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Calculate the resistant capacity of a given geomembrane in a L-shaped rectangular anchor trench of known

dimensions. The geomembrane is 60-mil (1.5-mm) HDPE with an ultimate strength (at yield) 2,100 lb/in²

(14,500 kN/m²) and an allowable strength 840 lb/in² (5,800 kN/m²).The runout length is 3 feet (0.9m). The

cover soil is 1 foot (0.3m). The anchor trench is 2 feet (0.6m) wide and 2 feet (0.6m) deep. The side slope

angle is 18.4 degrees [ 3(H) : 1 (V) ]. The unit weight of soil is 110 lb/ft³ (17.3 kN/m³). the soil friction angle is

30 degrees. The friction angle between the soil and the geomembrane is 20 degrees.

Solution :

1 - 0.5 = 0.5

=

110 X (1 + 2) = 330 lb/ft2 (15.80 kN/m2)

= (110)(2)(0.364) + (2)(220 + 660)(0.364)/[0.949 - (0.316)(0.364)]

= (80.08 + 640.64)/0.834

= 720.72/0.834

= 864 lb/ft (12.61 kN/m)

So, Anchor Resistance Capasity = 864 lb/ft = 72 lb/in ÷ 0.06 in =1,200 lb/in² (8,270 kN/m²),which leads

to the following inequalities :

2,100 lb/in2 > 1,200 lb/in2 > 840 lb/in2

(14,500 kN/m2 > 8,270 kN/m2 >5,800 kN/m2)

The results of the calculation indicate the design achor resistance capacity falls between the yield stress and

allowable stress of a geosynthetic membrane liner. Therefore, the achor trench dimensions are acceptable.

Example 8.4

A landfill cell is constructed on a pipe slope of 1% and a bottom liner grade perpendicular to the pipe of 2%.

The horizontal distance from upstream to pipe is 100 ft (30 m). The granular soil drainage layer is 24 inches

(0.3 m) thick. The hydraulic conductivity of the drainage material is 0.01 cm/sec. The amount of leachate

inflow rate is estimated to be 3,000 gallons/acre/day (1,024 mm/year). Estimate the maximum leachate head

over the primary liner.

Solution The actual landfill base grade is shown as Figure 8.14. Liquids always flow along the maximum

grade. The largest grade in Figure 8.14 is not perpendicular to the leachate collection pipes. Thus, the

maximum leachate flow distance from upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe should be

largerthan 100 feet (30 m). The actual leachate flow grade, S, and the maximum leachate flow distance from

the upstream boundary to the leachate collection pip, L, can be calculated as follows:

Assume that

a. the slope of the bottom liner grade perpendicular to the leachate collectionpipe is S1;

b. the slope of the leachate collection pipe is S2.

Then

and

In figure 8.14, it can be seen that the landfill base grade varies with change of x. The landfill base grade ,

S(x), can be expressed as follows:

where and

Thus,

and

The landfill base grade is a maximum in which

and

and

Thus,

or

where Smax = maximum landfill base grade (i.e., actual leachate flow grade);

S1 = slope of the bottom liner grade perpendicular to the leachate collection pipe; and

S2 = slope of the leachate collection pipe.

The horizontal distance from upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe along the

maximum drainage grade is

where Lmax =

horizontal distance from upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe

along the maximum drainage grade, ft or m;

b =horizontal distance from upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe,

which is perpendicular to the leachate collection pipe, ft or m;

S1 = slope of the bottom liner grade perpendicular to the leachate collection pipe; and

S2 = slope of the leachate collection pipe

For the example problem in which S1 = 2% and S2 = 1%, the maximum base grade (i.e., actual leachate flow

grade) is

Smax = (S12+S22)0.5

= [(0.02)2+(0.01)2]0.5

= 0.02

The horizontal distance from the upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe along the

maximum drainage grade is

Lmax =

= 100 × [(0.01/0.02)2]0.5

= 112 feet = 1,341 inches (33.6 m)

ymax =

(1,341.6)(0.1105/340.16)1/2[340.16 × 0.02242/0.1105 + 1

=

- (340.16 × 0.0224/0.1105)(0.02242 + 0.1105/340.16)1/2]

=

(1,341.6)(0.0180)[1.545 + 1 - (68.956)(0.0288)]

=

(1,341.6)(0.0180)(0.559)

=

13.4 inches > 12.0 inches (336 mm > 300 mm)

ymax =

(1,341.6)[(0.1105/340.16 + 0.02242)1/2 - 0.0224]

=

(1,341.6)[(0.000325 + 0.00052)1/2 - 0.0224]

=

=

(1,341.6)(0.0288 - 0.0224)

=

(1,341.6)(0.0064)

=

8.6 inches , 12.0 inches (216 mm < 300 mm)

j=

=

1 - 0.12 ∙ exp{-[log(1.6 × 0.1105⁄(340.16⁄〖0.0224〗^2 ))^(5⁄8) ]^2 }

=

1 - 0.12 ∙ exp{-[log(1.0358646)^(5⁄8) ]^2 }

=

1 - 0.12 ∙ exp[-(log 1.0358646)^(5⁄8) ]^2 }

=

1 - 0.12 ∙ exp(-0.00091477)

=

0.88

ymax =

=

(0.8800)(1,341.6)[(4 × 0.1105/340.16 + 0.0224^2)^1/2 - 0.0224]⁄(2×0.9997 )

=

(0.8800)(1,341.6)(0.0424 - 0.0224)/(2 × 0.9997)

=

(0.8800)(1,341.6)(0.02004)/(2 × 0.9997)

=

11.8 inches < 12.0 inches (299.8 mm < 300 mm)

R =

=0.11505/(340.16 x 0.0224^2) = 0.6474 > 1/4

B =

=

(4 x 0.6474 -1)^(1⁄2) = 1.2608

ymax =

=

∙exp{(1⁄1.2608)tan^(-1)[(2 x 06474 x 0.0224 - 1)⁄1.2608] -

=

(1,341.6)(0.0224)(0.7957)∙exp (- 0.7027)

=

(1,341.6)(0.0224)(0.7959)(0.4952)

=

11.8 inches < 12.0 inches (299.8 mm < 300 mm)

Example 8.5

A final cover for a municipal solid waste landfill is constructed on a slope of 10% with a maximum horiz

h of known distance of 450 feet (135 m). The granular soil drainage layer is 24 inches (0.3 m) thick. The moment o

00 lb/in² rainfall percolating though the cover is istemated to be 30 inches/year (762 mm/year). The hydraulic

.9m). The conductivity of the drainage material is 0.01 cm/sec. Estimate the maximum. saturated depth over the

ide slope liner.

tion angle is

Solution:

k = 0.01 cm/sec = 340.16 in/day (0.1 mm/day);

L = 450 ft = 5,400 in (135 m);

k = 30 in/year = 0.08(2.1 mm/day);22 in/day

k = tan α = 0.1;

k = 5.7° , sin α = 0.0995, cos α = 0.9950

ymax =

= (5400)(0.0822/340.16)^1/2 [340.16 X 0.1^2/0.0822 + 1

- (340.16 X 0.1/0.0822) (0.1^2 + 0.0822/340.16)^1/2]

=

(5400)(0.0155)[41.382 + 1 - (413.820)(0.101)]

=

(S400)(0.0155)(0.586)

=

49.0 inches (1,245 mm)

20°)] ymax =

=

(5400)(0.0822/340.16 + 0.1^2)^1/2 - 0.1]

=

(5400)(0.000242 + 0.01)^1/2 - 0.1]

=

(5400)(0.00120)

=

6.5 inches (165 mm)

j=

=

1 - 0.12 ∙ exp {- [log(1.6 X 0.0822/340.16 + 0.1^2 )^(5⁄8) ]^2 }

=

1 - 0.12 ∙ exp {- [log(0.0386642 )^(5⁄8) ]^2 }

=

1 - 0.12 ∙ exp [- (log 0.13094)^2 ]

=

1 - 0.12 ∙ exp(- 0.77956)

=

0.95

d stress and

cceptable. ymax =

=

(0.9450)(5,400)[4 X 0.0822/340.16 + 0.1^2)^1/2 - 0.1] / (2 X 0.9950)

=

(0.9450)(5,400)(0.10472 - 0.1) / (2 X 0.9950)

=

(0.9450)(5,400)(0.00472) / (2 X 0.9950)

=

12.1 inches (307 mm)

McEnroe's 1993 Method :

pipe of 2%. R =

s 24 inches =0.0822/(340.16 X 0.0995^2) = 0.0244 < 1/4

leachate

eachate head

Because R < 1/4, use Equation 8.34 to calculate ymax

A =

=(1 - 4 X 0.0244)^1/2 = 0.0902^1/2 = 0.950

aximum

s, the ymax =

be

istance from

=

(5400 X 0.1)(0.0244 -0.0244 X 0.1 + 0.0244^2 X 0.1^2)^1/2

{[(1 - 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244)(1 + 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244 X 0.1)]

/[(1 + 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244)(1 - 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244 X 0.1)]}^1/(2X0.950)

=

(5400 X 0.1)(0.0244 -0.0244 X 0.1 + 0.0244^2 X 0.1^2)^1/2

{[(1 - 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244)(1 + 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244 X 0.1)]

/[1 + 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244)(1 - 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244 X 0.1)]}^1/(2X0.950)

=

(5400 X 0.1)(0.0220)^1/2{[0.0012)(1.945)]/[(1.901)(0.0451)]}^0.526

=

5400 X 0.1 X 0.148 X 0.150

=

12.0 Inches (305 mm)

e grade ,

Example 9.1

A leachate collection pipe is placed in the middle of a rectangular landfill cell. Upgradient of the leacha

collection pipe is adjacent to a 3(H):1(V) side slope with a height of 65ft (19.5 m). The downgradient sid

the leachate collection pipe rests on a bottom floor sloping at 2% with a width of 100 ft (30 m). The tota

length of this leachate collection pipe is 1,000 ft (300 m). The peak leachate generation rate at the side

area is 0.0786 ft2/day/ft2 (0.0240 m3/day/m2), and the peak leachate generation rate at the bottom floo

is 0.0355 ft3/day/ft2 (0.0108 m3/day/m2). Design a perforated solid wall pipe to meet both drainage and

perforation requirements.

Solution:

1) Determine Amount of Leachate Generation

Area of the upgradient portion of the landfill cell:

Maximum leachate flow generated for the upgradient portion of the cell:

(Qu)max = (qu)max X Au

0.0786

= X 195,000

15,327

= ft2/day = 0.1774 ft3/sec (5.023 X 10-3 m3/sec

0.0355

= X 100,000

3

3,550ft

= /day = 0.0411 ft3/sec (1.164 X 10^-3 m3/sec)

=

Select 6-in (150-mm) SDR 11 HDPE pipe:

SDR =Do/t

So t Do/SDR

= = 6/11 0.55

= in (0.014 m)

Di = = 6 -2 X 0.55 = 4.9 in = 0.408 ft (0.124 m)

eachate flow rh = Di/4 = 0.408/4 = 0.102 ft (0.031 m)

A = = 3.1416 X (0.408/2)=2 0.131 ft2 (1.217 X 10^-2 m2)

For HDPE pipe, n ≈ 0.011

Manning's Equation:

Q =

=

(1.49/0.011) X 0.131 X (0.102)^2/3 X (0.01)^1/2)

along the =

135.455 X 0.131 X 0.218 X 0.1

0.387 ft3/sec (10.96 X 10^-3 m3/sec) > Qmax = 0.2185 ft3/sec (6.187 X 10^-3 m

=

3) Pipe Perforation

Maximum Leachate Inflow per Unit Length of Pipe

Qin =

=

0.0786 X 195 + 0.0355 X 100

=

15.327 + 3.55

18.877 ft3/day/ft = 0.0002184 ft3/sec/ft (2.209 X 10^-5 m3/sec/m)

=

Assume that the diameter of a perforation hole, d, in the pipe is 0.25 inch (6 mm). Then the cross-secti

area of a hole on the perforated pipe is

Ab =

3.1416 X (0.25/12/2)^2 = 0.0003341 ft2 (0.0000316 ft3)

=

Also,

Discharge coefficient C = 0.62 ;

Limiting leachate entrance velocity vent = 0.1 ft/sec (0.03 m/sec)

Bernoulii Equation:

Qb =

=

0.62 X 0.000341 X 0.1

0.00002114 ft3/sec (5.986 x 10^-7 m3/sec)

=

N =

=0.0002184/0.00002114

=10.35 holes/ft (34 holes/m)

^2 } So, use 12 holes/ft (40 holes/m); that is 6 holes per foot (20 holes per meter) each side as shown in Figu

Example 9.2

An 8-inch (200-mm) SDR 11 HDPE perforated pipe with 8, 0.25-inch (6-mm) holes per foot (i.e., 4 holes

side per foot) is selected as a primary leachate collection pipe. The maximum load acting on the pipe in

a 2-ft (0.6-m) protective sand layer (Ysand = 115 lb/ft3 or 18 kN/m3), 100-ft (30-m) solid waste (Ywaste = 60

or 9.4 kN/m3), 12-inch (0.3-m) gas venting layer (ysand = 115 lb/ft3 0r 18 kN/m3), 18-inch (0.45-m) compa

clay layer (yclay = 110lb/ft3 or 17.3 kN/m3), 24-inch (0.6-m) drainage and protective layer (ysilt = 110lb/ft

17.3 kN/m3), and 6-inch (0.15-m) topsoil (ytop = 90 lb/ft3 or 14 kN/m3). Assume Bedding angle θ = 0°,

deflection lag factor DL =1.0, elastic modulus of the pipe material for 50 years at 73°F (23°C) temperat

= 28,200 lb/in2, (194, 000 kN/m). Poisson's ration of pipe material μ = 0.3. The bedding material of the

poorly graded gravel (GP) with 85% standard density. What will be the deflection ratio (%) and critical

buckling pressure of the project?

WC =

=

([(115)(2)+(60)(100)+(115)(1)+(110)(3.5)+(90)(0.5) ]×8⁄12)/((1-4×0.25⁄12) )

=

((230+6,000+115+385+45)×8⁄12)/(0.917)

=

(6,775×8⁄12)/0.917

=

4,925 lb/ft = 410 lb/in (72 kN/m)

Ptp = =

410/8 =

51.3 lb/in2 (354 kN/m2)

Ptp = 40 lb/in2 , ES = 4,100 lb/in2

,

For Ptp = 2

51.3 lb/in ,

ES = 4,100 + (51.3 - 40)(4,700 - 4,400)/20 = 4,100 + 339 = 4,439 lb/in2

= lb/in2 (61,200 kN/m2)

Also,

Deflection lag factor, DL = 1.0;

maximum horizontal Bedding angle θ = 0°, K = 0.11;

k. The moment of Mean radius of the pipe, r = 3.635 in (0.0923 m);

The hydraulic

Elastic modulus of the pipe material, E =28,200 lb/in2 (194,000 kN/m3);

d depth over the cover

Soil reaction modulus, E' = 8,878 lb/in2 (61,200 kN/m3);

and

Inertia moment of the pipe wall per unit length, in4/in = in3 , given by

=

((1.0)(0.11)(410)〖(3.635)〗^3)/((400,000)(0.0324)+(0.061)(1,

=

((1.0)(0.11)(410)(48.03))/((28,200)(0.0324)+(0.061)(8,878)(48.

=

2,166/(914+26,011)

=

0.08 in (2.0 mm)

Deflection Ratio:

Deflection ratio =

= (0.08/7.27) X 100%

= 1.1% < 2.7% (ok, as shown inTable 9.4)

Modulus of elasticity of the pipe material, E = 28,200 lb/in2 (194,000 kN/m2);

Momentof inertia of the pipe wall per unit lengt, I = 0.0324 in3 (5.276 X 10^-7 m

Mean radius of the pipe, r = 3.635 in (0.0923 m).

Thus,

Pcr =

=

2〖×{[8,878⁄((1-〖0.3〗^2 ) )][((28,200×0.034))⁄(3.635)^3 ]}〗

=

2×[9,756×(913.68⁄48.03) ]^(1⁄2)

=

2 X (185,589)^1/2

=

2 X 431

862 lb/in2 (5,943 kN/m2)

=

(2 X 0.9950)

FS = 862/51.3 = 16.8 > 2 (OK)

Example 9.3

Refer to Figure 9.9(a). The primary leachate removal HDPE manhole riser is circular in cross s

inside diameter of 3 ft (0.9 m) and an outside diameter of 3.75 ft (1.13 m). The height of solid

surrounding the manhole riser is given by Hf = 210 ft (63 m); the unit weight of solid waste is

ywaste = 70 lb/ft3 (11 kN/m3); the internal friction angle of solid waste is given by Øw = 33°

friction angle between the concrete manhole riser wall and solid waste is δ = 24°. Determine

downdrag force, stress on the concrete, and factor of safety if the compressive strength of co

lb/in2 (34,500 kN/m2).

Solution:

p = π(3.75) =

11.78 ft (3.5 m)

KO = = 1 - sin 33° = 1 - 0.545 = 0.455

tan δ = tan 24° = 0.445

Qn =

= (0.5)(11.78)(0.455)(70) (210)^2 (0.445)

= 3,681,500 lb (16,400 kN)

=

=

3,681,500⁄[(π⁄4)(〖3.75〗^2-〖3.0〗^2 ) ]

=

3,681,500/3.98

925,000 lb/ft2

=

6,424 lb/in2 (44,300 kN/m2)

=

FS =

=5,000/6,424

=0.78 < 1.0 (No Good)

Example 12.1

The filling procedure of a new minicipal solid waste landfill is listed in Table 12.3.

downgradient side of Height of Solid Waste Filled

t (30 m). The total Time Period

Feet Meter

n rate at the side slope

1st Month 12 3.6

the bottom floor area

th drainage and 2nd Month 18 5.4

3rd Month 16 4.8

4th Month 10 3

5th Month 14 4.2

Unit weight of solid waste, ywaste = 70 lb/ft3 (11 kN/m3);

Original applied pressure for solid waste,1000 lb/ft2; (48 kN/m2);

Modified primary compression index, C'c = 0.26;

Modified secondary compression index, 0.07; and

Secondary settlement starting time, t1 = 1 month

Calculate the total settlement of the top of the landfill at the end of the 5th month.

Solution:

Calculate the solid waste depth over the mid-level of each waste layer:

H1 = (0.5)(12) + 18 + 16 + 10 + 14 = 64 ft (19.2 m)

H2 = (0.5)(18) + 18 + 10 + 14 = 49 ft (14.7 m)

H3 = (0.5)(16) + 10 + 14 = 32 ft (9.6 m)

H4 = (0.5)(10) + 14 = 19 ft (5.7 m)

H5 = (0.5)(14) = 7 ft (2.1 m)

Calculate the total overburden pressure acting on the mid-level of each waste layer:

70 X 49 = 3430 lb/ft2 (164 kN/m2)

70 X 32 = 2240 lb/ft2 (107 kN/m2)

70 X 19 = 1330 lb/ft2 (64 kN/m2)

70 X 7 = 490 lb/ft (23 kN/m) < σo = 1000 lb/ft2 (48 kN/m

Calculate the settlement of each waste layer:

First Layer:

0.07 X 12 X log (4.5/1) = 0.07 X 12 X 0.653 = 0.55 ft (0.17 m)

2.03 + 0.55 = 2.58 ft (0.79 m)

Second Layer:

n the cross-sectional

0.26 X 18 X 1og (3430/1000) = 0.26 X 18 X 0.535 = 2.51 ft (0.77 m)

0.07 X 18 X log (3.5/1) = 0.07 X 18 X 0.544 = 0.69 ft (0.21 m)

2.51 + 0.69 = 3.20 ft (0.98 m)

Third Layer:

0.26 X 16 X log (2240/1000) = 0.26 X 12 X 0.350 = 1.46 ft (o.45 m)

0.07 X 16 X log (2.5/1) = 0.07 X 16 X 0.398 X = 0.45 ft (0.21 m)

1.46 + 0.45 = 1.91 ft (0.58 m)

Fourth Layer:

0.26 X 10 X log (1330/1000) = 0.26 X 10 X 0.124 = 0.32 ft (0.098 m)

0.07 X 10 X log (1.5/1) = 0.07 X 18 X -.176 = 0.22 ft (0.067 m)

0.32 + 0.22 = 0.54 ft (0.16 m)

Fifth Layer:

0 [because= 490 lb/ft2 (23 kN/m2) < = 1000 lb/ft2 (48 kN/m2)]

0 (because t2 = 0.5 month , t1 = 1 month)

0+0=0

Calculate the total settlement of the landfill at the end of the 5th month:

as shown in Figure 9.3.

=

2.58 + 3.20 + 1.91 + 0.54 + 0

=

8.23 ft (2.51 m)

8.23/70 = 11.8%

Example 13.1

oot (i.e., 4 holes per The following are given: a 30-m slope with a uniformly thick 300-mm-deep cover soil at a uni

ng on the pipe includes weight of 18 kN/m3. The soil has a friction angle of 30° and zero cohesion (i.e., it is a sand). T

waste (Ywaste = 60 lb/ft3 cover soil is placed directly on a geomembrane as shown in FIgure 13.3. Direct shear testing

h (0.45-m) compacted resulted in an interface friction angle between the cover soil and geomembrane of 22° with z

adhesion. What is the FS-value at a slope angle of 3(H)-to-1(V) (i.e., 18.4°)?

er (ysilt = 110lb/ft3 or

angle θ = 0°,

(23°C) temperature E

g material of the pipe is Solution Using Equation 13.9 to solve for the FS-value rasults in a value of 1.25, which in see

(%) and critical agreement woth the curves of Figure 13.4:

a = 14.6 kN/m

b = - 21.3 kN/m

c = 3.5 kN/m

Thus FS = 1.25

×0.25⁄12) )

This value can be confirmed using Figure 13.4.

CommentIn general, this is too low of a value for a final cover soil factor-of-safety and a rede

There are many possible options to increase the value (e.g., changing te geometry of the situ

the use of toe berms, taperred cover soil thickness, and veneer reinforcement, see Koerner a

Soong, 1998). Nevertheless, this general problem will be used throughout this section for

comparison with other cover soil slope stability situations.

Example 13.3

The following are given: a 30-m-long slope with uniform cover soil of 300-mm thick

kN/m3. The soil has a friction angle of 30° and zero cohesion (i.e., it is a sand). It is

a bulldozer moving from the crest of the slope down to the toe. The bulldozer has a

of 30 kN/m and tracks that are 3.0 m long and 0.6 m wide. The estimated equipme

the time to reach this speed is 3.0 seconds. The cover soil to geomembrane friction

zero adhesion. What is the FS-value at a slope angle of 3(H)-to-1(V) (i.e., 18.4°)?

10^-7 m3) Solution Using the design curves of Figure 13.10 along with Equation 13.13, the so

* From Figure 13.9, at 20 km/hr and 3.0 seconds, the bulldozer's qcceleration is 0.1

* From Equation 13.13

0.061)(8,878)(48.03)) b = - 107.3 kN/m

c = 17.0 kN/m

Thus FS = 1.03

This value can be confirmed using Figure 13.10.

CommentThis problem solution can now be compared with those of the previous tw

Example 13.2 Cover soil plus bulldozer moving up slope:

Example 13.3 Cover soil plus bulldozer moving down slope:

The inherent danger of a bulldozer moving down the slope is readily apparent. Note

comes about by the bulldozer decelerating instead of accelerating. The sharp break

is arguably the more severe condition, due to the extremely short times involved w

motion. Clearly, only in unavoidable situations should the cover soil placement equ

7 m3)

down the slope. If it is unavoidable, an analysis should be made of the specific stab

construction specifications should reflect the precise conditions made in the design

and ground contact pressure of the equipment shoud be stated along with suggest

the cover soil placement operations. Truck traffic on the slopes can also give stress

4))⁄(3.635)^3 ]}〗^(1⁄2) than illustrated here and shoud be avoided in all circumstances.

Example 13.4

he height of solid waste A 44-ft (13.2-m) high and 3(H):1(V) slope has cover sand with a uniform thickness o

t of solid waste is given by weight og 110 lb/ft3 (17.3 kN/m3). The cover sand has a friction angle of 32 degrees

ven by Øw = 33°; and interface Seepage occurs parallel to the slope and the seepage water head in the sand layer

= 24°. Determine the total saturated unit weight of sand is 115 lb/ft (18 kN/m). The interface friction angle bet

ve strength of concrete is 5,000 and geomembrane is 22 degrees and zero adhesion. What is the factor of safety at

Solution The side slope angle is at 18.4° for a 3(H):1(V) slope. Hence,

sin β = sin (18.4°) = 0.316, cos β = cos (18.4°) = 0.949, tan β = tan (18.4°) = 0.33

H = 44 ft (13.2 m), h = 2 ft (0.6 m), hw = 0.5 ft (0.15 m), γ = 110 lb/ft3

γsat = 115 lb/ft3 (18 kN/m3), γw = 62.4 lb/ft3 (9.81 kN/m3), φ = 32°, δ = 22°

tan φ = tan (32°) = 0.625, tan δ = tan (22°) = 0.404

(62.4)(0.5)[44

= - (0.5)(0.5)(0.949)]/(0.333) = 4,100.3 lb/ft (58.02 kN/m)

2

(0.5)(62.4)(0.5)

= = 7.8 lb/ft (0.11 kN/m)

2

(0.5)(62.4)(0.5)

= /(0.333) = 23.4 lb/ft (0.33 kN/m)

(0.5)(13,366.98

= + 4,773.19)/[(0.316)(0.949)] = 30,245.3 lb/ft (427.6 kN/m

2

(0.5){(110)[(2)

= -(0.5)2] + (115)(0.5)2}/[(0.316)(0.949)] = 735.7 lb/ft (10.4

a =

(30,245.3)(0.316)(0.949) + (7.8) [1- - (0.949)2] = 9,071 (128 for SI units)

=

b =

- (23.4)(0.625) + (7.8)(0.316)(0.949)(0.625 - 0.404)}

= - (459.8 + 12,892.1 - 1,572.0 - 14.6 + 0.5) = -11,766 (-166 for SI units)

c =

=[(30,245.3)(0.949) - 4,100.3 + (7.8)(0.316)](0.316)(0.625)(0.404) = 1,963

2.3.

=

11,766 + [(-11,766^2 - (4)(9,071)(1,963)]^0.5)/(2)(9

been 100% of the drainage layer thickness, the FS-value would have bee

the result using a horizontal assumption of saturated cover soil with the s

give essentially identical low FS-values. Clearly, the teaching of this exam

adequate long-term drainage above the barrier layer in cover soil slopes

seepage forces from occuring. Figure 13.15 shows a sand layer sliding fa

seepage force.

month.

e layer:

(48 kN/m2)

ft (0.62 m)

17 m)

ft (0.77 m)

21 m)

ft (o.45 m)

0.21 m)

ft (0.098 m)

67 m)

m2)]

over soil at a unit

e., it is a sand). The

ect shear testing has

ane of 22° with zero

metry of the situation,

nt, see Koerner and

is section for

of 300-mm thickness at a unit weight of 18

t is a sand). It is placed on the slope using

e bulldozer has a ground contact pressure

imated equipment speed is 20 km/hr, and

membrane friction angle is 22 degrees with

) (i.e., 18.4°)?

cceleration is 0.19g.

FS = 1.25

FS = 1.24

FS = 1.03

. The sharp breaking action of the bulldozer

times involved when stopping forward

il placement equipment be allowed to work

the specific stability situation and the

ade in the design. The maximum weight

ong with suggested operator movement of

n also give stresses as high or even higher

iform thickness of 2 ft (0.6 m) at a unit

gle of 32 degrees and zero cohesion.

n the sand layer is 6 inches (0.15 m). The

friction angle between sand drainage layer

actor of safety at a slope of 3(H):1(V)?

nce,

an (18.4°) = 0.333.

b/ft3 (17.3 kN/m3),

δ = 22°

t (58.02 kN/m)

[(2)(44)(0.949) - 0.5]}/[(0.316)(0.949)]

lb/ft (427.6 kN/m)

2

(0.104)] - (4,100.3)(0.949)(0.404)

66 for SI units)

963)]^0.5)/(2)(9,071)

would have been still lower. Futhermore,

ver soil with the same saturation ratio will

hing of this example problem is that

cover soil slopes must be provided to avoid

d layer sliding failure sideslope caused by

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