theorem.
m
 3 
9. The sum of the coefficients of the first three terms in the expansion of  x  2  , x  0 , m being a
 x 
natural number, is 559. Find the term of the expansion containing x3.
2n
 1 1.3.5....( 2n  1) . 2n
10. Show that the greatest coefficients in the expansion of  x   is .
 x n!

11. Express ( x  x 2  1 ) 6  ( x  x 2  1 ) 6 as a polynomial in x.


12. If a1, a2, a3 and a4 be any four consecutive coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)n, prove that

a1 a3 2a 2 .
 
a1  a 2 a 3  a 4 a 2  a 3
[Answers : (3) 6 (4) n = 7, r = 3 (5) x = 2, y = 3 and n = 5 (6) 171 (7) 5/12 (8) –438 (9) –5940 x3]

C5 Multinominal Theorem
n
n n!
As we know the Binomial Theorem ( x  y )  n
 n
Crx nr
y 
r xnr y r
r0 r0 ( n  r )! r!
putting n – r = r1, r = r2

n! r1 r2
therefore, ( x  y )n   x .y
r1  r2  n r1 ! r2 !

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MB – 3
n
Total number of terms in the expansion of (x + y) is equal to number of non-negative integral solution of
r1 + r2 = n i.e. n + 2 – 1C2 – 1 = n + 1C1 = n + 1
In the same fashion we can write the multinominal theorem

n!
( x1  x 2  x 3  .....xk )n   x1r1 .x r22 ....x rkk
r !
r1  r2  .... rk  n 1 2r !...rk !
Here total number of terms in the expansion of (x1 + x2 + .... + xk)n is equal to number of non-negative
integral solution of r1 + r2 + ..... + rk = n i.e. n + k – 1Ck – 1
Practice Problems :
10
 1 
1. (i) the middle term in the expansion of  x   (ii) the coefficient of x 32 and x –17 in the
 2y 
15
 1 
expansion of  x 4  3 
 x 
2. Find the coefficient of x5 in the expansion of the product (1 + 2x)5 (1 – x)7.

63x 5
[Answers : (1) (i)  (ii) 1365, – 1365 (2) 171]
8y 5

C6 Properties of Binomial Coefficients :


(1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + .... + Crxr + .... + Cnxn ....(1)
(1) The sum of the binomial coefficients in the expansion of (1 + x)n is 2n
Putting x = 1 in (1)
n
C0 + nC1 + nC2 + .... + nCn = 2n ....(2)
n
n
or  Cr  2 n
r 0

(2) Again putting x = –1 in (1), we get


n
C0 – nC1 + nC2 – nC3 + .... + (–1)n nCn = 0 ....(3)
n
r n
or  ( 1)
r 0
Cr  0

(3) The sum of the binomial coefficients at odd position is equal to the sum of the binomial
coefficients at even position and each is equal to 2n – 1 i.e.,
n
C0 + nC2 + nC4 + ................. = 2n – 1
n
C1 + nC3 + nC5 + ................. = 2n – 1
(4) Sum of two consecutive binomial coefficients
n
Cr + nCr – 1 = n + 1Cr
n
Cr nr1
(5) Ratio of two consecutive binomial coefficients n

Cr 1 r

n n n 1 n(n  1) n  2
(6) Cr  C r 1  Cr  2
r r(r  1)

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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Practice Problems :
1. Prove the following identities :
n
(a) C0 + nC2 + nC4 + .... = 2n – 1
n
(b) C1 + nC3 + nC5 + .... = 2n – 1
n
(c) C0 + 3 nC1 + 5 nC2 + .... + (2n + 1)nCn = (n + 1)2n
n
(d) C1 – 2 nC2 + 3 nC3 – .... + (–1)n – 1 nnCn = 0
(e) C1 + 2 C2 + 3 C3 + .... + n Cn = n 2n – 1
(f) C0 + 2 C1 + 3 C2 + .... + (n + 1) Cn = 2n + n 2n – 1

C1 C 2 1
(g) C0    .... 
2 3 n1

C1 C C 3n1  1
(h) 2C 0  2 2  2 3 2  ....  2n 1 n =
2 3 n1 n1

C 2 C4 2n
(i) C0    .... 
3 5 n1
(j) 2C0 + 5 C1 + 8 C2 + .... + (3n + 2) Cn = (3n + 4) 2n – 1

C7 Binomial Theorem For Negative Integer or Fractional Indices


If n  R then,

n(n  1) 2 n(n  1)(n  2) 3


(1  x)n  1  nx  x  x  ..........
2! 3!
n(n  1)(n  2).....(n  r  1) f
 x  ...........
r!
Remarks
(i) The above expansion is valid for any rational number other then a whole number if |x| < 1.
(ii) When the index is a negative integer or a fraction then number of terms in the expansion of (1 + x)n is
infinite. and the symbol nCr cannot be used to denote the coefficient of the general term.
(iii) The first terms must be unity in the expansion, when index ‘n’ is a negative integer or fraction.

n(n  1)(n  2).....(n  r  1) r


(iv) The general term in the expansion of (1 + x)n is Tr 1  x
r!
(v) When ‘n’ is any rational number other than whole number then approximate value of
(1 + x)n is 1 + nx (x2 and higher powers of x can be neglected)
(vi) Expansion to be remembered (|x| < 1)
(a) (1 + x)–1 = 1 – x + x2 – x3 + .......... + (–1)r xr + ..........
(b) (1 – x)–1 = 1 + x + x2 + x5 + .......... + xr + .......... 
(c) (1 + x)–2 = 1 – 2x + 3x2 – 4x3 + ........... + (–1)r (r + 1) xr + .......... 
(d) (1 – x)–2 = 1 + 2x + 3x2 + 4x3 + .......... + (r + 1)xr + .......... 
Practice Problems :
1. Find the coefficient of x6 in the expansion of (1 – 2x)–5/2.

(1  3x 2 )
2. Find the coefficient of x10 in the expansion of , mentioning the condition under which the
(1  x 2 ) 3
result holds.

 15015 
[Answers : (1)  ]
 16 

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MB – 5
SINGLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE

1. The expansion 10. The coefficient of x 10 in the expansion of


[x + (x3 – 1)1/2]5 + [x – (x3 – 1)1/2]5 is a polynomial of (1 + x2 – x3)8 is
degree (a) 476 (b) 496
(a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 506 (d) 528
n
(c) 7 (d) 8 11. The coefficient of x in the expansion of
2. Given positive integers r > 1, n > 2 and the 2 3 n 
2

coefficients of (3r)th and (r + 2)th terms in the  1  x  x  x .... x  is
binomial expansion (1 + x) 2n are equal. Then n  1! 2! 3! n! 

equals to
(a) 3r (b) 3r – 1 2n 2n1
(c) 3r + 1 (d) none of these (a) (b)
n! n!
3. If in the expansion of (1 + x)m (1 – x)n, the coeffi-
(c) n! 2n (d) n! 2n – 1
cient of x and x2 are 3 and –6 respectively, then m
is 12. The coefficient of x 4 in the expansion of
(1 + x + x2 + x3)n is
(a) 6 (b) 9
n
(c) 12 (d) 24 (a) C0nC4 + nC0nC2
n
(b) C0nC2 + nC2nC1
n r
( 1) (c) n
C0nC4 + nC2 · nC1
4. If n is an odd natural number then 
r 0
n
Cr (d) n
C0nC4 + nC0nC2 + nC2 · nC1
equals 13. The coefficient of x 5 in the expansion of
(a) 0 (b) 1/n (1 + x2)5 · (1 + x)4 is
(c) n/2 n
(d) none of these (a) 60 (b) 61
5. The total number of dissimilar terms in the (c) 59 (d) none
expansion of (x1 + x2 + .... + xn)3 is 14. If (2x – 3x ) = a0 + a1x + a2x .... a12x12, then the a0
2 6 2

and a6 will be
n 3  3n 2 (a) a0 = 6C026 and a6 = 0
(a) n3 (b)
4 (b) a0 not possible and a6 = 6C026
(c) a6 not possible and a0 = 6C026
n ( n  1)(n  2) n 2 (n  1) 2
(c) (d) (d) a0 = 0 and a6 = 6C026
6 4
15. The term independent of x in the expansion of
6. The coefficient of x 5 in the expansion of 7
(1 + x)21 + (1 + x)22 + .... + (1 + x)30 is  1
(1 – x2)  x   is
(a) 51
C5 (b) 9
C5  x
31 21 30
(c) C6 – C6 (d) C5 + 20C5 (a) 4th term (b) 5th term
7. If x is positive, the first negative term in the expan- (c) 6th term (d) none
sion of (1 + x)27/5 is 16. The coefficient of x 4
in the expansion of
(a) 5th term (b) 8th term
(1  2x  3x 2 )
(c) 6th term (d) 7th term is
(1  x) 2
8. Sum of the coefficient of the terms of degree m in
the expansion of (1 + x)n (1 + y)n (1 + z)n is (a) 21 (b) 22
n 3 n
(a) ( Cm) (b) 3( Cm) (c) 23 (d) none
n 3n
(c) C3m (d) Cm 17. The term independent of x in the expansion of
9. The coefficient of xk in the expansion of 10
 x1 x1 
2
E = 1 + (1 + x) + (1 + x) .... (1 + x) is n  2/ 3   is
 x  x  1 x  x1 / 2 
1/ 3
n n+1
(a) Ck (b) Ck
10 10
n+1
(a) C5 (b) C6
(c) Ck + 1 (d) none
10 10
(c) C4 (d) C3

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MB– 6
100 2 100
18. If (1 + x) = c0 + c1x + c2x .....c100x then the value
c1 c 3 c 5
of k1 and k2 will be 25. The value of   .... is equal to
2 4 6
c2 c4
where c 0   ......  k 1 and 2n
3 5 (a) (b) n · 2n
n
c1 c 3 c 5
  ......  k 2
2 4 6 2n  1 2n  1
(c) (d)
n1 n1
2100 2100 2100 2100
(a) and (b) and n
100 101 101 100 n r

100 101 100 100


26. If (1  x)  c x
r 0
r then
2 2 2 2 1
(c) and (d) and
100 101 101 101
 c  c   c 
19. If (1 + x)100 = c0 + c1x + c2x2.....c100x100 then the value 1  1  1  2 ....... 1  n 
 c0  
c1   c n 1 
of c02 + c12 + c22.....c1002 will be   
200 200
(a) c101 (b) c99
(n  1)n
(c) 200
c100 (d) none (a) (b) (–1)n + 2 (–2)
n!
20. If (1 + x)101 = c0 + c1x + c2x2.....c101x101 then the value
of n n 1 (n  1)n1
(c) (d)
2 2 2
c – c + c – c .....c
0 1 2 3
2
101
2 (n  1)! n!
202
(a) 0 (b) c101
–202 201
1
(c) c101 (d) c100 27. The coefficient of in the expansion of
x
n
21. If (1 + x) n = c 0 + c 1 x + c 2 x 2 ......c nx n then  1
(1  x)n  1   is
c1 2c 2 3c 3 nc  x
  ..... n will be
c0 c1 c2 c n 1
n!
(a)
n 2 (n  1) 3n(n  2) (n  1)!(n  1)!
(a) (b)
2 8
( 2n )!
(b)
n(n  1) (n  1) (n  2) (n  1)!(n  1)!
(c) (d)
2 2
( 2n)!
2
(c)
 1 x  ( 2n  1)!( 2n  1)!
22. In the expansion of   the coefficient of xn
 1 x  (d) none
will be 28. If n is even positive integer, then the condition that
(a) 4n (b) 4n – 3 the greatest term in the expansion of (1 + x)n may
have the greatest coefficient also is
(c) 4n + 1 (d) none
n n2
c1 2c 2 3c 3 15c15 (a) x
23.   ..... is equal to n2 n
c 0 c1 c2 14
(a) 100 (b) 120 n1 n
(b) x
(c) –120 (d) none n n1

24. If (1 + x) = c 0 + c 1 x + c 2 x .... c 15 x 15 then


15 2
n n4
c2 + 2c3 + 3c4....14 c15 equal to (c) x
n4 4
(a) 14 · 214 (b) 13 · 214 (d) none of these
(c) 13 · 214 – 1 (d) none

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1/5 20
29. The sum of the rational terms of (2 + 3) is 38. If (1 – x + x ) = a 0 + a 1x + a 2x 2 ....a 2nx 2n then
2 n

(a) 71 (b) 85 a0 + a2 + a4 + .... + a2n will be


(c) 97 (d) none 3n  1 3n  1
30. The number of terms which are free from radical (a) (b)
2 2
signs in the expansion of (y1/5 + x1/10)55 is
(a) 5 (b) 6 1  3n 1
(c) (d) 3n 
(c) 4 (d) none 2 2
31. If sum of coefficient in the expansion of (x + y)n is 39. The sum of the last eight coefficients in the
4096 then the greatest binomial coefficient is expansion of (1 + x)15 is
(a) 12
C6 (b) 12
C7 (a) 216 (b) 215
(c) 12
C8 (d) none (c) 214 (d) none of these

1

1

1
..... is equal to 2 2 C1 2 3 C 2 211 C10
32. 40. 2C 0   ..... is
1! (n  1)! 3! (n  3)! 5! (n  5)! 2 3 11

2n1 311  1 211  1


(a) (b) ( 1)n 1 (a) (b)
n! 11 11

2n 113  1 112  1
(c) (d) none (c) (d)
2(n! ) 11 11
33. The number of terms in the expansion of
(a + b + c)n will be
(a) 3 (b) n+2

(n  1)(n  2)
(c) (d) none
2
34. The coefficient of x n in the expansion of
(1 + x + x2.....)–n is
(a) 1 (b) (–1)n
(c) n (d) n+1 ANSWERS (SINGLE CORRECT
35. The coefficient of x5 in CHOICE TYPE)
(1 + 2x + 3x2 .... )–3/2 is
(a) 21 (b) 25 1. c 11. a 21. c 31. a
(c) 26 (d) none of these 2. d 12. d 22. a 32. a
2 2 2
36. The coefficient of x y , yzt and xyzt in the 3. c 13. a 23. b 33. c
expansion of (x + y + z + t)4 are in the ratio.
4. a 14. b 24. d 34. b
(a) 1:2:4 (b) 4:2:1
5. c 15. b 25. d 35. d
(c) 2:1:4 (d) 4:1:2
37. If (1 + x) = c0 + c1x + c2x + c2x .....c100x100 then the
100 2 3 6. c 16. b 26. a 36. a
value of c 0 + c 2 + c 4 + ...... = k 1 and 7. b 17. c 27. b 37. a
c1 + c3 + c4 + ....... = k2 will be
8. d 18. d 28. a 38. a
(a) k1 = k2 = 299 (b) k1 = k2 = 298
(c) k1 = k2 = 2101 (d) k1  k2 9. c 19. c 29. d 39. c
10. a 20. a 30. b 40. a

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
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EXCERCISE BASED ON NEW PATTERN


COMPREHENSION TYPE Comprehension-3
Comprehension-1 Let P be a product given by
Consider the following expansion of P = (x + a1) (x + a2).....(x + an)
2 n 2 3 2n
(1 + x + x ) = a0 + a1x + a2x + a3x + ...... + a2nx
n
1. Let S1 = a0 + a3 + a6....... and let S1 = ai 1
i
S2 = a1 + a4 + a7.......
S3 = a2 + a5 + a8.......
then S1 : S2 : S3 will be S2   a a , S    a a a
i j
i j 3
i  j k
i j k
(a) 1:2:3 (b) 3:2:1
(c) 1:1:1 (d) 3:2:1 and so on, then it can be shown that
2. The value of P = xn + S1xn – 1 + S2xn – 2 + ... + Sn
a 0 2 – a 1 2 + a 2 2 – a 3 2 ..... (–1) n – 1
a 2n – 1
is 7. The coefficient of x 99 in the expression of
(x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) .... (x – 100) must be
k a n [1  ( 1)n a n ] . The value of ‘k’ is (a) –99 (b) –4950
(c) –5050 (d) 5050
(a) ½ (b) 2
203
8. The coefficient of x in the expression
(c) 1 (d) –½
(x – 1) (x – 2) (x – 3) .... (x20 – 20) must be
2 3
3. Consider the following statement :
(a) 11 (b) 12
(i) The value of
n (c) 13 (d) 15
C0 . ar – nCl . ar – 1 + nC2 ar – 2....(–1)r nCr . a0
is zero when r is not multiple of 3. 9. The total number of terms in P must be
(ii) The value of (a) 22n (b) 2n – 1
n
C0 . ar – nCl . ar – 1 + nC2 ar – 2....(–1)r nCr . a0 (c) 2n + 1 (d) 2n
is (–1)m . nCm when r is multiple of 3. MATRIX MATCH TYPE
Then
Matching-1
(a) both are correct
Column - A Column - B
(b) only (i) is correct
n n
(c) only (ii) is correct Ck n .2 n  1  1
(d) both are incorrect
(A)  (k  1)(k  2)
k 0
(p)
(n  1)(n  2)
Comprehension-2
n n
If a, b, c, d be four consecutive coefficients in the Cr 2n 1
binomial expansion of (1 + x)n then (B) 
r 0
( 1)r r3
Cr
(q)
n1
ab bc cd
4. , , are in n n
C 2k  1 3
a b c
(C)  2k
(r)
(n  3)
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. k 1

(c) H.P. (d) none n n


Ck 2n  2  n  3
5.
a
,
b
,
c
are in
(D) k2
k 0
(s)
(n  1) (n  2)
ab bc cd
Matching-2
(a) A.P. (b) G.P.
Match the column A with their suitable term
(c) H.P. (d) none
independent of x given in column B
6. (bc + ad), 2(ac2 – b2d), (b – c) are in
Column - A Column - B
(a) A.P. (b) G.P. –2 –3 10
(A) (1 + x + x + x ) (p) –336
(c) H.P. (d) none
10
 2 1 
(B)  x  2  2 (q) 168
 x 
Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MB – 9
2/3 1/3 5
(C) (x + 4x + 4) · (r) 184756 3. The term independent of x in the expansion of
n
9  1
 1 1  (1 + x)n  1   is
 1/ 3  2/ 3  x
 x 1 x  x 11/ 3 
(a) 0, if n is odd
10
 1
(D) ( 2  3x  4x 2 )  x   (s) 11851 n 1
 x
(b) ( 1) 2 · n C n 1 if n is odd
Matching-3 2

(1  x  x 2 )10 n
If 2
= a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .... + anxn + .... (c) (1) 2 · n C n if n is even
1 x
2
then find
Column - A Column - B (d) none of these

(A) a0 + a1 + a2 + .... (p) 1/2 4. If (1 + x) = a0 +a1x + a2x2 ..... a2nx2n then


2n

(B) a0 – a1 + a2 – .... (q) 2 1


(a) a0 + a2 + a4 .... = a + a1 + a2....
(C) a0 + a2 + a4 + .... (r) 1 2 0
(D) a1 + a3 + a5 + .... (s) 0 (b) an + 1 < an
Matching-4 (c) an – 3 = an + 3
Column - A Column - B (d) none of these
4
(A) The coefficient of x in (p) 62640 5. Let
the expansion of 6
6  
2
(1 + x + x2)3 f ( x)   x 2  1  x 2  1    
   x2  1  x2  1 
(B) The coefficient of x10 in (q) 6  
(7 + x + x2 + x3 + x4 + x5)8 then
(C) The coefficient of x in 7
(r) 60 (a) f(x) is a polynomial of the sixth degree
the expansion of in x

(1 + 3x – 2x3)10 (b) f(x) has exactly two terms

(D) The coefficient of x3y4z5 (s) 39 (c) coefficient of x2 is –48

in the expansion of (d) coefficient of x6 is 64

(xy + yz + zx)6 6. The value of x in the expression (x  x


log10 x 5
) if the
MULTIPLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE third term in the coefficient is (10) is 6

 p  m  
n (a) 10 (b) 10–5/2
1. If   k   = a n4 + a n3 + a n2 + a n + a
 0 1 2 3 4
(c) 20 (d) none
p 1 m 1  k 1   7. The numerically greatest term in the expansion of
then (3 – 2x)9 when x = 1 is

1 1 (a) 3rd term (b) 4th term


(a) a0  (b) a1  (c) 5th term (d) 6th term
24 4
n
11 1  3 x 1
(c) a2  (d) a3  8. In the expansion of    when x = , it is
24 4  2 3 2
2. Let (1 + x + x2 + x3 + x4)10 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + known that the 6th term is the greatest term. The
a40x40. Then possible positive integral values of n is
(a) a1 = 20 (b) a2 = 110 (a) 49 (b) 52
(c) a2 = 55 (d) a1 + a2 = 65 (c) 57 (d) 59

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MB– 10
2 n 2 2n
9. If (1 + x + x ) = a0 + a1x + a2x + .... + a2nx then the
2 35
value of 1. STATEMENT-1 : a0 + a3 + a6 + .... a36 = (2 + 1)
3
(a) a0 + a1 + a2 + ... + a2n is 3n
STATEMENT-2 : a0 + a1 + a2 + .... + a36 = 236 and
(b) a0 – a1 + a2 – ... + a2n is 1 a0 + a2 + a4 + .... + a36 = 235
1  3n 2. STATEMENT-1 : The coefficient of the middle
(c) a0 + a2 + a4 + ... + a2n is term in (1 + x) 2n is equal to the sum of the
2
coefficient of the two middle terms in (1 + x)2n – 1.
3n  1 STATEMENT-2 : nCr – 1 + nCr = n + 1Cr.
(d) a1 + a3 + a5 + ... + a2n – 1 is
2 3. STATEMENT-1 : If n is a positive integer then
32n – 1 + 24n – 32n2 is divisible by 512 if n > 2.
10. If (1 + x + x2)n = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .... + a2nx2n then
choose the correct statement STATEMENT-2 : It can be shown by using the
2 2 2 2 2 binomial theorem.
(a) a – a + a – a +.... + a
0 1 2 3 2n
= an
4. STATEMENT-1 : If n be an even positive integer
(b) a0a2 – a1a3 + a2a4 – .... + a2n – 2 · a2n = an + 1
then
(c) ai = a2n – i
(d) none of these 1 1 1 1 2n  1
   ....  
1! n  1! 3 ! n  3 ! 5 ! n  5 ! n  1 !1 ! n!
Assertion-Reason Type
Each question contains STATEMENT-1 (Assertion) STATEMENT-2 : If n is even then
and STATEMENT-2 (Reason). Each question has n
C1 + nC3 + nC5 + .... + nCn – 1 = 2n – 1
4 choices (A), (B), (C) and (D) out of which ONLY
ONE is correct.
5. STATEMENT-1 : (101)50 > (100)50 + (99)50
(A) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True;
Statement-2 is a correct explanation STATEMENT-2 : It can be shown by using the
for Statement-1 binomial theorem.
(B) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is True;
Statement-2 is NOT a correct
explanation for Statement-1
(C) Statement-1 is True, Statement-2 is False
(D) Statement-1 is False, Statement-2 is True
Let (1 + x)36 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + ... + a36x36

(Answers) EXCERCISE BASED ON NEW PATTERN

COMPREHENSION TYPE
1. c 2. a 3. a 4. c 5. a 6. b
7. c 8. c 9. d
MATRIX MATCH TYPE
1. [A-s, B-r, C-q, D-s] 2. [A-s; B-r; C-q; D-p] 3. [A-p; B-p; C-p; D-s]
4. [A-q; B-s; C-p; D-r]
MULTIPLE CORRECT CHOICE TYPE
1. a, b, c, d 2. c, d 3. a, c 4. a, b, c 5. a, b, c, d
6. a, b 7. b, c 8. a, b, c, d 9. a, b, c, d
10. a, b, c
ASSERTION-REASON TYPE
1. B 2. A 3. A 4. A 5. A

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MB – 11
INITIAL STEP EXERCISE
(SUBJECTIVE)
1. Given that the 4th term in the expansion of
C 0 C1 C 2 Cn
10 (h)    ....  ( 1) n 
 3x  1 4 7 3n  1
2  has a maximum numerical value, find
 8 
the range of values of x for which this will be true. 3n .n!

2. If a, b, c, d be four consecutive coefficients in the 1.4.7...( 3n  1)
binomial expansion of (1 + x)n then prove that 5. If a and b are two complex numbers, then find the
2 sum of (n + 1) terms of the series
 b  ac
   if x > 0. aC0 – (a + d)C1 + (a + 2d)C2 – (a + 3d)C3 + ...
bc (a  b )(c  d )
6. If (2 + 3)n = I + f where I and n are positive
2n
3. If the greatest term in the expansion of (1 + x) has integers and 0 < f < 1, show that I is an odd integer
and (1 – f) (I + f) = 1.
 10 11 
the greatest coefficient if and only if x   ,  7. If (9 + 45)n = I + f, n and I being positive integers
 11 10 
and f is a proper fraction, show that (I – 1)f + f2 is
m an even integer.
 1
and the fourth term in the expansion of  kx   8. Show that [(3 + 1)2n] + 1 is divisible by 2n + 1 for all
 x
n  N.
n 9. If 2nC r = C r, prove that : C 12 – 2C 22 + 3C 3 2 –
is , then find the value of mk.
4 + .....................– 2n C2n2 = (–1)n – 1 nCn.
4. If C0, C1, C2,.........Cn denote the coefficients in the 10. If (66 + 14)2n + 1 = P, prove that the integral part of
expansion of (1 + x)n, prove that P is an even integer and P f = 202n + 1 where f is the
fractional part of P.
(a) (C0 + C1) (C1 + C2).....(Cn – 1 + Cn) =
11. If (1 + x + 2x2)20 = a0 + a1x + a2x2 +.... + a40x40 then
n
C1C2 ..........Cn (n 1) find the value of a0 + a2 + a4 + ... + a38.
.
n! n
2
12. Show that  r ( n  r )C r  n 2 ( 2n 2 C n ) .
r 0
C1 C C n(n  1)
(b)  2 2  ....  n n  13. Show that
C0 C1 C n 1 2
n
n
2n! .  C k sin( kx ) cos[(n – k ) x ]  2 n 1 sin( nx )
(c) C 02  C12  C 22  ...........  C 2n  k 0
n!n!
(d) C0Cr + C1Cr+1 + C2Cr+2 + ............. + Cn – rCn 14. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + .... + Cnxn, prove that

=
2n!
.
 (C  C )
0 i  j n
i j
2
 (n  1) · 2n Cn  2 2n .

n  r!n  r!
n
(e) 12C1 + 22C2 + 32C3 + ....... + n2Cn = n
(n + 1)2n – 2
15. Prove that r r 0
2
· nC r p r q n – r = npq + n 2p 2 if

(f) C0 . 2nCn – C1 . 2n – 2Cn + C2 . 2n–4Cn – ... = 2n p + q = 1.


(g) 16. Show that the roots of the equation
C0 C C C n! (n  1)! ax2 + 2bx + c = 0 are real and unequal, where a, b, c
 1  2  ....  ( 1) n n  are the three consecutive coefficients in any
n n1 n 2 2n ( 2n )! binomial expansion with positive integral index.

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111
MB– 12
FINAL STEP EXERCISE
(SUBJECTIVE)
1. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + ............... + Cnxn then 7. If (1 + x)n = C0 + C1x + C2x2 + .... + Cnxn (n  N) then
prove that : 2
n
3
C  1
(a)   (i  j) C C i j
 1 
 n 2 2n 1  · 2n C n  show that
k 1

k  k  
 C k  1  12
n(n  1) 2 (n  2) .
0 i  j n  2 
8. Show that
2 n
i i n 1 C 0 C1 C 2 C 3 Cn
(b)  C i

Cj

2 C r
    ....  ( 1)n 
0 i  j n r0 1 5 9 13 4n  1
 1 
(c)   i.j.C C i j  n 2  2 2n  3  . 2n  2 C n 1  4n .n!
0 i  j n  2  
1.5.9....(4n  1)
2n  1
2. Show that the HM of 2n + 1Cr and 2n + 1Cr + 1 is 9. If (1 + 2x + 2x2)n = a0 + a1x + a2x2 + .... + a2nx2n, n  N
n1
times of 2nCr. Also show that Show that a4 equals to
2n 1
r n . 1 3 n n 2 n 2
( 1)r 1 · .2 n(n  1)(1.3  3.5 C1  5.7 C2
r 1
2n
Cr

n1 3
3. Find the sum of the series
 ....  (2n  3)(2n  1))
n
r n  1 3r 7 r 15r  10. Show that
 ( 1) . C r  r
 2r
 3r
 4 r  ....upto m terms
r 0 2 2 2 2  C 0  C1
1 x
 C2
1  2x
 C3
1  3x
 ....  0
2
4. Show that 1  nx (1  nx ) (1  nx ) 3

1 1 1 11. Show that


C1  C 2  C 3  ......  (1) n 1 C n 
2 3 n 1 n n(n  1)
C0  C1  C2
m! (m  1)! (m  2)!
1 1 1
1   .... 
2 3 n n(n  1)....2.1
2 n  ....  Cn
5. Given that S n = 1 + q + q + .... + q and (m  n)!
2 n
 q 1  q 1  q1 (m  n  1)(m  n  2)...(m  2n )
n  1      ....    
 2   2   2  (m  n )!
where q  1 prove that 12. If n > 3, then
n+1
C1 + n + 1C2 . S1 + n + 1C3 . S2 + .... + n + 1Cn + 1Sn = 2n.n (i) C0ab – C1(a – 1)(b – 1) + C2(a – 2)(b – 2)
6. Let k and n be positive integers and put – . . . + (–1)nCn(a – n)(b – n) = 0
Sk = 1k + 2k + 3k + .... + nk show that (ii) C0abc – C1(a – 1)(b – 1)(c – 1) + C2
m+1
C1S1 + m + 1C2S2 + ... + m + 1CmSm = (a – 2)(b – 2)(c – 2) – ... + (–1)nCn
(n + 1)m + 1 – (n + 1) (a – n)(b – n)(c – n) = 0

ANSWERS SUBJECTIVE (INITIAL STEP EXERCISE)

 64   64 
1. x   ,  2    2,  3. 3 5. 0 11. 219(220 – 1)
 21   21 

ANSWERS SUBJECTIVE (FINAL STEP EXERCISE)


( 2mn  1)
3.
2mn (2n  1)

Einstein Classes, Unit No. 102, 103, Vardhman Ring Road Plaza, Vikas Puri Extn., Outer Ring Road
New Delhi – 110 018, Ph. : 9312629035, 8527112111