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POLITICAL SCIENCE (852)

Aims:
1. To enable students to gain an understanding of 4. To create awareness of rights and duties and to
basic concepts in Political Science. sensitise students towards social concerns.
2. To facilitate acquisition of knowledge and 5. To expose students to divergent views and
understanding of the practices of governance. encourage them to develop their own world
3. To develop logical reasoning, research and view.
application skills.
CLASS XI
There will be two papers in the subject Definition of State and elements of the State:
Paper I: Theory 3 hours ------ 80 marks (a) Population (b) Territory (c) Government
(d) Sovereignty. Definition of Society;
Paper II: Project Work --------20 marks Association; Nation and nationality. Differences
between – State and Society; State and
PAPER I (THEORY) – 80 Marks Association; State and Government; State and
Part I (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short Nation.
answer questions, testing knowledge, application and 2. The Origin of the State
skills relating to elementary/ fundamental aspects of
the entire syllabus. Divine Origin Theory; the Social Contract
Part II (60 marks) will be divided into two sections Theory (Hobbes, Locke, Rousseau); the
A & B. Candidates will be required to answer three Evolutionary Theory.
questions out of five from Section A and two questions Various theories of the origin of State:
out of three from Section B. Each question in this part
shall carry 12 marks. Divine Theory: brief history of this theory, divine
SECTION A rights of the kings - examples from modern
monarchical states like England and Bhutan.
Political Theory Critical evaluation of the theory.
1. Introduction to Political Science
The Social Contract theory: Views of Hobbes,
(i) Meaning of Political Science; Scope of Locke and Rousseau; Critical evaluation of the
contemporary Political Science: Political theory.
Theory, Comparative Politics, International
Relations, Public Administration and Political Evolutionary Theory: factors for the growth of this
Economy. Nature of Political Science. theory such as kinship, religion, economic factors,
Meaning of Political Science; Scope of wars and conflicts and the need for political
contemporary Political Science with reference power.
to Political Theory, Comparative Politics,
International Relations, Public 3. Political Ideologies
Administration and Political Economy.
Liberalism, Socialism; Communism and Fascism.
Nature of Political Science - Is Political
Science a Science? Liberalism, Socialism; Communism and Fascism:
(ii) Fundamental Concepts Meaning, features with reference to the purpose of
the State. Critical evaluation of each ideology.
State and its elements; Difference between
State and Society, State and Association, State
and Government, State and Nation;
Nationality.

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4. Sovereignty SECTION B
Meaning, kinds and characteristics. A historical Contemporary International Relations
analysis and contemporary issues. 9. End of Cold War and its impact on the World
Meaning, definition and characteristics. Kinds: Order
Titular and Real, Legal and Political; de-jure and Disintegration of the Soviet Union and its impact
de-facto Sovereign, Popular Sovereignty. Is on the World Order.
Sovereignty absolute and indivisible? Brief study of A brief overview of the Cold War (for reference
Austin’s Theory and Pluralistic view of Sovereignty only). Impact of disintegration of the Soviet Union
with reference to Laski and MacIver. Sovereignty on the World Order – end of Cold War
in a globalised World: the role of non-state actors. confrontation, change of power equations in
world politics, emergence of new countries.
5. Law
10. Unipolar World
Meaning; Sources and Kinds of Law.
U.S. unilateralism: case studies of U.S.
Meaning, definition of law. Sources - Customs, intervention in Iraq and Afghanistan.
Usages, Religion, Judicial Decisions, Scientific
Meaning of unilateralism.
Commentaries, Equity, Legislation. Kinds of law –
definition and examples of Municipal, National, Case studies of the following:
Constitutional and International Law, Statute Law, Iraq - Operation Desert Storm, Operation Iraqi
Ordinances. Freedom; Afghanistan - Operation Enduring
Freedom.
6. Liberty
11. Regional Cooperation
Meaning; Dimensions and kinds of Liberty;
ASEAN and the European Union,
Relationship between Liberty and Law; safeguards
of liberty. Aims, achievements and challenges.
Definition and meaning of Liberty; Dimensions - 12. The Non Aligned Movement
negative and positive; kinds of Liberty - Civil, Relevance of Non Aligned Movement
Political and Economic Liberty. Relationship
Relevance of Non Aligned Movement (NAM) in
between Liberty and Law: Does Law help or hinder
the contemporary World.
Liberty? Safeguards of Liberty - fundamental
rights. Separation of judiciary from executive,
PAPER II (PROJECT WORK) – 20 MARKS
well-knit party system, economic justice for all, free
press and media, vigilance by the people. Candidates will be required to undertake one project
which may be any one of the following:
7. Equality (i) A case study.
Meaning and kinds of Equality; Relationship
(ii) Survey study with a questionnaire.
between Equality and Liberty.
(iii) Research based project with in depth analysis.
Meaning and kinds of Equality– legal, social,
political and economic; relationship between (iv) Local/ national/ global political issue.
Equality and Liberty: How do they complement (v) Book review/ film review/ documentaries/
each other? posters/ newspapers/ advertisements/ cartoons and
8. Justice art.
Meaning, Kinds and Contemporary theories. The project must not be based primarily on the
syllabus; students must be encouraged to produce
Meaning of Justice; kinds: Legal, Social, Economic
original, creative and insightful perspectives on an
and Political. Theories of Justice – John Rawls and
allied aspect of the topic.
Amartya Sen.

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For example, if the theme is Fundamental Rights, the List of suggested topics for Project Work:
project could deal with violation, protection, court 1. “The Kingdom of Freedom begins where the
verdicts, Public Interest Litigations (PILs), etc. related Kingdom of Necessity ends”.
to socially relevant issues.
2. Right to Freedom and role of Media.
EVALUATION CRITERIA: 3. The Right to Information – ensuring political
accountability.
Mark allocation for the Project will be as follows:
4. Citing relevant examples, discuss the relative
S. Assessment Criteria Marks importance of negative and positive liberty in the
No. objective Indian context.
1. Process Candidate should be 5 5. India’s response to ASEAN as a dialogue partner.
able to: 6. Relevance of SAARC as a forum of regional
cooperation.
Identify the topic.
Plan and detail a 7. U.S. dominance in World politics in the Post Cold
research project. War era.
8. India’s role in Non Aligned Movement.
Select and use
appropriate research 9. Civil Society Movements - Role and participation
methods. in India.
10. Relevance of the United Nations in a Unipolar
2. Understanding, Candidate should be 5 World.
application able to:
GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS:
of knowledge Explain issues and 1. It must be emphasized that the process of doing the
and Analysis themes clearly and project is as important as the final project.
in context.
2. Once the project/projects are chosen, there should
Interpret, analyse be a process of brainstorming to encourage students
and evaluate to make out a draft/structure for the project before
critically a range of embarking on research.
evidence to present 3. During the brainstorming/discussion, the teacher
reasoned, should discuss the assessment criteria with the
substantiated students.
arguments/ 4. The teacher should discuss the draft with the
statement. student with regard to the central question and the
3. Presentation Overall format, 5 type of sources to be used.
referencing 5. The students should be guided on doing the
(footnotes &/or research and looking at different types of evidence.
bibliography), 6. Books and suitable reference material could be
within word limit of suggested by the teachers and made available to the
2000 words, title students.
page, header/footer, 7. Internet sites could be suggested, but care must be
etc. taken in selecting, using and citing these sites.
4. Viva Range of questions 5 8. Students must be cautioned against plagiarism and
based on the project be penalized for the same.
only. 9. Marks must be awarded for content and originality
TOTAL 20 and not for decorative elements and
embellishments.
10. Projects must be the original work of the student.

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CLASS XII
There will be two papers in the subject 3. Franchise and Representation
Paper I: Theory 3 hours ------ 80 marks Universal Adult Franchise; Methods of Election;
Constituency; Minority Representation. Political
Paper II: Project Work ------ 20 marks Parties; Party System.
PAPER I (THEORY) – 80 Marks Universal Adult Franchise - meaning, merits and
Part I (20 marks) will consist of compulsory short demerits.
answer questions, testing knowledge, application and Methods of Election: Direct and Indirect -
skills relating to elementary/ fundamental aspects of meaning.
the entire syllabus. Meaning of Constituency, Single member and
Part II (60 marks) will be divided into two sections Multi-member.
A & B. Candidates will be required to answer three First Past the Post System – meaning, merits and
questions out of five from Section A and two questions demerits.
out of three from Section B. Each question in this part Minority Representation - meaning, rationale and
shall carry 12 marks. kinds: Proportional Representation, Cumulative
Vote System, Nomination and Reservation.
SECTION A Political Parties - meaning, definition and
functions. Kinds – Single party, Bi-party, Multi-
Constitution and Government party system - meaning, merits and demerits.
1. Forms of Government
Totalitarian and Authoritarian States, Liberal Organs of the Government
Democratic State, Unitary and Federal States,
4. The Legislature
Parliamentary and Presidential forms of
government. Functions of Legislature; Unicameral and
Bicameral legislatures. The legislature in
Meaning and features of Totalitarian State,
India and U.S.A. - a comparative study.
Authoritarian State and Liberal Democratic State.
Meaning and functions of Legislature.
Meaning and features of Unitary and Federal
Meaning of Unicameral and Bi-cameral
States with reference to U.K. as a Unitary state,
legislature. The legislatures in India and
U.S.A. as a Federal State and India as a federal
U.S.A.- Composition (strength, method of
state with subsidiary unitary features.
election and tenure) and functions
Meaning and features of Parliamentary and (legislative, constituent, executive, judicial,
Presidential forms of government (U.K. and electoral and financial), of the legislatures in
U.S.A.). these two countries - a comparative study.
2. Constitution Composition and powers of the House of
Meaning; kinds of Constitutions: Written and Representatives and the Senate, Lok Sabha
Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible, Enacted and and Rajya Sabha.
Evolved: merits and demerits. Amending Comparison of the Rajya Sabha and the U.S.
procedures; Conventions. Senate; Lok Sabha with the U.S. House of
Meaning; kinds: Written and Unwritten, Rigid Representatives.
and Flexible, Enacted and Evolved: merits,
demerits of each. Is the difference between 5. The Executive
Written and Unwritten, Rigid and Flexible a real Functions; The Civil Services. Difference
one? between the Political Executive and the
Amending procedures of the Constitutions of Permanent Executive. Political Executive in
U.K., U.S.A and India. India and U.S.A. - a comparative study.
Conventions: meaning and examples with Meaning, and functions of the Executive.
reference to U.K., U.S.A. and India. Meaning and role of Civil Services.

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Difference between the Political and 8. Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles
Permanent Executive in India. Political Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles of
Executive in India and U.S.A. - a comparative
State Policy.
study. Powers and functions of executive
heads of India (President and Prime Fundamental Rights: meaning and importance of
Minister), and U.S.A. (President). Changing Fundamental Rights; detailed study of all
role of the Indian Prime Minister in the Fundamental Rights in India.
Coalition Era (1996 onwards) – with Directive Principles of State Policy: meaning and
reference to increasing role of regional purpose; classification, importance and
political parties.
implementation.
6. The Judiciary Relationship between Fundamental Rights and
Meaning and functions of Judiciary. Directive Principles of State Policy.
Conditions of Independence of Judiciary. 9. Local self-government
Judiciary in India and U.S.A. - a comparative
73rd and 74th Constitutional Amendment Acts.
study. Judicial Review.
Three tier system of Panchayati Raj: Rural and
Meaning and functions of judiciary; Urban local bodies - their composition; features of
conditions of independence of judiciary with 73rd and 74th Amendments. Challenges and
reference to India and U.S.A. The Judiciary solutions.
in India and U.S.A. – composition and powers
of Indian Supreme Court and American 10. Democracy in India – a perspective of the
Supreme Court. Judicial Review – meaning, challenges faced.
principles and critical evaluation with special (i) Challenges faced by the Indian Democracy:
reference to U.S.A. and India. Meaning of Caste, Communalism, Regionalism and
Judicial Activism and Judicial Restraint. Political Violence. Strengthening Indian
Democracy.
SECTION B Caste: meaning, role of caste in Indian
Indian Democracy Politics.
Communalism: meaning and effects.
7. Indian Constitution
Regionalism: meaning and causes.
(i) Preamble
Political Violence: meaning, forms and
Preamble and its importance. Meaning of the effects.
key words contained in the Preamble. Strengthening Indian Democracy: measures
(ii) Salient features of the Indian Constitution. to overcome the challenges faced by Indian
Democracy.
Written and Comprehensive; a Constitution
drawn from several sources; Federal structure PAPER II (PROJECT WORK) – 20 MARKS
with Unitary spirit; Partly rigid and Partly
Candidates will be required to undertake one project
flexible; Fundamental Rights and Duties;
which may be any one of the following:
Directive Principles of State Policy;
(i) A case study.
Parliamentary form of Government; Single
Citizenship; Bi-cameral legislature; Universal (ii) Survey study with a questionnaire.
Adult Franchise; Single Integrated and (iii) Research based project with in-depth analysis.
Independent Judiciary; Judicial Review; (iv) Local/ national/ global political issue.
Emergency powers; Special provisions for (v) Book review/ film review/ documentaries/
Schedule castes and Schedule tribes. posters/ newspapers/ advertisements/ cartoons and
art.

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The project must not be based primarily on the 3. Presentation Overall format, 3
syllabus; students must be encouraged to produce referencing
original, creative and insightful perspectives on an (footnotes &/or
allied aspect of the topic. bibliography),
For example, if the theme is Fundamental Rights, the within word limit
project could deal with violation, protection, court of 2000 words,
verdicts, Public Interest Litigations (PILs), etc. related title page,
to socially relevant issues. header/footer, etc.

The project will be assessed by the teacher and a TOTAL 10


Visiting Examiner appointed locally and approved
by the Council.
Evaluation by the Visiting Examiner
Assessment of Project Work will be done as
follows: S. No. Assessment Criteria Marks
objective
1. Internal Evaluation by Teacher 10 Marks
1. Choice of Overall format, 4
2. Evaluation by Visiting Examiner 10 Marks Technique/ referencing
TOTAL 20 Marks Detailed (footnotes &/or
procedure & bibliography),
Presentation title page,
Internal Evaluation by Teacher: header/footer,
etc.
S. No. Assessment Criteria Marks
objective 2. Analysis and Candidate should 3
evaluation be able to:
1. Process Candidates should 3
be able to: Interpret, analyze
and evaluate
Identify the topic. critically a range
Plan and detail a of evidence to
research project. present reasoned,
Select and use substantiated
appropriate arguments/
research methods. statement.

2. Understanding Candidates should 4 3. Viva Range of 3


application of be able to: questions based
knowledge and on the project
Explain issues only.
Analysis
and themes
clearly and in TOTAL 10
context.
Interpret, analyse
and evaluate
critically a range
of evidence to
present reasoned,
substantiated
arguments/
statement.

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List of suggested topics for Project Work: • Strengths and limitations of different systems to
Given below is a list of suggested topics for Project be highlighted.
work, along with guidelines. • Success and failure of various systems to be
1. Judicial Activism – two case studies in which the analysed with reference to the role of regional
Judiciary has safeguarded the environment or parties in coalition era.
human rights. • Few examples to be explained with the help of
• Reason for selection of the topic. statistical information.

• Framing the Research Question. • Student’s vision of rapidly evolving Party


system in India.
• Hypothesis.
4. Examine one Supreme Court case dealing with
• Define Judicial Activism and the need for Fundamental Rights. Identify the issues of the
Judiciary to intervene in the work of Legislature case and analyse the final ruling.
and Executive and other matters of social
concerns. • Reason for selection of the topic

• Positive role played by Judiciary in this • Framing the Research Question.


direction to be highlighted with the help of two • Hypothesis.
case studies based on environmental protection
or safeguarding human rights. • Nature and reasons of violation of Fundamental
Rights to be explained.
• Student’s perception of the concept.
• A case study of violation and protection of
• Valid suggestions for reforms in Judiciary. Fundamental Rights in the light of the ruling
2. Public accountability of Civil Servants in India – given by the apex court to be analysed.
Is it a myth or a reality? • Remedial steps to be taken to prevent this
• Reason for selection of the topic. problem to be suggested.

• Framing the Research Question. 5. Role of Local Self Government institutions in


women empowerment.
• Hypothesis.
• Reason for selection of the topic.
• Meaning of Public accountability of Civil
Servants to be explained. • Framing the Research Question.

• Positive and crucial role of public servants in a • Hypothesis.


democracy. • Need for women empowerment to be explained
• Loopholes in the existing bureaucratic set up. with reference to a few examples.

• Inferences can be drawn about Public • Positive role played by local self-governments
accountability being a myth or reality from to be stated.
various sources like print/electronic media, film • Collection of data based on statistics and
review, documentaries. analysis.
3. Party System in India – changing phases. • The project could be in the form of a case study
• Reason for selection of the topic. for example - a film review, book review,
advertisements, T.V. serials, documentaries,
• Framing the Research Question. newspaper articles, journals.
• Hypothesis. • Student’s suggestions for more active
• A brief timeline of Party Systems since participation of women in Indian electoral
independence to be prepared. politics.

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6. Explore the controversies around the development • Hypothesis.
of a Uniform Civil Code mentioned in the
Directive Principles. • Gender as an identity.

• Reason for selection of the topic. • Collection of data based on statistics and
analysis.
• Framing the Research Question
• The project could be in the form of a case study
• Hypothesis for example a film review, book review,
advertisements, T.V. serials, documentaries
• Clarification of the concept of Uniform Civil
Code with instances from world constitutions. • Inferences drawn.
• Need for a Uniform Civil Code with reference 9. Right to Education: To what extent has it
to Constituent Assembly Debates, historical benefited the slum children?
perspective (parliamentary debates and judicial
• Reason for selection of the topic.
pronouncements), the present socio-political
scenario and the stand of various political • Framing the Research Question.
parties.
• Hypothesis.
• Controversies and reasons for non adoption.
• Constitutional provisions.
• Student’s view point and position on the issue.
• Parliamentary debates leading to the enactment
Alternately this project could also be undertaken of the right.
survey method or any other method.
• A case study of a slum area based on a survey.
7. Identify and explain the electoral reforms that are
urgently needed in India. • Student’s inferences.

• Reason for selection of the topic. 10. Role of National Human Rights Commission in
safeguarding the rights of the under-privileged.
• Framing the Research Question.
• Reason for selection of the topic.
• Hypothesis.
• Framing the Research Question.
• Define electoral reforms.
• Hypothesis.
• Urgency for electoral reforms.
• United Nations Universal Declaration of Human
• Efforts made in the past. Rights (1948).
• Parliamentary debates on this issue. • Constitutional provisions.
• Role of the Election Commission. • Formation of National Human Rights
• Stand of various political parties. Commission.

• Judicial pronouncements. • Its composition and functions.

• Student’s observations. • Identifying the under-privileged and


understanding their plight.
8. Discrimination faced by a girl child.
• Efforts made by the NHRC (a minimum of two
• Reason for selection of the topic. case studies).
• Framing the Research Question. • Student’s viewpoint.

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GUIDELINES FOR TEACHERS:
1. It must be emphasized that the process of doing 6. Books and suitable reference material could be
the project is as important as the final project. suggested by the teachers and made available to
2. Once the project/projects are chosen, there should the students.
be a process of brainstorming to encourage 7. Internet sites could be suggested, but care must be
students to make out a draft/structure for the taken in selecting, using and citing these sites.
project before embarking on research.
3. During the brainstorming/discussion, the teacher 8. Students must be cautioned against plagiarism and
should discuss the assessment criteria with the be penalized for the same.
students. 9. Marks to be awarded for the content and
4. The teacher should discuss the draft with the originality and not for decorative elements and
student with regard to the central question and the embellishments.
type of sources to be used. 10. Projects must be the original work of the student.
5. The students should be guided on doing the
research and looking at different types of
evidence.

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