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HACETTEPE UNIVERSITY

ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

CEV 305 – WATER SUPPLY AND SEWERAGE


DESIGNATED PROBLEM SET #1

Date: 26/10/2018

1. How many days of draft can a raw water reservoir support for a city of 400,000 people? The

reservoir has a water surface of 15.02 km2 and an average effective depth of 5. 49 m. (Assume

average daily consumption: 568 LPCD)

SOLUTION:

FIND: Days of draft

Capacity of the reservoir:

Vres= surface area*depth= 15.02*106 m2* 5.49 m= 82.45*106 m3

Total daily consumption:

Vcons= Population*Average daily consumption= 400,000*568 Lpcd= 226,800 m3/d

Days of draft= Vres/ Vcons=82.45*106 m3/226,800 m3/d= 363 days

2. Determine the storage volume of a new raw water reservoir in accordance with the following

given technical information: (a) city population=400,000; (b) water consumption=568 LPCD;

(c) watershed or catchment area =207.2 km2; (d) rainfall rate= 114.3 cm/year; (e) evaporation

rate = 50.8 cm/year, (f)minimum reservoir volume=50% of the annual yield; and (g) 75%

water resources development.

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FIND: Vstorage

There are two ways to calculate V storage: 1. Based on net annual yield; 2: based on water

supply

1.Vstorage based on annual net yield

= (114.3 cm/year – 50.8 cm/year) (10-2m/cm) x (207.2*106 m2) x (103 L/m3) x (0.75) x

(0.5) = 49.3 *109 L

2. Vstorage based on water supply

= (400,000 persons) (568 LPCD) x (0.5) x (365 d) =41.5*109 L

Reservoir volume was chosen as based on net annual yield (49.3 * 109 L) since it was

the greater value. Otherwise, the capacity of reservoir is not sufficient.

3. Estimate the surface area of a slow sand filter that is to deliver water to a village of 1,000 people

assuming that (a) average daily water demand=378.5 LPCD; (b) the slow sand filter’s filtration

rate=2,808 MLD/km2; and (c) two slow sand filters are required. Each filter is able to treat the

full water flow and one of the two filters is a standby unit.

SOLUTION:

FIND: SURFACE AREA OF THE FILTER

𝑄 (𝑓𝑙𝑜𝑤 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒) = 𝐴 (𝑠𝑢𝑟𝑓𝑎𝑐𝑒 𝑎𝑟𝑒𝑎) ∗ 𝑅 ( 𝑓𝑖𝑙𝑡𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑖𝑜𝑛 𝑟𝑎𝑡𝑒)

Q= 1,000*378.5 Lpcd= 378.5*103 L/d

A= R/Q= (378.5*103 L/d)/(2808*106 km2)=134.8 m2

Two slow sand filters, each has a surface area of 134.8 m2. One of the two filters is a

standby unit.

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4. Determine the diameter of a water main to serve a residential area, assuming (a) average water

demand of 568 LPCD; (b) population=30,000; (c) fire flow requirement= 2,082 L/Min=32 L/s;

and (d) recommended water velocity= 1.07 m/s.

SOLUTION:

FIND: DIAMETER OF THE MAIN

Total water demand is the sum of average total daily demand

Qaverage= (30,000people) (568Lpcd)= 1704*104 L/d=197.2 L/s

Qfire= 32 L/s

Total water demand = 197+32 = 229 L/s

And;

Q=AV

Q = water flow selected for design, ft3/s

A = cross-sectional area of a pipe, ft2

V = water velocity in the pipe, ft/s

A = Q/V = 297 L/s* (10-3 m3/L) /1.07m/s= 0.277 m2

Area of the main

A = = πD2/4=0.277 m2

D = 0.56 m

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5. As shown in Table 4.3 of your book, the city of Miami recorded a population of 111,000 in its

1930 and 171,000 in its 1940 consecutive censuses. Estimate the midyear (1 July) populations,

a. For the fifth intercensal year by arithmetic increase and geometric increase, and

b. For the ninth postcensal year by arithmetic increase and geometric increase (Assume a

census date of 1 April)

SOLUTION:

Formulas used for short-term population estimates

Aritmethic growth Geometric growth

Intercensal ym=yi+ (tm-ti)/(tj- Log ym= log yi+ (tm-

ti)*(yj-yi) ti)/(tj-ti)*(log yj-log yi)

Postcensal Ym=yj+ (tm-ti)/(tj- Ym=log yj+ (tm-ti)/(tj-

ti)*(yj-yi) ti)*(log yj-log yi)

Part a. Intercensal estimate for the 5th year

Between 1st April and 1st July= 3 months= 0.25 yr

tm - ti = 5.25 yr

tj – ti = 10 yr

(tm – ti)/(tj – ti) = 5.25/10 = 0.525

Arithmetic:

(1940) yj= 172,000

(1930) yi = 111,000

yj-yi= 172,000-111,000= 61,000

And ; ym=111,000+ (0.525*61,000) = 143,000

Geometric:

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(1940) log yj= 5.235

(1930) log yi = 5.045

Log yj- log yi= 5.235-5.045= 0.19

And ; logym=5.045+ (0.525*0.19)= 5.144

ym= 139,700

Part b. Postcensal estimate for the 9th year

tm - ti = 9.25 yr

tj – ti = 10 yr

and tm - tj /(tj – ti) = 9.25/10 =0.925;

Arithmetic:

(1940) yj= 172,000

(1930) yi = 111,000

yj-yi= 172,000-111,000= 61,000

And ; Ym=172,000+ (0.925*61,000) = 228,500

Geometric:

(1940) log yj= 5.235

(1930) log yi = 5.045

Log yj- log yi= 5.235-5.045= 0.19

And ; logym=5.23+ (0.925*0.19)= 5.4

ym= 257,900

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6. A small village is located near a stream which is to be used as the source of water supply for
the community. The minimum flow in the stream is 550 m3/h. The population analysis reveals
that the population is expected to increase linearly from a population of 10,000 in 2008 to
30,000 in 2058. The water consumption of the community is estimated to reach an annual
average demand of 300 L/capita/day, a maximum daily demand of 1.8 times the annual average
and peak hourly demand of 1.5 times the daily average. Would you be able to supply these
demands directly from the stream? If not, what would you recommend?
a. In the year 2030
b. In the year 2058

SOLUTION:

The minimum flow in stream = 550 m3/h x 24 = 13,200 m3/d

Part a. In the year 2030

Population formula ( linear)

K=(Y2-Y1)/(X2-X1)=(30000-10000)/ (2058-2008) = 400 capita/year

Between 2030 and 2008= 22 years, then;

Population (2030) = 400 capita/year* (22 years) + 10,000 = 18,800

Average demand/day = 18,800 x 300 L.cap.d= 5,640 m3/d = 235 m3/h (Less than stream

flow)

Demand on max. day = 5,640 x 1.8 =10,152 m3/d = 423 m3/h (Less than stream flow)

Peak demand = 10,152 x 1.5 = 15,228 m3/d = 635 m3/h (more than stream flow)

The stream is not sufficient for peak demand, therefore, we need storage in the

distribution system for peak hours

Part b. In the year 2058 , population = 30,000

Average demand/day = 30,000 x 300/1,000 = 9,000 m3/d = 375 m3/h

Demand on max day = 9,000 x 1.8 =16,200 m3/d = 675 m3/h (more than stream flow)

Peak demand = 16,200 x 1.5 = 24,300 m3/d = 1012 m3/h (more than stream flow)

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The stream is not sufficient for both max demand and peak demand, therefore; we need

storage in the stream for max day, and we need storage in the distribution system for peak

hours.

7. A well which is the source of water supply for a community has a uniform production capacity

of 350 m3/h. Currently the community has a population of 5000 people with an anticipated

linear growth rate of 10% per year. If the average water consumption for the community is 400

Lpcd, would you be able to supply the water demand, (a) 5 years, (b) 10 years, (c) 20 years

from now, directly from this well? If not, what would you recommend for each of the above

periods? Show all your calculations and explain the reasons behind your assumptions and

recommendations.

SOLUTION:

Water source capacity= 350 m3/h= 8400 m3/d

(a) 5 years from now

Population = 5,000 + 10% for 5 years = 5,000 + 2,500 = 7,500

Average flow = 7,500 x 400/1,000 = 3,000 m3/d =125 m3/h (less than capacity)

Maximum day = 125 x 1.8 (assumed) = 225 m3/d (less than capacity)

Peak demand = 225 x 1.5 = 338 m3/d (less than capacity)

(b) 10 years from now

Population = 5,000 + 10% for 10 years = 5,000 + 5,000 = 10,000

Average flow = 10,000 x 400/1,000 = 4,000 m3/d =167 m3/h (less than capacity)

Maximum day = 167 x 1.8 (assumed) = 300 m3/h (less than capacity)

Peak demand = 300 x 1.5 = 450 m3/h (more than capacity)

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Therefore needs daily storage in system

(c) 20 years from now

Population = 5,000 + 10% for 20 years = 5,000 + 10,000 = 15,000

Average flow = 15,000 x 400/1,000 = 6,000 m3/d =250 m3/h (less than capacity)

Maximum day = 250 x 1.8 (assumed) = 450 m3/h (more than capacity)

Peak demand = 350 x 1.5 =675 m3/h (more than capacity)

Therefore needs other source for water, daily storage in system is not enough