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Example 4.

Calculate the resistant capacity of a given geomembrane in a L-shaped rectangular anchor trench of known
dimensions. The geomembrane is 60-mil (1.5-mm) HDPE with an ultimate strength (at yield) 2,100 lb/in²
(14,500 kN/m²) and an allowable strength 840 lb/in² (5,800 kN/m²).The runout length is 3 feet (0.9m). The
cover soil is 1 foot (0.3m). The anchor trench is 2 feet (0.6m) wide and 2 feet (0.6m) deep. The side slope
angle is 18.4 degrees [ 3(H) : 1 (V) ]. The unit weight of soil is 110 lb/ft³ (17.3 kN/m³). the soil friction angle is
30 degrees. The friction angle between the soil and the geomembrane is 20 degrees.

Solution :

Where 110 X 1 = 100 lb/ft2 (5.27 kN/m2)


1 - 0.5 = 0.5

110 X (1 + 0.5 x 2) = 110 x 2 = 220 lb/ft2 (10.53 kN/m2)


=
110 X (1 + 2) = 330 lb/ft2 (15.80 kN/m2)

Substituting these calculated values into Equation 4.31 yields

= (110)(2)(tan 20°) + 2(220)(2) + (330)(2)(tan 20°)/[cos 18.4° - (sin 18.4°)(tan 20°)]


= (110)(2)(0.364) + (2)(220 + 660)(0.364)/[0.949 - (0.316)(0.364)]
= (80.08 + 640.64)/0.834
= 720.72/0.834
= 864 lb/ft (12.61 kN/m)

So, Anchor Resistance Capasity = 864 lb/ft = 72 lb/in ÷ 0.06 in =1,200 lb/in² (8,270 kN/m²),which leads
to the following inequalities :

Ultimate Strenght >Anchor Resistance Capacity > Allowable Strength


2,100 lb/in2 > 1,200 lb/in2 > 840 lb/in2
(14,500 kN/m2 > 8,270 kN/m2 >5,800 kN/m2)

The results of the calculation indicate the design achor resistance capacity falls between the yield stress and
allowable stress of a geosynthetic membrane liner. Therefore, the achor trench dimensions are acceptable.
Example 8.4

A landfill cell is constructed on a pipe slope of 1% and a bottom liner grade perpendicular to the pipe of 2%.
The horizontal distance from upstream to pipe is 100 ft (30 m). The granular soil drainage layer is 24 inches
(0.3 m) thick. The hydraulic conductivity of the drainage material is 0.01 cm/sec. The amount of leachate
inflow rate is estimated to be 3,000 gallons/acre/day (1,024 mm/year). Estimate the maximum leachate head
over the primary liner.

Solution The actual landfill base grade is shown as Figure 8.14. Liquids always flow along the maximum
grade. The largest grade in Figure 8.14 is not perpendicular to the leachate collection pipes. Thus, the
maximum leachate flow distance from upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe should be
largerthan 100 feet (30 m). The actual leachate flow grade, S, and the maximum leachate flow distance from
the upstream boundary to the leachate collection pip, L, can be calculated as follows:

Assume that
a. the slope of the bottom liner grade perpendicular to the leachate collectionpipe is S1;
b. the slope of the leachate collection pipe is S2.
Then

and

In figure 8.14, it can be seen that the landfill base grade varies with change of x. The landfill base grade ,
S(x), can be expressed as follows:

where and

Thus,

and
The landfill base grade is a maximum in which

Because can never be equal to 0,

and

For the maximum landfill base grade, Smax,

and

Thus,

or

where Smax = maximum landfill base grade (i.e., actual leachate flow grade);
S1 = slope of the bottom liner grade perpendicular to the leachate collection pipe; and
S2 = slope of the leachate collection pipe.

The horizontal distance from upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe along the
maximum drainage grade is

where Lmax =
horizontal distance from upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe
along the maximum drainage grade, ft or m;
b =horizontal distance from upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe,
which is perpendicular to the leachate collection pipe, ft or m;
S1 = slope of the bottom liner grade perpendicular to the leachate collection pipe; and
S2 = slope of the leachate collection pipe

For the example problem in which S1 = 2% and S2 = 1%, the maximum base grade (i.e., actual leachate flow
grade) is
Smax = (S12+S22)0.5
= [(0.02)2+(0.01)2]0.5
= 0.02

The horizontal distance from the upstream boundary to the leachate collection pipe along the
maximum drainage grade is

Lmax =
= 100 × [(0.01/0.02)2]0.5
= 112 feet = 1,341 inches (33.6 m)

Based on a given inflow rate,

r = 3,000 gallons/acre/day = 40.33 inches/year = 0.115 inch/day (2.81 × 10-3 m/day)

Moore's 1980 Method:

ymax =
(1,341.6)(0.1105/340.16)1/2[340.16 × 0.02242/0.1105 + 1
=
- (340.16 × 0.0224/0.1105)(0.02242 + 0.1105/340.16)1/2]
=
(1,341.6)(0.0180)[1.545 + 1 - (68.956)(0.0288)]
=
(1,341.6)(0.0180)(0.559)
=
13.4 inches > 12.0 inches (336 mm > 300 mm)

Moore's 1983 Method:

ymax =
(1,341.6)[(0.1105/340.16 + 0.02242)1/2 - 0.0224]
=
(1,341.6)[(0.000325 + 0.00052)1/2 - 0.0224]
=
=
(1,341.6)(0.0288 - 0.0224)
=
(1,341.6)(0.0064)
=
8.6 inches , 12.0 inches (216 mm < 300 mm)

Giroud's 1992 Method:

j=
=
1 - 0.12 ∙ exp{-[log(1.6 × 0.1105⁄(340.16⁄〖0.0224〗^2 ))^(5⁄8) ]^2 }
=
1 - 0.12 ∙ exp{-[log(1.0358646)^(5⁄8) ]^2 }
=
1 - 0.12 ∙ exp[-(log 1.0358646)^(5⁄8) ]^2 }
=
1 - 0.12 ∙ exp(-0.00091477)
=
0.88
ymax =
=
(0.8800)(1,341.6)[(4 × 0.1105/340.16 + 0.0224^2)^1/2 - 0.0224]⁄(2×0.9997 )
=
(0.8800)(1,341.6)(0.0424 - 0.0224)/(2 × 0.9997)
=
(0.8800)(1,341.6)(0.02004)/(2 × 0.9997)
=
11.8 inches < 12.0 inches (299.8 mm < 300 mm)

McEnroe's 1993 Method:

R =
=0.11505/(340.16 x 0.0224^2) = 0.6474 > 1/4

Because R > 1/4, we use Equation 8.36 to calculate ymax:

B =
=
(4 x 0.6474 -1)^(1⁄2) = 1.2608

ymax =

(1,341.6)(0.0224)[0.6474 - 0.6474 x 0.0224 + (0.6474)^2 (0.0224)^2]^1/2


=
∙exp{(1⁄1.2608)tan^(-1)[(2 x 06474 x 0.0224 - 1)⁄1.2608] -

(1⁄1.2608) tan^(-1)[(2 x 0.6474 -1)/1.2608]}


=
(1,341.6)(0.0224)(0.7957)∙exp (- 0.7027)
=
(1,341.6)(0.0224)(0.7959)(0.4952)
=
11.8 inches < 12.0 inches (299.8 mm < 300 mm)
Example 8.5

A final cover for a municipal solid waste landfill is constructed on a slope of 10% with a maximum horiz
h of known distance of 450 feet (135 m). The granular soil drainage layer is 24 inches (0.3 m) thick. The moment o
00 lb/in² rainfall percolating though the cover is istemated to be 30 inches/year (762 mm/year). The hydraulic
.9m). The conductivity of the drainage material is 0.01 cm/sec. Estimate the maximum. saturated depth over the
ide slope liner.
tion angle is
Solution:
k = 0.01 cm/sec = 340.16 in/day (0.1 mm/day);
L = 450 ft = 5,400 in (135 m);
k = 30 in/year = 0.08(2.1 mm/day);22 in/day
k = tan α = 0.1;
k = 5.7° , sin α = 0.0995, cos α = 0.9950

Moore's 1980 Method:

ymax =
= (5400)(0.0822/340.16)^1/2 [340.16 X 0.1^2/0.0822 + 1
- (340.16 X 0.1/0.0822) (0.1^2 + 0.0822/340.16)^1/2]
=
(5400)(0.0155)[41.382 + 1 - (413.820)(0.101)]
=
(S400)(0.0155)(0.586)
=
49.0 inches (1,245 mm)

Moore's 1983 Method:

20°)] ymax =
=
(5400)(0.0822/340.16 + 0.1^2)^1/2 - 0.1]
=
(5400)(0.000242 + 0.01)^1/2 - 0.1]
=
(5400)(0.00120)
=
6.5 inches (165 mm)

),which leads Giround's 1992 Method:

j=
=
1 - 0.12 ∙ exp {- [log(1.6 X 0.0822/340.16 + 0.1^2 )^(5⁄8) ]^2 }
=
1 - 0.12 ∙ exp {- [log(0.0386642 )^(5⁄8) ]^2 }
=
1 - 0.12 ∙ exp [- (log 0.13094)^2 ]
=
1 - 0.12 ∙ exp(- 0.77956)
=
0.95
d stress and
cceptable. ymax =
=
(0.9450)(5,400)[4 X 0.0822/340.16 + 0.1^2)^1/2 - 0.1] / (2 X 0.9950)
=
(0.9450)(5,400)(0.10472 - 0.1) / (2 X 0.9950)
=
(0.9450)(5,400)(0.00472) / (2 X 0.9950)
=
12.1 inches (307 mm)
McEnroe's 1993 Method :

pipe of 2%. R =
s 24 inches =0.0822/(340.16 X 0.0995^2) = 0.0244 < 1/4
leachate
eachate head
Because R < 1/4, use Equation 8.34 to calculate ymax

A =
=(1 - 4 X 0.0244)^1/2 = 0.0902^1/2 = 0.950
aximum
s, the ymax =
be
istance from
=
(5400 X 0.1)(0.0244 -0.0244 X 0.1 + 0.0244^2 X 0.1^2)^1/2
{[(1 - 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244)(1 + 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244 X 0.1)]
/[(1 + 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244)(1 - 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244 X 0.1)]}^1/(2X0.950)
=
(5400 X 0.1)(0.0244 -0.0244 X 0.1 + 0.0244^2 X 0.1^2)^1/2
{[(1 - 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244)(1 + 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244 X 0.1)]
/[1 + 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244)(1 - 0.950 - 2 X 0.0244 X 0.1)]}^1/(2X0.950)
=
(5400 X 0.1)(0.0220)^1/2{[0.0012)(1.945)]/[(1.901)(0.0451)]}^0.526
=
5400 X 0.1 X 0.148 X 0.150
=
12.0 Inches (305 mm)
e grade ,
Example 9.1

A leachate collection pipe is placed in the middle of a rectangular landfill cell. Upgradient of the leacha
collection pipe is adjacent to a 3(H):1(V) side slope with a height of 65ft (19.5 m). The downgradient sid
the leachate collection pipe rests on a bottom floor sloping at 2% with a width of 100 ft (30 m). The tota
length of this leachate collection pipe is 1,000 ft (300 m). The peak leachate generation rate at the side
area is 0.0786 ft2/day/ft2 (0.0240 m3/day/m2), and the peak leachate generation rate at the bottom floo
is 0.0355 ft3/day/ft2 (0.0108 m3/day/m2). Design a perforated solid wall pipe to meet both drainage and
perforation requirements.

Solution:
1) Determine Amount of Leachate Generation
Area of the upgradient portion of the landfill cell:

Au = 1,000 X (3 X 6.5) =195,000 ft2 (18,000 m3)

Maximum leachate flow generated for the upgradient portion of the cell:

(Qu)max = (qu)max X Au
0.0786
= X 195,000
15,327
= ft2/day = 0.1774 ft3/sec (5.023 X 10-3 m3/sec

Area of the downgradient portion of the landfill cell:

Ad = 1,000 X 100 = 100,000 ft2 (9,000 m2)

Maximum leachate flow generated at the downgradient portion of the cell:

0.0355
= X 100,000
3
3,550ft
= /day = 0.0411 ft3/sec (1.164 X 10^-3 m3/sec)

Maximum leachate flow generated for the entire cell:

0.1774 + 0.0411 = 0.2185ft3/sec (6.187 X 10^-3 m3/sec)


=

2) Selection of Pipe Size


Select 6-in (150-mm) SDR 11 HDPE pipe:
SDR =Do/t
So t Do/SDR
= = 6/11 0.55
= in (0.014 m)
Di = = 6 -2 X 0.55 = 4.9 in = 0.408 ft (0.124 m)
eachate flow rh = Di/4 = 0.408/4 = 0.102 ft (0.031 m)
A = = 3.1416 X (0.408/2)=2 0.131 ft2 (1.217 X 10^-2 m2)
For HDPE pipe, n ≈ 0.011
Manning's Equation:

Q =
=
(1.49/0.011) X 0.131 X (0.102)^2/3 X (0.01)^1/2)
along the =
135.455 X 0.131 X 0.218 X 0.1
0.387 ft3/sec (10.96 X 10^-3 m3/sec) > Qmax = 0.2185 ft3/sec (6.187 X 10^-3 m
=

3) Pipe Perforation
Maximum Leachate Inflow per Unit Length of Pipe

Qin =
=
0.0786 X 195 + 0.0355 X 100
=
15.327 + 3.55
18.877 ft3/day/ft = 0.0002184 ft3/sec/ft (2.209 X 10^-5 m3/sec/m)
=

Assume that the diameter of a perforation hole, d, in the pipe is 0.25 inch (6 mm). Then the cross-secti
area of a hole on the perforated pipe is

Ab =
3.1416 X (0.25/12/2)^2 = 0.0003341 ft2 (0.0000316 ft3)
=

Also,
Discharge coefficient C = 0.62 ;
Limiting leachate entrance velocity vent = 0.1 ft/sec (0.03 m/sec)
Bernoulii Equation:

Qb =
=
0.62 X 0.000341 X 0.1
0.00002114 ft3/sec (5.986 x 10^-7 m3/sec)
=

Number of Perforation Holes:

N =
=0.0002184/0.00002114
=10.35 holes/ft (34 holes/m)

^2 } So, use 12 holes/ft (40 holes/m); that is 6 holes per foot (20 holes per meter) each side as shown in Figu
Example 9.2

An 8-inch (200-mm) SDR 11 HDPE perforated pipe with 8, 0.25-inch (6-mm) holes per foot (i.e., 4 holes
side per foot) is selected as a primary leachate collection pipe. The maximum load acting on the pipe in
a 2-ft (0.6-m) protective sand layer (Ysand = 115 lb/ft3 or 18 kN/m3), 100-ft (30-m) solid waste (Ywaste = 60
or 9.4 kN/m3), 12-inch (0.3-m) gas venting layer (ysand = 115 lb/ft3 0r 18 kN/m3), 18-inch (0.45-m) compa
clay layer (yclay = 110lb/ft3 or 17.3 kN/m3), 24-inch (0.6-m) drainage and protective layer (ysilt = 110lb/ft
17.3 kN/m3), and 6-inch (0.15-m) topsoil (ytop = 90 lb/ft3 or 14 kN/m3). Assume Bedding angle θ = 0°,
deflection lag factor DL =1.0, elastic modulus of the pipe material for 50 years at 73°F (23°C) temperat
= 28,200 lb/in2, (194, 000 kN/m). Poisson's ration of pipe material μ = 0.3. The bedding material of the
poorly graded gravel (GP) with 85% standard density. What will be the deflection ratio (%) and critical
buckling pressure of the project?

Solution:The maximum load applied on the pipe is given by

WC =

=
([(115)(2)+(60)(100)+(115)(1)+(110)(3.5)+(90)(0.5) ]×8⁄12)/((1-4×0.25⁄12) )
=
((230+6,000+115+385+45)×8⁄12)/(0.917)
=
(6,775×8⁄12)/0.917
=
4,925 lb/ft = 410 lb/in (72 kN/m)

The maximum pressure applied on the pipe can be obtained from

Ptp = =
410/8 =
51.3 lb/in2 (354 kN/m2)

From Table 9.5,


Ptp = 40 lb/in2 , ES = 4,100 lb/in2

and Ptp = 60 lb/in2 , ES = 4,700 lb/in2


,
For Ptp = 2
51.3 lb/in ,
ES = 4,100 + (51.3 - 40)(4,700 - 4,400)/20 = 4,100 + 339 = 4,439 lb/in2

The soil reaction modulus is given by

E' = 2 X 4,439 8,878


= lb/in2 (61,200 kN/m2)

The thickness of pipe given by

= 8/11 =0.73 in (0.1847 m)


Also,
Deflection lag factor, DL = 1.0;
maximum horizontal Bedding angle θ = 0°, K = 0.11;
k. The moment of Mean radius of the pipe, r = 3.635 in (0.0923 m);
The hydraulic
Elastic modulus of the pipe material, E =28,200 lb/in2 (194,000 kN/m3);
d depth over the cover
Soil reaction modulus, E' = 8,878 lb/in2 (61,200 kN/m3);
and
Inertia moment of the pipe wall per unit length, in4/in = in3 , given by

= (0.73)3/12 = 0.389/12 = 0.0324 in3 (5.276 X 10^-7 m

Modified Lowa Formula:

=
((1.0)(0.11)(410)〖(3.635)〗^3)/((400,000)(0.0324)+(0.061)(1,
=
((1.0)(0.11)(410)(48.03))/((28,200)(0.0324)+(0.061)(8,878)(48.
=
2,166/(914+26,011)
=
0.08 in (2.0 mm)

Deflection Ratio:
Deflection ratio =
= (0.08/7.27) X 100%
= 1.1% < 2.7% (ok, as shown inTable 9.4)

Wall Buckling of Pipe:

Modulus of soil reaction , E' = 8,878 lb/in2, (61,200 kN/m2);

Poisson's ratio of pipe material, μ = 0.3;


Modulus of elasticity of the pipe material, E = 28,200 lb/in2 (194,000 kN/m2);
Momentof inertia of the pipe wall per unit lengt, I = 0.0324 in3 (5.276 X 10^-7 m
Mean radius of the pipe, r = 3.635 in (0.0923 m).
Thus,
Pcr =
=
2〖×{[8,878⁄((1-〖0.3〗^2 ) )][((28,200×0.034))⁄(3.635)^3 ]}〗
=
2×[9,756×(913.68⁄48.03) ]^(1⁄2)
=
2 X (185,589)^1/2
=
2 X 431
862 lb/in2 (5,943 kN/m2)
=

The factor of safety for pipe wall buckling is, then,


(2 X 0.9950)
FS = 862/51.3 = 16.8 > 2 (OK)
Example 9.3

Refer to Figure 9.9(a). The primary leachate removal HDPE manhole riser is circular in cross s
inside diameter of 3 ft (0.9 m) and an outside diameter of 3.75 ft (1.13 m). The height of solid
surrounding the manhole riser is given by Hf = 210 ft (63 m); the unit weight of solid waste is
ywaste = 70 lb/ft3 (11 kN/m3); the internal friction angle of solid waste is given by Øw = 33°
friction angle between the concrete manhole riser wall and solid waste is δ = 24°. Determine
downdrag force, stress on the concrete, and factor of safety if the compressive strength of co
lb/in2 (34,500 kN/m2).

Solution:
p = π(3.75) =
11.78 ft (3.5 m)
KO = = 1 - sin 33° = 1 - 0.545 = 0.455
tan δ = tan 24° = 0.445

a. The downdrag force is

Qn =
= (0.5)(11.78)(0.455)(70) (210)^2 (0.445)
= 3,681,500 lb (16,400 kN)

b. The downdrag stress is

=
=
3,681,500⁄[(π⁄4)(〖3.75〗^2-〖3.0〗^2 ) ]
=
3,681,500/3.98
925,000 lb/ft2
=
6,424 lb/in2 (44,300 kN/m2)
=

c. Finally, the factor of safety against concrete overstress is

FS =
=5,000/6,424
=0.78 < 1.0 (No Good)
Example 12.1

The filling procedure of a new minicipal solid waste landfill is listed in Table 12.3.

ent of the leachate Table 12.3 Solid waste Filling Record


downgradient side of Height of Solid Waste Filled
t (30 m). The total Time Period
Feet Meter
n rate at the side slope
1st Month 12 3.6
the bottom floor area
th drainage and 2nd Month 18 5.4
3rd Month 16 4.8
4th Month 10 3
5th Month 14 4.2

Assume the following:


Unit weight of solid waste, ywaste = 70 lb/ft3 (11 kN/m3);
Original applied pressure for solid waste,1000 lb/ft2; (48 kN/m2);
Modified primary compression index, C'c = 0.26;
Modified secondary compression index, 0.07; and
Secondary settlement starting time, t1 = 1 month
Calculate the total settlement of the top of the landfill at the end of the 5th month.

Solution:

Calculate the solid waste depth over the mid-level of each waste layer:

H1 = (0.5)(12) + 18 + 16 + 10 + 14 = 64 ft (19.2 m)
H2 = (0.5)(18) + 18 + 10 + 14 = 49 ft (14.7 m)
H3 = (0.5)(16) + 10 + 14 = 32 ft (9.6 m)
H4 = (0.5)(10) + 14 = 19 ft (5.7 m)
H5 = (0.5)(14) = 7 ft (2.1 m)

Calculate the total overburden pressure acting on the mid-level of each waste layer:

70 X 64 = 4480 lb/ft2 (215 kN/m2)


70 X 49 = 3430 lb/ft2 (164 kN/m2)
70 X 32 = 2240 lb/ft2 (107 kN/m2)
70 X 19 = 1330 lb/ft2 (64 kN/m2)
70 X 7 = 490 lb/ft (23 kN/m) < σo = 1000 lb/ft2 (48 kN/m
Calculate the settlement of each waste layer:

7 X 10^-3 m3/sec) (OK)

First Layer:

0.26 X 12 X log (4480/1000) = 0.26 X 12 X 0.651 = 2.03 ft (0.62 m)


0.07 X 12 X log (4.5/1) = 0.07 X 12 X 0.653 = 0.55 ft (0.17 m)
2.03 + 0.55 = 2.58 ft (0.79 m)

Second Layer:
n the cross-sectional
0.26 X 18 X 1og (3430/1000) = 0.26 X 18 X 0.535 = 2.51 ft (0.77 m)
0.07 X 18 X log (3.5/1) = 0.07 X 18 X 0.544 = 0.69 ft (0.21 m)
2.51 + 0.69 = 3.20 ft (0.98 m)

Third Layer:
0.26 X 16 X log (2240/1000) = 0.26 X 12 X 0.350 = 1.46 ft (o.45 m)
0.07 X 16 X log (2.5/1) = 0.07 X 16 X 0.398 X = 0.45 ft (0.21 m)
1.46 + 0.45 = 1.91 ft (0.58 m)

Fourth Layer:
0.26 X 10 X log (1330/1000) = 0.26 X 10 X 0.124 = 0.32 ft (0.098 m)
0.07 X 10 X log (1.5/1) = 0.07 X 18 X -.176 = 0.22 ft (0.067 m)
0.32 + 0.22 = 0.54 ft (0.16 m)

Fifth Layer:
0 [because= 490 lb/ft2 (23 kN/m2) < = 1000 lb/ft2 (48 kN/m2)]
0 (because t2 = 0.5 month , t1 = 1 month)
0+0=0

Calculate the total settlement of the landfill at the end of the 5th month:
as shown in Figure 9.3.

=
2.58 + 3.20 + 1.91 + 0.54 + 0
=
8.23 ft (2.51 m)
8.23/70 = 11.8%
Example 13.1

oot (i.e., 4 holes per The following are given: a 30-m slope with a uniformly thick 300-mm-deep cover soil at a uni
ng on the pipe includes weight of 18 kN/m3. The soil has a friction angle of 30° and zero cohesion (i.e., it is a sand). T
waste (Ywaste = 60 lb/ft3 cover soil is placed directly on a geomembrane as shown in FIgure 13.3. Direct shear testing
h (0.45-m) compacted resulted in an interface friction angle between the cover soil and geomembrane of 22° with z
adhesion. What is the FS-value at a slope angle of 3(H)-to-1(V) (i.e., 18.4°)?
er (ysilt = 110lb/ft3 or
angle θ = 0°,
(23°C) temperature E
g material of the pipe is Solution Using Equation 13.9 to solve for the FS-value rasults in a value of 1.25, which in see
(%) and critical agreement woth the curves of Figure 13.4:

a = 14.6 kN/m
b = - 21.3 kN/m
c = 3.5 kN/m

Thus FS = 1.25
×0.25⁄12) )
This value can be confirmed using Figure 13.4.

CommentIn general, this is too low of a value for a final cover soil factor-of-safety and a rede
There are many possible options to increase the value (e.g., changing te geometry of the situ
the use of toe berms, taperred cover soil thickness, and veneer reinforcement, see Koerner a
Soong, 1998). Nevertheless, this general problem will be used throughout this section for
comparison with other cover soil slope stability situations.
Example 13.3

The following are given: a 30-m-long slope with uniform cover soil of 300-mm thick
kN/m3. The soil has a friction angle of 30° and zero cohesion (i.e., it is a sand). It is
a bulldozer moving from the crest of the slope down to the toe. The bulldozer has a
of 30 kN/m and tracks that are 3.0 m long and 0.6 m wide. The estimated equipme
the time to reach this speed is 3.0 seconds. The cover soil to geomembrane friction
zero adhesion. What is the FS-value at a slope angle of 3(H)-to-1(V) (i.e., 18.4°)?

10^-7 m3) Solution Using the design curves of Figure 13.10 along with Equation 13.13, the so

* From Figure 13.9, at 20 km/hr and 3.0 seconds, the bulldozer's qcceleration is 0.1
* From Equation 13.13

0324)+(0.061)(1,000)〖(3.635)〗^3 ) a = 88.8 kN/m


0.061)(8,878)(48.03)) b = - 107.3 kN/m
c = 17.0 kN/m

Thus FS = 1.03
This value can be confirmed using Figure 13.10.

CommentThis problem solution can now be compared with those of the previous tw

Example 13.1 Cover soil along with no bulldozer loading:


Example 13.2 Cover soil plus bulldozer moving up slope:
Example 13.3 Cover soil plus bulldozer moving down slope:

The inherent danger of a bulldozer moving down the slope is readily apparent. Note
comes about by the bulldozer decelerating instead of accelerating. The sharp break
is arguably the more severe condition, due to the extremely short times involved w
motion. Clearly, only in unavoidable situations should the cover soil placement equ
7 m3)
down the slope. If it is unavoidable, an analysis should be made of the specific stab
construction specifications should reflect the precise conditions made in the design
and ground contact pressure of the equipment shoud be stated along with suggest
the cover soil placement operations. Truck traffic on the slopes can also give stress
4))⁄(3.635)^3 ]}〗^(1⁄2) than illustrated here and shoud be avoided in all circumstances.
Example 13.4

circular in cross section with an


he height of solid waste A 44-ft (13.2-m) high and 3(H):1(V) slope has cover sand with a uniform thickness o
t of solid waste is given by weight og 110 lb/ft3 (17.3 kN/m3). The cover sand has a friction angle of 32 degrees
ven by Øw = 33°; and interface Seepage occurs parallel to the slope and the seepage water head in the sand layer
= 24°. Determine the total saturated unit weight of sand is 115 lb/ft (18 kN/m). The interface friction angle bet
ve strength of concrete is 5,000 and geomembrane is 22 degrees and zero adhesion. What is the factor of safety at

Solution The side slope angle is at 18.4° for a 3(H):1(V) slope. Hence,
sin β = sin (18.4°) = 0.316, cos β = cos (18.4°) = 0.949, tan β = tan (18.4°) = 0.33
H = 44 ft (13.2 m), h = 2 ft (0.6 m), hw = 0.5 ft (0.15 m), γ = 110 lb/ft3
γsat = 115 lb/ft3 (18 kN/m3), γw = 62.4 lb/ft3 (9.81 kN/m3), φ = 32°, δ = 22°
tan φ = tan (32°) = 0.625, tan δ = tan (22°) = 0.404

(62.4)(0.5)[44
= - (0.5)(0.5)(0.949)]/(0.333) = 4,100.3 lb/ft (58.02 kN/m)

2
(0.5)(62.4)(0.5)
= = 7.8 lb/ft (0.11 kN/m)

2
(0.5)(62.4)(0.5)
= /(0.333) = 23.4 lb/ft (0.33 kN/m)

(0.5){(110)(2 - 0.5) [(2)(44)(0.949) - 2 - 0.5] + (115)(0.5)[(2)(44)(0.949) -


(0.5)(13,366.98
= + 4,773.19)/[(0.316)(0.949)] = 30,245.3 lb/ft (427.6 kN/m

2
(0.5){(110)[(2)
= -(0.5)2] + (115)(0.5)2}/[(0.316)(0.949)] = 735.7 lb/ft (10.4

Using Equation 13.36

a =
(30,245.3)(0.316)(0.949) + (7.8) [1- - (0.949)2] = 9,071 (128 for SI units)
=

b =

=- {(735.7)(0.625) + (30,245.3)[(0.316)2(0.625) + (0.949)2(0.104)] - (4,100


- (23.4)(0.625) + (7.8)(0.316)(0.949)(0.625 - 0.404)}
= - (459.8 + 12,892.1 - 1,572.0 - 14.6 + 0.5) = -11,766 (-166 for SI units)
c =
=[(30,245.3)(0.949) - 4,100.3 + (7.8)(0.316)](0.316)(0.625)(0.404) = 1,963
2.3.
=
11,766 + [(-11,766^2 - (4)(9,071)(1,963)]^0.5)/(2)(9

CommentThe seriousness of seepage forces in a slope of this type is immediately o


been 100% of the drainage layer thickness, the FS-value would have bee
the result using a horizontal assumption of saturated cover soil with the s
give essentially identical low FS-values. Clearly, the teaching of this exam
adequate long-term drainage above the barrier layer in cover soil slopes
seepage forces from occuring. Figure 13.15 shows a sand layer sliding fa
seepage force.

month.

e layer:

(48 kN/m2)
ft (0.62 m)
17 m)

ft (0.77 m)
21 m)

ft (o.45 m)
0.21 m)

ft (0.098 m)
67 m)

m2)]
over soil at a unit
e., it is a sand). The
ect shear testing has
ane of 22° with zero

1.25, which in seen to be in

afety and a redesign is necessary.


metry of the situation,
nt, see Koerner and
is section for
of 300-mm thickness at a unit weight of 18
t is a sand). It is placed on the slope using
e bulldozer has a ground contact pressure
imated equipment speed is 20 km/hr, and
membrane friction angle is 22 degrees with
) (i.e., 18.4°)?

tion 13.13, the solution can be obtained.

cceleration is 0.19g.

of the previous two examples:

FS = 1.25
FS = 1.24
FS = 1.03

ly apparent. Note, that the same result


. The sharp breaking action of the bulldozer
times involved when stopping forward
il placement equipment be allowed to work
the specific stability situation and the
ade in the design. The maximum weight
ong with suggested operator movement of
n also give stresses as high or even higher
iform thickness of 2 ft (0.6 m) at a unit
gle of 32 degrees and zero cohesion.
n the sand layer is 6 inches (0.15 m). The
friction angle between sand drainage layer
actor of safety at a slope of 3(H):1(V)?

nce,
an (18.4°) = 0.333.
b/ft3 (17.3 kN/m3),
δ = 22°

t (58.02 kN/m)

[(2)(44)(0.949) - 0.5]}/[(0.316)(0.949)]
lb/ft (427.6 kN/m)

735.7 lb/ft (10.4 kN/m)

128 for SI units)

2
(0.104)] - (4,100.3)(0.949)(0.404)

66 for SI units)

5)(0.404) = 1,963 (28 for SI units)


963)]^0.5)/(2)(9,071)

is immediately obvious. Had the saturation


would have been still lower. Futhermore,
ver soil with the same saturation ratio will
hing of this example problem is that
cover soil slopes must be provided to avoid
d layer sliding failure sideslope caused by