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PLUMBING

An ISO 9001:2000
Certified Organization

PLUMBING SERVICES:-The piping systems inside the infrastructure for the


provision of water supply, natural gas and sewage disposal from the Public
health point of view with hygiene Environment can be called as “Plumbing”.

Plumbing services are classified into mainly three branches.

a) Drainage System:- It is a system in which includes all the piping, which


conveys sewage, rainwater, or other liquid wastes to a legal point of
disposal. It does not include the mains of a public sewer system, or a public
sewage treatment or disposal plant.

b) Water Supply System:- Domestic water supply system use basically means
consumption of water by human being for purposes, such as drinking
cooking, personal ablution, washing clothes, utensils and yards or rooms,
and flushing toilets.

c) Natural Gas Supply System:- Natural Gas Supply System is the network of
pipe which is use to supply the gas from the central gas plants up to the
kitchen in the buildings.

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INTRODUCTION Certified Organization

DRAINAGE SYSTEM:
This is a building system in which all the human facial material
from the W.C and the other waste water from all the fixtures in
building area is collected from a network of Soil & waste pipes
through gravity flow to the ground floor and will be disposed in
the main city sewage systems.

The waste water from the basements are collected at lower


basement sump pit and pumped to the ground floor manhole
from there same is driven out.

Out side the building there is Final Inspection Chamber (FIC)


and that chamber connected to Municipality Manhole. All the
water flows to main sump through FIC only.

Inside the building we have Gully trap, Manholes, Sediment


collector, Sand trap etc., according to the design of drainage
system.

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An ISO 9001:2000
Design Criteria Certified Organization

Basic Design Criteria:


Basically, drainage system can be designed based on the
provision of piping arrangement to carry out the building
sewage system to the public sewage system without affecting
the environment. There are two basic systems of plumbing for
building drainage as follows.

• Single stack system


• Double stack system

Single stack system:

In this system of plumbing the wastes from all soil appliances are
connected to one main soil stack, which is connected to building
sewer. All traps of soil & waste appliances are completely
ventilated through separate ventilating pipe/stack. Thus, it
contains one soil cum waste stack and one ventilating stack.

The Single stack system shall be preferred where the planning of a


building provides for a suitable grouping of all soil and waste
appliances and all are commonly taken to building sewer and
further to the public sewer.

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Double stack system:

In this system of plumbing the soil and waste stacks are distinct
and separate, the soil stacks shall be connected to building sewer
line and waste stack shall be connected to building sewer through
a trapped gully. All traps of soil & waste appliances are
completely ventilated each through separate ventilating
pipe/stack. Thus, it contains one soil stack, one waste stack and
two ventilating stacks.

The Double stack system is advantageous where sullage (waste


water) from waste appliances can be dealt separately for use in
landscaping, for closet flushing only etc. The basic idea of the
system is to separate the soil waste getting mixed with waste
water inside the building.

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Design Criteria Certified Organization

Venting System:

• Individual Vent
• Common Vent

Individual Vent:

The simplest form of venting any trap or trapped fixture is an


individual vent for each trap. Also popularly said as “Back vent”.

A individual vent pipe is connected between the trap and the


branch connection to the drainage system. The protecting vent
should be between the fixture trap and the source of pressure
fluctuations.

Common Vent:

Common vent is a combination of two individual vents. Individual


vent is permitted to vent two traps or trapped fixture as a
common vent.

Common vent shall be provided for the fixtures being located in


the same floor.

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DEFINITIONS An ISO 9001:2000
Certified Organization

Branch:
“Branch” means any part of the piping system other than a riser,
main, or stack.

Drain:
“Drain” means any pipe which carries waste water or waterborne
wastes in a building drainage system.

Flush Valve:
“Flush valve” means a device located at the bottom of a flush tank
for flushing water closets and similar fixtures.

Stack:
“Stack” is a general term for any vertical line of soil, waste, or
vent piping extending through one or more stories.
Sump:
“sump” means a watertight tank which receives sewage or liquid
waste and which is located the normal grade of the gravity system
and must be emptied by mechanical means.

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An ISO 9001:2000
DRAINAGE PIPES Certified Organization

In Drainage system contains different types of Pipes

• Waste Pipe

• Soil Pipe

• Rain Water Pipe

• Soil Vent Pipe

• Waste Vent Pipe

• Condensing Drain Pipe

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DESCRIPTION An ISO 9001:2000
Certified Organization

• Waste Pipe (WP):


Waste pipe means a pipe which conveys only liquid waste free
from fecal material

• Soil Pipe (SP):


Soil pipe means a pipe which conveys the discharge of water
closets or similar fixtures containing fecal material with or
without the discharge of other fixtures to the building drain or
building sewer.

• Rain Water Pipe (RWP):


Rain Water pipe means carry the rain water collected in the
premises of the building. The rain water collected on the roof of
the building might cause dampness on the ceiling/walls.

• Vent Pipe (VP):


Vent Pipe which carries flow of air over the waste from kitchen
sinks, lavatories, bathtubs, bidets, showers, floor drains,
drinking fountains and stand pipes in the same pipe.

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An ISO 9001:2000
Plumbing Fixtures Certified Organization

Plumbing fixtures & fittings are means of carrying out the waste due to
sanitary, cleaning, washing and food preparation needs of the
occupants in a building including the requirements of water
conservation. Hence, a building has to be designed for adequate
number of plumbing fixtures and fittings depending up on the type of
occupancy and intensity of occupancy to satisfy the basic needs of the
public and the environment.

Sanitary fixtures should be made of smooth non-absorb materials and


should be free from concealed fouling spaces. The fixtures should be
located in well-ventilated enclosures.

Basic Plumbing Fixtures are...

• Water Closet (WC)


• Bidet (BDT)
• Bath Tub (BT)
• Urinal (UR)
• Shower Tray (ST)
• Wash Basin (WB)
• Kitchen Sink (KS)

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• Water Closet (WC):


The purpose of a WC is to carry out the soil waste to the stack. It is
made up of a in-built trap with water seal which prevents the foul smell
entering into the toilet. WC shall be provided with flush valve/cistern,
seat and cover, connector.

Basically Water Closets are two types one is European Water Closet and
another one is Asian Water Closet.

European Water Closet Asian Water Closet

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In European water closets are two types,

• Wall Hung Water Closet

• Floor Mounted Water Closet

Wall Hung Water Closet Floor Mounted Water Closet

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• BIDET (BDT):

The purpose of bidet is for the external cleaning


of body associated with women. A bidet shall be
provided with a water spray, designed for
external cleaning that directs the jet of water
upward to the body.

• Bath Tub (BT):

The purpose of BT is to carry out the bath


water to the stack. BT shall be provided with
an in built over flow, drain with a trap, hot
and cold mixer, overhead shower and hand
shower.

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• URINAL (UR):

The purpose of urinal is for urination, which is


associated with men. It is provided with waste
coupling with dome type grating trap with
extension pipe, push on/ off lever.

• Shower Tray (ST):


The purpose of the shower tray is to carry out
the bath water to the stack. Shower shall be
provided with overhead shower, jets, hot and
cold mixer, drain with trap, glass or synthetic
enclosure to prevent water spillage to the dry
area of the room.

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• Wash Basin (WB):

The purpose of a WB is to carry out the waste


water to the stack. WB shall be provided drain
with a trap, over flow passage, with or without
pop up waste coupling and hot and cold mixer.

• Kitchen Sink (KS):


The purpose of Kitchen sink is to carry out the
domestic food waste generated to stack. Sink
shall be provided with hot and cold mixer,
drain with trap and overflow passage.

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Plumbing Fixtures Certified Organization

Note: Refer the Design drawing for Waste and Vent pipe
sizes. If sizes are not available follow the above sizes.

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An ISO 9001:2000
Plumbing Fittings Certified Organization

Types of Drains

• Area Drain (AD)


• Balcony Drain (BD)
• Floor Drain (FD)
• Funnel Floor Drain (FFD)
• Planter Drain (PD)
• Roof Drain (RD)
Types of Clean Outs

• Clean Out (CO)


• Floor Clean Out (FCO)
• Wall Clean Out (WCO)
• Ground Clean Out (GCO)

Types of Traps
• Grease trap/Interceptor
• Gully Trap

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•Area Drain (AD):


Area Drain means a receptacle designed to collect
surface or storm water from an open area.

Input Drawing Out Put Drawing

Standard Detail

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Plumbing Fixtures An ISO 9001:2000
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•Roof Drain (RD):


Roof Drain means a drain to receive water collecting on
the surface of a roof and to discharge it into a
leader or conductor.

Input Drawing Out Put Drawing

Standard Detail

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• Grease trap/Interceptor:
Grease interceptor is a plumbing fitting that separates
the grease entering into the sewer system.

Location: Generally located at plumbing fixture waste line, (kitchen,


garages etc.) designed based on the differential densities
and viscosity's of the liquid to prevent discharge of oils, fats
and grease directly into the sewerage system.

• Gully trap:A gully trap is a basin with a water seal to prevent foul
odours of the sewer reaching the surface.

Location: Generally located at ground level with water seal to


prevent foul gases spreading into the atmosphere from
the sewer system. Waste water from kitchen and
bathroom is piped to a gully trap before entering into the
sewer. Gully traps are buried in the ground with the tops
or surround raised above ground level to prevent ground
water entering into the sewer.

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An ISO 9001:2000
DRAINAGE ABBREVIATIONS Certified Organization

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An ISO 9001:2000
DRAINAGE ABBREVIATIONS Certified Organization

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An ISO 9001:2000
SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• Description:
Shop drawings also called Detail drawings are used to guide
the construction and Erection members. Complete shop
drawings show the levels, pipe sizes, setting out dimensions
with co-ordinated all services. Since the shop drawings are
intended only for use in the shop, they generally contain little
or no information about the erection and installation of the MEP
members they depict.
The below steps are followed while preparing the Drainage
Shop Drawing.

• Prepare Architectural drawing


• Convert Double line with fittings
• Assigned the Levels
• Setting out Dimensions & pipe supports
• Section Views
• Standard Details
• View port creation
• Title Block updating

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SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• Guidelines for shop drawing


Before starting the shop drawing refer all Input and submittals
received from client.

1. Study the architectural, structural drawings for the FFL,


beam depths and architectural sections.

2. Study the Reflected ceiling plan (RCP) drawing for the False
ceiling level (FCL).

3. Study the Schematic riser diagram for Sanitary and Vent


pipes.

4. Study the all approved submittals for example type of floor


drain, roof drain, supports etc,.

5. Study client provided CAD standards, Legends.

6. Study special instructions given by client i.e. irrespective of


the pipe diameter all are make double lines.

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SHOP Drawing An ISO 9001:2000
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• Preparation of Architectural drawing


Client was provided the architectural drawing for all floors or
areas. It contains all information like room patrons, plumbing
fixtures, walls, columns, beams etc., So create one arch
drawing for reference purpose.

• Procedure:

1. Delete unwanted text and dimensions.

2. Change text height as per shop drawing scale.

3. Change grid bubbles as per shop drawing scale.

4. Change all entities colour as 8.

5. Attach this Arch. File as reference for shop drawing file.

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SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• See below screen shot for Input Architectural Drawing

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SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• See below screen shot for Output Architectural Drawing

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• Conversion of Double line with fittings


1.Before starting the double line refer client specification they
wants pipe sizes are Nominal diameter or Outer diameter. If
they are asking Outer diameter, refer below table.

2. Start making the double lines for the pipes as per the sizes
mentioned in the contract drawing.

3. Place the pipe fittings like „Y‟ joint, 90, 45 degree elbows,
Tee connections, „P‟ traps, clean outs etc., according to the
standards of IPC. All fittings as per approved client submittals.

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An ISO 9001:2000
SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

Refer below standard drainage fittings

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SHOP Drawing An ISO 9001:2000
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4. Reroute if necessary where ever clashes found with structures


columns and fittings are not inserted within that distance.

5. Avoid the Elbows and „Y‟ fittings in walls.

5. Show the flow direction as per schematic drawing.

6. After completion of the double line and fittings change the


layers and line type as per client CAD standards.

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An ISO 9001:2000
SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• See below screen shot for Input Drainage Drawing

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An ISO 9001:2000
SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• See below screen shot for Output Double line Drawing

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An ISO 9001:2000
SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• Assigned the levels

1. Show the pipe sizes and riser information as per the riser
schematic drawing .

2. The slope is depend upon the pipe sizes, generally above 100
diameter is 1:100 and below 100 diameter is 1:50
(refer client Specifications)

If we know the slope,

Invert level can be calculated by relation

I.L.=(slope) x (Length of the pipe)

Generally drainage shop drawing prepared as two methods

From Soffit of slab

From Finished Floor Level

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An ISO 9001:2000
SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

See below screen shot Calculated Invert Levels.

See Example

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An ISO 9001:2000
SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• Example:

Soffit of slab method.

Ex. See output drawing at encircled area the pipe diameter is 75


dia. So slope has 1:50

starting level is 0.250 FSS (maintain minimum distance from


slab.)

Measure the length of the pipe from starting point to ending point
in the drawing

Distance is = 1.1 m

Other End Level : I.L.=1/50 x 1.1 = 0.22

0.250 + 0.22 = -0.272 FSS

If you are going as per Flowing direction it is “positive” or


opposite direction it is “Negative”. Follow the same procedure for
continuation and show the Invert Level for every fitting.

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SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

The invert level can be fixed by Elevation method or from Finished


Floor level. It is depend on client requirement only.

Slope indicates the angle of the pipe or deviation of the pipe and
invert level indicates the bottom of pipe.

Different pit have different levels, so that waste water can easily
be flow in the pipe‟s generally in a floor there will be a deep pit so
that all the water is collected and is passed out.

All the pipe may not be of same slope, but all the pipes should be
connected to the pit or floor drain from there it is moved to the
other location.

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SHOP Drawing An ISO 9001:2000
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• setting out Dimensions:


The purpose of the Setting out dimensions is useful for Erection
members to installation the pipes or fixtures or Drains at site or
building. Show the dimensions for pipes ,fittings,drains and
fixtures from center of pipe to nearest wall or column or Beam in
two directions (Horizontal and Vertical).

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• Pipe Supports:
"Supports" means devices for supporting and securing pipe,
fixtures, and equipment.

Hinged Copper
Extension
Extension
Split Clamp Extension
Split Clamp Split Clamp

Show the Pipe supports in shop drawing and maintain standard


distance as per Pipe sizes. Pipe size and distance details are
provided by client.

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An ISO 9001:2000
SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

See below screen shot updated pipe supports.

Pipe Supports

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• Section Views:

A section is a selected area or region of the drawing, which


enable to understand for the layman also. It gives us a view of
the drainage pipes and other components. Generally sections
has to be made at difficult or critical locations, AHU rooms,
Mechanical Rooms, Client specified location and typical waste
and vent pipe connection for Fixtures.

Procedure:

1. Mark the location and place the section marking in Plan view.

2. Check the Architectural drawing or Input drawings whether


client was marked section at same location or provided any
architectural section that particular location.

3. If it is not available prepare Architectural view with slab


width and height of that particular Floor.

4. Draw the Drainage pipe Vent pipes as per Plan view


Elevations.

5. Show the pipe supports for Drainage and Vent pipes.

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5. Show the pipe supports for Drainage and Vent pipes.

6. Show the Bottom of Pipe levels from Soffit of Slab or Finished


Floor Level.

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SHOP Drawing An ISO 9001:2000
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• See below screen shot for Marking section in Plan:

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SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

• See below screen shot for Output Section:

FFL +17.05

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•Standard details

The standard approved details are provided by client. These


details are adding in the shop drawing.

•See below screen shots for few Standard Details:

Floor Drain (FD) Funnel Floor Drain (FFD)

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SHOP Drawing Certified Organization

•Standard details

Roof Vent Terminal (VTR) Floor Clean out (FCO)

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•View port creation


Scaling is used to depict objects on paper that are either
larger or smaller than the paper. Creation of view port is done in
Paper space. Generally shop drawings in 1:50 scale and sections
are 1:25 scale. View port is create by using the command
“MVIEW”.

•Title Block Updating

HVAC Title block is provided by client as required size (A0, A1, A2


A4). Generally the title block details are…...


PLUMBING
Notes: Show the any specific notes in the Notes column related to
this shop drawing. See below snap shot….
ELECTRICAL

NOTES:

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SHOP Drawing An ISO 9001:2000
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• Ref. Dwg. Nos.: Update the Reference Drawing Nos. what ever the
drawings are referred while preparing this shop drawing I.e.
Architectural, structural, schematic, design drawing.. See below
snap shot….

REFERENCE DRG NO'S.


REFERENCE DRG NO'S. DWG.No. REV.

• Key Plan: Hatching the location in key plan, the area is covered in
this sheet.
PARCEL 02

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SHOP Drawing An ISO 9001:2000
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• Drawing Title: Update the Drawing Title information I.e. Floor,


Level, service, Drawn By, Checked By, Approved By, Revision,
Drawing Scale and Drawing No... See below snap shot….

A
B

C
D

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Plumbing Materials An ISO 9001:2000
Certified Organization

• ANSI: American National Standards Institute.


• ASTM: American Society of Testing and Materials.
• AWWA: American Water Works Association.
• CSA: Canadian Standards Association.
• CS: Commercial Standards.
• FS: Federal Specifications.
• NSF: NSF International.
• FHA: Federal Housing Authority.

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An ISO 9001:2000
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Input Drawing An ISO 9001:2000
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An ISO 9001:2000
Drainage Section Certified Organization

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HEAT EXCHANGER ROOM

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An ISO 9001:2000
Output Drainage Layout (3D) Certified Organization

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Output Drainage Layout (3D) Certified Organization

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