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Water supply problems and solutions (1)

Water supply problems and solutions (1)

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DESIGNATED PROBLEM SET #1

Date: 26/10/2018

1. How many days of draft can a raw water reservoir support for a city of 400,000 people? The

reservoir has a water surface of 15.02 km2 and an average effective depth of 5. 49 m. (Assume

SOLUTION:

2. Determine the storage volume of a new raw water reservoir in accordance with the following

given technical information: (a) city population=400,000; (b) water consumption=568 LPCD;

(c) watershed or catchment area =207.2 km2; (d) rainfall rate= 114.3 cm/year; (e) evaporation

rate = 50.8 cm/year, (f)minimum reservoir volume=50% of the annual yield; and (g) 75%

1

FIND: Vstorage

There are two ways to calculate V storage: 1. Based on net annual yield; 2: based on water

supply

= (114.3 cm/year – 50.8 cm/year) (10-2m/cm) x (207.2*106 m2) x (103 L/m3) x (0.75) x

Reservoir volume was chosen as based on net annual yield (49.3 * 109 L) since it was

3. Estimate the surface area of a slow sand filter that is to deliver water to a village of 1,000 people

assuming that (a) average daily water demand=378.5 LPCD; (b) the slow sand filter’s filtration

rate=2,808 MLD/km2; and (c) two slow sand filters are required. Each filter is able to treat the

full water flow and one of the two filters is a standby unit.

SOLUTION:

Two slow sand filters, each has a surface area of 134.8 m2. One of the two filters is a

standby unit.

2

4. Determine the diameter of a water main to serve a residential area, assuming (a) average water

demand of 568 LPCD; (b) population=30,000; (c) fire flow requirement= 2,082 L/Min=32 L/s;

SOLUTION:

Qfire= 32 L/s

And;

Q=AV

A = = πD2/4=0.277 m2

D = 0.56 m

3

5. As shown in Table 4.3 of your book, the city of Miami recorded a population of 111,000 in its

1930 and 171,000 in its 1940 consecutive censuses. Estimate the midyear (1 July) populations,

a. For the fifth intercensal year by arithmetic increase and geometric increase, and

b. For the ninth postcensal year by arithmetic increase and geometric increase (Assume a

SOLUTION:

tm - ti = 5.25 yr

tj – ti = 10 yr

Arithmetic:

(1930) yi = 111,000

Geometric:

4

(1940) log yj= 5.235

ym= 139,700

tm - ti = 9.25 yr

tj – ti = 10 yr

Arithmetic:

(1930) yi = 111,000

Geometric:

ym= 257,900

5

6. A small village is located near a stream which is to be used as the source of water supply for

the community. The minimum flow in the stream is 550 m3/h. The population analysis reveals

that the population is expected to increase linearly from a population of 10,000 in 2008 to

30,000 in 2058. The water consumption of the community is estimated to reach an annual

average demand of 300 L/capita/day, a maximum daily demand of 1.8 times the annual average

and peak hourly demand of 1.5 times the daily average. Would you be able to supply these

demands directly from the stream? If not, what would you recommend?

a. In the year 2030

b. In the year 2058

SOLUTION:

Average demand/day = 18,800 x 300 L.cap.d= 5,640 m3/d = 235 m3/h (Less than stream

flow)

Demand on max. day = 5,640 x 1.8 =10,152 m3/d = 423 m3/h (Less than stream flow)

Peak demand = 10,152 x 1.5 = 15,228 m3/d = 635 m3/h (more than stream flow)

The stream is not sufficient for peak demand, therefore, we need storage in the

Demand on max day = 9,000 x 1.8 =16,200 m3/d = 675 m3/h (more than stream flow)

Peak demand = 16,200 x 1.5 = 24,300 m3/d = 1012 m3/h (more than stream flow)

6

The stream is not sufficient for both max demand and peak demand, therefore; we need

storage in the stream for max day, and we need storage in the distribution system for peak

hours.

7. A well which is the source of water supply for a community has a uniform production capacity

of 350 m3/h. Currently the community has a population of 5000 people with an anticipated

linear growth rate of 10% per year. If the average water consumption for the community is 400

Lpcd, would you be able to supply the water demand, (a) 5 years, (b) 10 years, (c) 20 years

from now, directly from this well? If not, what would you recommend for each of the above

periods? Show all your calculations and explain the reasons behind your assumptions and

recommendations.

SOLUTION:

Average flow = 7,500 x 400/1,000 = 3,000 m3/d =125 m3/h (less than capacity)

Maximum day = 125 x 1.8 (assumed) = 225 m3/d (less than capacity)

Average flow = 10,000 x 400/1,000 = 4,000 m3/d =167 m3/h (less than capacity)

Maximum day = 167 x 1.8 (assumed) = 300 m3/h (less than capacity)

7

Therefore needs daily storage in system

Average flow = 15,000 x 400/1,000 = 6,000 m3/d =250 m3/h (less than capacity)

Maximum day = 250 x 1.8 (assumed) = 450 m3/h (more than capacity)

Therefore needs other source for water, daily storage in system is not enough

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