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Water supply problems and solutions(2)

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Date: 03/11/2018

1. A water supply system is shown in following figure. The values of K (in hf = KQ2) are indicated

on the figure. The total discharge rate from the system is 255 L/s. The residual pressure at point

C is to be maintained at 139 kPa. Find:

32 m

27.4 m

33. 27.4 m

5m

30.5 m

(b) The elevation of water surface in the reservoir

Solution 1:

QAD = QBD = QDE/2

hf = K Q2

(hf )ADE = (hf)CE

0.08 (QDE/2)2 + 0.03 (QDE)2 = 0.20 (QCE)2

0.05 (QDE)2 = 0.20 (QCE)2

QDE/QCE = (0.20/0.05)1/2 = (4)1/2 = 2

1

QDE + QCE = 255 L/s

2QCE + QCE = 255 L/s

3QCE = 255 L/s

QCE =85 L/s

QDE = 2 x 85= 170 L/s

QAD = QBD = 170/2 = 85 L/s

Elevation of reservoir = 30.5 + 13.9 + 0.20 x (0.085)2 + 0.01 x (0.255)2 =44.4 m

HE = 30.5+ 13.9 + 0.20 x (0.085)2 = 44.4 m

(p/γ)E = 44.4-33 = 11.1 m of water = 111 kPa

HA = HB = 44.4 – 0.03 x (0.170)2 -0.08 x (0.085)2 = 44.39

(p/γ)A = (p/γ)B = 44.39 -27.4 =16.99 m= 170 kPa

2. In the water supply system shown in the following figure, the pumping station is operating at

a flow capacity of 125 L/s against a total dynamic head of 50 m. Determine the maximum

depth of water that can be stored in the elevated reservoir.

Elevation of water level in underground tank = 500 m

Elevation of bottom of elevated reservoir = 520 m

C for all pipes = 100.

2

Solution:

D=400 mm

D=300 mm

D=250 mm

From Nomogram; For the 400 mm pipe (d = 400 mm, Q = 125 L/s=0.125 m3/s, L = 2000 m, C =

100)

For the 300 mm pipe (d = 300 mm, Q = 75 L/s =0.075 m3/s, L = 1500 m, C = 100

For the 250 mm pipe (d = 250 mm, Q = 35 L/s=0.035 m3/s, L = 1000 m, C = 100)

3

Total headloss, (hf)total = hf400 + hf300 + hf200= 8.0 + 10.2 + 3.8 = 22.0 m

3. In the water supply system shown in the following figure, water flows by gravity from

Reservoir A to points C and D as well as to reservoir E. The elevations of known points are as

follows:

Water level A = 650.00 m

Elevation B = 590.00 m

Elevation C = 550.00 m

Elevation D = 570.00 m

Point B = 300 kPa =30 m

Point C = 500 kPa =50m

The known flows are as follows:

Pipe BD = 30 L/s

Pipe BE = 75 L/s

C for all pipes = 100

(a) Calculate the flow in Line BC

(b) Find the residual pressure at Point D

(c) Compute the maximum water level in Reservoir E

(d) Determine the required diameter for Pipe AB

4

Solution:

a. Calculate the flow in Line BC

hf = 590 + 30 – 550 - 50 = 20 m

s = 20/3640 = 5.49/1000

From Nomogram, for the 300 mm pipe s = 5.49/1000 : QBC = 70 L/s

Pd = 590 + 30 – 570 – (hf)BD = 50 - (hf)BD

From Nomogram, for d = 200 mm, Q = 30 L/s yields s = 8/1000

(hf)BD = 8 /1000x 2500m = 20 m

PD = 50 – 20 = 30 m

PD = 300 kPa

For pipe BE, Q = 75 L/s, d = 400 mm, s is found to be 1.7/1000

(hf)BE = 1.7 x 11760 m = 20 m

QAB = QBC + QBD + QBE = 70 + 30 + 75 = 175 L/s

hf = 650 – 590 -30 = 30 m

s = 30/10 = 3/10000

From Nomogram, d = 500 mm

5

4. A water supply system consists of ground reservoir with lift pumps (A), elevated storage (C),

a withdrawal point (B) and equivalent pipelines as given in the plan view in the following

figure. Assume the following elevations:

Water level in ground reservoir (A) = 600.00 m

Ground level at withdrawal point (B) = 609.10 m

Ground level at elevated water tank (C) = 642.20 m

The lift pumps provide flow at a discharge pressure of 550 kPa. The value of C for all pipes

is 100. Compute the discharge, Q, in L/s at withdrawal point (B) for the following conditions:

(a) If the residual pressure at point B is 200 kPa

(b) If water is neither flowing to, nor from, the elevated storage tank

Solution:

HA = 600 + 550 kPa/(10 kPa/m)= 655 m

HB = 609.10 + 200/(10 kPa/m)= 629.10 m

HC = 642.20 m

Therefore; flow occurs from A and B to A and C at the same time

(hf)AB = 655-629.10 = 25.90 m

s = 25.90 x 1000/1500 =17.27/1000

From Nomogram for pipe AB: q = 300 mm. s = 17.27 /1000 and C = 100 and QAB is found to be

0.125 m3/s

6

(hf)CB = 642.20 – 629.10 = 13 .10 m

S = 13.10/0.9 = 14.56/1000

From Nomogram; for pipe CB: d = 250 mm. s = 14.56/1000 and C = 100

QCB= 0.072 m3/s

Finally, QB = 125 + 72 = 197 L/s

(b) If water is neither flowing to, nor from, the elevated storage tank:

HB = HC

609.10 + PB = 612.2 + 30 = 642.20

PB = 33.10 m

And,

(hf)AB = 655-642.20 =12.80 m

s = 12.80/1.5 = 8.53/1000

From Nomogram for pipe AB: d = 300 mm. s = 8.53/1000 and C = 100

Flow QB= 0.09 m3/s

7

5. Water is pumped from ground reservoir A to the elevated reservoir G through the network of

pipes shown in the figure.

All pipes have the same diameter = 300 mm

C for all pipes = 100

Water level in ground reservoir = 500 m

Water flow rate = 80 L/s

Pump operating head = 70 m

(a) Calculate the maximum water level in the elevated reservoir when valves E and F are

closed

(b) How many meters will the water level rise in the elevated reservoir if valves E and F

were opened?

Solution:

a) From Nomogram for pipe AG: d = 300 mm. Q = 80 L/s and C = 100 yields,

s is found to be 6/1000.

Hf = 6/1000 x (1600+1000+1000+1200)m = 28.8 m

(P/γ + z)A + hP = (P/γ + z)G + hf

500 + 70 = zG + 28.8

zG = 541.2 m

b) From Nomogram: for pipe DG d = 300 mm. Q = 80 L/s and C = 100 yields, s = 6/1000

From Nomogram for pipe BCD and BEFD d = 300 mm. Q = 40 L/s and C = 100 yields, s

= 1.75/1000

hf AG= (1600 +1200) x 6/1000 + (2000+2000) x 1.75/1000 = 23.8 m

(P/γ + z)A + hP = (P/γ + z)G + (hf)AG

500 + 70 = zG + 23.8

8

zG = 546.2 m

Water rise = 546.2 -541.2 = 5 m

6. In the water supply system shown in the following figure, the pumping station (P) delivers the

water from the water treatment plant (WTP) to City ABCDE. The water head delivered by the

pumps is 28 m. The water level in the pumping station wet well is at 600.00 m. The value of

C for all pipes is l00. The following elevations are known:

A 570.00 m

B 575.00 m

C 573.00 m

a. Find the required diameter of the force main PA, (dPA), if the pressure at point A is not

allowed to drop below 370 kPa

b. Determine the required diameter of pipe BC, (dBC), if the maximum allowed headloss in

the network ABC is 3 ‰

c. Calculate the actual residual pressures at points A and C

Solution:

(a) Find the required diameter of the force main PA, (dPA), if the pressure at point A is not

allowed to drop below 370 kPa

hP + zP = zA + (p/γ)A + hf

28 + 600 = 570 + 37 + hf

hf = 21 m

s = hf x 100/L = 21/3000 = 7/1000

and flowrate; Q = 55 + 40 + 180 =275 L/s

From Nomogram for pipe PA, s = 7/1000, Q = 275 L/s and C = 100

dPA is found to be as 500 mm

9

(b) Determine the required diameter of pipe BC, (dBC), if the maximum allowed headloss in the

network ABC , s=3/1000

From Nomogram for pipe AB, s = 3/1000, D =400 mm and C = 100

QAB is found to be 110 L/s.

Then, QBC = 110-40 = 70 L/s

From Nomogram for pipe BC, s = 3/1000, Q = 70 L/s and C = 100;

dBC is found to be as 350 mm

From Nomogram, for pipe PA, d = 500 mm, Q = 275 L/s and C = 100 : s is 6/1000

hP + zP = zA + (p/γ)A + hf

28 + 600 = 570 + (p/γ)A + 18

(p/γ)A = 40 m

pA = 400 kPa

zA + (p/γ)A = zC + (p/γ)C + (hf)AC

570 + 40 = 573 + (p/γ)C + 4.5

(p/γ)C = 32.5 m

PC = 325 kPa

10

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