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# EN5001 - Electrical Machines

Laboratory 4

## Three-phase transformer test

Team
Kevin Cubas
Alonso Moquillaza
José Narro

2018 - 2
1. Introduction

## Synchronous electric machines are used to convert electrical power to

mechanical power . It works with a three phase AC current that is
sinusoidal. This current is applied to the stator of the machine. Which
produces a three phase current flow in the field windings that are in the
rotor. synchronous motors with power ratings of several megawatts are
used in some industrial processes to take advantage of their high
efficiency and the ability to control the supply power factor. Small
synchronous motors are used in applications in which constant speed is
crucial since synchronous machine speed is depend only on the supply
frequency.

2. Objectives
● Analyze the excitation current and the emf produced by the synchronous
generator
● Analyze the FEM produced by making speed variations considering a
constant excitation current

3. Experience 1
Enter the pull-out torque values determined for the appropriate
exciter currents at which the motor losses synchronisation

M​pullout(Ierr=1.0A) 1200Nm

M​pullout(Ierr=1.5A) 1400Nm

M​pullout(Ierr=2.0A) 1600Nm
- We used this value because when we used the values that indicates
the machine could not tell us a value, we could not determine why
it happened but we used the previously values.
- We can see when the exciter current increase, also the pull out
torque increase too.

## - The increase in the exciter current causes a shift of the pull-out

torque to higher torques
- When the load is too extreme, only the speed falls, while the motor
continues operate with the rated power
- The increase in the exciter current causes a shift of the pull-out
torque to lower torques
- When the load is too extreme the synchronous motor losses
synchronisation

## - The motor rotates clockwise

- The motor rotates anticlockwise

## - Reverse the excited voltage polarity

- Exchanges any random two terminals of the stator winding
4. Experience 2

## Which type of excitation leads to the generation of inductive or

capacitive reactive power?

## - At underexcitation capacitive reactive power is generated

- At overexcitation capacitive reactive power is generated
- At overexcitation inductive reactive power is generated
- At underexcitation inductive reach power is generated

## If you wanted to use the synchronous motor as a reactive power

compensator in the power mains, which of the listed correlation of
mains load excitation type would be correct?
- In mains with strong inductive loading the synchronous motor is operated
with overexcitation as phase-shifter
- In the case of strong capacitive mains loading the synchronous motor is
operated with overexcitation as a phase-shifter
- In mains under strong inductive loads the synchronous motor is operated
with underexcitation as phase-shifter
- In the case of strong capacitive mains loading the synchronous motor is
operated with under excitation as a phase-shifter
5. Observations
- When we were doing the first experience, we notice that in some
exciting currents, the machine stopped working.
- In the second experience, it occured the same anomaly that
happened in the first experience. Also happened in the third
experience.
- We could not determine why the machine stopped working, when
we were doing the experiences.
6. Conclusion
- The magnetic flux is proportional to the excitation current flowing
through the rotor field.
- The internal voltage generated in phase of the synchronous
generator is different from the voltage that appears in the generator
terminals due to the losses
- If the poles have a great moment of inertia then the synchronous
generator depends directly on the magnetic flux.
- The rotating speed of the rotor determines the speed of the rotating
magnetic field.
- The speed of rotating magnetic field determines the electrical
power that can be generated.
7. Reference
● Hillenbrand, Ғ. (1983). A method for determining the speed and rotor
flux of the asynchronous machine by measuring the terminal quantities
only. ​IFAC Proceedings Volumes,​ ​16(​ 16), 55-62.
● Jesus Fraile Mora (2003). Máquinas eléctricas ​5th​​ ed. Mc Graw - Hill